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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1973-74

  Introduction 1
I. India's Neighbours 7
II South East Asia 31
III. East Asia 38
IV. West Asia and North Africa 45
V. Africa (South of the Sahara) 48
VI. Europe 53
VII. The Americas 73
VIII. United Nations and International Conferences 78
IX. Technical and Economic Co-operation 95
X. External Publicity 106
XI. Cultural Relations 111
XII. Protocol Matters 117
XIII. Passport, Visa and Consular Services 118
XIV. Administration and Organisation 121
NUMBER                                                   PAGE 
I.       International Conferences, Congresses, Seminars in which 
         India participated in 1973-74                    127 
II.      International Organisations of which India became a 
         member/ceased to be a member                      141 
III.     Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by 
         India with other countries in 1973                 142 
IV.      ITEC Programme                                      158 
V.       Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad 
         during 1973-74.                                     163 
VI.      List of Indian Missions/Posts opened in 1973-74     165 





The year under review witnessed further confirmation of the viability and continuing validity of aims, principles and practise of the policy of non-alignment. The Fourth Summit Conference of the non-alignment nations held at Algiers from Sep 05, 1973 to 9 September 1973, added a new dimension to the continuing struggle of the majority of the world's population, as represented at the Summit, for genuine independence, peace and international security. The non-aligned nations, meeting at Algiers, decided to reinforce their common action in order to promote the principles of economic security in international relations. To this end, they decided to increase co-operation among themselves and demanded that economic exploitation of their resources by the developed world should end. While noting, with satisfaction, the general trend towards detente, the conference warned that the process should not be confined to the prosperous areas of the world because peace is indivisible. Peace would remain precarious unless it is extended to the third world which has remained condemned to insecurity and domination the most powerful.

As in the past India participated actively in the deliberations of the Summit and her significant contributions were generally welcomed and appreciated. Of special interest to India was the recognition by the conference of the realities in the Indian sub- continent and its unanimous recommendation for the admission of Bangladesh into the United Nations.


India has noted with appreciation that the trend towards detente that developed last year has maintained its momentum. The gradual reduction of tension between rival blocs, which India and the non-aligned nations have long been urging, is now clearly noticeable. The recent improvement of relations between the great Powers and the increase in contacts between the Soviet Union and the United States on the one hand and the United States and China on the other are indications of this continuing trend. India has welcomed the agreement concluded between the United State of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in June 1973, for preventing nuclear war and the understanding between them in several other fields. India has also noted with satisfaction the Four Power Agreement on Berlin, the treaties between the two German States and between the Federal Republic of Germany and Poland and the convening of the Conference on European Security and Co-operation. The simultaneous admission of the two German States to the United Nations was welcomed by India as an augury of the beginning of a new era of understanding and co-operation in Central Europe. In this context, it is not surprising to note that the European partners of the Atlantic alliance were cool to the American call for a new Atlantic Charter and were apprehensive over the nuclear alert given by the U.S.A. during the West Asian war in October.

While welcoming the gradual process of mutual accommodation and co-operation and the consequent reduction of tension in the developed world, India could not but note with sorrow and con- cern that great Power rivalry continues to show itself in many ways and in many areas especially in the developing World. While the Paris Agreements promise to usher in a period of peace and reconstruction in the war-torn Vietnam, and the mutual understanding among the parties in Laos has raised hopes for stability in that country, India is deeply distressed at the continuing tension in Cambodia.

The recent hostilities in West Asia are yet another indication of the tragic international situation where peace is denied where


it is needed. India is convinced that a just peace can be secured in this area only on the basis of two basic principles, namely. the evacuation of all territories occupied by Israel since 5 June. 1967 and the restoration of the legitimate rights of the Pales- tinians. The convening of the Geneva Conference has increased the chances of arriving at a durable settlement. India hopes that the Geneva Conference would yield results and that Israel would show the same flexibility and realism as shown by the Arabs.

For her own part, India continued, during the year under re- view, her sincere efforts to eliminate once and for all the politics of confrontation and to usher in an era of good neighbourly and harmonious co-operation in the sub-continent. The Delhi Agree- ment of 28 August 1973, between India and Pakistan is a Significant step in this direction, taken on the initiative of India and in conformity with the joint Indo-Bangladesh declaration of 17 April 1973. Simultaneous repatriation of Bengalees from Pakistan, Pakistanis from Bangladesh and prisoners of war and civilian internees from India has been taking place with creditable speed and efficiency, although the movement of Pakistanis from Bangladesh has been somewhat at a slower pace. In the light of the steady progress in the implementation of the Delhi Agree- ment, India feels that further progress should now be made in the implementation of the Simla Agreement of July 1972, particularly in respect of the normalisation measures envisaged in paragraph 3 of that Agreement. Accordingly, India has again taken the initiative to suggest to Pakistan that talks may be held towards resuming communications, trade, travel and cultural links between the two countries.

The reciprocal recognition by Pakistan and Bangladesh of each other is a positive step towards normalisation and stability in the sub-continent. Pakistan's unconditional recognition of Bangladesh, announced on the eve of the Islamic Summit at Lahore, has vindicated the joint stand taken by India and Bangladesh that the unresolved problems among the three countries can only be solved through direct negotiations among the parties on the basis of equality and sovereignty. India has


welcomed this development which, it is hoped, will pave the way for further progress towards harmonious relations in the sub-continent.

Meanwhile India has continued her efforts to promote the closest friendship and wide-ranging co-operation with her most immediate neighbours. India's developing relations with Bangladesh have been wide-ranging and far-reaching. sides co-operation in the international field, as for example in the non-aligned group, the Commonwealth and various United Nations specialised agen- cies, India and Bangladesh have now strengthened the growing economic collaboration between them. The initial emphasis, in India's co-operation with Bangladesh, on the supply of essential commodities and relief goods has shifted now to close co-operation and collaboration in the fields of trade, industry, transportation, utilisation of water resources, etc. with a view to strengthening the economy of Bangladesh and to developing mutually beneficial economic relations. India's relations with Nepal have continued to grow and strengthen. The stage is now well set for further- expansion and diversification of Indo-Nepal co-operation in vari- ous fields. With Sri Lanka, India has continued her efforts to, resolve-outstanding issues and develop co-operation in the eco- nomic and other fields. The mutual desire for further strengthen- ing of Indo-Sri Lanka relations has been reflected in the visits exchanged at the highest levels between the two countries. India's relations with Burma continue to be cordial and reflect their mutual confidence. India welcomed the emergence of the Repub- lic of Afghanistan and has strengthened political and economic ties with that country. With Iran, India has maintained a conti- nuous dialogue to reach a greater understanding of policies of each other and to strengthen co-operation in the economic and cultural fields.

Farther afield, India has strengthened her mutually beneficial relations with the countries in the South-East-Asian-Pacific region. A growing understanding between India on the one hand and Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines on the other hand has been evident in many ways. India welcomes


the recent efforts by Australia and New Zealand to move closer to the countries in the region. India's own contacts with Australia and New Zealand, her partners in the Commonwealth, have been further strengthened by the growing identity of interests between India and these two countries. The visits of the Prime Ministers of Australia and New Zealand to India during the year under review have served to underline the basic identity of views among them on matters of common interest.

India's continued interest in keeping the Indian Ocean an Ocean of Peace, free from Big Power rivalry, has been demons- trated during the year under review by the steps taken at various international forums like the Non-aligned Summit, the Common- wealth Conference and the United Nations. India has expressed deep concern over the increased military presence of Big Powers in the Indian Ocean. The recent decision of the U.S.A. to further expand the military facilities in the Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia has deeply disturbed all the countries in the region. This development, which is clearly inconsistent with the U.N. General Assembly resolution, has added an urgency to the need to mobi- lise international support for the idea of Nuclear-free Indian Ocean.

India's relations with the European countries have registered a steady progress. The recent accord between India and the European Economic Community provides a general framework for commercial co-operation and trade exchange to the mutual benefit of India and the member countries of the EEC.

India's friendship, with the Soviet Union has stood the test of time. The desire of both countries to expand and deepen their mutually advantageous co-operation in all fields has been evident in the continuous exchange of visits between the two countries: at the highest levels culminating in the recent visit of the Soviet leader, Mr. Brezhnev. A noteworthy aspect of Indo-Soviet relations is the respect shown by each for the views of the other and the absence of any effort by either side to interfere with the indepen- dence of judgement and action of the other. Based on mutual

pg5> recognition of independence and equality, Indo-Soviet friendship has strengthened India's non-alignment as well as the climate of international peace.

India has welcomed recent indications of a change in the United States' attitude towards the Indian sub-continent and towards relationship, with India in particular. There is no basic conflict of interests between India and the United States of America and as such India hopes that Indo-U.S. relations will soon enter a phase where a constructive, co-operative and mature relationship can be built up.

Notwithstanding India's sincere desire for normalising her relations with China, India regrets that there has been no positive response from that country. China's attitude towards India and towards the recent developments in the sub-continent continues. to be unhelpful.

pg6> Sep 05, 1973

India's Neighbours




The Vice-President paid a State visit to Afghanistan from Jun 07, 1973 to 14 June 1973. A Republican Government was established in Afghanistan in July 1973. Mr. Mohammad Naim, Special Envoy of the President of Afghanistan, visited India from 20 to 24 September 1973 and again from 25 to 28 February 1974. The Minister of External Affairs, Sardar Swaran Singh paid a visit to Afghanistan from 29 October to 1 November 1973. Bilateral and general questions were discussed at these meetings. Further measures of economic and technical collaboration have been decided upon and the Government of India looks forward to increasing friendly co-operation with Afghanistan.


Close consultations between the Governments of India and Bangladesh through normal diplomatic channels and by Special Emissaries resulted in major Indo-Bangladesh initiatives for resolving the humanitarian issues on the sub-continent arising out of the conflict with Pakistan in 1971. The Prime Minister's Special Emissary, Shri P. N. Haksar, visited Dacca from 1 to 6

pg7> April 1973. His visit was followed by the visit of the Bangladesh Foreign Minister, Dr. Kamal Hossain, to New Delhi from 13 to 16 April 1973. These discussions, and consultations through diplo- matic channels, culminated in the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Declara- tion of 17 April 1973, which provided a means for the resolution of humanitarian issues by simultaneous repatriation of the Pakistani prisoners of war and civilian internees in India, except- ing those required for trial on criminal charges, of Bengalees in Pakistan and of Pakistanis in Bangladesh. The Foreign Secretaries. of Bangladesh and India met in New Delhi on 22 and 23 May 1973, for discussion on the Pakistani response to the Joint Decla- ration and these discussions were followed by further discussions in Dacca from 15 to 17 August 1973, of the Prime Minister's Special Emissary, Shri P. N. Haksar, India's Foreign Secretary, Shri Kewal Singh, and other officials, preparatory to discussions with the Pakistani delegation in Delhi which commenced on 18 August 1973. The discussions with Pakistan saw the signature of the Delhi Agreement of 28 August 1973. The Delhi Agreement provided for the simultaneous repatriation of all Bengalees in Pakistan, a substantial number of Pakistanis in Bangladesh and all Pakistani POWs and civilian internees in India, except 195 POWs, who would remain in India pending further discussions between India, Bangladesh and Pakistan.

Throughout the discussions with the Pakistani delegation in New Delhi in August 1973 and earlier in Islamabad from 24 to 31 July 1973, close and constant touch was kept with the Bangladesh Government. The relations of the fullest confidence existing between the Governments of India and Bangladesh were evident during these consultations and in the Delhi Agreement, which had the complete support of the Government of Bangla- desh.

The Minister of External Affairs paid a return visit to Bangladesh from 13 to 15 February 1974, at the invitation of the Bangladesh Foreign Minister. The visit was preceded by the third official level Indo-Bangladesh bilateral consultations which took place at Dacca from 9 to 12 January 1974. During these

pg8> discussions the progress of repatriation of Bengalees. Pakistanis and POWs. consequent on the Delhi Agreement was exhaustively reviewed and the hope was, expressed that Pakistan would issue quicker clearance to honour its commitments to receive back its nationals from Bangladesh expeditiously. Detailed discussions covering various aspects of bilateral relations resulted in the expression of mutual satisfaction on the wide-ranging and growing co-operation between the two countries in all fields. The discussions revealed a unanimity of views on the international situation.

On 22 February 1974, Prime Minister Bhutto announced Pakistan's recognition of Bangladesh. The announcement was made during the time the Islamic Summit was being held in Pakistan. Following the announcement, a Bangladesh Delegation led by the Prime Minister, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, attended the Islamic Summit. The Prime Minster and the Minister of Ex- ternal Affairs welcomed Pakistani recognition of Bangladesh as an essential step for the normalisation of relations between Bangladesh and Pakistan and for peace and co-operation in the sub-continent.

In its rapidly developing external relations, Bangladesh has India's full support, wedded as both are to common tenets in international affairs, of non-alignment, anti-colonialism, peaceful co-existence, non-interference and co-operation for mutual benefit. India's diplomatic Missions actively supported Bangladesh's admission to numerous international organisations. Bangladesh is now a member of the Non-aligned Group of Nations, the Colombo Plan, the Commonwealth and various U.N. specialised and related agencies and inter-governmental and international organisations.

As in other spheres, periodic consultations between border officials of Bangladesh and India continued to co-ordinate efforts to suppress smuggling and undesirable trans-border activities. The Directors of Land Records and Surveys of Bangladesh and West

pg9> Bengal and Tripura met in March and November 1973, to review the progress of field work and the programme of mapping and restoration of damaged pillars on the borders.

Besides co-operation in the international field, and economic collaboration, as mentioned in subsequent paragraphs, Indo- Bangladesh activities ranged over diverse fields during the year. A parcel service was introduced between India and Bangladesh from I March 1973; progress was made in the implementation of the Cultural Co-operation Agreement; a five-year agreement on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and Scientific Research was signed on 31 August 1973. This provides for exchange of informa- tion, experience and scientists for the progress of nuclear research work.

Economic Relations with Bangladesh

On the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent sovereign nation India promised economic aid to the extent of Rs. 200 crores in the shape of grants and loans to rehabilitate and recon- struct the war shattered economy of Bangladesh. The Indian people and voluntary organisations manifested their fraternal spirit by sending relief goods worth approximately another Rs. 20 crores. Thanks to the efforts of the Government and people of Bangladesh and the help of the international community, Bangladesh has successfully rehabilitated her economy and has launched her First Five-Year Plan of economic reconstruction and development. The- initial emphasis on the supply of essential commodities and relief goods has now been shifted to close co-operation and collaboration in the fields of trade, industry, transportation, water management etc., for strengthening the economy of Bangladesh and developing economic relations for the mutual benefit of the peoples of the two countries.

The actual expenditure for the period ending 31-3-1973 amounted to Rs. 142.67 crores. The balance of Rs. 57.33 crores has been earmarked for expenditure during 1973-74 and 1974-75.


In addition to the amount of Rs. 200 crores, India has agreed. to give the following government-to-government aid and commer- cial credits:-

(1) Rs. 10 crores for the purchase of equipment.

(2) Rs. 25 crores special bank credit for the supply of items like railway wagons and coaches, pumps, tubewells, transmission lines, power shipment etc.

(3) Rs. 15 crores temporary bank accommodation for 365 days for the supply of textiles, especially sarees and lungis.

In May 1973, the Indian Planning Minister, Shri D. P. Dhar, accompanied by a team of senior officials visited Bangladesh and held wide-ranging discussions on economic co-operation between the two countries.

The Komorrah Limestone Company in Meghalaya has been supplying limestone to the Chhatak Cement Factory in Sylhet in Bangladesh on an ad hoc basis, that is under the Limited Pay- ments Agreement or under the Rs. 18.58 crores Refugee Relief Grant given to Bangladesh in early 1972. Recently a draft agree- ment for the supply of 2 lakh tonnes of limestone annually to the. Chhatak Factory by the Komorrah Limestone Company for a period of 20 years has been initialled. The formal approval of the Bangladesh Government for this agreement is awaited.

In order to explore the scope for further co-operation in clinker/ cement between India and Bangladesh, the Government of India has commissioned a feasibility study costing Rs. 1 lakh.

The Government of India has sanctioned another feasibility study in respect of fertilizer co-operation. The study costing Rs. I lakh has been entrusted to the Fertilizer Corporation of India.

India has also sanctioned technical assistance in the field of sponge iron. The cost of this feasibility study, which would be


about Rs. 13 lakhs, as well as the other studies, would be borne by the Government of India.

Under the technical assistance programme India is providing training facilities to Bangladesh Railway probationers and bank executives. Schemes for training in other fields are being pro- cessed.

An Indian ship "Vishva Darshan" renamed "Banglar Sampad" was delivered to Bangladesh on 11 July 1973. This was in addi- tion to "Vishva Prem" delivered in 1973 and two Fokker Friend- ship aircrafts supplied even earlier under a Rs. 6 crores credit.

During 1973, contracts were signed under the Rs. 10 crores credit agreement (forming part of the Rs. 200 crores aid programme), entered into on 16 May 1972, for

(1) the rehabilitation of the Bangladesh Railway system-Rs. 8 crores;

(2) the supply of telecommunication equipment Rs. 30 lakhs; and

(3) the supply of power equipment-Rs. 1.70 crores.

The Bhairab bridge on the river Meghna which restored rail communication between Dacca and Chittagong was repaired by the Indian engineers in a record time of four months. The bridge was reopened by the Prime Minister of Bangladesh on 27 Septem- ber 1973. Arrangements have also been completed for the inter- change of railway wagons and carriage of goods on each other's railways.

Upto 27 September 1973, trade between the two countries was regulated under a three-tier system viz. the Limited Payment Arrangement (LPA), Border Trade and Trade in free foreign exchange. Trade under LPA envisaged movement of commodities to the extent of Rs. 25 crores each way. This arrangement came to an end on 27 September 1973. A Delegation led by the Minister of Commerce, Prof. D. P. Chattopadhyaya, arrived at a new agreement known as the Balanced Trade and Payments Agree- ment (BTPA) which came into effect on 28 September 1973, for a


period of three years. A trade protocol was also signed with a validity of one year for the exchange of goods to the extent of Rs. 30.5 crores each way.

A coal agreement was signed on 25 August 1973, for the supply from India to Bangladesh of 650,000 tonnes of coal during 1973-74. Also an Indo-Bangladesh agreement came into force on 20 September 1973, providing for the exchange of books, newspapers, and periodicals worth Rs. 22 lakhs each way. Both these agree- ments were under the BTPA.

The Inland Water Transport Organisations of India and Bangladesh signed an agreement on 18 August 1973, for the pro- per sealing of cargoes for security in transit and devised ways and means of developing inland waterways for carriage of goods.

Considerable progress was made in initiating joint studies on flood control and on the possibilities of co-operation in respect of the waters of the Ganga-Brahmputra-Meghna systems and in the field of electric power. The Joint Rivers Commission of the two countries have held six meetings so far.

A delegation headed by Mr. Khondekar Moshtaque Ahmed, the Bangladesh Minister for Water Resources, Flood Control and Power visited New Delhi in July 1973 and held discussions on matters relating to operation of Farakka Barrage with the Indian delegation headed by the Minister of External Affairs, Sardar Swaran Singh. These discussions proved useful and will be continued so as to find agreed solutions.

A number of delegations from each country visited the other to discuss co-operation in various fields of mutual interest. A number of Committees/Study Groups were also set up to con- sider co-operation in various fields:-

(1) The Ministry of External Affairs has set up a study group for studying the broad areas for cement co-opera- tion for detailed study by technical consultants.


(2) A joint Indo-Bangladesh Study Group on Jute Co-opera- tion which was set up in 1972, to protect the interest of jute and jute manufacture in the world market held two meetings this year, one in April 1973, in New Delhi and the concluding session in Dacca in September, 1973.

(3) A Transport Co-ordination Group was set up to review and solve transport problems in India and Bangla- desh. Sub-groups were set up in Calcutta and Paksey (in Bangladesh) which will meet periodically for co- ordination of their work.

(4) The Joint Power Board which was set up for co-ordinat- ing the generation and transmission in both the countries held its first meetings in May and December 1973.

(5) The Inland Water Transport Standing Committee met in August 1973, in New Delhi.


India's relations with Bhutan continued to be very cordial and friendly and were marked by very close understanding and co-operation in all fields. His Majesty, King Jigme Singye Wangchuk continued to follow the policy of his late father in forging close ties between India and Bhutan.

Bhutan was admitted to the Non-aligned Group at the Non- aligned Summit meeting held in Algiers during the first week of September 1973. Bhutan's application for the membership had been earlier reviewed by the Steering Committee and for- warded for the consideration of the Foreign Ministers' meeting in Algiers. India has welcomed this development.

Dr. Karan Singh, the then Minister of Tourism and Civil Aviation, paid an official visit to Bhutan from 20 to 23 October 1973. During his brief stay in Bhutan Dr. Karan Singh had


useful discussions with the King and other dignitaries. The talks centred mainly around the development of tourism in Bhutan.

The Minister of External Affairs, Sardar Swaran Singh, visit- ed Bhutan from 4 to 6 February 1974 During his stay in Bhutan, he had fruitful discussions on Indo-Bhutan co-operation With His Majestly, the King of Bhutan, the Bhutanese Foreign Minis- ter and other important dignitaries. These discussions were characterised by deep warmth and cordiality and underlined the identity in the view point of the two countries.

In the months of January and February 1974, India also received several delegations from Bhutan. These included a 10- member Tshongdu (National Assembly) delegation, a students delegation and a farmers delegation.

Recent years have witnessed socioeconomic transformation in Bhutan in several vital sectors, particularly agriculture, in- dustry, road construction, transport and education. Bhutan's Third Five Year Plan (1971-76) provides for an outlay of Rs. 35 crores. India is actively co-operating in the programmes envisaged under this Plan and has agreed to provide Rs. 33 crores by way of developmental assistance. Detailed co-operation between planning experts and specialists in various fields has also been carried out.

The Government of India have undertaken to finance the Chukha Hydro-electric Project and the Pagli Cement Plant in Bhutan. The projects are estimated to cost Rs. 64.3 crores and Rs. 7 crores respectively. ln addition, during the plan period 1971-76, a sum of Rs. 2.13 crores has also been approved for geological and mineral exploration in Bhutan. The Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, carried out a pre-investment survey of forest resources for the exploitation of Bhutan's forest wealth during the current year. A technical team of the Planning Commission visited Bhutan and reviewed the implementation of the annual plan for: 1972-73. The experts in Animal Husbandry,


Power, Industries and Minerals, Health and Education, who were included in the delegation, held useful discussions with their counterparts in Bhutan.


In accordance with India's policy of developing good re- lations with her neighbours, several steps were taken to strengthen further the relations with Burma.

As a result of the discussions held in Rangoon between the Indian and Burmese officials from 23 to 31 May 1973, an Air Agreement was concluded between the two countries.

The Minister of External Affairs paid an official visit to Burma from 5 to 9 April 1973. He was accompanied by a team of officials from the Ministries of External Affairs, Irrigation and Power, Commerce, Food and Agriculture, Industries and Petro- leum and Chemicals. It was in the nature of a goodwill visit but preliminary proposals to develop closer relations in economic and cultural matters between the two countries were also dis- cussed. As a consequence of the discussions held during the visit, a 15-member Scientific and Technical Delegation led by Dr. Nyi Nyi, Deputy Minister for Education of Burma, visited India in July 1973. The Delegation was taken to various scientific and educational institutions and industrial sites to acquaint then with the progress made in India in these fields.

The joint boundary demarcation work between the two countries has been making satisfactory progress. A 12-member Burmese Delegation led by Col. Kyi Maung visited India from 10 to 22 November 1973, in connection with the 14th and 15th Meetings of the Joint Boundary Commission.


Indo-Nepal relations continued, to evolve and strengthen, in a spirit of cordiality and mutual understanding. The Prime Min- ister's visit to Nepal at the beginning of 1973, had set the stage


for further expansion and diversification of Indo-Nepal co- operation in various fields.

Since then the two countries have exchanged several high level visits, culminating in the first ever State visit to India by Their Majesties King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya of Nepal (from 12 to 19 October 1973). While in India, Their Majesties visited various places of cultural and religious importance as also several sites of modem economic significance in India. In Delhi H. M. King Birendra held talks with the President and the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs. He also discussed various aspects of Indo-Nepal co-operation With other Ministers of the Government of India. The Joint Communique issued during the visit stressed the importance of the principles of peace- ful co-existence in the conduct of international relations. It also reaffirmed that the two countries should constantly endeavour to strengthen friendship and deepen understanding between them and work towards these ends.

Earlier, in April-May 1973, the Union Minister for Planning accompanied by several experts, visited Nepal to meet Nepalese planning officials. Several agreements were reached on Indo- Nepal co-operation in fields such as irrigation and power, communications, agriculture, horticulture, and industries. The most important of these agreements was one on harnessing the hydroelectric potential of river Karnali in Nepal. India has agreed to purchase the bulk of the power to be generated by the proposed Karnali project.

The third meeting, of the Indo-Nepal Joint Review Committee was held in India from 26 December 1973 to 4 January 1974, to discuss problems relating to Nepal's trade and transit. Agreements were reached, inter alia, on facilities for Nepalese goods at Calcutta port and on supply of essential commodities by India to Nepal. The Foreign Secretary to the Government of Nepal, accompanied by a delegation, also paid a Visit to India from 12 February 1974 to discuss further the supply of petroleum products to Nepal.


During the year 1973-74, economic co-operation between the two countries was further developed and intensified, based on the recognition that such co-operation was of mutual benefit and symbolised the warm and friendly relations between the two countries and peoples. A sum of Rs. 9.00 crores was provided in the budget for the year 1973-74, by way of developmental assis- tance from India. A standby credit of Rs. 10.00 crores was also extended. The construction of the Central Sector of the Mahendra Raj Marg (East-West Highway) progressed satisfactorily. The work of improving and black-topping of Kathmandu-Godawri Road is also progressing, The survey for construction of a bridge on river Kamla on the East Sector of the. Mahendra. Raj Marg has been completed and the construction of the bridge is expected to be taken up shortly. The Eastern Sector of Mahendra Raj Marg and Kosi area roads, are nearing completion. A Letter of Exchange is shortly to be signed for black-topping and improve- ment of Kathmandu-Trisuli Road from Ranipsuwa to Trisuli. The work on Chatra Canal is nearing completion. Work on the desilting basin of the Trisuli Hydel Project also progressed. A high-level Nepalese delegation visited India to study the working of important soil conservation centres in connection with imple- menting soil conservation measures in Nepal. As a sequel to the visit, a detailed soil conservation scheme under Indian aid to Nepal is now being drawn up. Indian assistance in the fields of horticulture, veterinary, water supply, rural development etc., has continued this year.

Indian Teaching staff including professors, readers and lecturers have continued to be deputed to the Tribhuvan Uni- versity. Other technicians and coaches have also been sent to Nepal.


India continued its search for normalisation of relations and establishment of durable peace in the sub-continent. Repeated


initiatives were taken over the year to accelerate the process of reconciliation with Pakistan within the framework of the Simla Agreement. Paragraph 4 of the Simla Agreement had already been implemented in full with the delineation of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir and the withdrawal of troops from occupied territories on the western border. India now sought further implementation of the provisions of this, Agreement.

Accordingly, in January 1973, India communicated to, Pakistan its willingness to enter into bilateral negotiations for implementation of normalisation measures listed in paragraph 3 of the Simla Agreement. These measures include resumption of communications, air links and overflights, trade, restoration of normal travel facilities and promotion of scientific and cultural exchanges. Pakistan, however, responded negatively to this offer on the plea that the prisoners of war issue had assumed first priority and that implementation of normalisation measures would have to await their repatriation to Pakistan. Thus, no progress could be made.

India consequently directed its efforts to the early resolution of the humanitarian issues arising out of the conflict of 1971. These issues related to the need for repatriation of the Bengalees detained in Pakistan, the Pakistani prisoners of war and civilian internees in India who had surrendered to the joint Indo- Bangladesh Command, and the Pakistani nationals in Bangladesh, namely, those who had declared their allegiance to Pakistan. The resolution of these humanitarian problems was held up due to Pakistan's policy of continued non-recognition of Bangladesh. which prevented the setting-up of a tripartite meeting in which Bangladesh could participate on the basis of sovereign equality.

It was against this background that discussions were held between the Governments of India and Bangladesh during April 1973, with a view to defreezing the situation and finding a

pg19> solution to the humanitarian problems arising out of the December 1971, conflict. As a result of these discussions, Governments of India and Bangladesh issued a joint declaration on 17 April 1973, which separated political problems from humanitarian issues by proposing the simultaneous repatriation of the Pakistani prisoners of war and civilian internees, except those required by the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh for trial on criminal charges, the repatriation, of Bengalees forcibly detained in Pakistan and the repatriation of Pakistanis in Bangladesh, i.e. all non-Bengalees who owed allegiance to and had opted for repatriation to Pakistan. Thus, the Declaration provided a fair, balanced and practical formula for the repatriation of Pakistani prisoners and other citizens and Bengalees displaced by the December 1971 conflict. It demons- trated once again that contrary to Pakistani propaganda India was not interested in using the POW issue for seeking any political concessions from Pakistan. Moreover, the Joint Offer took into account Pakistan's declared views on various issues including war trials of Pakistani POWs, Pakistani nationals in Bangladesh etc.

It was heartening to note that the international community as a whole warmly welcomed the Indo-Bangladesh initiative in the matter. It was, therefore, disappointing when Pakistan responded by issuing a statement on 20 April 1973, in which it set forth an extreme position calling for the one-sided resolution of issues affecting Pakistan. The statement also sought to introduce political considerations in the resolution of purely humanitarian issues. In its official communication of 23 April, Pakistan while referring to its statement of 20 April, made the suggestion that a representative of the Government of India should visit Islamabad to discuss these matters.

In consultation with the Government of Bangladesh, India sent a reply to Pakistan, on 8 May in which it was emphasised that the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Declaration had sought to resolve simultaneously the humanitarian issues arising out of the


armed conflict of 1971, and that Bangladesh had deliberately set aside political considerations, although they were of vital impor- tance to her. It was further suggested that if Pakistan Government were to indicate their agreement in principle to the solution set out in the Joint Declaration of 17 April 1973, the proposed talks between India and Pakistan could be purposeful and lead to quick results. In such an eventuality the representatives of India and Pakistan could work out modalities for implementing the solution of these problems.

After an exchange of correspondence, Pakistan finally agreed to hold discussions with India within the framework of the Joint Declaration. A delegation led by the Special Emissary of the Prime Minister of India, Shri P. N. Haksar, visited Rawal- pindi and Islamabad and held discussions with the Pakistan Delegation led by Mr. Aziz Ahmed, Pakistan's Minister of State for Defence and Foreign Affairs, from 24 to 31 July 1973. During the course of these talks questions relating to simulta- neous repatriation of the three categories of persons mentioned in the Joint Indo-Bangladesh Declaration of 17 April 1973, were discussed in full detail. The Pakistan side acknowledged the fact that the Joint Indo-Bangladesh Declaration, was a step forward and paved the way for an early resolution of the relevant issues. Some progress was made in defining these issues and it was agreed between the two Delegations that a point had been reached where further consideration by both sides was necessary. In pursuance of this decision, the discussions were resumed at New Delhi from 18 August 1973 and continued till 28 August 1973. These discussions took place in consultation with the Bangladesh Government.

As a result of these talks, an Agreement was signed on 28 August 1973, between the Government of India and Pakistan. The Agreement envisaged the simultaneous repatriation of all Pakistani prisoners of war (except the 195 prisoners required for trials by Bangladesh), the repatriation to Bangladesh of all Bengalees in Pakistan and initially a substantial number of


Pakistanis now in Bangladesh to Pakistan. Regarding the 195 POWs, the Agreement provided that no trials shall be held during the process of repatriation, that in the meantime they shall remain in India and that tripartite discussions will be held for reaching a settlement on this issue. It was further agreed that discussions shall be held between Pakistan and Bangladesh to decide what additional number of Pakistanis in Bangladesh may be permitted to return to Pakistan. Bangladesh made it clear that it will participate in such meetings only on the basis of sovereign equality.

Pakistan had, in May 1973, before the signing of the Delhi Agreement, sent an application to the International Court of Justice to issue an interim injunction against the transfer of the 195 POWs required for trials in Bangladesh. India challenged the jurisdiction of the Court to entertain Pakistan's application. The court did not grant an interim injunction and in an order issued on 13 July 1973, it ruled that it must first of all satisfy itself that it had jurisdiction in the matter. In December 1973, Pakistan Government decided to withdraw its application from the International Court. India welcomed this move and expressed the hope that Pakistan would now move forward to resolve the- issue of the 195 prisoners of war in accordance with the Delhi Agreement.

In May 1973, the Government of Pakistan requested the ICAO Council to take up at its session in June 1973, Pakistan's complaint against India's ban on over-light of Pakistani aircraft over its territory. Subsequently it informed the President of the Council to defer the consideration of the cases until either of the parties requested it to do so. India sent a communication to the Council stating that it had no objection to such deferment. As the position stands today, the matter will not be taken up by the ICAO Council unless either party requests it to do so.

The three-way process of repatriation under the Delhi Agreement commenced on 19 September 1973 and by 18 February


1974, a total of 217,681 persons had been repatriated to their res- pective countries. Unfortunately, the rate at which the Pakistan Government gave clearances for its nationals to be repatriated from Bangladesh was rather slow and this had affected the overall. process of repatriation. India, in consultation with Bangladesh suggested to Pakistan, on 3 November that Pakistan should speed up these clearances so that the overall pace of repatriation could be enhanced in accordance with the principle of simulta- neity contained in the Delhi Agreement.

Under the Delhi Agreement, the repatriation of Pakistani POWs and civilian internees had been progressing satisfactorily. It was, therefore, felt that India should reiterate her willingness to enter into discussions with Pakistan in accordance with para 3 of the Simla Agreement for the implementation of normalisation measures. The Minister of External Affairs, in a statement in the Lok Sabha on 21 December reiterated India's willingness to start these discussions at the earliest moment. He said that it would be in the mutual interests of both Pakistan and India, and in the interests of a large number of people in the two countries if there was no further delay in this matter and therefore, agreements, were worked out to resume communications. trade, travel and cultural links between the two countries. This would give rise to greater confidence and improve the atmosphere and thereby facilitate the task of discussing more complicated issues. On 31 December 1973, this was formally conveyed to Pakistan through an aide-memoire. Pakistan in its reply dated 19 January 1974, came out with a very limited response which in actual effect had very little practical utility. They suggested opening of discussions only to resume postal, telegraphic, land and sea communications while keeping out discussions for the resumption of air-links including over-lights which were also included in Paragraph 3(1) of the Simla Agreement.

It was, therefore, decided to send another message to Pakistan on 24 January, in which it was emphasised that the main aim of the two countries should be to restore travel between the two


countries in order to alleviate the hardship of thousands of people. In doing this it would be logical and in accordance with Paragraph 3(i) and (ii) of the Simla Agreement if discussions took place not only on resumption of postal, telegraphic, land and sea communications but also included other items such as aft links, over-flights and resumption of travel facilities.

In terms of the Simla Agreement, the final settlement of the Kashmir issue has to be in the context of normalisation of relations and establishment of durable peace with Pakistan. In recent months. Pakistan has been more vocal about this issue. In September 1973, the Prime Minister of Pakistan referred to Kashmir during his statement in the United Nations General Assembly. After the Pakistan Prime Minister's statement; Minister of External Affairs, in his comments to the press in New York, stated that there was little point in raising this issue in the U.N. as both sides had agreed at Simla that this problem would be discussed and settled bilaterally and peacefully.

The Prime Minister of Pakistan, during his visit to Pakistan occupied Kashmir in November 1973, issued some statements which were contrary to the provisions of the Simla Agreement. particularly those regarding non-interference in each other's internal affairs. This was brought to the notice of the Govern- ment of Pakistan, making it clear that such statements by the highest authority in Pakistan could only cause apprehensions in India regarding Pakistan's intentions about the implementation of the Simla Agreement. The Minister of External Affairs also wrote to the Pakistan's Minister of State for Defence and Foreign Affairs asking him to clarify Pakistan Government's position so that we could understand where we stood in terms of the Simla Agreement. In his reply, the Pakistan Minister of State tried to explain that the speeches of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, read as a whole, could not justify the kind of impression created in India. He further stated that the Prime Minister of Pakistan had been repeatedly advocating that war would not solve the Kashmir issue and that three wars fought during the last 26


years had left the issue unresolved. According to him, Pakistan Government remained committed to promoting friendship and harmonious relations with India and to implementing the Simla Agreement in letter and spirit.

In a statement in Parliament on 6 December 1973, the Minister of External Affairs while taking note of the clarification given by Pakistan, expressed unhappiness over the statements of the Prime Minister of Pakistan and hoped that Pakistan Govern- ment would fulfil the assurance contained in its reply. He reiterated that India's objective was to stabilise peace and to reverse the trend of confrontation in its relations with Pakistan. The Minister of External Affairs also explained in the Lok Sabha that any move by Pakistan to change the status of Pakistan occupied Kashmir would also be illegal as the whole of Jammu and Kashmir became a part of the Indian Union as a result of the State's accession in 1947.

Sri Lanka

In pursuance of her policy to have very close and friendly relations with immediate neighbours, India made constant efforts to resolve outstanding issues and develop co-operation with Sri Lanka in the economic and other fields. The mutual desire for further strengthening Indo-Sri Lanka relations was reflected in the visits exchanged between the two countries.

At the invitation of Mrs. Bandaranaike, Prime Minister of the Republic of Sri Lanka, the Prime Minister of India paid an official visit to Sri Lanka from 27 to 29 April 1973. In the joint communique issued at the end of the I visit both the Prime Ministers expressed similar views on many international issues. For speedy implementation of the 1964 Agreement, India agreed to an annual progressive increase of 10% over the rate of repatriation (35,000) contemplated in the 1964 Agreement. It was also agreed that an early decision would be reached in regard to the status and future of the remaining 150,000 persons


of Indian origin in Sri Lanka, Kachchativu and related matters such as the median line and fishing rights.

As a follow-up of the Prime Minister's visit to Sri Lanka in April 1973, a Sri Lanka delegation consisting of Mr. W. T. Jayasinghe, Secretary of Defence and External Affairs and Mr. C. W. Pinto, Legal Adviser to the Ministry of External Affairs of Sri Lanka, visited India from 9 to 13 June 1973. The Sri Lanka delegation held talks in an atmosphere of mutual understanding with senior Indian officials of the Ministry of External Affairs on matters of interest to India and Sri Lanka.

A team of Indian officials led by the Foreign Secretary Shri Kewal Singh, Visited Colombo from 15 to 18 October to discuss various outstanding issues between India and Sri Lanka, including economic co-operation.

Mr. Lakshman Jayakody, Deputy Minister for Defence and External Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka, visited India from 20 to 26 November 1973. During his stay in New Delhi, he called on the President, the Minister of-, External Affairs and the Minister of Defence. A wide-range of subjects of mutual interest was discussed in his meeting with Shri Surendra Pal Singh, Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs.

The Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, Mrs. Sirimavo R. D. Bandara- naike, visited India from 22 to 29 January 1974, at the invitation of the Prime Minister of India. In the discussions between the two Prime Ministers, there was a close identity of views regard- ing the recent international developments.

The two Prime Ministers also discussed bilateral issues. While reviewing the economic and technical co-operation between the two countries, they noted with satisfaction the progress in the economic and technical co-operation between the two countries.

The Prime Ministers agreed that the implementation of the 1964 Agreement was proceeding satisfactorily. An Agreement was also reached on the remaining 150.000 persons of Indian origin who


were left over by the 1964 Agreement for a later decision. Sri Lanka would confer citizenship on 75,000 of this number and India would accept for repatriation 75,000. Thereafter, it was observed with satisfaction that the two countries would have finally settled the problem of all persons of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.

The visit of Sri Lanka Prime Minister was a landmark in the relation between the two countries and contributed to a further strengthening of their warm and friendly relations.

INS Nilgiri visited Colombo from 21 to 25 July 1973. Indian Naval Training Squadron consisting of INS Delhi, Krishna and Cauvery also visited Colombo from 15 to 17 October 1973.

The Speaker of the National State Assembly of Sri Lanka Mr. Stanley Tillekaratne, visited India from 20 November to 6 December 1973, at the invitation of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.


The Fifth General Elections of Sikkim in February-March 1973 were followed by widespread protests, the opposition parties charging the Sikkim authorities with malpractices, corruption and rigging of elections. Measures with which the authorities countered these protests led to a further deterioration in the situation, finally leading to a, complete breakdown of law and order throughout the State.

The Chogyal found the situation out of his control and requested the Government of India initially to take over responsibility for law and order and subsequently for the administration of Sikkim. The Joint Action Committee consisting of Opposition parties which spearheaded the protests against the Chogyal and his administration also made similar demands to the Government of India. In response to these requests, on 6 April, the Government of India took over the responsibility for


law and order in specified parts of Sikkim and on 8 April, further responsibilities for the whole of Sikkim. Shri B. S. Das, was appointed as Chief Administrator and other measures were taken to restore law and order and strengthen the administration. With these measures confidence was restored and the situation soon returned to normal.

On 8 May 1973, after intensive consultations between the leaders of various political parties, the Chogyal and the Government of India, a Tripartite Agreement was signed. The Agreement assured the people of Sikkim basic human rights and fundamental freedoms, and provided for a new Assembly to be elected by the people of Sikkim on the basis of the principle of "one man one vote", care being taken to ensure that no single section acquires a dominant position due mainly to its ethnic origin. The Sikkim Administration is now headed by, a Chief Executive who is appointed by the Chogyal on nomination by the Government of India. Under the Agreement the Chief Executive has been assured of all the powers necessary for the discharge of his functions and responsibilities.

The leaders of the political parties, by signing the Agreement as representatives of the people of Sikkim, have for the first time in the history of Sikkim made the people a party to such a, constitutional document which is so vital to their political, social and economic well-being and uplift. The Agreement is thus a great landmark in the annals of the development of democratic institutions in Sikkim.

Efforts to evolve a formula acceptable to all the parties in Sikkim for holding fresh general elections to the Assembly envi- saged under 8 May 1973 Agreement were continued. The Foreign Secretary and the Chief Election Commissioner paid visits to the Sikkimese capital and held consultations with the Chogyal and the leaders of the political parties. The three private visits of the Chogyal to Delhi provided opportunities for further consultations. As a result of discussions held at various levels and

pg28> with all the, parties involved, a formula to serve as a basis for the elections to the Assembly has been worked out. The Proposed Assembly would have a strength of 32 members out of which 15 each are to represent the Bhutia-Lepcha and the Nepalese com- munities. Of the remaining two, one has been set aside for the Scheduled Castes and the other for a representative of the monas- teries. The constituencies have been delimited. The elections for which fresh electoral rolls have been prepared under the auspices of the Chief Election Commission of India are scheduled to be held on 15 April, 1974 and the results of the poll would be announced on 19 April 1974, The voting in the election would be on the basis of one man one vote. By giving equal representation to the two principal communities in Sikkim, it has been ensured that no community would dominate over the other.

The Chogyal's private visit to New Delhi from 16 to 20 September 1973, offered an opportunity for discussions between him and representatives of the Government of India on matters of mutual interest. Speaking at a Press Conference in New Delhi on 19 September the Chogyal described his talks with the Prime Minister on the situation in Sikkim and the future political set-up of the State as "free, frank, honest and fruitful".

Many measures for the welfare of the people have been undertaken since May 1973, in continuation of the policy of co-operation and involvement in the efforts to raise living standards and extend social benefits which the Government of India have consistently followed in Sikkim. Text books at subsidised rates have, been distributed to school children and schools are being provided sports and recreational facilities. Special arrangements were made to supply medicines to the Government of Sikkim to, equip various hospitals in the State which were short of medicines. Mobile Medical Units provided much-needed medical relief in remote areas and now arrangements are being made to get mobile dispensaries so that people all over the State continue to get medical attention. India has announced a grant of Rs. 10 lakhs to the Sikkim Durbar to meet the initial cost of clearing roads


blocked during the recent floods and also to subsidise the cost of transport of essential commodities to the flood-affected areas.

Sikkim's Fourth Five Year Plan (1971-76) contemplates an outlay of Rs. 20 crores, of which Government of India's contribution would be Rs. 18.5 crores, entirely by way of grants. In 1971-72, a sum of Rs. 2.20 crores and in 1972-73, a sum of nearly Rs., 3 crores were given to Sikkim for the implementation of its Annual Plans. For the year 1973-74, a sum of Rs. 5.9 crores. has been earmarked. Work commenced last year on Rs. 5.93 crores Lagyap Project which on completion will generate 6000 KW of electricity.


South East Asia



India's friendly relations with the countries in South East Asia, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, were further strengthened by exchange of visits and mutual col- laboration in the political, cultural, educational and commercial fields. Promotion of joint ventures and various other projects of economic co-operation have also been making significant progress.


The 4th round of bilateral talks at official and Ministerial level between India and Indonesia was held in New Delhi from Mar 30, 1973 to 3 April 1973. During the Ministerial level talks, the Indonesian Delegation was led by Dr. Adam Malik, Foreign Minister of Indonesia. During the talks, bilateral relations and recent international developments were discussed. The discus- sions revealed similarity in the position of both Governments on various issues. The two sides reviewed important developments that had taken place in the international situation, particularly in Asia, since their last meeting in Jackstraw in August, 1971. The Minister of External Affairs of India welcomed the progress achieved by the countries of ASEAN and reiterated the support of the Government of India for the Kuala Lumpur Declaration


calling for a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality in South- East Asia. The Foreign Ministers also discussed various ideas regarding wider regional co-operation in Asia. They reaffirmed that the elimination of Great Power tension and rivalry from the Indian Ocean would contribute greatly to peace and stability in the region and felt that India and Indonesia should have more frequent exchange of views on this subject and co-operate closely in the U.N. Ad hoc Committee. Regarding the situation in the sub-continent the two Foreign Ministers agreed that recognition and acceptance of existing realities in the sub-continent was ne- cessary for furthering the process of normalisation of a durable peace among the countries concerned.

In the field of economic and technical co-operation between India and Indonesia there has been satisfactory progress. Four new India-Indonesia joint ventures have already been approved. India participated in the Djakarta Fair 1973, from 16 to 28 June 1973, and a 3-member team of National Electronic and Electrical Institute, Bandung (Indonesia), visited Pilani Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute and the Research Sur- vey and Planning Organisation of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

During its visit to Indonesia from 7 to 15 June 1973, INS Nilgiri held joint exercises with Indonesian naval ship Lambung Mang Kurat while on its way from Djakarta to Bali INC Nilgiri also visited Bangkok, Singapore and Colombo in June/ July 1973.

General G. G. Bewoor, Chief of the Army Staff, accompanied by Mrs. Bewoor. visited Indonesia from 30 October to 5 Novem- ber 1973.


Important visitors from Malaysia during the years were:--

(i) Tan Siew Sin, Finance Minister,


(ii) Mr. Mohammed Ghazali Bin Shafie, Minister for Infor- mation & Special Function; and,

(iii) Tan Sri Lee Siok Yew, Health Minister.

The Vice-Chief of Army Staff, Lt. Gen. Har Prasad, paid a visit to Malaysia during April 1973.

An Indian football team participated in the Merdeka Foot- ball Tournament held at Kuala Lumpur in July/August 1973, and an Army Polo Team visited Malaysia from 2 to 25 Novem- ber 1973. India also participated in the Quran Reading Competi- tion held in Malaysia from 15 to 16 October 1973.

In the field of economic co-operation, with the approval of new proposals for Indo-Malaysian joint ventures the total num- ber of joint ventures under implementation/production has reach- ed 26.


From Singapore the important visitors were: Inche Othman bin Wok, Minister of Social Affairs, and Mr. Chua Sian Shin, Minister for Health and Home Affairs, who visited Bombay on 27 January and 2 May 1973, respectively.

A wholly Indian Trade Exhibition was held in June-July in Singapore. It helped appreciably to promote trade between India and Singapore. Indian sports teams-karate, badminton and golf-visited Singapore during the period.


As a result of wide-spread agitation and violence, the Govern- ment of Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn resigned on 14 October 1973, and the King appointed Mr. Sanya Dharamasakti, Prime Minister.


For the promotion of cultural ties between India and Thai- land a number of programmes were organised in Thailand. More important of these in 1973 were: (i) a photographic ex-. hibition depicting religious, economic and cultural life of India;. (ii) a film show of Satyajit Ray's award-winning film "Charulata"; and (iii) a Bharat Natyam dance performance by Miss Meenakshi Sabanayagam.

Two baby camels were presented to the Chiang Mai Zoo, a pair of spotted deer to the Khon Kaen University and Bodhi tree- saplings to the World Fellowship of Buddhists and the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand. Professor Pisit Choroon Wongsa of the Silpakorn University and Mr. Wikon Suthiragsa, Curator, Fine Arts; Department, visited India and, in turn, Professor Sisir Kumar Ghosh of the Vishwa Bharati University, Shantiniketan, visited Chulalongkorn and other Universities for lectures and meetings.

New Zealand

At the invitation of the Government of New Zealand, Prof. Sher Singh, the then Minister of State for Agriculture, visited New Zealand in May 1973. During his discussions with the authorities, of the New Zealand Government, possibilities of fur- ther co-operation in the fields of animal husbandry and pasture and fodder development were discussed.

India participated in the New Zealand International Fair held at Auckland in August 1973. A direct shipping service between India and New Zealand has been introduced since the beginning, of the year.

The Prime Minister of New Zealand, Rt. Hon'ble Norman, N. S. Kirk, visited India from 27 December 1973 to 1 January 1974. The visit was a landmark in the friendly rfelations already existing between the two countries and opened avenues of


further co-operation. The New Zealand Prime Minister called on the President and held talks with the Prime Minister. The- Minister of External Affairs, the Minister of Agriculture and the Minister of Planning called on him for talks.

The Prime Minister of New Zealand welcomed the role of India in international affairs and reaffirmed his support for the concept of Indian Ocean as a 'Zone of Peace' free from power rivalry, tensions and military escalation. The New Zealand Prime Minister expressed his understanding and appreciation of the initiatives taken by India for normalisation and the establishment of durable peace in the sub-continent. It was also agreed that (a) trade delegations will be exchanged in order to expand mutual trade (b) the possibility of an Indo-New Zealand joint venture in paper manufacture should be further explored and (c) agricultural experts of both countries should discuss the setting up of demonstration farms for experimental research of a practical nature. The New Zealand Prime Minister conveyed his Government's intention to continue Commonwealth tariff preferences in respect of India.


At the invitation of the Prime Minister of India, the Prime Minister of Australia, the Hon'ble Mr. Edward Gough Whitlam, Q.C., M.P., visited India from 3 to 6 June 1973. The discussions between the Prime Ministers of India and Australia covered a wide-range of important international questions and bilateral relations. These discussions revealed a close similarity of views and approach between the two Governments.

At the invitation of the Government of Australia, Prof. Sher Singh, the then Minister of State for Agriculture, Government of India visited Austarlia in May 1973.

Under the sponsorship of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations, a 30-member Australian Ballet Troupe, visited India in July 1973 and gave two performances.


Four eminent agricultural scientists from Australia came to India in December 1973 and visited Indian Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Projects and discussed matters of mutual interest with Indian officials.

An Australian Parliamentary Goodwill Delegation led by Mr. Les Johnson, M.P., Minister for Housing and Construction, visited India from 12 to 17 January, 1974 as guests of the Lok Sabha.

At the Indo-Australian bi-lateral talks, held in Canberra in February 1974, there was, inter alia. identity of views on keeping the Indian Ocean free from power rivalry and tension and increas- ing the scope for further expansion of trade.


Relations between India and Fiji continued to be very friendly. An Air Services Agreement between India and Fiji was initialled at Suva in September 1973. Subject to the approval of the two Governments, the Agreement will be signed at an early date.

A replica of an Indian soldier was presented to the Fiji Minister for Communications and Works in August 1973, as a gift from the Chief of Staff of the Indian Army to the Royal Fiji Military Forces.

Visits to India by the following important personalities from Fiji, show the growth of mutual relations: (i) Mr. J. B. Naisara, Minister for Education, Youth and Sport (2) Mr. Sakiasi Waqani- vavalagi, Assistant Minister, Rehabilitation, Development, Hous- ing and Social Welfare, (3) Mr. S. M. Koya, Leader of the Opposi- tion in the Fiji House of Representatives, (4) Mr. Apesai Tera, Member of the Fiji House Representatives and President of the Fiji Council of Trade Unions, (5) Mrs. Irene Jai Narayan, Member


of the Fiji House of Representatives, (6) Mr. Justice Mod Tikaram. Ombudsman of Fiji.

Under the ITEC programme, the service of two experts from India were made available to the Government of Fiji-(1) Dr. M. K. Kamath, an Entomologist, who has been attached to the Koronivia Agricultural Research Station near Suva and (2) Shri B. S. Verma of the U.P. Government Roadways Corporation was deputed to head the Rewa, Provincial Development Company Limited.

An Exhibition of Hindi Books was held in Suva and Nadi, in April 1973, under the auspices of the Central Hindi Directorate of the Government of India.

Fiji's first Flour Mill, which is India's first joint venture with Fiji, was opened by H.E. Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, the Prime Minister of Fiji on 10 September 1973.


Medicines and clothing worth Rs. 10,000/- were presented to the Government of Tonga in May 1973, as Government of India's contribution towards relief of cyclone victims. A Tonga-India Friendship Week was celebrated in Tonga in March 1973. A photographic exhibition depicting 25 years of Indian Indepen- dence was inaugurated by Her Majesty the Queen of Tonga. The special attractions of the week were a dolls exhibition and two performances of Indian dances and music.

Western Samoa

Mr. Falesa S. Saili, Finance Minister of Western Samoa, visited India from 30 September to 3 October 1973, as a guest of the Government of India. He was accompanied by the Finance Secretary and the Manager of the Bank of Western Samoa.


East Asia




There was no significant change in India's relations with China- While India continued to seek normalisation of relations, there was little response from China.

China's anti-Indian propaganda continued apace. Through public statements and publicity media, the Chinese sought to give a wrong impression of our relationship with our neighbouring countries like Nepal and the Soviet Union.

The Chinese also made representations about Dalai Lama's visit to Europe in 1973, on the ground that the visit was meant to- expand "the scope of anti-China activities". The Government of India had pointed out to the Chinese that the visit was a purely personal one, with no political implications. And this was more than borne out by the facts of the visit.

Despite this lack of positive response, India continued to adopt an attitude of friendship and restraint. In April 1973, India waived visa requirements for Chinese passengers in direct transit


through India (with permission to stop for a period of 24 hours). India also brought the propaganda war on the border to an end by stopping the radio broadcasts at the border passes of Nathu. La, Jelep, La and Cho La in February-March 1973.


The year was marked by growing all-sided contacts between India and Japan.

The 8th Indo-Japan bilateral talks between the Foreign Offices of India and Japan took place in Tokyo on May 16, 1973 and 17 May 1973. Secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs, Shri V. C. Trivedi, led the Indian side, while Vice-Foreign Minister Hogan led the Japanese side.

The prestigious Indo-Japan Committee for Studies of Economic Development in India and Japan, held a joint meeting in Tokyo from 4 to 6 June 1973.

The 6th joint meeting of the Business Co-operation Committees of India and Japan was held in Kyoto from 25 to 27 September 1973. The Indian side was led by Shri Charat Ram, while Dr. S., Nagano led the Japanese delegation. For the first time specific fields of proposed economic collaboration were identified and it was decided to set up a Standing Committee to go into the matter.

Mr. N. Kishi, former Prime Minister of Japan, visited India as a leader of 30-member group under the auspices of U.N. Family Planning Association (13 to 17 October 1973). Two groups of Japanese Parliamentarians also visited India in the months of October and November.

Indo-Japanese Mixed Commission on Cultural Relations held its 3rd meeting in Delhi on 23 October 1973. The Japanese side was led by Mr. S. Hod, Director-General, Cultural Affairs,


Division of the Japanese Foreign Office. Proposals for cultural exchanges in 1973-74 were finalised.

At the end of the year, the Japanese Government also signified its willingness to offer aid to set up 3 fertiliser plants in India during the 5th Five-Year Plan.

Republic of Korea

Relations with the Republic of Korea continued to grow closer a large number of visits of important dignitaries were exchanged.

An Indian Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker Dr. G. S. Dhillon, visited ROK from 25 to 30 June 1973.

Mr. Kyu Hah Choi, Special Assistant for Foreign Affairs to the ROK President, visited India from 26 to 29 August 1973, as a Special Envoy of the President. The Chairman of the Atomic Research Institute of the ROK visited India on 10 and 11 October 1973. A three-member Judiciary team also visited New Delhi from 25 to 27 September 1973.

The Speaker of the National Assembly of ROK, Mr. Il-Kwon Chung, visited New Delhi at the head of a 9-member Parliamen- tary delegation from 20 to 25 December 1973. During their stay they called on the President, Vice-President Prime Minister, the, Minister of External Affairs and the Minister for Parliamentary Affairs.

The relationship between the two countries marked a notable mile-stone when India and ROK decided to establish diplomatic relations at the Embassy level in each other's capital as of 10 December 1973.

In the field of trade there was a steady improvement over 1971-72, with the two-way trade reaching Rs. 8.25 crores.


Democratic People's Republic of Korea

India's relations with DPRK continued to remain friendly. A DPRK Government delegation led by Mr. Kim Gwan Sop visited India from 17 to 22 March. The delegation called on the Presi- dent, Vice-President, Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs and held wide-ranging talks with the Indian side led by the Minister of State Shri Surendra Pal Singh. The DPRK dele- gation explained their country's position on the question of re- unification of Korea.

The Indian delegation welcomed the moves taken by the two Governments of Korea for starting a direct dialogue with a view to settling their differences and working for peaceful re-unification, of the country without any external interference.

An Indian Trade delegation visited Korea in April 1973. The delegation concluded a new Trade Arrangement with DPRK. A trade delegation from DPRK led by the Deputy Minister for Foreign Trade, Mr. Kim Sok Jin visited India in February, 1974 and the first Indo-DPRK trade agreement was signed in Delhi on 18 February 1974.

The Governments of India and the DPRK decided to establish diplomatic relations at the Embassy level in each other's capital as of 10 December 1973.


As a result of the visit to India of the Prime Minister of Mongolia, Mr. Yu. Tsedenbal, in February 1973, specific, measures are being taken to promote greater economic and cultural co-operation between the two countries. An Indian film festival was held in Mongolia in September 1973.

An Indian Trade delegation visited Ulan Bator in April 1973, to work out details of the Trade Plan. Mongolia has shown


interest in buying Rayon Brocade, snuff and other items from India.

Democratic Republic of Vietnam

India's friendly bilateral relations with the DRVN continued to register a steady growth during the period under review. In pursuance of Government's declared policy of making its contri- bution to the economic rehabilitation of the DRVN, a number of concrete measures were initiated. The DRVN Government is particularly keen on co-operation in the agricultural field and a team of Indian Agricultural Experts visited the DRVN in October- November 1973, in order to make an on-the-spot study of the requirements and to identify the specific areas where Indian assis- tance could be made available. A number of steps like the supply of certain vaccines and seeds are already in the process of im- plementation. The various other proposals suggested by the DRVN Government are also under active study.

Earlier, Government had also acceded to the DRVN request for providing special facilities to their students in India for the study of English. A group of 15 DRVN students arrived in India in August 1973 and are now undergoing a special course in the English language at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

Republic of Vietnam

Bilateral relations with the Republic of Vietnam suffered a set- back during 1971-72. However, in 1973, the Government of the Republic of Vietnam signified its interest in normalising relations with India and sent a delegation to India in August 1973, led by Senator Tran. Quang Thuan.


The signing of the Peace Agreement in Vientiane on 21 February 1973, was followed by a Protocol signed by the two


Laotian parties in Vientiane, on 14 September 1973. The February Agreement had declared among other, things, that the Inter- national Commission for Control and Supervision in Laos, with India as its Chairman, will continue to function and the Septem- ber 14 Protocol spelt out the functions of the Control Commission basically in conformity with the Geneva Agreement of 1962. India on her part welcomed these Agreements between the two Laotian sides and assured all concerned of her full co-operation in the task entrusted to it under the Geneva Agreement. The Central Joint Commission has already been formed and an agree- ment on the Mixed Police Force and the Administration of the two Capitals was signed on 6 February 1974 and the Provisional Government of National Union was expected to be formed shortly. It was India's hope that this would happen soon and the provi- sions of the Peace Agreement would be speedily implemented.

India continued to take keen interest in the economic develop- ment of Laos. She extended assistance to Laos under the Colombo Plan and the Indian Technical and Economic Co-operation Programme. Among the items of such assistance were the feasi- bility study by Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Ltd., for the Ban Mark Nao Lift Irrigation Project; a feasibility study for the setting up of a Small Scale Industrial Estate; equipment for two Sediment Testing Laboratories, the deputation of a foretry expert and a Bridge Engineer. Two Laotian Forestry officials came to India on a study tour. India made provision for training of two forestry trainees. She would also contribute As. 11 lakhs in the second phase of the Nam Ngum Hydro Electric Project in Laos. The Indian contribution would be in the form of supplies of machinery and equipment required for the project. Three gift consignments of vegetable seeds were sent to Laos in 1973.


The situation in Cambodia remained fluid with fighting in progress in many parts of the country. India's policy continued


to be one of non-interference in the internal affairs of Cambodia and affirmation of the belief that any final settlement will have to be arrived at by the Cambodian peoples themselves without any outside interference. However, in view of the war situation, India was forced to cut down the size of its Embassy personnel in Phnom Penh. They were finally totally withdrawn in March 1974. India continued to maintain contacts with Prince Sihanouk and the Prime Minister met the Prince at Algiers during the Non-aligned Summit Conference in September 1973.


West Asia And North Africa



India's bilateral relations with the countries of the area conti- nued to be friendly. The Indian Minister of External Affairs visited Syria and Iraq in May 1973 and Iran in July 1973 and February 1974, while the Iranian Foreign Minister came to India in December 1973. During the year resident Ambassadors took over charge at Muscat, Abu Dhabi, Bahrain and Qatar. Economic and technical co-operation have also increased with countries in this region, especially with Iran. India has been assured of un- diminished supplies of oil by the concerned oil-producing count- ries.

Fierce fighting erupted in West Asia on Oct 06, 1973, between Israel on the one hand and Egypt and Syria on the other. Within a few days, a number of other Arab countries also joined the fighting while others gave material and financial help. When the war broke out on 6 October 1973, the Government of India, consistent with their stand in the past, pointed out that Israeli intransigence was clearly the basic cause leading to the outbreak of hostilities and stated that India's sympathies were entirely with the Arabs.

India was active in the Security Council when the matter came up there. India gave support to the Security Council Resolution


No. 338 of 22 October 1973, calling for an immediate cessation of fighting and for a start to the implementation of Security Council Resolution No. 242 and deciding that negotiations start between the parties concerned to establish a just and durable peace. This Resolution was accepted by all the parties directly involved, including Israel, but the latter continued to make territorial gains even after the cease-fire. By two further Resolutions No. 339 of 23 October and 340 of 25 October 1973, the Security Council called for withdrawal of both parties to the cease-fire line of 22 October and set up a U.N. Emergency Force for the area.

The recent fighting has once again demonstrated that Israel can gain security only through the acceptance and implementation of the principles of international behaviour and by heeding world opinion and not by acquisition of territory or by having its frontiers along any particular lines. The Government of India feel that Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 should be, fully implemented. Israel has been resisting various suggestions, for taking concrete steps which could be considered to be even a partial fulfilment of the two basic principles on which a settle- ment has to be based, namely, the withdrawal of Israel from all territories occupied since 5 June 1967 and the restoration of the rights of the Palestinians. India welcomes all moves which could lead to a just peace based on these principles.

While the fighting was going on, India sent medicines and medical equipment to both Egypt and Syria. In addition, she sent a medical team to Syria. After the war, was over, the Government of India have gifted tents to Syria for the use of some of the people whose houses had been destroyed during the war. Mone- tary and material help to Egypt and Syria have been rendered also by some citizens' groups and private individuals.

A Peace Conference convened in Geneva on 21 December 1973, attended by Egypt, Jordan, Israel, U.S.A. and the Soviet Union and presided over by the U.N. Secretary-General. The Syrian


Arab Republic, though invited, did not attend. The Conference adjourned on 22 December but meetings of the military working group comprising of representatives of the U.N., Egypt and Israel continued to take place. An agreement on military disengagement between Egypt and Israel was signed on 18 January 1974, and withdrawals have been taking place according to its terms.

The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Mr. Anwar el- Sadat, visited India from 24 to 25 February, 1974, and had wide- ranging discussions with Indian leaders on all matters of mutual interest.

Cooperation with Iraq in all fields continued to grow apace. From 1ndia the Minister of External Affairs, the Minister of Petroleum and Chemicals and the Miniser of Planning visited Iraq. The Iraqi Minister of Higher Education paid a visit to India. A cultural agreement has been signed between the two countries.

Relations with Iran also continued to grow stronger. Her Imperial Highness Princess Ashraf Pahlavi visited India from 26 August to 9 September 1973. Sardar Swaran Singh visited Iran in July, 1973. Mr. Abbas Ali Khalatbary, Iranian Foreign Minis- ter, visited India from 10 to 16 December, 1973. Discussions in depth relating to all aspects of relations between Iran and India were held during these two visits. A meeting of the Joint Com- mission of the two countries was held in New Delhi from 14 to 16 January 1974 and continued in Tehran on 20 and 21 February 1974. Important decisions have been taken at this meeting and India looks forward to mutually beneficial cooperation with Iran.





(South of the Sahara)

India's relations with African countries continued to reflect a deep and abiding interest in political and economic development of independent African countries and achievement of freedom and independence by Africans in areas still under colonial and racist exploitation. India responded to increasing demand for Indian expertise and technical know-how from independent African countries to the maximum extent within her resources. Similarly, increasing numbers of African trainees were received in India to share our experience in different fields of socio- economic development. India resorted to simplification of proce- dures for selection of candidates at short notice while ensuring that the candidates selected were highly qualified for the jobs.

India responded positively to Zambia's request for economic assistance when the borders between Zambia and Rhodesia had to be closed due to aggressive and provocative actions of Rho- desia. India expressed her readiness to offer Indian capital goods and equipment needed by Zambia on especially soft terms, and agreed to provide services of Indian experts and technicians from


her contributions to the Commonwealth Technical Assistance Fund as well as under her Technical and Economic Co-operation pro- grammes. As a token of her concern for the difficulties faced by Zambia in obtaining essential supplies, India donated drugs and medicines valued at Rs. 3.75 lakhs on an immediate basis. On the political plane she extended complete support to Zambia in the United Nations Security Council as well as outside in solving. the problem of developing alternative import-export routes due to the closure of its borders with Rhodesia. India also expressed her appreciation for Zambia's restraint in face of provocation by Rhodesia.

The problem of compensation for assets left behind by several thousands of Indians expelled from Uganda in the latter half of 1972, engaged India's utmost attention, but unfortunately there was no progress since no positive steps were taken by the Government of Uganda for payment of compensation for assets left behind. In spite of India's appeals to the Government of Uganda for humane treatment and fair and equitable compensa- tion to Indian nationals for properties and assets left behind, there was no favourable response apart from some general assurances against confiscation. President Idi Amin met the Prime Minister of India at Algiers during the Conference of Non-aligned countries held there in September 1973 and reiterated his Govern- ment's commitment to pay compensation to Indian nationals on the basis of the declaration of assets left behind. He also said that he would invite a delegation from India to discuss matters relating to compensation. The Prime Minister conveyed the deep concern of the Government of India at the great hardships imposed on the expellees and the serious humanitarian aspects of the problem. Full co-operation of the Government of India was offered to the Committee appointed in Uganda in its work of evaluation of assets of expellees. So far, India has received no invitation from Uganda as indicated by President Amin for a delegation to go there to discuss matters connected with compensation for assets left behind.


The Government of India announced assistance to the Indian expellees from Uganda in their rehabilitation and resettlement in India. The Government of India also remained in touch with the Government of U.K. with a view to helping families expelled from Uganda, which had been split, to get united in the U.K. on humanitarian grounds. The Government continued to hold the view that Asians who hold British passports are the responsi- bility of, the U.K. and that they should be allowed unrestricted and immediate entry into the U.K. While the events in Uganda naturally created a sense of uncertainty and nervousness among Indians and persons of Indian origin in other African countries, there has been no large scale exodus of such persons from African countries. The Government of India remain in touch with the African countries concerned in this matter and take the view that non-citizens who have lived in those countries for genera- tions be treated in a fair and equitable manner without discrimi- nation on the basis of race or colour. In case their business and property are taken over, they should be paid adequate compen- sation to enable them to rehabilitate themselves elsewhere.

India hailed the declaration of independence by Guinea-Bissau and accorded recognition to the Pew State on Oct 07, 1973. India has expressed her willingness to extend assistance to the new Republic for training the administrative cadres for its Government.

In pursuit of her policy to extend full political, moral and material support for the liberation movements in Portuguese colonies in Africa as well as those in white minority regimes in South Africa, the Prime Minister of India met the leaders of the liberation movements in Algiers during the Fourth Non-aligned Summit Meeting there. Some of these leaders visited India and briefed the Government of India on the developing situation there.

The Organisation for African Unity celebrated the tenth year of its existence. To mark the occasion, the Education Ministry


announced a scholarship named after late Dr. Amilcar Cabral for African nationals associated with liberation movements in Africa for study and training in India.

India condemned the large-scale massacre of innocent African men, women and children by the Portuguese colonial authorities in Mozambique. India expressed the confidence that no amount of brutality and inhumanity could succeed in keeping Mozam- bique and other Portuguese colonial territories in bondage and that the liberation struggle in these territories would redouble themselves so as to overthrow the Portuguese domination.

The Rhodesian and South African Governments continued to flout the United Nations and the international public opinion in maintaining and strengthening white minority rules. India appealed in the United Nations and other forums that all powers they should co-operate in enforcing effective sanctions against Rhodesia and South Africa. India supported the resolution in the United Nations that South Africa had no locus standi in Namibia and as the talks that the U.N. Secretary-General's representative had been conducting with South Africa had failed, they should be discontinued.

During the year several leading personalities from African countries visited India. These included Mr. S. Boolell, Minister of Agriculture and National Resource and Mr. Gaetan Duval, Foreign Minister, from Mauritius, Dr. Okoi Arikpo, Foreign Minister of Nigeria, Mr. Nguza Karl-i-Bond, Foreign Minister of Zaire, Mr. Mohd. Lamine Toure, Minister of Mines and Geology of Guinea, Chief Adam Sapi Nkwawa, Minister in the Office of President of Tanzania, and Mr. Jacques Adande, Special Envoy of the Dahomean Head of State.

The Vice-President of India, Shri G. S. Pathak, visited Tan- zania at the invitation of the first Vice-President of Tanzania, Mr. Aboud Jumbe and participated in the celebrations marking the 10th Anniversary of the Revolution in Zanzibar.


Among other Indian visitors to Africa were Shri Y. B. Chavan, Minister of Finance, who visited Kenya to participate in the IBRD/IMF meetings, Dr. Nurul Hasan, Minister of Education, and Shri A. C. George, Deputy Minister of Commerce. Matters of mutual interest were discussed during these visits and India reiterated her continuing support and co-operation in the develop- ment of countries in Africa.





Western Europe

An important evolution in Western Europe is the slow but sure movement towards greater foreign policy co-ordination in the European Community. This evolution is coming about as much from internal dynamism as from external compulsions. The United States handling of the Middle East crisis and the cease-fire, Dr. Kissinger's criticism of European policies during and after the crisis and the Arab use of oil as a political weapon were some of the external factors which led the member States of the European Community to take joint decisions. It is true that the pro-.Arab declaration of the Nine does not mean that there are no differences among them. Nevertheless it is a constructive move and also indicates that the trend towards foreign policy co-ordination is gaining strength.

An important element in the process of European detente, viz., the European Security Conference, has moved forward from the Helsinki first stage to the Geneva second stage. The Euro- pean Security Conference has come a, long way since the Bucharest Declarations of July 1966. It is hoped that the deliberations now in progress in Geneva would meet with the


success attained in Helsinki. These efforts towards peace and reconciliation in Europe are specially welcome to India as they are in accord with India's policies of peaceful co-existence and international co-operation. There is indeed greater confidence today in building a system of lasting peace on the European- continent which has witnessed two world wars in this century.

Related to the Conference on European Security are the consultations now on in Vienna for the reduction of forces and armaments in Central Europe. 19 countries are participating: 12 from NATO and 7 from the Warsaw Pact. Their declared objective is to reach agreement on measures that will contri- bute to a more stable mutual relationship and to strengthening of peace and security in Europe. It is agreed that any particular measure taken in this context will not prejudice the security of either side in any way. The nature of the talks thus makes pro- gress in them inevitably slow.

Bilateral contacts and consultations at all levels continued to be an important feature of India's relations with countries in Western Europe. These led to better mutual appreciation and understanding. Despite considerable Pakistani propaganda on the question of POWs, West European Governments saw the issue in the perspective of relations among the three countries of the sub-continent and the need for an overall settlement of the problems created by the war of December 1971. There was sympathy and support for India's earnest efforts to seek a modus vivendi with Pakistan for normalisation of relations among the countries of the sub-continent. In this context, wel- come was accorded by West European nations to the Joint Indo-Bangladesh Declaration of April 1973 and to the subse- quent Indo-Pakistan Agreement of Aug 28, 1973.

The United Kingdom

Relations with the United Kingdom remained close and friendly and contacts at the highest level continued to be main- tained. The Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, on her way


back from an official visit to Canada, made a stopover in London on 25 June 1973. She held discussions with Prime Minister Edward Heath and senior Ministers of the British Government. Later in the year, the annual bilateral consultations at the official level were held in London from 20 to 23 November 1973. The Indian delegation was led by the Secre- tary in the Ministry of External Affairs, Shri V. C. Trivedi and the U.K. delegation by its Permanent Under Secretary in the Foreign Office. These talks covered a review of the interna- tional scene, developments in the sub-continent and bilateral relations in all fields. The frank and friendly talks should help remove some of the existing irritants in Indo-British relations, particularly in regard to immigration and visitors entry into Britain. The British have agreed to look into their current pro- cedures for the grant of entry certificates with a view to rationalising them. They showed great understanding for India's economic problems, particularly in regard to her trade with the EEC and evinced interest in increasing Indo-British economic collaboration in economic and other fields.

A delegation led by Mr. David Lane, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the U.K. Home Office visited India from 12 to 16 January 1974. He was accompanied by, among others, the Chief Inspector of Immigration. The purpose of the visit was to see the working of the immigration control system in the British High Commission as well as to discuss with authorities in India questions relating to immigration into the U.K. The problem of illegal entry into Britain was also discussed with the delegation. The need to eliminate harassment to casual visitors from India and unnecessary delays in the issue of entry certificates as well as the question of distressed and divided families, including those from East Africa, were also taken up with the delegation.

Federal Republic of Germany

Relations between India and the Federal Republic of Germany continued to develop satisfactorily in the political,

pg55> economic and cultural fields. These were reviewed at the annual bilateral consultations held in Bonn on 22 and 23 May 1973. The Indian delegation was led by Secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs, Shri V. C. Trivedi and the Delegation of FRG by its State Secretary. Among other things, the two sides dis- cussed ways of further expanding mutual co-operation on the basis of the understanding which already exists in various fields.

Dr. Erhard Eppler, Minister for Economic Co-operation of the Federal Republic of Germany, paid an official visit to India from I I to 19 November 1973, as guest of the Government of India. Dr. Eppler had discussions with the Prime Minister and the Ministers of Finance, Planning, Industrial Development and Science and Technology. His talks achieved constructive results in the field of West German economic co-operation with India and transfer of technology. He indicated his Government's ap- preciation for the priorities laid down in the Fifth-Five-Year- Plan in the fields of agriculture, energy, public transportation, and in important agricultural inputs such as irrigation facilities, fertilizers and pesticides.


Mr. Andre Malraux visited India in April 1973, at the invita- tion of the Government of India. He met the President, the Prime Minister and exchanged views with the Minister of Exter- nal Affairs and other Ministers of Government on wide-ranging topics of international interest. In September, Mr. Malraux was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Under- standing for 1972. Through this award, India honoured an elder Statesman of France, a distinguished man of letters and, above all, a courageous fighter for human liberty and dignity.

The French Finance Minister M. Giscard d'Estaing paid an official visit to India from 16 to 19 November as guest of the Government of India. His talks with the Prime Minister and the Ministers of Finance, Planning and Commerce centred round general economic relationship and trade between India, France


and the EEC. He envisaged greater French participation in Indian development projects, particularly off-shore oil prospect- ing and fertilizer production.


Mr. Umit Haluk Bayulken, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey, accompanied by senior officials of the Turkish Government, paid an official visit to India from 21 to 23 August 1973. His discussions with the Minister of External Affairs revealed an identity of views on many matters of inter- national interest. The Turkish Foreign Minister expressed his Government's appreciation of the steps taken by India to bring about normalisation of relations among the countries of the sub- continent. On bilateral relations, the two Foreign Ministers agreed on the need to expand cultural and trade exchanges. The signing of a trade Agreement in September between the two countries, it is hoped, would lead to greater economic co-opera- tion and collaboration between India and Turkey.

Earlier in February 1973, the Turkish Government instituted a ban on a number of books. These included the Gita, the Upanishads and Dr. Radhakrishnan's "The Hindu View of Life". The Turkish action was apparently taken under the mistaken impression that the Indian books constituted religious propa- ganda. This misunderstanding was remedied when the correct position was explained to the Turkish Government. The Turkish Government withdrew the ban in May 1973.

At the invitation of the Turkish Government Dr. Karan Singh, the then Minister of Tourism and Civil Aviation, led a special delegation to Ankara to attend the 50th anniversary celebrations of the Turkish Republic from 28 to 31 October 1973. The delegation was received with much courtesy and warmth. To mark the anniversary, seminars were held in educational institu- tions in India on the life and achievements of Kamal Ataturk and a road in New Delhi was named after him.



At the invitation of India's Minister of External Affairs, the Foreign Minister of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Mr. Gaston Thorn, came to India on a five-day-visit from 29 April to 3 May 1973. This was the first ever visit of a Foreign Minister, of Luxembourg which is the seat of many an important institu- tion of the European Economic Community. During his stay in Delhi, Mr. Thorn held discussions with the Minister of External Affairs on matters of common interest with particular reference to India's relations with the EEC. Mr. Thorn reiterated his Government's understanding of India's trading problems with the enlarged European Economic Community.


In February 1974, Prince Don Juan Carlos and Princess Dona Sofia of Spain came on an official visit to India accompanied by the new Foreign Minister of Spain, Mr. Pedro Cortinay Mauri. The Prince and Princess are already acquainted with this country having been here before on a private visit. This is the second official visit of a Spanish dignitary to India, the first one being that of the former Foreign Minister Sr. Lopez Bravo's in 1972.

There are possibilities for increased trade between India and Spain. India has shown interest in buying ships from Spain which is the world's third largest producer of ships. The talks revealed a similarity of views on the situation in West Asia.

Scandinavian Countries

With the Scandinavian countries, India continued to develop closer co-operative relationship in the industrial, technical and technological fields. This received a fillip when, at the invitation of the Foreign Ministers of the respective countries, the Minister of External Affairs paid official visits to Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark during the period 14 June to 23 June 1973. He


held discussions on wide-ranging topics of mutual interest with his counterparts and with other senior Ministers of the Govern- ments concerned. The Minister of External Affairs a so met people from a wide spectrum of society and was deeply impress- ed by the feelings of friendship and understanding they enter- tained for India.

Relations between India and Western Europe are thus deve- loping satisfactorily on all fronts. There is good-will for India, a better appreciation of her policies aimed at bringing about stable and durable relationships in the sub-continent and a desire to co-operate in the economic and commercial fields.


The Soviet Union

The visit of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Mr. L. I. Brezhnev, to India from 26 to 30 November 1973, gave a further momentum to the successfully developing friendly and co-operative relations between India and the Soviet Union in all fields. The very warm and cordial welcome given by all sections of people to General Secretary Brezhnev on his arrival in Delhi and throughout his stay in the Capital was a spontaneous expression of the friendly feelings entertained towards the Soviet Union, a country which has given principled support to India, at all times.

General Secretary Mr. L. I. Brezhnev held extensive and wide-ranging talks with the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi. He was assisted in the talks by a high-level Soviet dele- gation including the Foreign Minister and Member of the Politbureau, Mr. A. A. Gromyko, Member of the Politbureau and First Secretary of the Kazakistan Communist Party, Mr. D. A. Kunaev, Deputy Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Planning Committee (Gosplan), Mr. N. K. Baibakov and the Chairman of the State Committee for External Economic Rela- tions, Mr. S. A. Skatchkov and other senior officials. Separate


discussions were also held by members of the Soviet delegation with their Indian counterparts: Sardar Swaran Singh, Minister of External Affairs, Shri Y. B. Chavan, Minister, of Finance, Shri D. P. Dhar, Minister of Planning, Shri Surendra Pal Singh, Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs, Shri Kewal Singh, Foreign Secretary and Shri P. N. Dhar, Secretary to the Prime Minister. Apart from the talks, there were public engage- ments, such as a Reception at the Red Fort by the citizens of Delhi and Mr. Brezhnev's Address to Members of Parliament.

The talks were held in a most cordial atmosphere of friendship and mutual understanding and there was a broad identity of views on all questions discussed. The Joint Indo-Soviet Declara- tion, which was signed by the Prime Minister and General Secre- tary Brezhnev on 29 November 1973, reflects the desire of both countries to expand and deepen their mutually advantageous co- operation in all fields.

In the Joint Declaration, General Secretary Mr. L. I. Brezhnev paid specific tribute to India's policy of non-alignment. The Indian side highly appraised the foreign policy of the Soviet Union which is aimed at consolidating international peace. The Joint Declaration took note of the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Co-operation concluded in August 1971, as a contributing factor for the further expansion of co-operation between the two countries in the political, economic, scientific, technological, cultural and other fields. The Soviet support for India's position and initiatives for normalisation of relations in the Indian sub-continent, in accordance with the Simla Agree- ment between India and Pakistan, was also reiterated. There was a broad identity of views on all questions discussed.

The other documents signed. during General Secretary Mr L. I. Brezhnev's visit were:

(i) An agreement on the further development of Economic and Trade Co-operation;


(ii) An Agreement on Co-operation between the Planning Commission of India and the State Planning Committee of the USSR; and

(iii) A Consular Convention.

Under the 15-Year Economic and Trade Co-operation Agree- ment which specifies areas of Soviet assistance in India's pro- grammes of industrialisation, the USSR will extend further co- operation in the fields of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy; oil prospecting and refining; heavy engineering; power generation; petro-chemical industry; ship-building and other branches of industry; agriculture and in the training of personnel.

In this context, the capacities of existing Soviet-assisted plants will be expanded and the Soviet Union will also assist in the setting up of new plants. Specific examples mentioned both in the Agreement on Economic and Trade Co-operation and in the Joint Declaration are the expansion of the Bhilai and Bokaro steel plants to an annual capacity of 7 and 10 million tons respectively; the construction of the Mathura Oil Refinery with an annual capacity of 6 million tons; the setting-up of a copper-mining complex at Malanjkhand; and the realisation of the Calcutta underground railway project.

The Soviet Union has also undertaken to extend fresh credits to India and has expressed her readiness to streamline and im- prove the existing credit relations between the two countries.

India and the USSR have further aimed at doubling. their bilateral trade turn-over by 1980. (The trade turn-over during 1973, was Rs. 410 crores). To achieve this objective, the two countries have agreed to create additional capacities in their res- pective countries to meet the long-term requirements of the other, taking into account specialisation and co-operation in the manu- facture of individual industrial products.


The very useful visit of General Secretary Brezhnev's greatly reinforced the existing bonds of friendship, understanding and co- operation between India and the Soviet Union. This friendship, based on the principles of peaceful co-existence, is not directed against any country, and is an important factor in promoting world peace and international amity.

After General Secretary Brezhnev's return to Moscow, the Politbureau ofthe CPSU Central Committee, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the USSR Council of Ministers jointly passed a Resolution which highly assessed the results of General Secretary Mr. L. I. Brezhnev's visit to India as having "raised to a higher level" the relations between the two countries.

Other high level exchange of visits between India and the Soviet Union, included the visit of the Minister of Defence Shri Jagjivan Ram to the USSR in July 1973, at the invitation of the Soviet Minister of Defence, Mr. A. Grechko. Shri Jagjivan Ram also had discussions with Chairman Kosygin. The President of the Indian National Congress, Dr. S. D. Sharma visited the USSR from 1 to 9 July 1973 and was received by General Secretary Mr. L. I. Brezhnev.

The Agreement for the supply of 2 million tons of wheat, on a loan basis, by the Soviet Union concluded on 2 October 1973, was warmly appreciated by the Government and people of India. The augmentation of food supplies was most timely, in the context of the severe drought suffered by India in the past year and the steep rise in the world price of foodgrains. The loan is interest-free and repayable over a 5-year period commencing from 1976. This friendly Soviet assistance is a reflection of the USSR's continuing interest in co-operation with India to the mutual benefit of both countries.

India followed with interest and sympathy the Soviet Union's initiatives aimed at relaxation of tensions and pro- motion of international detente based on the principles of


peaceful co-existence between States. The visit of General Secretary Mr. L. I. Brezhnev to the USA in June 1973 and the conclusion of far-reaching agreements between the USSR and the USA have been welcomed by India in the context of con-. solidation of world peace. The Government of India hope that the development of detente between the major powers would not adversely affect in any way the interests of third coun- tries. General Secretary Mr. L. I. Brezhnev's visit to Bonn in May 1973 and to Paris in June 1973, have also been welcomed as a positive possible contribution towards the process of streng- thening of European peace and security.

In his address to the Members of Parliament on 29 Novem- ber 1973, General Secretary Mr. L. I. Brezhnev stressed "the long-standing historical traditions of peaceful good-neighbourly relations between India and the Soviet Union". He declared: "The Soviet Union attaches great importance to the strengthen- ing of friendship and to the all-round development of its relations with India ...... Our countries are also drawn together by the profoundly peace-loving nature of their foreign policies. The con- solidation of Soviet-Indian friendship is today acquiring primary importance both from the standpoint of the national interests of the two countries and from the standpoint of strengthening peace and invigorating the international situation on the whole of our planet".

In the same address, General Secretary Mr. L. I. Brezhnev referred to the "growing interest in the idea of safeguarding of security in Asia through collective efforts". He declared :

"This is why it seems opportune to hold a thorough and comprehensive discussion on the idea of collective se- curity in Asia which would help trace a common approach, acceptable to all the States concerned, to the problems of peace and security in the continent. In a word, we are calling for an active, broad and construc- tive discussion which would help to bring about a


deeper understanding of the urgent talks. The oppor- tunity has arrived and the present situation in Asia has created adequate prerequisites. Asia can and must become a continent of peace, friendship and co-operation. This goal is worth the efforts and the struggle".

The position of the Government of India on this subject has been made clear on a number of occasions. Speaking in the Lok Sabha on 21 December 1973, the Minister of External Affairs, Sardar Swaran Singh, stated :-

"The-emergence of Asia as an area of peace and tranquillity as a result of relaxation of tension is a desirable objec- tive. However, we have to keep in view the situation as it prevails in Asia and the political complexity in the Continent of Asia . . . .

"Our own thinking is that an adherence to such principles as renunciation of the use of force, peaceful co-existence, respect for sovereignty of all countries, non-interference in internal affairs and broad development of economic and other co-operation on the basis of equality and mutual benefit will assist such a process . . . .

"It is Government of India's belief that an atmosphere of friendship and peace can prevail not by means of military blocs; nor by any system of grouping of coun- tries directed against any other country or group of countries, but through goodwill and co-operation. More intensive co-operation in the economic field, in the first instance, would help in strengthening mutuality of inte- rests amongst countries of the region".


The close ties of friendship and co-operation between India and Czechoslovakia were further strengthened during the year


President V. V. Giri paid an official visit to Czechoslovakia from 6 to 10 October 1973, at the invitation of President Ludvic Svoboda of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. In the course of his visit, the President had a very useful exchange of views on bilateral and international issues with Czechoslovak leaders. The warm reception accorded to the President in Czechoslovakia testi- fied once more to the deep mutual sympathy and understanding between the two countries.

The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, Dr. Gustav Husak paid a visit to India from 3 to 9 December 1973. The joint Indo-Czechoslovak Declarations signed at the end of the visit, paid tribute to India's peaceful foreign policy based on non-alignment and the principles of peaceful co-existence. The Czechoslovak side also expressed its appreciation of India's untiring efforts in seeking to achieve durable peace on the Indian sub-continent. India reiterated her appreciation of the constructive role played by Czechoslovakia in promoting peaceful and co-operative relations amongst the States of the European Continent.

During Dr. Husak's visit, the third Economic Co-operation Agreement was signed between the two countries on 5 December 1973. Czechoslovakia has agreed to provide fresh credits of the value of Rs. 800 million on more favourable terms than the previous Czechoslovak credits. Under the Agreement, Czechoslo- vakia has undertaken to continue her assistance in the strengthening of India's industrial base, especially in the fields of power generation, electrification of railways, engineering industries and fertilizer production. The bilateral trade turn-over is also planned to be increased to Rs. 1,500 million in 1974, as compared to Rs. 800 million in 1973.

Among the other high-level exchanges of visits were the visit by the Minister of External Affairs, Sardar Swaran Singh, to Czechoslovakia from 29 May to 1 June 1973, at the invitation of

pg65> the Czechoslovak Foreign Minister, Mr. Bohuslav Chnoupak. The Minister of External Affairs had meetings and talks with the loading political personalities in Czechoslovakia including Dr. Gustav Husak, President Svoboda and Dr. Lubomir Strougal. An Indo-Czechoslovak Agreement on Scientific, Technical and Industrial Co-operation was signed during the visit.


The ties of co-operation and mutual understanding between India and Poland were further strengthened during 1973-74. The visit of the Polish Minister of Shipping Mr. Jarzy Szopa to India, from 29 March to 6 April 1973, has led to further Indo-Polish Co-operation in the sphere of Ship-building and Fisheries Develop- ment. As a result of Mr. Szopa's discussions with the Indian Minister for Planning and the Minister for Shipping and Transport, an Indo-Polish Agreement on Co-operation on Marine Fisheries was concluded between the two Governments on 6 April 1973.

The Polish Minister for Internal Trade, Mr. Edward Sznajder visited India from 1 to 5 April 1973, to head the Polish Delegation to the Meeting, of the Indo-Polish Committee on Trade Exchanges. At the meeting, both sides noted with satisfaction the progress made in the expansion of trade relations between the two coun- tries and expressed their determination to implement the long- term trade protocol for 1973-75 which was concluded in January 1973, during the visit of the Prime Minister of Poland to India. The Indo-Polish trade turn-over has increased from Rs. 4 million in 1953 to Rs. 747 million in 1972. The first meeting of the Indo- Polish Joint Commission which was held in Warsaw from 2 to- 8 November 1973, marked an important mile-stone in the develop- ment of economic co-operation between the two countries. The Indian Delegation was headed by the Minister for Steel and Heavy Industries, Shri T. A. Pai, while the Polish side was headed by the Polish Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. J. Mitrega.


The Polish Government and Press welcomed the Indo- Pakistan Agreement concluded in Delhi on 28 August 1973, as a concrete steps in the normalisation of relations on the Indian sub- continent.

German Democratic Republic

With the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and GDR at Embassy level in October 1972, the close and friendly co-operation between the two countries has been growing con- sistently in all fields. The GDR welcomed the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Declaration of 17 April 1973 and the Indo-Pakistan Agree- ment of 28 August 1973. She also extended consistent support to India's efforts to achieve speedy normalisation in the Indian sub- continent.

A delegation led by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the GDR, Mr. Willi Stoph, visited New Delhi on 19 and 20 March 1973, on its return journey from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Discussions were held on matters of mutual interest between Mr. Willi Stoph and the Prime Minister.

The Minister of External Affairs Sardar Swaran Singh paid an official visit to GDR from 25 to 29 May 1973. During his stay he was received by the First Secretary Mr. Willi Stoph and also called on the Acting Chairman of the Council of Ministers Mr. Horst Sindermann, besides having detailed talks with the GDR Foreign Minister, Mr. Otto Winzer.

The Deputy Premier and the Chairman of the State Planning Commission Mr. Gerhard Schuerer led a fourteen-member dele- gation on an official visit to India from 7 to 17 October 1973, at the invitation of the Minister of Planning Shri D. P. Dhar. A Protocol for long-term co-operation envisaging trade expansion and technological co-operation was signed during the visit.



The cordial relations already existing With Rumania were further strengthened during the year. Rumania had welcomed the Indo-Pakistan Agreement of 28 August 1973, as a positive step towards normalisation of the situation in the Indian sub-continent.

A nine-member Indian Parliamentary Delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shri G. S. Dhillon, visited Rumania from 24 to 30 May 1973.

The Minister of Planning, Shri D. P. Dhar paid a 4-day visit to Rumania from 2 to 6 July 1973 and held discussions with the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Rumania and the Chairman of the Planning Commission Mr. Manean Manescu. It was decided to increase co-operation between the Planning bodies of the two countries. Agreement was also reached to speedily set up an inter-government Joint Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Co-operation.

An Indian Trade Delegation visited Rumania from 16 to 22 October and negotiated a new Trade Protocol. A decision was arrived at to increase the volume of the trade between the two countries.

President V. V. Giri paid a State visit to Rumania from 3 to 6 October 1973, on the invitation of President Ceausescu. He was accorded an enthusiastic welcome by the people and Government of Rumania.

Mr. Manean Manescu, Deputy Prime Minister of Rumania and Chairman of the State Planning Commission, paid a visit to India from 9 to 15 January 1974.

During the visit, letters were exchanged for the setting up of a Joint Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Co- operation between India and Rumania. An agreement for estab- lishing a Study Group of Experts for promoting co-operation


between the Planning Bodies of the two countries was also signed. The Rumanian Government has expressed interest to co-operate with India in the field of oil exploration and processing.


Yugoslavia extended consistent support to India's efforts aimed at achieving durable peace in the sub-continent. Yugoslavia also welcomed the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Declaration of 17 April 1973 and the Indo-Pakistan Agreement of 28 August 1973.

At the Algiers Summit of non-aligned countries, Yugoslavia and India maintained close contact with other participating coun- tries on major items which came up during discussions.

President Tito's visit to India from 24 to 29 January 1974, to, personally receive the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding was an expression of the strong links which exist between India and Yugoslavia. The Award itself was a token of the great admiration in which President Tito is held in India and of his outstanding contribution to the cause of the Non- alignment Movement and to world peace and international co- operation. President Tito and Madame Jovanda Broz were honoured guests during the Republic Day celebrations.

The talks between the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, and President Tito revealed a close identity of views on all bilateral questions as well as the international problems discussed In the bilateral field, India and Yugoslavia have agreed to further expand and intensify the economic co-operation and to explore the possibilities of setting up joint ventures in the two countries as well as in third countries.

In the international field, India and Yugoslavia, as founder members of the Non-aligned Movement, subscribe to similar policies. Both sides called for a meeting of Non-aligned countries at an appropriate level, for the concrete implementation of the


decisions taken at the Non-aligned Summit in Algiers in Sep- tember 1973. In the prevailing complex international situation and the economic crisis which faces the world community, it was considered all the more necessary for the Non-aligned Developing countries to strengthen their economic co-operation and to help each other in achieving economic emancipation.

Indo-Yugoslav relations continued to be cordial and friendly and the following high level exchange of visits took place during the year :

(i) The Yugoslav Prime Minister Mr. Dzemal Bijedic paid an official visit to India from 5 to 9 March 1973.

(ii) Prime Minister Shrimati Indira Gandhi visited Yugoslavia from 15 to 17 June 1973, at the invitation of President Tito and Prime Minister, Mr. Dzemal Bijedic. She was accorded a warm and friendly welcome by the Govern- ment and people of Yugoslavia.

(iii) Mr. Veljko Milatovic, President of the Socialist Alliance of Yugoslavia visited India in December 73.

(iv) Bilateral talks were held between the representatives of the Foreign Offices of the two countries from 17 to 20 December 1973. The Indian delegation was led by Foreign Secretary, Shri Kewal Singh and the Yugoslav delegation by their Deputy Federal Secretary.

An Indian Trade and Economic Delegation led by Shri A. C. George, Deputy Minister of Commerce visited Yugoslavia in April 1973. Discussions were held during this visit with the aim to ensure that there was no decrease in the volume of the trade between the two countries as a result of the changeover to a convertible currency payments system in bilateral trade.



There was a continuous strengthening of relations with Bulgaria in all fields-political, economic and cultural. Bulgaria showed full understanding and appreciation of India's position on various international issues, particularly those pertaining to the sub-continent. Accordingly, Bulgaria welcomed the Indo-Bangla- desh Joint Declaration of 17 April 1973 and the Indo-Pakistan Agreement of 28 August 1973.

India participated this year also in the 29th International Trade Fair in Plovdiv. Orders were placed by Bulgarian firms for a number of non-traditional items from India. Furthermore, as a result of the visit of Minister Shri C. Subramaniam, to Bulgaria in June 1973, a useful beginning has been made in industrial and scientific co-operation between the two countries. In pursuance of the understanding reached at that time, a delegation of 5 Indian experts of the Directorate-General of Technical Development visited Bulgaria from 5 to 14 September to examine possible new fields of Indo-Bulgarian industrial and technical co-operation.


Indo-Hungarian relations continued to be very friendly in all fields. An Indian Parliamentary Delegation led by Shri G. S. Dhillon, Speaker of the Lok Sabha and including Shri Om Mehta, Minister for Works and Housing and Parliamentary Affairs visited Hungary from 30 May to 5 June 1973. The Minister of Com- merce Prof. D. P. Chattopadhyaya visited Hungary from 14 to 19 June 1973, to preside over a conference of the Indian Commer- cial Representatives in East Europe. Prof. Chattopadhyaya availed of that opportunity to discuss matters of mutual interest with his Hungarian counterpart.

Prof. Nurul Hasan, Minister of Education, visited Budapest from 8 to 12 October 1973.

A Hungarian Trade Delegation led by Dr. Bala Szalai, Deputy Minister of Foreign Trade visited India from 8 to 14


December 1973, and concluded a Trade Protocol for 1974, envi- saging a total trade turn-over of Rs. 775 million. There has been a steady progress in India's trade with Hungary.

On the cultural side there has been exchange of scholars and delegations between the two countries. A new cultural agreement providing for further expansion in cultural exchanges was signed in October 1973 in Budapest.

Agreement was reached, through exchange of letters in Budapest on 19 December 1973, for the setting up of the Indo- Hungarian Joint Commission for Scientific and Technical Co- operation.


The Americas



The United States of America

The relations between India and the United States of America showed a steady improvement. Apart from public reaffirmation of the desire for good relations, both countries made conscious efforts to improve them. In October 1973, the Minister of External Affairs met the Secretary of State, Dr. Henry Kissinger in Washington and held wide-ranging discussions on matters of mutual interest. The Foreign Secretary, Shri Kewal Singh, also visited Washington in November and exchanged views with U.S. officials. In April 1973, U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Mr. Kenneth Rush and Assistant Secretary of State Mr. Joseph Sisco visited New Delhi and met the Prime Minister, Minister of Exter- nal Affairs and Finance Minister. Earlier in the year, the United States Government appointed a distinguished American and an eminent scholar Mr. Daniel P. Moynihan as their Ambassador in New Delhi. The former Foreign Secretary, Shri T. N. Kaul, took over as India's Ambassador in Washington in May 1973. Throughout this period the two Governments also maintained a regular dialogue on important issues. As the Minister of External Affairs recently stated in Parliament, Indo-U.S. relations have now


entered a phase where a constructive, co-operative and mature relationship can be built up between the two countries.

A positive sign of the improvement of Indo-U.S. relations was the decision of the two Governments to enter into discussions to resolve the outstanding problem of United States-owned rupees in India. These negotiations were successfully concluded and an agreement initialled in New Delhi on Dec 13, 1973. The Government of India expressed satisfaction on this development. A formal agreement between India and the United States on the question of PL-480 rupees was signed in New Delhi on 18 Feb- ruary 1974.

In the economic field, there were some readjustments in Indo- U.S. relations. After mutual consultations it was decided to wind up the U.S. Technical assistance programme in India with effect from 30 June 1973. In line with the Government's decision not to avail of concessional food imports under P.L. 480, India made cash payment for substantial quantities of foodgrains pur- chased in the United States in 1972. It was recognised that the past pattern of donor-recipient relationship must be replaced by a more mature economic relation involving greater trade and commercial exchanges. There should be easier accessibility for Indian exports to the American market. At the same time, the Government of India welcomed economic co-operation with the United States on the basis of mutual respect and mutual benefit.

Cultural contacts between India and the United States which have never been affected by political differences between the two countries remained at a normal level. A large number of Indian and American students, scholars, scientists, journalists and others visited the United States and India respectively. Among the several distinguished American visitors to India were Senators William Saxbe, Charles Percy, former Senator John Sherman Cooper and Governor John West of South Carolina. In January 1974, an academic summit of Indian and American scholars jointly sponsored by the University Grants Commission and the American Board of Foreign Scholarships was held in New Delhi


to exchange ideas in the major fields of knowledge and to seek new areas for possible collaboration. A "Pugwash Conference" of Indian and American scientists and engineers took place in Hyderabad from 9 to 12 January 1974, under the Chairmanship of Prof. M. G. K. Menon, Secretary, Department of Electronics.

Although there is no conflict of interest between India and the United States, the relations between the two countries had some times been affected by differences over attitudes towards third countries. There was, however, some indication of a change in the U.S. approach towards the sub-continent. The United States recognised that the problems of the region must be resolved through peaceful bilateral discussions by the countries concerned and that no outside power can provide the solution required. It was also appreciated that there can be no arms parity between India and Pakistan as the strategic and security problems of the two countries were different and not comparable. The Govern- ment of India have noted that Secretary of State Kissinger, in his testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in September 1973, recognised India's role as of special importance in the developing world whose growth and stability was essential for peace and stability in South Asia.

India has consistently emphasised that supply of U.S. arms to Pakistan, whether directly or indirectly, will impede the process of normalisation in the sub-continent and will endanger the establishment of durable peace in this region. It is hoped that keeping in view the improvement of the situation in the sub- continent the U.S. Government will not take any steps which may adversely affect this-process or endanger stability in the region.


Indo-Canadian relations were further strengthened with the visit of the Prime Minister to Canada in June 1973. The Prime Minister was given a Warm and cordial welcome by the Canadian Govern- ment and people. The visit had some important results. The


goodwill trip took her to several cities of Canada from east to west. It served to renew contacts with Canadian leaders at diffe- rent levels and of different shades of opinion. This aspect was highlighted by such public events as the Prime Minister's address to the joint session of the Canadian Parliament, speech before the Empire Club of Canada at Toronto, meetings with leading intel- lectuals in Ottawa and Montreal and discussions with Canadian business leaders in Vancouver. The visit also provided an oppor- tunity for the two countries to discuss their bilateral relations at the highest level. It was decided that officials of the two sides would meet in New Delhi to review relations in economic, cul- tural, scientific, technical and commercial spheres.

In pursuance of the decision of the two Prime Ministers, senior officials of the two governments had detailed and fruitful consultations from 5 to 9 November 1973. The Canadian Delega- tion was led by Mr. R. E. Collins, Assistant Under Secretary of State, Department of External Affairs, and the Indian Delegation was headed by Shri B. K. Sanyal, Additional Secretary (ED), Ministry of External Affairs. The detailed talks covered such ques- tions as Canadian development assistance to India, trade between the two countries, joint ventures in India, Canada and third countries, food, civil aviation and tourism, cultural relations and co-operation in the fields of science, technology and environment.

The leader of the Canadian Delegation assured the Indian side that Canada would continue to offer assistance to India in her strides towards development of her domestic capabilities and alleviation of poverty. Both sides underlined the importance of increasing trade between the two countries and expressed the hope that trade will continue to grow and will ultimately replace aid.

South America

A major event took place in Latin America where the demo- cratically-elected socialist Government of President Salvador Allende was overthrown by the Chilean armed forces on 11 September 1973. Speaking in the U.N. General Assembly on 2


October 1973, the Minister of External Affairs expressed the views of the Government of India in the following terms:

"We deeply mourn the death of Dr. Allende in such violent and tragic circumstances. I do not intend commenting on the developments in a sovereign State. In the wider context. however, I must express profound regret and concern over the setback that the democratic tradition of the people of Chile has suffered as a result of his overthrow, and over the violence, bloodshed and depri- vation of human rights and infringement of diplomatic obligations which have recently been reported from that country. We earnestly hope that peace and harmony will be restored soon so that the people of Chile can resume their work of national reconstruction and recon- ciliation without any outside intervention and without further violence."

India's relations with countries in South America are develop- ing satisfactorily. In pursuance of a policy to widen contacts with this region, two more Missions, namely those in Peru and Cuba, were upgraded to the level of resident Ambassadors.

High level contacts between India and Latin American countries were maintained. In October 1973, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Dr. G. S., Dhillon, represented the Government of India at the installation of President Juan D. Peron of Argentina. He also, visited several other capitals in Latin America and met important leaders in the government and public life.


United Nations And International Conferences



A significant landmark in the series of recent International Conferences was the Fourth Non-aligned Summit Conference in Algiers in September 1973. At the 28th United Nations General Assembly which followed the Summit Conference, an event of great significance was the admission of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic as members. One of the new items of interest on the agenda of the U.N. General Assembly was the proposal for the reduction of the military budgets of States Permanent Members of the Security Council by 10 per cent. Among the important decisions adopted by the Assembly were one to hold a special World Food Conference in 1974 at Rome and a special session of the General Assembly in 1975, to consider problems relating to development.

The explosive situation in West Asia erupted into open hostili- ties in October and was a matter of grave pre-occupation and concern in the Security Council. The 28th Session of the General Assembly has recessed, instead of adjourning, thus permitting its reconvening, if necessary, to consider the West Asia problem on its agenda. As before, non-aligned countries co-operated closely and consulted frequently on various important issues, both tradi- tional and new, at the U.N. in general and in the Security Council and the General Assembly in particular.


The Fourth Summit Conference of Non-aligned countries was held at Algiers from Sep 05, 1973 to 9 September 1973. This was in accor- dance with a decision taken at the Conference of Foreign Minis- ters of Non-aligned Countries in Georgetown (Guyana) in August 1972, to hold the Fourth Summit Conference just before the 28th U.N. General Assembly. The Summit was preceded by a Foreign Ministers' meeting from 2 to 4 September 1973, as well as meet- ings of the Preparatory Committee in Kabul and Algiers. In this, the biggest ever gathering of Heads of State or Government to- date, there were 75 full participants, in addition to 24 'observers' and 7 'guests'. Among the new members admitted were Bangla- desh, Bhutan, Oman and Qatar from Asia and Malta from Europe. Latin American representation was strengthened by full member- ship for Argentina and Peru and observer status for Panama. Three European countries-Austria, Finland and Sweden-were among those who attended as guests.

The Indian delegation to the Summit was led by the Prime Minister. Indian views, as in previous Non-aligned Conferences, received careful consideration. The unanimous election of the Minister of External Affairs of India, Sardar Swaran Singh, as, Chairman of the Political Committee of the Conference was received with satisfaction by all. This also enabled India to play even more effectively its customary role in the resolution of the many important issues before the Conference. Foreign Secretary., Shri Kewal Singh, was Chairman of the Drafting Committee.

The Fourth Summit Conference, as compared to such previous conferences, was characterised by a deeper realisation among the participants of the need for concerted action and of their own ability to make a contribution to the world political and economic scene. There was a greater feeling of confidence and the will to implement what was desired rather than merely to discuss and, consider issues. This was particularly so in respect of economic. issues.

Among the significant features of the Conference was a clear consensus on the evaluation of detente, and the validity of non- alignment in the present international context. There was a


recognition of the need for non-aligned countries to safeguard their independence of action and their determination to ensure that international decisions affecting them are not made without their equal participation. There was also an emphasis on the urgent need for non-aligned countries to consolidate their economic independence and to work for collective self-reliance through mutual co-operation, in accordance with the specific objectives and lines of action which was spelt out in the Conference docu- ments.

The main documents adopted by the Conference were a general Political Declaration, an Economic Declaration and an Action Programme for Economic Co-operation. In addition, a number of resolutions on specific political and economic subjects were adopted. It was also decided that the next Summit Conference of Non-aligned Countries would be held in Colombo in 1976.

During her second and final year of membership of the Security Council, India continued her active participation and made a useful contribution to the resolution of several important issues which were deliberated in the Council during the year.

When the complaint of Zambia against serious acts of aggres- sion by Southern Rhodesia was considered by the Security Council, the Indian representative drew attention to the presence of South African forces in Southern Rhodesia and demanded their remo- val. India co-sponsored Resolutions leading to the despatch of a Special Mission to Zambia with a view to assessing the needs of Zambia in maintaining alternative systems of road, rail, air and sea communication for the normal flow of traffic.

At the Special Session of the Security Council held in Panama City for "consideration of measures for the maintenance and strengthening of international peace in Latin America in confor- mity with the provisions and principles of the Charter" India supported a resolution which was adopted, expressing concern at the existence and use of coercive measures which affected the free exercise by Latin American countries of permanent sovereignty over their natural resources.


In June 1973, in a comprehensive review of, the situation in West Asia, the Security Council considered a report by the Secretary-General, detailing the efforts made by the United Nations to solve the Middle-East crisis. Speaking in the Security Council on 14 June 1973, the Indian Permanent Representative termed the report of the Secretary-General as excellent, clear and astute and praised the efforts of Ambassador Jarring. He added, however, that Israel's refusal to implement resolution 242(1967) made the call for negotiations to the Arabs a call for surrender.

Later in the year, with the outbreak of war in West Asia, the Security Council met 10 times between 8 and 27 October 1973, to consider the situation. Four resolutions were adopted, in each case by 14 votes in favour to none against and China not parti- cipating in the vote. The non-aligned countries members of the Security Council, including India, played a vital role in the various decisions adopted by the Council on the question.

On 22 October 1973, the Security Council adopted Resolution 338, co-sponsored by the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., calling for an immediate cease-fire in the positions occupied by the parties concerned at the time of the adoption of the Resolution. It also called upon the parties concerned to start, immediately after the cease-fire, the implementation of Security Council Resolution 242 (1967) in all its parts. It further decided that, immediately and concurrently with the cease-fire, negotiations should start between the parties concerned under proper auspices aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East.

On 23 October 1973, the Security Council adopted Resolution 339, also sponsored by the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R., reiterating its previous Resolution, and requesting the Secretary-General to immediately despatch U.N. observers to supervise the cease-fire.

The fighting continued, and on 25 October 1973, the Security Council adopted Resolution 340, sponsored by non-aligned countries members of the Council (Guinea, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Panama, Peru, Sudan and Yugoslavia). This Resolution


demanded an observance of immediate and complete cease-fire and withdrawal to positions occupied on 22 October 1973. It also decided to set up immediately under its authority a U.N. Emer- gency Force, to be composed of personnel drawn from U.N. Member States except the Permanent Members of the Security Council.

The UNEF is to have a total strength of 7,000, composed of contingents from countries selected in consultation with the Security Council and the parties concerned, bearing in mind the accepted principles of equitable geographical representation. It has been established for an initial period of six months. Austria, Finland, Ireland, Peru, Sweden, Ghana, Panama, Indonesia, Nepal, Kenya and Senegal are to provide contingents. In addition, Canada and Poland are providing personnel for logistic support. The cost of the UNEF will be shared among the members of the U.N., including India.

A Peace Conference on the Middle East was convened in Geneva on 21 December 1973. Resolution 344 adopted by the Security Council on 15 December 1973, noted that the Peace Conference was to begin under the auspices of the United Nations, and expressed its confidence that the Secretary-General would play a full and effective role and preside over its proceedings, if the parties so desire. It requested the Secretary-General to keep the Council suitably informed of the developments at the Peace Con- ference to enable it to review the problems on a continuing basis. China did not participate in the vote on the resolution, and the remaining Permanent Members abstained.

As in the Security Council, the non-aligned countries also held continuing consultations among themselves during the 28th U.N. General Assembly with a view to co-operation and co-ordination on important agenda items. The decisions taken at Algiers pro- vided direction and impetus to a number of decisions adopted by the U.N. General Assembly.

Among the important items considered by the General Assembly was the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. At


its last session in 1972, an ad hoc committee had been appointed to study the implications of the proposal with special reference to the practical measures that may be taken in furtherance of the objective. The General Assembly had before it the report of the 15-member ad hoc committee, which includes India. The resolu- tion adopted by the 28th U.N. General Assembly urged all States and especially the major powers to extend their co-operation to the ad hoc committee in the discharge of its functions. It also requested the Secretary-General to prepare a factual statement of the military presence of the Great Powers in the Indian Ocean with special reference to their naval deployments conceived in the context of Great Powers rivalry. As on earlier occasions, the resolution was co-sponsored by a number of countries including India. While it was adopted by a large number of affirmative votes with none against, 4 of the permanent members of the Secu- rity Council-France, the U.K., the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R.- continued their abstention on the resolution.

A useful debate was held in the Political Committee of the U.N. General Assembly on the implementation of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, culminating in a resolution which was co-sponsored by a number of non-aligned countries including India. The resolution reaffirmed, inter alia that all States have the right to participate on the basis of equality in the settlement of major international problems. It also appealed to all militarily significant States to exert efforts in order to extend the political detente so far achieved to military detente with a view to making available additional resources for economic and social development, particularly to the developing countries. The General Assembly also decided to include the item on Inter- national Security in the provisional agenda of its 29th Session.

The discussion in the Political Committee of the General Assembly in regard to Korea was concluded by a statement from the Chair. The statement noted with satisfaction the Joint Com- munique issued by North and South Korea in July 1972 and expressed the hope that North and South Korea would continue the dialogue so as to expedite independent, peaceful re-unification.

pg83> A decision for the dissolution of the United Nations Commission for the Unification and, Rehabilitation of Korea was also an- nounced.

The debate in the U.N. General Assembly on the "restoration of the lawful rights of the Royal Government of National Union of Cambodia in the United Nations" ended with a decision to postpone discussion of the question. India abstained on this procedural motion. Later in the session, India voted in favour of a proposal not to accept the credentials of the Khmer delegation. This proposal was however not approved by the Assembly.

The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic were admitted as members during the session. Bahamas which gained independence during the year, also became a mem- ber.

As before, India participated actively in the deliberations of the U.N. General Assembly on items pertaining to colonialism and apartheid, in accordance with its well-known stand in such matters. India continued to be a member of the U.N. Special Committee on Decolonization (Committee of 24), the Special Committee on Apartheid (the Indian representative is the rap- porteur of this Committee), and the Council for Namibia and was actively associated with the various decisions taken on these matters by the 28th U.N. General Assembly.

The General Assembly debated a new item during its 28th session entitled: "Illegal occupation by Portuguese military forces of certain sectors of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau and acts of aggression committed by them against the people of the Republic." India, which had earlier accorded recognition to the new Republic, co-sponsored and voted in favour of the resolution adopted by the General Assembly on the item. The resolution strongly condemned the policies of the Government of Portugal in per- petuating its illegal occupation of certain sectors of the Republic, and drew the attention of the Security Council to the critical situation resulting. from the illegal presence of the Portuguese in Guinea-Bissau.


in a related but separate move the General Assembly, while approving the credentials of the representatives of Portugal, made it clear that "they represent Portugal as it exists within its frontiers in Europe and that they do not represent the Portuguese dominated, territories of Angola and Mozambique nor could represent Guinea-Bissau, which is an independent State." As in previous years, General Assembly also decided to reject the credentials of the representative of South Africa. The President of the Assembly said that this was tantamount to a vehement condemna- tion of the policy of the Government of South Africa, but it did not affect the rights and privileges of South Africa as a member of the U.N.

India was elected to the membership of the Economic and Social Council, which now stands enlarged from 27 to 54, with effect from 1 January 1974. India's two-year term as a non- permanent member of the Security Council came to a close on 31 December 1973.

The General Assembly Session in 1973 proved particularly fruitful in regard to economic matters. In addition to its normal agenda, the Economic Committee of the U.N. General Assembly was also engaged in the first biennial review and appraisal of the International Development Strategy. India played an important role in the deliberations on this important item, and she chaired the working party appointed for the purpose.

Besides discussion on traditional items in the economic field, a significant development was the General Assembly's decision to hold a World Food Conference in 1974. The Non-aligned Summit had called for such a meeting and the United States had also- made a similar proposal. Other decisions taken included the holding of a special session of the General Assembly in 1975, to be devoted to development problems. (This had been recommend- ed by the Algiers Summit). The resolution on Economic Co-opera- tion amongst Developing Countries adopted at the session, constitutes an endorsement by the U.N. General Assembly of the


Action Programme for Economic Co-operation adopted at the Non-aligned Summit Conference in Algiers. Among other impor- tant decisions were the one to establish an International Univer- sity, and the setting up of a revolving fund for Natural Resources Exploration. All these decisions were strongly supported by India.

Earlier in the year, the 3rd Session of the U.N. Committee on Natural Resources was held in New Delhi in February 1973, and was hosted by the Government of India. The Session was addressed by among others, the Minister of External Affairs, Sardar Swaran Singh, and the U.N. Secretary-General, Dr. Kurt Waldheim. The leader of the Indian delegation, the then Minister of Irrigation & Power, Dr. K. L. Rao, was elected Chairman of the Session. The meeting considered impor- tant issues in the field of Natural Resources exploration and exploitation such as projection in natural resources reserves, supply and future demand, a U.N. Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploration, the proposed U.N. Water Conference in Argentina in 1977, the principle of permanent sovereignty of countries over their natural resources, technical and economic aspects of international river-basin development, new technolo- gies in energy etc.

The United Nations Committee on Science and Technology for development, a Standing Committee of the U.N. Econo- mic and Social Council, held its first session in New York in March 1973. The Government of India attach particular importance to the work of this Committee. Important decisions were taken by the Committee on a variety of subjects such as a World Plan of Action for the Application of Science and Technology to Development, protein malnutrition and the application of computer technology.

India participated in the 1st Session of the Governing Council of the U.N. Environment Programme held in Geneva in June 1973. This Session, among other things, discussed and


evolved a list of priority areas for action in the environment field by the UNEP. Following the important role she had played at the Stockholm Conference in 1972, India participated actively at this session.

In pursuance of the resolution adopted by ECOSOC a Group of 20 eminent persons was appointed by the Secretary- General to study the role of multinational corporations and their impact on development, specially on developing countries, and to submit recommendations for appropriate international action. Shri L. K. Jha of India has been elected Chairman of the group which has held meetings in New York and Geneva and is expected to finalise its work before the middle of 1974.

Shri C. P. Srivastava, Chairman and Managing Director of the Shipping Corporation of India, was elected Secretary- General of the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (a Specialised Agency of the U.N.). In the elections held during the 54th Session of the U.N. Economic and Social Council, India was elected to the U.N. Population Commission, the Human Rights Commission and the International Narcotics Control Board.

The Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) held two sessions in Geneva, the first from 20 February to 26 April 1973, and the second from 12 June to 30 August 1973. During this period the CCD held 42 plenary meetings and 4 informal meetings.

Although several measures in the field of disarmament were suggested by members, the CCD's attention was mainly focussed on the questions of a comprehensive nuclear test ban and the prohibition of chemical weapons.

On the question of a comprehensive nuclear test ban, the positions of the two major nuclear testing powers remained divergent and unchanged. The Soviet Union maintained that


the aim should be the cessation of all nuclear weapon tests, everywhere and by everyone, and that, for control over the cessation of underground tests, national means of detection and identification were sufficient. The United States, on the other hand reaffirmed its view that national means of verification should be supplemented by some on-site inspections in order to, secure an adequately verified ban on underground tests. India reiterated its position based on (i) support to the Partial Test Ban Treaty, (ii) an immediate suspension of all nuclear weapon tests and (iii) the need for adherence of all nuclear-weapon States to a comprehensive test ban.

In regard to the question of prohibition of chemical weapons, the Soviet Union and the other Socialist States emphasized that, while proposing their draft convention on chemical weapons (which is almost identical to the already concluded convention on biological weapons) as a basis for negotiations, they were prepared to consider any other concrete formulations of a future agreement. The United States and the other Western Powers did not consider the Soviet draft as a suitable basis for negotia- tions, as they had all along taken the position that the problem of chemical weapons was of a very different nature from that of biological weapons. The United States stated that it was continuing its search for workable methods of possible limita- tions or restrictions on chemical weapons, but had been unable so far to develop any concrete proposal or formula for negotia- ting a treaty on chemical weapons. India reiterated its support for the concept of a comprehensive prohibition of all chemical weapons without exception, and, in common with the majority of States, stressed that the system of verification of an agreement on chemical weapons should be based on a combination of national and international measures.

A new item this year in the U.N. General Assembly was the Soviet proposal for the reduction of military budgets of States Permanent Members of the Security Council by 10 per cent


and the utilisation of part of the funds thus saved to provide assistance to developing countries. The General Assembly adopted two resolutions on this item One, sponsored by Mexico, called upon the Secretary-General to prepare a report on the subject, with the assistance of qualified experts, to provide a basis for further consideration. Another resolution, sponsored by the Soviet Union, recommended that during the next financial year all States Permanent Members of the Security Council should reduce their military budgets by 10 per cent from the 1973 levels and allot 10 per cent of the funds thus released for assistance to developing countries. China opposed the proposal and the other three permanent members of the security Council, namely the United States, the United Kingdom and France abstained. India reaffirmed its view that a substantial amount of funds released through measures of disarmament should be made available as additional resources for purposes of development assistance, without prejudice to the fulfilment of accepted assistance targets as well as other existing or already agreed contributions from multilateral and bilateral programmes.

On the question of convening a world disarmament confer- ence-following the impasse which had been reached in regard to the functioning of the Special Committee appointed by the President of the 27th General Assembly-the General Assembly decided to establish an ad hoc Committee consisting of 40 non- nuclear-weapon States (including India) to examine all the views and suggestions expressed by Governments on the convening of a world disarmament conference and related pro- blems, including conditions for the realization of such a confer- ence, and to present, on the basis of consensus, a report to the General Assembly at its 29th session.

The General Assembly, in separate resolutions, asked the CCD to continue its deliberations, as matters of "highest" and "high" priority respectively, on the questions of a comprehensive nuclear test ban and the prohibition of chemical weapons.


The General Assembly also invited the Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humani- tarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts---which is scheduled to be held in Geneva in 1974-to consider the question of the use of napalm and other incendiary weapons, as well as other specific conventional weapons, which may be deemed to cause unnecessary suffering or to have indiscriminate effects, and to seek agreement on rules prohibiting or restricting the use of such weapons.

The Ministry continued to assist the Department of Atomic Energy and the Department of Space in respect of the inter- national aspects of their activities. The Indian Ambassador in Vienna continues to be a Governor on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

An extraordinary session of the International Civil Aviation Organisation, and a Conference of Plenipotentiaries, were held in Rome from 20 August to 20 September 1973, to deal with the question of air security against "hijacking" which has attracted considerable attention of the international community during the past few years. India participated in the meetings of both these bodies. Over a hundred States who are parties to the Chicago Conference, were represented at the extraordinary session of the Assembly. At the outset the Assembly adopted a resolution concerning unlawful seizure of a Lebanese civil aircraft by Israeli military aircraft, strongly condemning Israel for violating Lebanese sovereignty, calling upon it to desist from committing acts of unlawful interference with International civil air trans- port, and warning it that if it continued committing such acts, the Assembly will take measures, against Israel to protect inter- national civil aviation.

For its substantive work, the Assembly also had before it a number of proposals for the amendment of the Chicago Civil Aviation Convention of 1944, to deal with unlawful interference and other offences against international civil aviation. After


protracted discussions, the Assembly rejected all the proposals; but it adopted a somewhat mild resolution on the subject of air security. This resolution inter alia, reaffirmed its condemna- tion of all unlawful acts of interference with civil aviation and of any failure by the contracting States to fulfil its obligation to return a hijacked aircraft or to extradite or prosecute a hijacker.

The Plenipotentiary Conference was attended by representa- tives of 102 countries. The proposals before the Conference were divided into two groups which envisaged: (i) adoption of a Convention, and (ii) adoption of protocols to The Hague and the Montreal Conventions. None of these proposals could get the requisite majority in the plenary of the Conference and consequently it failed to adopt any protocol or Convention concerning unlawful interference and other offences against international civil aviation.

India continued to play an active part in the work of the United Nations Committees and Conferences concerned with the pro- gressive development of international law. Further substantive work was carried out during the year by U.N. Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and its working groups on unification and harmonization of international trade law on various topics including international sale of goods, international payments and international shipping legislation. In addition, the Commission at its Sixth Session considered the subject of multinational corporations. The Secretariat was asked to prepare a report on the basis of replies received from various Govern- ments and international organizations inter alia on the question whether any problems arose in international trade due to ope- ration of multinational enterprises which were susceptible to solution by means of uniform legal rules. It was also decided to organize an international symposium in 1975, to coincide with the Eighth Session of the Commission on the role of universities and research centres in the teaching and dissemination of international trade law.

pg91> India was represented at the Second Session of the UNCITRAL Working Group on International Negotiable Instruments held in New York from 7 to 18 January 1974. The Indian delegation brought to the attention of the Working Group some of the ele- ments in respect of which the Indian law on the negotiable instru- ments differed with the civil and common law systems. The Working Group was also apprised of the provisions in the Indian law relating to "protest for better security" which offer a compro- mise solution on the question of the recourse open to the holder when the acceptor of a bill has become insolvent. The Working Group agreed to further examine this and some other Indian suggestions.

In accordance with decision of the Asian-African Legal Con- sultative Committee taken at its 14th session held in New Delhi, in January 1973, an inter-sessional meeting of the Sub-Committee on the Law of the Sea was held in Geneva from 28 to 30 June 1973. The Sub-Committee was composed of the entire membership of the Committee. India participated in the work of this Sub-Committee.

The Asian African Legal Consultative Committee held its 15th Annual Session in Tokyo from 7 to 14 January 1974. India parti- cipated in this session. The main subjects discussed were the Law of the Sea, international shipping legislation, and commercial arbitration. As to the Law of the Sea, the subjects discussed were rights and interests of landlocked States, status of international straits, and the question of archipelagos. India was Rapporteur of the Working Group on this subject.

The question of peaceful uses of the seabed beyond, the limits of national jurisdiction has been under consideration of the U.N. General Assembly since 1967. The U.N. Seabed Com- mittee, whose membership was enlarged to 91 in 1971, held its last two sessions in March-April 1973 and July-August 1973, in New York and Geneva respectively. The U.N. Seabed Committee has completed its work on the seabed and its resour- ces. Its work on the Law of the Sea questions e.g. territorial

pg92> waters, fisheries, marine pollution, etc., has not, however, been completed. At the Geneva session of the Committee in July. August 1973, a set of draft articles on fisheries was introduced at the initiative of India. The proposal was also cosponsored by Canada, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal and Sri Lanka. Under the proposal a coastal State is empowered to establish an exclu- sive fishery zone beyond its territorial sea. The outer limit of this zone has been left open for further negotiation and settle- ment.

Pursuant to the decision taken at the 28th U.N. General Assembly, the first session of the 3rd United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea was held in New York from 3 to 14 December 1973. This session was devoted to organisational questions. It was also decided to hold the substantive session of the Conference in Caracas (Venezuela) in June 1974, for a period of ten weeks. At the organisational session in New York, India was a member of the Drafting Committee for the Conference.

The following items were discussed at the. 12th session of the Legal Sub-Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space held in New York between 25 March and 20 April 1973.

1. Draft treaty relating to the moon.

2. Draft convention on registration of objects launched into space for the exploration or use of outerspace.

3. Matters relating to the definition and/or delimitation of outerspace and outerspace activities.

4. The various implications of space communications; report of the Working Group on Direct Broadcast Satellites.

5. Matters relating to the activities carried out through remote sensing satellite surveys of earth resources.


The Draft Moon Treaty and the Draft Registration Treaty were discussed in detail as a matter of priority. India took an active part in the drafting of the Moon Treaty and has sub- mitted proposals on various issues including the question of the legal regime the natural resources of the Moon. Many of the provisions of these two treaties have been finalised though there are still some issues to be resolved in their formulation.

The 16th session of the Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outerspace was held in New York in 1973. There was no agreement in the Committee and the General Assembly was recommended to refer the outstanding issues to the 13th session of the Legal Sub-Committee which will be held during 1974.

During 1973, India concluded 102 treaties and agreements, a list of which is given in Appendix III.

A meeting of the Commonwealth Heads of Government was: held in Ottawa from 2 to 10 August 1973. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of External Affairs, Representatives from 32 countries participated including Bangladesh and the Bahamas, the two most recent additions to the Commonwealth. The main focus of attention at the Conference was on mapping the future course of Commonwealth co-operation particularly in the economic field. Britain's accession to the EEC was the most significant development of the year for the developing members of the Commonwealth. Initiating a discussion on the subject, the Minister of External Affairs suggested certain measures to im- prove the trading opportunities of the developing Commonwealth countries. There was also general support for retention of exist- ing Commonwealth preferences in countries other than Britain as a means of promoting intra-Commonwealth trade as well as for the retention of the existing preferences in the British market until suitable arrangements could be worked out with the EEC.


Technical And Economic Co-operation



The Economic Division of this Ministry continued to project India's technical and economic advance and promote her econo- mic interests abroad, in co-ordination with the various economic- Ministries of the Government of India and the Indian Missions abroad.

There was an increasing demand on the part of the developing countries, particularly in Africa and Asia, and even in Latin America for Indian participation in the form of expertise, training facilities and equipment in their developmental activities. These developments added a new dimension to the functions of the Economic Division.

Broadly speaking, the Division during this year was concerned as usual with the following subjects:

I. Promotion of closer external economic and commercial relations : bilateral agreements, co-ordination of action and in particular the inter-governmental Joint Commis- sions;

II. Working of the technical assistance programme (ITEC) which is geared to the possibilities of utilising to the


maximum the state of India's technical advancement within her somewhat restricted resources;

III. Support for economic co-operation at the regional and international level.

Starting with the Indo-Czech Joint Committee set up in 1966, India has now established high level Joint Commissions with Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Poland, Sri Lanka, Sudan and the USSR. A Joint Commission with Rumania was set up in January 1974 and some others are contemplated. These commissions serve a useful purpose by allowing isolated bilateral economic agreements and aspects of economic relations with a country to be reviewed by an overseer body which assesses periodically the totality of economic relations with the country concerned and indicate guidelines for future strengthening and amplification of these relations. This also enables the accelera- tion and co-ordination of activities in various economic, commer- cial, industrial, scientific and technological spheres and ensures that additional fields of co-operation are in keeping with the changing needs of industrial and commercial development. Joint Commissions generally meet annually, delegations being led at ministerial level. Experts on the delegation constitute themselves into Working Groups to consider concrete measures to develop bilateral relations indifferent sectors.

The decisions of the first and second meetings of the Indo- Afghan Joint Commission, held in March 1970 and April 1972, respectively, were reviewed during a visit by a four-member Afghan delegation led by Mr. Abdul Karim Amin, President Finance, Ministry of Planning, Government of Afghanistan during March 1973. A further review was carried out during the visit of the Indian Minister of External Affairs to Kabul in October 1973.

The Indo-Bulgarian Joint Commission was set up on Nov 29, 1973 through an exchange of letters in Sofia between the Indian Ambassador and the Bulgarian Deputy Minister for


Foreign Relations. The first session of the Commission is expect- ed to take place in Delhi towards the end of 1974. In January 1974, an eleven-member delegation of experts from Bulgaria visited India at the invitation of the Ministry of External Affairs. Areas of mutual beneficial collaboration are being identified through exchange of such delegations.

The 4th meeting of the Indo-Czechoslovak Joint Committee was held in Prague from 14 to 22 June 1973. The Indian delegation was led by Professor D. P. Chattopadhyaya, Minister of Com- merce, and the Czechoslovak delegation by Mr. A. Barcak, Minister of Foreign Trade. Working Groups were set up which made recommendations for future co-operation in the fields of industry, trade exchange and science and technology. Further progress was made during the visit of Dr. Gustav Husak, Secretary-General of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, to India in December 1973, on which occasion a protocol for economic, technical and scientific co-operation between the two countries was signed.

The Indo-Hungarian Joint Commission was set up on 19 December 1973, through an exchange of letters in Budapest between the Indian Ambassador and the Hungarian Foreign Minister. The venue and time for the first session will be decided by mutual consultations.

The 4th meeting of the Indo-Iranian Joint Commission for economic, trade and technical co-operation, set up in January 1969, was held in mid-January 1974, preceded by meetings of committees on trade, technical co-operation, transportation, in- dustries and petroleum. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of External Affairs and the Iran delegation by their Minister of Economy. A second round of talks was held in Tehran on 20 and 21, February 1974 during the visit of the, Minister of External Affairs.

The Indo-Iraq Joint Commission for economic, trade and techni- cal co-operation was set up by exchange of letters between the


two Governments on 6 April 1973. The first meeting of the Corn- mission is likely to be held in 1974.

The first meeting of the Indo-Polish Joint Commission, estab- lished in January 1972, was held from 2 to 8 November 1973, in Warsaw. The Indian delegation was led by Shri T.A. Pai, Minis- ter of Heavy Industry, Steel and Mines and the Polish delegation by Mr. Jan Mitrega, Vice-Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Minister of Mining and Power. A protocol was signed by the two sides setting out co-operation in the field of mining and heavy industry, shipping, trade exchange and science and techno- logy. Both sides agreed on. long term agreements which would safeguard essential supplies to both countries. Co-operation in the field of mining, where Indo-Polish collaboration is very close, was reviewed and extended.

The Indo-Rumanian Joint Commission was set up on 14 January 1974, through an exchange of letters in New Delhi between the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Rumania and the Indian Minister of External Affairs. The time and venue for the first session will be decided upon by mutual consultation.

Under the aegis of the Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Committee on economic co-operation, established in June 1968, a Sub-Committee at official level had been set up in November 1971. The Sub- Committee held its third meeting in New Delhi in August 1973 and January 1974. A review of the economic, commercial, technical and scientific co-operation between the two countries was made and satisfaction was expressed over substantial imple- mentation of the proposals in this regard.

The Indo-Soviet Joint Commission set up in September 1972, held its first meeting in February 1973, when a protocol was signed. Thereafter meetings were held periodically with Soviet officials to review progress on areas of co-operation agreed upon in the


protocol. During the visit of Mr. Leonid Brezhnev, Secretary- General of the Communist party of the USSR, to India in Novem- ber 1973, far-reaching economic agreements were signed between India and the USSR.

India has established joint committees/groups for commercial and economic co-operation with several member-States of the European Economic Community, i.e. France, Belgium, Nether- lands and the U.K. These are mostly in the nature of trade com- mittees. Certain other member-States like the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, Italy and Denmark have also agreed to set up or are already operating commercial programmes with India. India's economic relations with the countries of the EEC received a further fillip from the visits of Dr. Erhard Eppler, Minister for Economic Co-operation, Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and Mr. Giscard d'Estaing, Finance Minister of the Republic of France in November 1973.

The Commercial Co-operation Agreement recently signed with the EEC, considered in the context of India's severe adverse balance of trade with the member-States of the Economic Com- munity, can be viewed as an instrument for the establishment of viable trading relationship with the Community. The main objective is to develop trade relations on the basis of comple- mentarity of the endowment factors and mutual benefit. Another complicating factor raising problems in a number of areas of Indian trade has been the U.K.'s entry into the EEC on 1 Jan- uary 1973. So far, Indian goods had been receiving preferential and duty-free entry into the U.K. market. From 1 January 1974, however, the import regime in the U.K. will change with the introduction, progressively; of the Common Customs Tariff of the Community. India is at the moment, seeking safeguard measures to protect her export-products. The Indian Government has initialled an Agreement on Jute with the Community under which the CCT of the Community would be reduced by a 40% level on 1 January 1974 and by a 60% level on 1 January 1975.


At the same time, the EEC has found it possible to continue duty-free entry of Jute into the U.K. market for 1974 also.

A visit by a delegation of industrialists to Malta was arranged in December 1973, to explore possibilities of establishing Indo- Maltese joint ventures. The delegation was sent at the suggestion of the Government of Malta. The delegation has since returned and would be submitting a report of their findings shortly.

Under the Programme of Indian Technical and Economic Co- operation (ITEC) India has been providing technical and economic assistance to the developing countries particularly in Asia and Africa and also in Latin America. The ITEC is con- ditioned by the fact that, although our resources are modest, we have skilled manpower and fairly advanced training facilities sufficient to undertake a sustained programme of technical and economic co-operation. The concept of ITEC is to share our technological progress and skills with other developing nations.

The Programme envisages the following forms of economic and technical assistance:

1. Provision of training facilities in India to foreign na- tionals;

2. Long and short-term deputation of experts abroad.

3. Gifts of capital goods; equipment, drugs, medicines, etc;

4. Financial assistance for conducting feasibility studies and techno-economic surveys; and

5. Undertaking specific projects in certain countries. The programme, which was conceived and inaugurated in September 1964, has made tremendous strides, as exemplified


by the steady increase in the quantum of expenditure incurred thereunder, as shown below: Years Rs. (in lakhs) 1964-65 4.46 1965-66 7.45 1966-67 24.66 1967-68 30.00 1968-69 27.57 1969-70 38.40 1970-71 44.86 1971-72 64.87 1972-73 87.59 1973-74 (Estimated) 134.72

A provision of Rs. 3.63 crores has been made in next year's budget for the Programme to cope with increasing demands for assistance from the developing countries. This needs to be aug- mented, from year to year. In order to avoid its limited resources being thinly spread over a large number of countries, we have attempted to render the ITEC more effective by resorting to them principle of selectivity at all levels, in the choice of projects and in the nature of development. The ITEC has been particularly designed to ensure that its coverage in the neighbouring count- ries is effective and that basic economic and commercial inter- dependence is maintained at a steady level. At the same time, it places emphasis on countries with which we have either develop- ed significant relations or which have considerable development potential. Thirty four countries are covered by the ITEC pro- gramme out of which substantial co-operation has developed with Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Fiji, Malaysia, Mauritius, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Qatar, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and United Arab Emirates. It is of interest to note that ITEC programme has been extended to some new countries viz., Burma, Cuba, Ecuador, Malta, Mexico and Peru.


The provision of training facilities in our diverse vocational and technical training institutions and establishments, is one of the cardinal aspects of the ITEC Programme. We have at pre- sent about 280 trainees under ITEC during the current year, from countries as far apart as Cuba to North Vietnam in diverse fields such as medicine, nursing, handicrafts, teaching, home science, pharmacy, vocational training, agriculture, civil avi- ation, small scale industries, forestry, leather technology, sugar and food technology, cinematography, journalism, architecture and structural designing, wireless communication, irrigation, power generation, etc., etc. There are besides several hundred trainees on self financing basis whose places have been arranged by this Ministry. In addition, we have trainees from countries like Nigeria, Zambia, Libya etc. where the sending States have themselves agreed to meet the costs involved.

Appendix IV gives details of proposals for acceptance of trainees, some of which may be self-financed.

An equally important aspect of the ITEC Programme is the deputation of Indian technicians and experts drawn from a variety of disciplines to developing countries to assist in their development programmes. Approximately 235 experts (see Ap- pendix IV) have been deputed abroad so far during the current year, covering the following fields:

Agriculture, engineering, irrigation and power, medicine, edu- cation, financial administration, public administration, handloom technology, handicrafts, weights and measures, co-operative de- velopment, entomology, agronomy, transportation, small scale industries, coconut cultivation, railways, fisheries, forestry, voca- tional instruction, tourism, civil aviation and nautical engineer- ing, architecture, tea management, cashewnut culture, steno- graphy, geology, animal husbandry, horticulture, telecommunica- tions, etc., etc.

Appendix IV gives details of proposals for deputation of Indian experts presently under consideration.


As years roll by, knowledge of the various categories of man- power, experts and technicians available in India has come to be fairly widespread among the developing countires. As such many of them have evinced great interest in recruiting various kinds of experts and personnel they require for executing their diverse development programmes. Recruiting teams from Ethiopia, Fiji, Libya. Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria, Iran, Iraq and Zambia have visited India during the year for recruiting teachers, doctors, civil, electrical and mechanical engineers and surveyors. accountancy instructors etc.

In addition there are a number of requests for recruitment of personnel on direct contract basis, from various developing count- ries under consideration. There are several hundreds of Indian experts serving abroad recruited by foreign Governments. Com- mencing from early 1973, all requests even for direct recruitment, by foreign Governments, are channelized through the Ministry of External Affairs. The selecting teams are assisted in the presentation of panels of names for interview and in the selection process. About 400 Teachers, Doctors, Engineers, Surveyors, etc., have been selected by the Recruiting Teams for employment on direct personal contract basis this year.

Under the ITEC Programme, the Government of India has also gifted/donated capital goods, equipment and machinery besides medical stores, books and publications, etc. Examples of such donation gifts are given in Appendix IV.

A number of feasiblity studies were undertaken and techno- economic surveys carried out in various countries during the year. A feasibility-cum-cost study of the Baghdad-Hasaibah- Aqasha railway line in Iraq was conducted and the report is ex- pected to be ready soon, Besides, a delegation of officials from the C.P.W.D. visited Iraq to study the possibilities of Indo-Iraqi collaboration in the field of construction.

A feasibility study has been carried out in Mauritius, in August 1973, for setting up of an Industrial Estate and its report is under consideration.


Feasibility studies have been conducted in Zanzibar, in small scale industries, modernization of dock and harbour facilities, T.V. & Broadcasting, low cost housing and manufacture of Mangalore tiles, and re-organisation of retail stores.

In Malaysia, in the State of Negri Sembilan, feasibility studies have been conducted for the establishment of a Technical Train- ing Institute and separately a techno-economic survey has been carried out.

A Techno-economic survey of the Gulf States has been con- ducted by teams of officials.

Teams of experts from the Engineering Projects (India) Ltd., conducted studies in connection with the setting up of rubber- based industries in Sri Lanka.

A techno-economic survey of Sudan by the Engineering Pro- jects (India) Ltd., was proposed to be conducted in December 1973, in the fields of cement, sugar, textile, fruit and vegetable canning, caustic soda, sulphuric acid and for the establishment of an industrial estate.

Small scale industries survey of Tanzania has been carried out.

A two-man team was deputed to Qatar for conducting studies in underground water resources.

A four-member Planning Advisory Delegation which visited Kabul in November 1973, has advised the Government of Afghanistan about the manner whereby existing arrangements in the field of plan formulation, co-ordination, implementation, monitoring and evaluation can be strengthened and develop- ment strategy reoriented to meet national objectives.

Feasibility studies are proposed to be undertaken next year for the establishment of a cotton spinning mill in Laos and for setting up an Indian Telephone Industry unit in Mauritius.


Apart from the above activities, 38 scholarships have been provided for the current year, under the ITEC Programme for Afro-Asian and Latin American countries in specific interna- tional courses conducted by the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, National Building Organization, Indian Standards Institution, Institute of Parliamentary Studies, Small Industries Extension Training Institute, the Water Resources Training Centre, Univer- sity of Roorkee, and the Institute of Secretariat Management and Training. We have offered an equal number of scholarships in these courses, for the next year as well.

The idea of more effective regional co-operation within the Asian region has been gaining ground and various committees and sub-committees of the ECAFE showed activity in the fields of metals and engineering and statistics (meetings held in New Delhi), economic development and planning, tourism, export promotion, meteorological surveys, problems of land-locked countries, water resources, rural housing, the Mekong Project, programming techniques, transfer of technology, water transport, the Asian Highway, etc. Some progress has also been made in the trade negotiations group in discussing mutual tariff conces- sions in specified commodities.

The 29th session of the ECAFE was held in Tokyo in April 1973. The new Executive Secretary of the ECAFE, Mr. J. B. P. Maramis paid a visit to India in December 1973. A review of the ECAFE structure is under way. India continues to take keen interest in all projects of regional co-operation under the ECAFE. India became an original signatory member of the Asian Rice Trade Fund and subscribed to the Asian Clearing Union set up in 1973.


External Publicity


Jan 01, 1973


The External Publicity Division worked to promote under- standing, sympathy and support for India's foreign policy and project a balanced and objective image of the country abroad. This involved maintaining close contact with the Indian and foreign press, informing Indian Missions of developments at home, supplying films and other audio-visual material to the Missions, and sending out to them photographs, articles, pam- phlets, books and exhibition material.

During this year there was interest in the international media on issues and developments in the South Asian sub-continent, as also in the economic situation in India consequent on the drought. Our external publicity emphasised India's earnestness to resolve the problems left over from the December 1971 war, and her contribution to the successful outcome of the Indo- Pakistan talks in August 1973. Measures were also taken to fight adverse and mischievous propaganda on developments in India. Several of these measures on both these subjects were successful in obtaining better understanding and publicity.

The year also saw the termination of the 25th Independence Anniversary celebrations. Indian Missions worked in co-ordina-


tion with local citizens, the press, academic bodies and Govern- ments, and with the Indian communities abroad to arrange celebrations in more than 120 centres and capitals all over the world. In scores of capitals and other large and industrial, centres, a photographic exhibition depicting India's progress over the last 25 years, was put up. Several Missions supplemented the photographs with a display of Indian books; art and handicrafts. Twenty cultural troupes featuring prominent artistes visited 34 capitals including Kabul, Canberra, Dacca, Brussels, Thimpu, Havana, Berlin, The Hague, Hong Kong, Budapest, Sofia, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Mexico City, Kathmandu, Manila, Singapore, Madrid, Bangkok, Rangoon, Prague, Suva, Paris, Port Louis, Warsaw, Bucharest, Port-of-Spain, Tunis, Moscow, Caracas, Belgrade. Tripoli, Tehran and Valetta. Judging from press reviews, they obviously created an impact wherever they went. particularly in places where people had not been exposed to Indian music and dance before. The Division also arranged for an exhibition of the best modern Indian art to tour the United States (Washington DC and San Francisco) and Canada (Toronto). In addition, an exhibition of modern Indian art visited Brazil and Venezuela. The National Museum arranged for an exhibition of miniatures in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Sixty-eight newspapers all over the world put out special supplements in honour of India besides the coverage major newspapers gave the celebra- tions, more than 161 of these with feature articles and editorials on India. In addition, the Division invited 57 press, radio and television delegations from abroad to cover the Indian scene to- day. Coverage which resulted from these visits was, on the whole, balanced.

Other special activities of the year included the following:

(1) The supply to the Missions concerned of 5 publicity films on the visits of foreign dignitaries to India (the visits of the Prime Ministers of Poland, Mongolia and Yugoslavia, the First Vice-President of Tanzania and Madame Farideh Diba of Iran). The film on. the visit of the King of Nepal is under production.

(2) Supply of special documentary and some feature films to the


concerned Missions for advance publicity on the eve of State visits of the President, Vice-President and Prime Minister of India. A special documentary film "A Tradition of Goodwill" with reference to Indo-Sri Lanka relations, went to the Indian High Commission in Colombo for screening on the eve of the Prime Minister's visit there. Another T. V. Film was produced and sent to the High Commission in Ottawa in connection with the Prime Minister's visit to Canada. For the Non-aligned Summit at Algiers, a special documentary, "Non-alignment for Peace and Prosperity" was produced and supplied for screening during the Conference. Several other films were also supplied for the purpose. (3) The tour of the "Nehru and New India" Exhibition in South America. The exhibition was a great success in Santiago, Bogota, Port of Spain and Georgetown, and resulted in a considerable amount of favourable publicity and press interest in India.

The Ministry's regular publicity work continued throughout the year under review, under the following heads:

Press work--Indian and foreign pressmen were regularly briefed when Parliament was not in session. The Head of the XP Division is the ex-officio Spokesman of the Ministry. Even when Parliament is in session, as before, the Official Spokesman is available to journalists for background information, on request. Eighty two journalists were invited to cover India's develop- ment effort. This was over and above the 53 foreign pressmen invited in connection with the 25th Independence Anniversary celebrations. One hundred and twenty eight visiting members of radio and TV teams from abroad were provided with logistic facilities. One hundred and ten Indian journalists were also provided facilities to visit foreign countries. Some of these visits took place under the cultural exchange programmes between India and other countries. Two hundred and thirty four foreign journalists were also given facilities to visit India. A teleprinter link was maintained with 64 Missions for quick transmission of developments at home in all fields. The Missions received


two transmissions a day. Other Missions received important news items by press cables or by diplomatic bag. These newscasts provided Indian Missions abroad with timely and indispensable materials for their daily or periodic publicity bulletins. The Government of India issued 374 press releases based on material received from the Missions abroad and from the Territorial Divisions of the Ministry. Journalists and other media represen- tatives, both Indian and foreign, and the Transmission Unit of this Division used this material. The World Press Review was published daily. The Review was based on cables and despatches received from our Missions and contained news, comments and editorials from the foreign press of interest to India.

Audio-visual publicity--The Government of India approved 56 documentary films for external publicity. Seven hundred and thirty three prints of films were supplied to the Missions. Four hundred and fifty prints of 9 selected colour documentaries pro- cessed in the U.K. are ready for despatch. The Government is arranging the purchase of 10 prints each of 10 selected award- winning feature films in different regional languages. The prints will be sub-titled in different foreign languages and sent cut to our Missions. The Ministry supplied four 16 mm films projectors to the Missions in Doha, Somalia, Sofia and Amman, and a tape- recorder, record player and public address system to the High Commission in Lagos. Forty gramophone records of Indian Instru- mental and vocal music were also supplied to various Missions abroad.

Exhibitions and Cultural Work--Assistance was given to Mis- sions in putting up exhibitions in Argentina, Canada, France, Hong Kong, Laos, Lebanon, Mexico, Panama, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Syria, the U.K. and Zambia. For this purpose the Divi- sion supplied 667 books, 243 photographs, 428 paintings, 76 posters. 8 postal stamps, 4 film strips and 12 dolls. Some of these exhibitions were of a general nature and highlighted development work in the country. Other exhibitions had specialised themes like children's paintings, children's books, agriculture and so on, and appropriate material was sent. The Missions abroad were


also assisted in organising Children's day painting competitions. Articles for presentation and prizes for the purpose were sent to the Missions in Buenos Aires, Mexico City, Moscow, Panama, Port Louis, San Francisco, Suva, Tokyo and Algiers.

Print Publicity--A regular supply of material to the Missions was kept up through the Production Unit. The Ministry pub- lished the fortnightlies "Indian & Foreign Review" in English and "Courrier de l'Inde" in French, and the monthly "Foreign Affairs Record", incorporating agreements, treaties and other formal documents signed by India. Twenty one pamphlets were produced on various aspects of India today for distribution through Indian Missions. Articles and photographs were sup- plied to the Missions abroad which together brought out 21 periodicals in local languages and a short biography of the Prime Minister in French, Swahili, Arabic and Spanish. Some of these articles were also reproduced in the local press. Fifteen feature articles on various subjects for publication on Indepen- dence Day, Republic Day and other occasions were commission- ed. Individual requests from Missions abroad for articles and photographs on subjects of specialised interest were met in addi- tion to all other material sent out.

In addition, Missions were supplied 120 different Indian news- papers and journals for distribution. The Division also sent out a selection of Indian books for use in the Mission's libraries and for local presentation.

The External Publicity Division worked in close co-ordination with other concerned Ministries and Departments of the Govern- ment of India. These included the Commercial Publicity Wing of the Ministry of Commerce, the Department of Culture, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Information and Broad- casting and its various media units, i.e. All India Radio, special- ly its External Services Division, the Press Information Bureau, the Photo Division, the Films Division, the Directorate of Publi- cations Division. and the Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity.


Cultural Relations



The Indian Council for Cultural Relations took concrete steps to strengthen India's cultural relations with other countries.

Among the large number of distinguished scholars, writers and artists from foreign countries who visited India on the invi- tation of ICCR or were looked after by the Council during their visit were: Miss Lucrecia Kasilag, Director of Performing Arts, Cultural Centre of the Philippines; Professors Abdul Razzak and Jainul Abedin, Bangladesh; Mr. Ronnie de Mel, M.P., Sri Lanka; a three-member delegation of Rabita al-Islami from Saudi Arabia; Mrs. Mariyam Harris of the United King- dom; a thirtysix-member French students delegation from 1' Association des Hautes Etudes Internationales, Paris; Professor Juan R. Francisco, Professor of Indian Studies, University of the Philippines, and Dr. Nagasura T. Madale, Institute of Asian Studies, Mindanao State University, the Philippines; a four- member writers delegation from the Soviet Union; and Mr. Gennady Pechnikov, Director and Actor of Children's Theatre, Moscow.

Indian scholars, writers and artists were sent abroad on good- will-cum-lecture tours. These included Professors Sisir Kumar


Ghosh of Santiniketan, to Japan and Thailand; Dr. Vishal Singh of Jawaharlal Nehru University, to Indonesia and Malaysia; Shri Sadashiv Sathe, sculptor, to Britain; Dr. Malati Jadhav of the Christian Medical College, Vellore, to Sri Lanka; Dr. Maqbool Ahmed of Aligarh Muslim University, to Afghanistan; Shri Habib Tanvir M.P., to Iran and Turkey; Shri S. Balachandar, Veena player, to Japan; Professor V. P. Dutt, Pro-Vice Chancellor, University of Delhi, Professor S. C. Dube, Indian Institute of Advance Studies, and Dr. A. M. Khusro, Institute of Economic Growth to Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, for participation in a Seminar on India and Indo-German Relations; Professor C. D. Narasimhaiah, University of Mysore, to Indo- nesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Japan; and Shri Shanti P. Chowdhury, Documentary film-maker, to Britain.

Delegations of performing artistes were sent to neighbouring countries including Bhutan and Nepal. Cultural delegations were also sent to Afghanistan and Mauritius to give performances.

Exhibitions of Indian Art and Handicrafts were sent abroad for display. Among these were Shri Biren De's painting June 1973 for the Biennale in Sydney (Australia), an exhibition of replicas of bronzes and reproductions of Indian paintings, masks, puppets and folk paintings to Hungary and an exhibition of contemporary Indian paintings to Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Belgium and Poland.

Indian books and art objects were presented through the Indian missions abroad to libraries and educational institutions in 46 countries.

The ICCR continued to bring out its journals as part of the programme of publication of books and periodicals. These are Rencontre avec l'Inde (French quarterly), Indian Horizons (English quarterly), Peoples de la India (Spanish quarterly), Thaqafat-ul-Hind (Arabic quarterly) and Cultural News from India (English bi-monthly).


In connection with the Essay Competitions organised by two Indian Missions on subjects relating to India, ICCR sent Indian books and handicrafts for presentation to the winners of the competitions.

The Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding is administered by ICCR. The Awards for the year 1971 and 1972 have been made by the Jury to President Tito of Yugoslavia and M. Andre Malraux of France respectively. At a special ceremony held on Jan 25, 1974 at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi, the President Shri V. V. Giri, presented the Award to President Tito in the presence of a large and distinguished gathering which included the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi. The Citation was read by Vice-President Shri G. S. Pathak who is the Chairman of the Jury for the Award. Sardar Swaran Singh, Minister of External Affairs and President of the Council spoke on the occasion and President Tito replied.

The welfare of foreign students in India continued to engage the attention of ICCR. Over 2,400 foreign students were helped in arrangements to visit places of historical and cultural interest in India. A total of 195 foreign students from 28 countries attended the four ICCR Summer Camps organised in Kashmir and in the South (Ooty, Mysore and Bangalore). A study tour to Dehra Dun and Mussoorie for foreign students in and around Delhi was arranged. Forty-nine students from 14 countries participated in a study tour of Rajasthan.

Prizes were awarded to four winners of the ICCR Essay Competition on "Twentyfive years of Indian Independence". "Home hospitality" was arranged in Madras for a eightyseven- member Japanese youth good-will mission.

A revised and enlarged edition of the handbook Studying in India was published and distributed to foreign students. About 1,000 students were met on first arrival in India and given assistance in regard to accommodation, travel etc. Orientation Courses were conducted in different parts of the country for


newly arrived foreign sutdents as well as for Indian students going abroad. The number of Foreign Students Advisers appointed by ICCR in collaboration with Universities and other institutes of higher learning totals 35.

Under the Orientation Programme for Indian and Foreign scholars, three orientation courses were conducted by ICCR, one for Indian scholars and technologists going abroad, another for medical doctors proceeding on a professional tour, and the third for I.F.S. probationers.

Presently ICCR has Chairs/Centres of Indian Studies in Afghanistan, Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Poland, Rumania, Senegal, Thailand, Trinidad and Yugoslavia. More Chairs are under consideration, ICCR Visiting Professors in Singapore and Laos have completed their assignments.

ICCR is actively engaged in co-operation with the Jawaharlal Nehru University and the National Council of Educational Research and Training in the Scheme for Improve- ment of Source Material, and the pilot project for producing suitable reading material on India in different foreign languages for school children and university students in other countries is under way.

The programme for opening Indian Cultural Centres abroad, designed to promote greater awareness and appreciation of our cultural heritage and of our achievements in social, economic, scientific and cultural fields since independence, was expanded. Apart from developing and strengthening the Cultural Centres already set up in Suva (Fiji), Georgetown (Guyana) and San Francisco (U.S.A.) proposals are under consideration to open more Centres in the near future.

ICCR played an effective role in the implementation of the various decisions of the Central Cultural Committee regarding cultural activities of foreign Missions/Organisations. Under the framework instituted by the Government. of India, ICCR was


associated with the running of Cultural Centres of foreign diplomatic Missions in places where they have no diplomatic/ consular presence, and those of autonomous cultural organisations depending on foreign governments for financial assistance and support.

ICCR took over the management of the seven British Council Libraries in Bangalore, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Poona, Ranchi and Trivandrum; the Thoreau Book Corner in Kanpur and the Robert Frost Book Corner in Shillong of the USIS and the House of Soviet Culture in Trivandrum. ICCR is also co-operating with the Max Muller Bhavans, Alliance Francaise and the Educational Resources Centre of the New York State University.

In association with the Department of Culture, ICCR was engaged in the organisation and presentation of exhibitions and performing arts groups from abroad. In collaboration with the Australian Government, ICCR sponsored two performances of the Australian Ballet in New Delhi. An exhibition of Industrial Design from the Federal Republic of Germany was arranged in Delhi, Bombay and Madras.

An Academic Exchange Unit was established in the Council which will provide information to Universities and institutes of higher learning within India and abroad about terms of Indian scholars overseas and visits of Foreign scholars to India.

The nomination scheme under which the Ministry has been assisting, for the past several years, self-financing students from developing countries in Africa and Asia to secure admissions in Medical and Engineering colleges in India, was continued this year. Under this scheme, seats are reserved by the Ministries of Health and Education in Medical and Engineering Colleges all over India and are placed at the disposal of the Ministry of External Affairs. The categories of foreign students who are covered under the nomination scheme include students of Indian origin domiciled in foreign countries.

pg115> During the year 1973, the Ministry arranged admissions of a total of 284 foreign students as against 266 in 1972. 88 of these were admitted to Medical Colleges and 196 to Engineering Colleges. There were 37 students from Africa, 78 from West Asia, 98 from South East Asia, 23 from Sri Lanka, 41 from Nepal and 7 from other countries. In view of the South African Government's decision not to recognise the Indian Medical degrees after 31 December 1978, it has been decided not to nominate any students from South Africa this year as they would not be able to practice the profession on return to South Africa.


Protocol Matters



The status of the Consulates of the German Democratic- Republic in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras was raised to that of Consulates-General with effect from Apr 10, 1973.

The nomenclature of the Australian Deputy High Commissions at Bombay and Calcutta was changed to Consulates-General, with effect from 13 May 1973.

On the arrival of Mr. Vincente Crespo Ordonez, as the first resident Charge d'Affaires, the Government of Ecuador opened their first resident Mission in New Delhi on 20 May 1973.

The Honorary Consulate of Peru in Bombay, which was closed down in May 1970, was re-established in November 1973.

The Consulates-General of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea became Embassies of the D.P.R.K. and the R.O.K. respectively with effect from 10 December 1973, in accordance with the decision reached by the Government of India and the two Korean Governments to establish diplomatic relations at Embassy level.


Passport, Visa And Consular Services



Various suggestions from Passport Issuing Authorities, State Governments, and prominent members of the public, for improving the performance of the Passport Offices are continously being kept in view, and the Rules are being modified wherever necessary, so as to ensure progressively better service. A leaflet containing Notes for the General Guidance of Applicants for Passport was prepared and circulated to all District Authorities. Steps are under way for the printing of passport applications in Hindi along with English, for the convenience of the general public.

As already slated in the previous year's Report, issue of India-Bangladesh Passports commenced from Sep 01, 1972. The total number of India-Bangladesh Passports issued during the period under report was 40,249.

The number of passport applications carried over from the previous year plus those received during the period covered by this report was 2,77,139. Against this, 2,01,308 passports were issued. Only 41 passport applications. were rejected. About 71,079 applications were awaiting disposal pending completion of certain prescribed formalities or enquiries.


3,104 official passports and 672 diplomatic-passports were issued. The number of other services rendered on such passports during the year were 1,769 and 562 respectively. Official and diplomatic visas were issued to 2,847 foreigners.

In pursuance of the Indian Emigration Act, 1922, the Protectors of Emigrants registered and offered assistance to 1,866 departing skilled workers including domestic servants. Emigration of unskilled workers continued to be disallowed.

During the period under report, the Regional Passport Offices in India received Rs. 78,67,152 as fees for rendering passport services.

The Central Passport and Emigration Organisation, a subordinate establishment of the Ministry of External Affairs, comprising seven Regional Passport Offices at Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, Madras, Lucknow, Ahmedabad and Chandigarh carried out the work of granting passports to Indian citizens, and identity certificates in appropriate cases. The offices at Madras, Bombay, Calcutta and Delhi also attended to emigration work and officers of appropriate rank in these offices function as Protectors of Emigrants for carrying out the duties assigned to them under the Indian Emigration Act, 1922. In addition, two emigration sub- offices, each under the charge of a Protector of Emigrants, func- tioned at Nagapattinam and Mandapam Camp in Tamil Nadu.

The total sanctioned strength of the Central Passport and Emigration Organisation is as follows:

Regional Passport Officers-7, Assistant Passport Officers -6, Public Relations Officers-9, Superintendents-18, Non-gazetted office staff-307, and class TV staff-112. In view of abnormal increase in the receipt of passport applications in the Regional Passport and Emigration Offices at Madras, Bombay, Ahmedabad and Calcutta, on-the-spot work studies were conducted by the Internal Staff Inspection Unit


of this Ministry and its reports and recommendations for additional staff are being processed in consultation with the authorities concerned. A decision is expected shortly on the proposal to open a Regional Passport Office in Kerala State.

Government have decided to centralise the work relating to recognition of travel agencies in India by forming a Central Committee comprising representatives from the Ministry of External Affairs, Department of Tourism of the Ministry of Shipping. and Transport, and the Reserve Bank of India. This will replace the present system of separate recognition of travel agencies by different departments of the Government

The Consular Section co-ordinates consular functions of Indian Missions abroad.

During the period, 74 cases of repatriation and 78 cases of deportation were handled. Besides the past cases, seven fresh cases of extradition are being processed. 147 references connected with the registration as Indian citizens were processed in consultation with the Ministry of Home Affairs. Besides dealing with several cases relating to the deaths of Indian nationals abroad, 41 cases of estates of deceased Indians are being looked into. Transmission of legal documents and service of summons on persons residing abroad have also been undertaken. Reciprocal arrangements for examination of witnesses are being worked out with the Federal Republic of Germany and Czechoslovakia. About 7,000 judicial and commercial documents, required to be produced abroad, have been authenticated. The Consular Section also rendered assistance in resolving matrimonial disputes, tracing the whereabouts of Indians and foreigners, and verifying the authenticity of documents and certificates.

A Consular Convention was signed with the U.S.S.R. It generally embodies the arrangements already existing between the two countries and conforms to the international practice in the matter.


Administration And Organisation



Sardar Swaran Singh was the Minister of External Affairs and Shri Surendra Pal Singh, the Minister of State, throughout the year.

There was no change at the level of Secretaries and Additional Secretaries. Shri Kewal Singh continued as Foreign Secretary. Shri V. C. Trivedi and Shri Avtar Singh continued as Secretary (East) and Secretary (West) respectively. S/Shri B. K. Sanyal and M. A. Rehman continued as Additional Secretaries.

The IFS Committee (Pillai Committee) envisaged expansion of IFS cadre to about 550 over a period of 10 years. Against this the present strength is 529. During 1973-74, 12 Officers were on deputation to other Ministries/etc.-two in the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, three in the Ministry of Commerce, two in the Cabinet Secretariat, one in the Ministry of Education, one in the Planning Commission, one with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations, one on the Senior Ins- tructing Staff of the National Defence College and one among the Officer Trainees in the Jawaharlal Nehru University. It was not possible to depute more officers to work in other Ministries/


Departments of the Government of India due to the shortages in the Cadre.

The Ministry is now responsible for the administration of 117 Missions (including 4 special Missions in Bhutan, New York and Geneva, as well as Special Officer Sikkim) with a total staff strength of 561 Officers and 2612 staff including local staff. A list of Indian Missions/Posts abroad opened- in 1973-74 is given in Appendix VI.

Resident Ambassadors were posted to Muscat, Abu Dhabi, Bahrain, Sanaa, Lima and Caracas. Embassies have replaced Consulates General at Seoul and Pyongyang. The Vice-Consulate of India, Geneva, was upgraded to the level of Consulate, Deputy High Commission of India, Sydney was re-designated as Consu- late-General of India, Sydney. The I.C.S.C. in Vietnam adjourn- ed sine die. It has been decided to open another Assistant High Commission in Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

The normal expenditure of the Ministry during 1973-74, is estimated to be of the order of Rs. 7544.82 lakhs, details of which are given below:- (Rs. in lakhs) Headquarters 283.12 Missions/Posts abroad. 1326.90 Other Items Contribution to the United Nations & Commonwealth Secretariat 210.68 Central Passport A Emigration Organisations 45.51 other Miscellaneous Items 1275.41 Subsidies and Aid Subsidy to Sikkim 622.25 Subsidy to Bhutan 1337.50 Aid to Nepal 822.73 Aid to other developing countries in Asia and Africa.. 120.00 Aid to Bangladesh 1247.00


Other Items External Affairs Hostel 2.20 ICM Directorate (Nepal) 11.75 Grants-in-aid, contribution etc. 239.97 TOTAL 7544.82

Details of sub-head-wise expenditure on Headquarters, Mis- sions/Posts abroad and on External Publicity are given in Appendix V.

The expenditure of Rs. 13.27 crores on our Missions/Posts abroad is small compared to the total expenditure of about Rs. 279.44 crores incurred on Administration Services from the Central Revenues. It works out to 0.54 per cent of the Govern- ment's total disbursements from Revenue.

Our Missions have a minimum staff and run at low cost compared to Missions of most other countries. The staffing and expenditure patterns are kept under constant review to ensure utmost economy consistent with functional effectiveness. Eco- nomy measures instituted I earlier years in pursuance of the Prime Minister's directives to economise to the maximum extent possible in non-plan expenditure continued to be operative during the year. However, decisions to expand India's represen- tation have stretched the resources of the present experienced staff. The position has been more difficult because unlike those of some other foreign services, the Ministry's establishment does not include a suitable provision to provide flexibility to meet unexpected needs.

During the year, the Foreign Service Inspectors carried out inspection of our Missions in 11 stations viz. Kathmandu, Gangtok, Thimpu, Paris, London, New York, Washington, San Francisco, Ottawa, Mexico and Bangkok and made a number of recommendations regarding staffing patterns, rationalisation


of work, foreign allowance etc. with accent on economy consistent with efficiency. Foreign Service Inspectors recom- mended a reduction of 124 posts in these stations, and the anticipated saving will be Rs. 40 lakhs approximately.

At present, Government own chanceries in 13 countries, resi- dences of Heads of Missions in 26 countries, and staff residences in 11 countries. Since property values and rentals at most overseas stations have been rising sharply, a programme was established early in the financial year to purchase or construct houses for officers and staff and chanceries at some posts but due to financial constraints, this did not materialize to the extent envisaged. Construction of offices and residences for our Repre- sentative and other members of Indian Missions in Thimpu is in progress. Construction of a few flats for our officers in Tokyo has also been approved. Besides, Government have agreed in princi- ple to purchase the Chancery building in The Hague and a resi- dence for our Permanent Representative in New York. Govern- ment have also approved the purchase of site for offices and residences in Lusaka and Bangkok.

The Ministry had direct Teleprinter/Telex links with 43 Indian Missions/Posts abroad and similar links were established during the year with 8 more Missions/Post; abroad viz. Dar-es-Salaam, Ankara, Panama, Rome, Stockholm, Suva, Sydney and The Hague.

Routine work measurement studies of three Territorial Divi- sions, viz. Africa, Americas and Southern Divisions, were carried out in May 1973. On-the-spot work study of four of the seven Regional Passport Offices was also carried out by the Internal Work Study Unit during March-April 1973.

The Welfare Unit in the Ministry looks after the general welfare of all the officials serving at headquarters and in Missions abroad; but it has not been possible so far to tackle satisfactorily major difficulties such as children's education, accommodation etc., of the officials posted in India.


Efforts to increase the progressive use of Hindi in the official work of the Ministry as well as in Indian Missions abroad and Regional Passport Offices were continued. Passport application forms printed in Hindi and English are being made available for the public by all the Regional Passport Offices and other authori- ties concerned. The Official Language Implementation Committee of the Ministry kept watch over the implementation of the instructions of the Ministry of Home Affairs on the use of Hindi and suggested various measures in this respect. Committees have also been set up in the Regional Passport Offices to. ensure the progressive use of Hindi. Necessary arrangements are being made to impart training in Hindi noting and drafting to the staff in the Hindi work-shop which will be set up shortly in the Ministry. A short-term training programme in Hindi for IFS(A) officers is also under consideration.

During the year under review some more treaties and agree- ments were signed in Hindi. When the Soviet Delegation visited New Delhi in November 1973, all Agreements and the Consular Convention were prepared and signed in Hindi and English simultaneously. A printed booklet in diglot form containing the terminology used in the field of international treaties and agree- ments was brought out and distributed to all Ministries/Depart- ments of the Government of India. Arrangements are also being made for the vetting of treaties and agreements drafted in Hindi by other Ministries and Departments.

In pursuance of the decision of the Kendriya Hindi Samiti, a sub-committee of the Samiti was set up under the Chairmanship of the Foreign Minister and Vice-Chairmanship of the Minister of State for External Affairs to advise the Ministry on matters relating to the use of Hindi and its progress.

The work of propagation of Hindi abroad continued to make progress during the year under the frame-work of the 'Scheme for propagation of Hindi abroad' through our Missions in the coun- tries included in the Scheme. Hindi books worth rupees one lakh


approximately were sent to the Missions in these countries for setting up Hindi libraries there. Our Missions in Mauritius and Fiji have been doing very well in this direction with the help of Hindi Officers, and are providing necessary guidance and assis- tance to the local Hindi voluntary organisations in their pro- grammes for bringing out Hindi newspapers, preparing curriculam for Hindi teaching and conducting examinations on the completion of the courses and in organising other literary and cultural activities like Kavi Sammelans and staging Hindi dramas etc.

pg126> Jan 01, 1973

Appendix I International Conferences, Congresses, Seminars


International Conferences, Congresses, Seminars etc., in which India participated in 1973-74


Serial Conferences etc. participated Nature of Foreign ex- No. participa- change com- tion ponent 1 2 3 4 1 Colloquium on Advanced Methodologies for Official Agriculture Project and Policy, Washington. Jan 08, 1973 -9 February 1973. 2 21st Session Under ECAFE Transport " Rs. 1987.00 Management Commission, Bangkok. 9-16 January 1973. 3 8th Session of the International Bureau of " Rs. 2071.79 Education, Geneva. 16-19 Jan. 1973. 4 9th Meeting of the Standing Technical Sub- " Rs. 640. 00 Committee for South East Asia and Pacific Region, Bangkok. 17-19 January 1973. 5 Meeting of UNCITRAL Working Group on " Rs. 2038.20 International sale of Goods, New York. 22 January-2 Februry 1973. 6 Meeting of the Advisory Group of the Inter- " Rs. 5008.50 natinal Sugar Organisation, London. 22-26 January 1973. 7 25th Session of the UN Commission on " Narcotic Drugs, Geneva. 22 January -9 February 1973. 8 Meeting of the Technical Advisory Commit- " tee to the Consultative Group on Interna- tional Agricultural Research, Rome. 30 January-2 February, 1973. 9 Annual Programme Review Meeting and " Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees at IRRI, Los Banos (Philippines). 31 January -2 February 1973. 10 Commonwealth Youth Ministers Conference, " Rs. 9780.46 Lusaka. Jan.-Feb. 1973. 11 Meeting of UNCITRAL Working Group on " International Shipping Legislation, New Rs. 8361.40 York. 5-16 February 1973. APPENDIX I -- contd. 1 2 3 4 12 1st Meeting of ISO/TC23/SC7-Equipment for Official Rs. 1082.90 Harvesting and Conservation Sub-Commit- tee of Agricultural Tractors and Machinery, Rome. 6-7 February 1973. 13 189th Session of the Governing Body of " Rs. 6808.00 ILO Geneva. 8 February-2 March 1973. 14 FAO Technical Conference on Fishery " Development, Vancouver. 10-23 February 1978. 15 23rd Session of the UN Commission for " Rs. 10548.00 Social Development, New York. 12 February-2 March 73. 16 International Convention on Trade in certain " Rs. 8422.14 Species of wild life, Washington. 16 February-2 March 1973. 17 UNESCO Experts meeting to study working " Expenditure documents on the items of General Con- by UNESCO ference dealing with Instruments for Analysis of Culture. 20-24 February 1973. 18 6th Session of FAO Inter-Governmental " Rs. 3482.25 Group on Jute Kenaf and Allied Fibres, Rome. 21-23 February 1973. 19 29th Session of UN Commission on Human " Rs. 30100.00 Rights, Geneva. 26 February-6 April 1973. 20 Annual Conference of Pacific Area Travel " Rs. 8610.00 Association, Tokyo. February 1973. 21 Meeting of the UN Sea-bed Committee, " Rs. 20220.00 New York. 5 March-6 April 1973. 22 UNIDO/IRRI Regional Study and Expert " Group Meeting on the Design and Manufac- ture of Wet land Rice Mechanisation Machinery in the developing countries of Asia and Far East, Philippines. 12-17 March 1973. 23 4th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Con- " Rs. 907.17 ference Rotorua (New Zealand). 12-16 March 1973. 24 First Session of the UN Committee on Science " Rs. 12590.00 and Technology for development, New York. 12-30 March, 1973. 25 FAO Expert Consultation on Animal " Genetic Resources, Nanzilly (France). 19-24 March 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 26 12th Session of the Legal Sub-Committee Official Nil of the Committee of Peaceful uses of Outer- space at New York. 26 March to 12 April 1973. 27 Commonwealth Sugar Agreement Ministerial " Level consultations, London. 28-29 March 1973. 28 South Asia Regional Travel Commission, " Rs. 1165.00 Colombo. March 1978. 29 3rd Meeting of IPFC/Working Party on " Economics of Agriculture, Bangkok. 2-5 April 1973. 30 Conference on waves and instabilities in " US$ 618.00 Plasma, Austria. 2-7 April 1973. 31 6th Session of UNCITRAL, Geneva. 2-18 " Rs. 9119.75 April 1973. 32 International Council of Combustion Engineers " Rs. 2982.00 Washington. 5-9 April, 1973. 33 Annual Meeting of CIMMYT, Mexico. 8-12 " April 73. 34 3rd Session of FAP Sub-Committee on " Rs. 2882.25 Fisheries Education and Training, Rome. 9-17 April 1973. 35 Expert Consultation and Development of a " Co-operative Planning for Better Family Living Programme, Paris. 9-14 April 1973. 36 International Conference for the Support " of victims of colonialism and apartheid in South Africa, Oslo. 9-14 April 1973. 37 62ad Session of the Mekong Committee, " Rs. 1570.00 Tokyo, 11-24 April 1973. 38 Seminar on Regional Approaches to Agri- " cultural Development Planning, Philip- pines. 15-21 April 1973. 39 Seminar on Agriculture Problems in South " East Asia, Malacca. 17-25 April 1973. 40 Annual Conference of IRRI, Philippines. " 23-27 April 1973. 41 1973 Session of the United Nations Childrens' " Rs. 801.05 Fund Executive Board, Now York. 26 April-11 May 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 42 Commonwealth Specialist Conference on Official Rs. 2697.20 Teacher Education, Nairobi. 26 April- 11 May 1973. 43 World Administrative Telegraph and Tele- " Rs. 6971.40 phone Conference, Geneva. April 1973. 44 28th Session of Administrative Council " Rs. 1500.00 of the International Telecommunication Union, Geneva. April 1973. 45 10th Session of the UN Scientific and " Technical Sub-Committee of the Committee on the Peaceful uses of Outerspace, New York. 7-18 May 1973. 46 First Session of the UN Sugar Conference, " Geneva. 7-30 May 1973. 47 UIC/ORE International Colloquium, " Rs. 1570.00 Utrecht. 7-11 May 1973. 48 Preparatory Meeting of the non-aligned " countries Meeting, Kabul. l3-l5 May l973. 49 3rd International Congress on Experiments I " Mechanics, Los Angeles. 13-18 May 1973. 50 International Television Conference, Mount- " $524.00 reaux. 18-24 May 1973. 51 8th Session of the Co-ordinating Council for " Rs. 2375.00 the International Hydrological Decade UNESCO, Paris. 20-30 May 1973. 52 First Session of the International Geological " Correlation Programme, Paris. 20-25 May 1973. 53 XLI General Session of OIE, Paris. 21-26 " Rs. 248.10 May 1973. 54 Session of the Codex Committee of the " Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Pro- gramme, Washington. 21-25 May 1973. 55 COSPAR Conference, Konstanz (W. " $ 757.00 Germany). 22 May-6 June 1973. 56 XVI plenary meeting of COSPAR Federal " US $ 1668 Republic of Germany. 25 May-6 June 1973. DM 192 57 Final Workshop Meeting on changes in " Rice farming in Selected Areas of Asia, Manila. 28 May-1 June 1973. 58 Symposium on the Design of Water Re- " Rs. 2860.0 sources Project of Inadequate Data, Madrid. 4-9 June 1973. 59 21st Session of the Protein Advisory Groups, " New York. 4-8 June 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 60 FAO/IAEA Panel Meeting on Isotopes Official Tracer Aided Studies, Poland. 4-8 June 1973. 61 Annual Meeting of Board of Trustees of IRRI, " Philippines. 7-9 June 1973. 62 lnternational Conference on Marketing, " Rs. 3970.69 Greenbrier (USA). 8-13 June 1973. 63 60th Session of FAO Council, Rome. " Rs. 7068.47 64 24th Executive Council Meeting of the ICID, " Rs. 3071.40 Prague. 11-15 June 1973. 65 Intersputnik Conference, Bulgaria. 12-18 " $ 377 June 1973. 66 11th Congress of ICLD, Madrid. 11-15 " Rs. 6973.86 June 1978. 67 First Session of the Governing Council of the " Rs. 75000.00 UN Environment Programme, Geneva. 12-22 June 1973. 68 Second Quarterly Meeting of Coconut Pro- " duction and Productivity, Bangkok. 18-23 June 1973. 69 Symposium on magnetospheric motions, " US $ 191 USA. 18-22 June 1973. 70 The 19th American Astronautical Society " meeting in the capacity of co-Vice Chair- man. Dallas, USA- 19-21 June 1973. 71 4th "Pacem in Maribus" Convocation, Malts. " Rs. 1496.00 23-26 June 1973. 72 Seminar on 'lnstructional Training Techni- " Met by ques for Broadcasting', Kuala Lumpur. UNESCO 25 June-2 July 1973. 73 Asian African legal Consultative Committee's " Rs. 3200.00 Sub-Committee, Geneva. 28-30 June 1973. 74 95th Executive Committee Meeting of " Rs. 10433.00 IUOTO, Warsaw. June 1973. 75 International Congress "The Sun in the " Nil service of Mankind", Paris. 2-6 July 1973. 76 UN Committee of Sea-bed, Geneva. 2 July- " Rs. 130121.00 24 August 1973. 77 4th Meeting on Co-operation among Indust- " Rs. 6544.15 rial Development Financing Institutions, West Berlin. 4-11 July 1973. 78 55th Session of the UN Economic and Social " Rs. 33760 00 Council, Geneva. 4 July-10 August 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 79 1st Meeting of the Advisory Group of the Official International Soyabean Research, USA. 9-10 July 1973. 80 FAO ad-hoc Consultation on the Interna- " Rs. 1928. 00 tional Plant Protection Convention, Rome. 9-13 July 1973. 81 First Meeting of the Planning and Editing " Nil Committee of the Asian Area Common Reading Materials Development Programme, Tokyo. 9-14 July 1973. 82 Meeting of the FAO Technical Advisory " Committee on Fisheries, Rome. 10-19 July 73. 83 5th Session of CCP Inter-Governmental " Group on Banana and its Sub-Group of Exporters, Bremen. 10-20 July 1973. 84 10th Session of Joint ECE/Codex Alimentious " Group of Experts on Standardisation of Fruit Juices, Geneva. 16-20 July 1973. 85 Working Group on Statistics of the Distri- " Expenditure bution of Income, Consumption & Accu- by IBRD. mulation, Bangkok. 16-21 July 1973. 86 5th UN Congress on Prevention of Crime and " Treatment of Offenders. 16-21 July 1973. 87 UN Seminar on "The Family in a changing " Rs. 750.00 Society" Problems & Responsibilities of its Members, London. 18-31 July 1973. 88 International Symposium on the Hydrology " Rs. 2343.00 of Lakes, Finland. 23-27 July 1973. 89 Meeting of the FAO Technical Consultative " Group on Agriculture Research, Washington. 24 July-4 August 1973. 90 Inaugural Session of the Working Group on " Stratigraphic Correlation between Sedi- mentary Basins of the ECAFE Region, Bangkok. 24-30 July 1973. 91 The PATA Board of Directors Meeting, " Rs. 5193.00 Noumea (New Caledonia). July 1973. 92 FAO/DANIDA Seminar on Milk Manage- ment, Denmark. 4-26 August. 1973. 93 Plasma Physics Workshop session Italy. " 13-31 August 1973 94 5th Regional Conference of Development " Rs. 2291.75 Banks of Asia. 14-17 August 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 95 13th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Official $ 998 Denver. 17-30 August 1973. 96 13th International Conference on " Rs. 16400.60 Agriculture Economics, Brazil. 19-30 August 1973. 97 Seminar on Communication Revolution " US $ 688 sponsored by Australian National Commit- tee for UNESCO, Melbourne. 19-27 August 1973. 98 39th Session of I. S. I. Vienna. 20-30 " Rs.4925.00 August 1973. 99 XIII International Congress on Genetics " USA 20-24 August 1973. 100 Third International Gondwana Symposium, " Canberra. 20-25 August 1973. 101 International Conference on Nuclear Physics " US$ 449 Germany 27 August-1 September 1973 DM 200 102 Seminar on Prevention of Narcotic Offences " By Govt. of Tokyo. 2 September-4 October 1973. Japan. 103 15th Congress of the International Associa - " Rs. 3037.00 tion for Hydraulic Research, Istanbul. 3-9 September 1973. 104 ECAFE Seminar on Water Resources Manage- " Rs. 3840.00 ment, Bangkok. 3-21 September 1973. 105 Session on the Sare, Effective and Efficient " utilization of Insecticides, Bangkok. 3-12 September 1973. 106 10th International Symposium on Space " 69400 yen Technology and Science, Tokyo. 3-8 September 73. 107 Summit Conference of Non-aligned countries " Rs. 111982.00 Algiers. 3-10 September 1973. 108 IAGA Assembly meetings (2participants), " us $ 660 Japan. 9-21 September 1973. 109 Meeting of Panel of Coconut, Manila. 10-15 " September 1973. 110 Regional Seminar of Experts on Population " Nil Dynamics and Educational Planning, Bang- kok. 10-18 Sept. 1973. 111 2nd Session of the UN Sugar Conference, " Geneva. 10 September-13 October 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 112 Meeting of the Working Group on Papavev Official By U. N. Bractentum of the UN Fund for Drug Abuse Control, Tehran. 13-17 September, 1973. 113 UIMC-24th Congress, London. 17-22 " Rs. 2588.00 September, 1973. 114 34th Session of the International Conference " Rs. 13897.13 on Education and 9th Session of the Council of IBE, Geneva. 18-28 September 1973. 115 5th International Congress on Soil Zoolo. " gy, Prague, and 2nd International Cololquium on Collembola, Jevany. 19-26 September, 1973. 116 9th Session of Asia Pacific Forestry Commis- " Rs. 3556.10 sion, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia & Hong Kong. 20-28 September, 1973. 117 1st World Congress on Water Resources, " Rs. 11550.00 Chicago. 23-28 September, 1973. 118 Meeting of FAO ad-hoc Panel on " Vertebrate Peat Control and Ricel Gall Ridge, Bangkok. 26-27 September, 1973. 119 Meeting of AGRIS, Rome. 26-28 September " 1973. 120 Meeting of the Institute of Development " Studies, Sussex. 27-30 September, 1973. 121 International Meeting of Experts on UNESCO " Nil Associated Schools Project, Quebec. 29 Sept. -7 Oct. 1973. 122 International Symposium on Space Tech- " US $ 1591.00 nology & Science, Tokyo. September, Yen 7000 1973. 123 Inter-Country Workshop on Instant Health " Kathmandu. September /October, 1973. 124 Plenipotentiary Conference of the Inter- " Rs. 19623.00 national Telecommunication Union, Spain. September, 1973. 125 Symposium on Farm Water Management, " Utah (USA) 1-8 October, 1973. 126 Second Consultative Group Meeting on " Regional Tectonic Map of Asia and Far East, Kuala Lumpur. 1-3 October, 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 127 37th Study Seminar of the Institute of Official By Government Development Studies at the University of U.K. of Sussex, U. K. 1 October-2 November 1973. 128 International Criminal Police Organisation " (Interpol) Vienna. 2-9 October, 1973. 129 Second inter-regional Seminar on Statis- " Met by UNDP tical Organisation, Ottawa. 3-12 October 1973. 130 6th Session of FAO Statistics Committee " of Experts, Rome. 3-11 October 1973. 131 9th Regional Conference on Geology and " Mineral Resources Development, Kuala Lumpur. 4-15 October 1973. 132 International Astronautical Federation " $ 160 Congress held in the U. S. S. R. 6-13 October 1973. 133 Meetings of the ad hoc Committee of the UN " Commission on Narcotic Drugs for the Far East Region. 7 October-7 November, 1973. 134 48th Session of FAO's Committee on Com- " modity Problems, Rome. 8-19 October 1973. 135 Workshop on "Measurement of Real Pro- " Met by U.N. gress at the local level" organised by UN Research Institute for Social Develop- ment. 13-19 October 1973. 136 7th Session of the FAO Advisory Commit- " tee of Experts on Marine Fisheries, Italy. 15-24 October, 1973. 137 Meeting of the International Federation " of Institutes of Advanced Studies, Paris. 16-20 October 1973. 138 Meeting of the Selection Committee cons- " Rs. 3853.00 tituted by UNDP Headquarters at Geneva, 21-26 October 1973. 139 FAO ad hoe Government Consultation " Rs. 3052.44 on Fertilizers Rome. 22-24 October 1973. 140 UN/UNESCO African Regional Seminar " on Satellite Broadcasting Systems for Education and Development, Addis Ababa. 22-31 October 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 141 Third Extraordinary Session of the General Official Nil Conference of the UNESCO, Paris. 23-27 October 1973. 142 International Symposium on Animal " Research, Japan. 23-28 October 1973. 143 Conference on Machine Processing of Re- " $1125.00 motely Sensed Data at West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, and Conference on Mana- gement of utilization of Remote Sensing Data, South Dakota, USA. 29 October 1 November and 22-30 November 1973. 144 23rd General Assembly meeting of IUOTO, " Rs. 7438.00 Caracas. October 1973. 145 PATA Board of Directors' Meeting, San " Francisco. October 1973. 146 Inter-Regional Clinical and Public Health " Aspects of Human Reproduction, Tehran. 3-6 November 1973. 147 17th Session FAO Conference and 61st and " Rs. 54247.80 62nd Session FAO Council, Rome. 4 November-1 December 1973. 148 Meeting of the Managing Committee of " Rs. 2456.00 the World System of Scientific Informa- tion (UNISIST) of UNESCO, Paris. 5-9 November 1973. 149 UNESCO's Asian Programme of Educational " Nil Innovation for Development Meeting, Bang- kok. 5-19 November 1973. 150 17th Session of the International Lead and " Zinc Study Group, Geneva. 7-13 November 1973. 151 3rd World Symposium of Heads of Police " Colleges, Paris. 11-17 November 1973. 152 Meeting of the FAO Technical Advisory " Committee, Rome. 12-13 November 1973. 153 Meeting of the Govt. experts to review the " application of the agreements on the importa- tion of educational, scientific and cultural materials, Geneva. 26 November-3 December 1973. 154 67th Session of the I.W.C., London. " November 1973. 155 Expert Group Meeting on Flood Damage " Prevention, Now York. 3-6 December 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 156 2nd International Film Festival, Tehran. Officail December 1973. 157 25th Session of the Commission on the " Re. 24,800.00 Status of Women, New York. 14 January to 1 February 1974. 158 UN Symposium on Population and Human " Rs. 20,800.00 Rights, Amsterdam. 21 to 29 January 1974. 159 30th Session of the Commission on " Rs, 37,000.00 Human Rights, Now York. 4 February to 8 March 1974. 160 International Forum on the Role of " Women in Population and Development, New York. 25 February to 1 March, 1974. 161 International Conference on Launch " US $ 559.92 bases, Korou (French Guyana). 162 International] Ball Bearing Symposium, " US $ 620.00 MIT Cambridge (USA). 163 7th Space Simulation Conference, Los " US $ 520-00 Angeles. 164 International Conference on Structural. " $ 100.00 Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Berlin. 165 XV Plenery Meeting of COSPAR inclu- " (pound) 278.00 ding specialised Symposia, West Germany. 166 First Meeting of the Board of Governors of " Rs. 3126.84 INTELSAT, Washington. 167 World Administrative Telegraph and " Rs. 4525.23 Telephone Conference, Berne. 168 Meeting of the Standing Committee of the " Rs. 834.73 C.T.C., Singapore. 169 Meeting of the Working Party and Group " Rs. 3255.00 of Deputies (Long Term Planning), Montreal. 170 Meeting of Inter Sputnik Council, Moscow. " Rs. 1586.00 171 3rd Meeting of the Board of Governors of " Rs. 3912.00 INTELSAT, Washington. 172 4th Meeting of the Board of Governors of " Rs. 3400.00 INTELSAT, Washington. 173 5th Meeting of the Board of Governors of " Rs. 1076.10 INTELSAT, Canary Island. 174 6th Meeting of the Board of Governors of " Rs. 4100.00 INTELSAT, Washington, and the First Meeting of the National Co-ordinators of Asian Telecommunications Network, Tehran. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 175 Consultation of Lay Reporting of Prenatal Official and Maternal morbidity data and its analysis held by WHO at Geneva. 176 Seminar on Demographic Research in " relation to Population Growth targets and 2nd General Assembly for International Co-ordination of National Research in Damography (CICRED). 177 General Conference of the International " Union for Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP). B. IN INDIA 1 14th Annual Session of the Asian-African " Nil Legal Consultative Committee, New Delhi 10-17 January 1973. 2 International Seminar on Hydraulics of " Aluvial Streams, New Delhi. 15-19 January 1973. 3 Inter-Regional Seminar on Petroleum " Refining in Developing countries, New. Delhi. 22-31 January 1973. 4 Meeting of Finance and Rates Experts of " C. T. Council, Bombay. January 1973. 5 U. N. Inter-Regional Seminar on Current " Issues of Water Resources Administration, New Delhi. 22 January-27 February 1973. 6 International Colloquium on showing of " Railway Knowledge, New Delhi. 5-6 February 1973. 7 Third Session of the U. N. Committee on " Rs.37500.00 Natural Resources, New Delhi. 6-17 February 1973. 8 International Symposium on Recent " Nil Researches and Applications of Geoche- mistry, Patna. 20-26 February 1973. 9 2nd Congress of SBRAO at IARI New " Delhi. 22-28 February 1973. 10 Seminar on Physical Planning and Area " Development, New Delhi. March 1973, 11 Joint FAO/IAEA Seminar on the appli- " cation of Nuclear Techniques in Agriculture at IARI, New Delhi. 2-20 April 1973. APPENDIX I-contd. 1 2 3 4 12 Seminar on 10th Anniversary of World Official Food Programme, Now Delhi. 2 May 1973. 13 2nd FAO/SIDA Training Centre on Maize, " Sorghum and Millet for Africa and the Near East, Delhi. 18 June-14 December 1973. 14 Meeting of the Group of Experts of C. T. " Council, Bombay. June 1973. 15 2nd Meeting of International Commission " on Science Policy and Summer School, Now Delhi. 18-28 July 1973. 16 Commonwealth Telecommunications Coun- " cil Meeting, Bangalore. July 1973. 17 Participation by the Foreign team of " experts in the field of communication techniques in the agriculture extension workshop, Udaipur. 20 August-20 September 1973. 18 12th All India Wheat Worker Workshop at " IARI, Now Delhi. August 1973. 19 FAO/Agricultural Banking Seminar, Hydera. " bad. 10 September-13 October 1973. 20 The South Central Asia Regional Staff " Conference on UNICEF, Now Delhi. 1-6 October 1973. 21 5th South East Asia Post Graduate Nemo. " tology Course, Aligarh. Commencing from 3 October 1973. 22 FAO/NORAD Regional Seminar/Workshop " on utilization of Small Plegic fish, Erna- kulam. 8-12 October 1973. 23 International UNESCO Post Graduate " Course on Teaching of Agricultural Engineering Ludhiana. 22 October-8 November 1973. 24 Seminar at the 32nd Plenary Meeting of " the International Cotton Advisory Com- mittee, New Delhi. October/November 1973. 25 FAO-9th Session of the Plant Protection " Committee for the South East Asia and Pacific Regions, New Delhi. 2-9 November 1973. 26 FAO/NORAD Training Course in Accous- " tic Methods for Fish Detection and Abundance Estimation, Cochin. 15-23 November 1973. APPENDIX I-concld. 1 2 3 4 27 Fourth Asian Conference on Work of Blind Official held under the auspices of the Asian Committee of the World Council for the Welfare of the Blind, Bombay. 2-8 December 1973. 28 7th Asia Electronics Conference and 3rd " General Assembly of Asia Electronics Union, New Delhi. 5-11 December 1973. 29 Forestry and Forest Product Conference, " Dehradun 6-11 December 1973. 30 Symposium at IARI on the method of broad- " ing short term wheat varieties under Indo- USSR Protocol. 10 December 1973. 31 Regional Seminar for the Executive Secre- " taries of National Book Development Councils in Asia, New Delhi. 10-15 Dec. 1973. 32 12th Session of Conference of Asian Statis- " ticians, New Delhi. 10-22 December 1973. 33 Discussion on various issues having bearing " on Agricultural Banking in relation to Co-operative and Commercial Banks organised by FAO, Ministry of Agriculture, Reserve Bank of India & State Bank of India. 34 International Jury for Mohammad Raza " Palhavi and Nadezhda K. Krupskaya Literacy Prizes. Jan 08, 1973

Appendix II International Organisations

Jan 01, 1973 
                            APPENDIX II 
        International Organisations of which India became a Member/ 
                        ceased to be a Member 
Serial   Name of the International Organisation of      Ceased to be a 
NO.         which India became a Member                     Member 
1   UN Population Commission of the UN 
    Economic and Social Council. 
2   National Railways Safety Council, USA. 
3   International Union of Official Travel Orga- 
    nisation (IUOTO). 
4   South Asia Regional Travel Commission 

  Jan 01, 1973

Appendix III Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed

           Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by 
                   India with other countries in 1973* 
                      (*This List is not exhaustive) 
S.    Title of Convention/Treaty/          Date of    Date of    Date on   Rema
No.             Agreement                  signa-     Ratifi-    which 
                                           ture       cation/    entered 
                                                      Accept-    into 
                                                      ance/      force 
1                  2                          3          4           5         
    General Agreement on Tariffs and 
     Trade (GATT) 
1  Protocol for the Accession of the        1-2-73     1-2-73     1-2-73 
    People's Republic of Bangladesh 
    to the General Agreement on 
    Tariffs and Trade. 
    International Atomic Energy Agency 
2  Amendment of Article VI of the,                     7-3-73     1-6-73 
    Statute of the International 
    Atomic Energy Agency as 
    adopted by the General Confer- 
    ence of the International Atomic 
    Energy Agency on Sep 28, 1970 
    at its one hundred and 
    forty second plenary meeting. 
    International Development Asso- 
     ciation (I.D.A.) 
    Credit No. 356 IN 
3  Development Credit Agreement             9-2-73 
    industrial Development Bank of 
    India Project) between India 
    and International Development 
    Association (I.D.A.). 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                        2                        3        4         5 
      Credit No. 356 IN 
4  Project Agreement (Industrial               9-2-73 
    Development Bank of India 
    Project) between International 
    Development Association and 
    Industrial Development Bank 
    of India. 
      Credit No. 357 IN 
5  Development Credit Agreement                9-2-73 
    (Nangal Fertilizer Expansion 
    Project) between India and 
    International Development Asso- 
      Credit No. 357 IN 
6  Project Agreement (Nangal                   9-2-73 
    Fertilizer Expansion Project) 
    between International Develop- 
    ment Association and Fertilizer 
    Corporation of India. 
      Credit No. 378 IN 
7  Development Credit Agreement                9-5-73 
    Mysore Agricultural Wholesale 
    Markets Project) between India 
    and International Development 
      Credit No. 378 IN 
8  Project Agreement (Mysore                   9-5-73 
    Agricultural Wholesale Markets 
    Project) between International 
    Development Association and 
    Agricultural Refinance Corpo- 
      Credit No. 378 IN 
9  Mysore Agreement (Mysore                    9-5-73 
    Agricultural Wholesale Markets 
    Project) between International 
    Development Association and 
    State of Mysore. 
      Credit No. 391 IN 
10 Development Credit Agreement                8-6-73 
    (Madhya Pradesh Agricultural 
    Credit Project) between India 
    and International Development 
    Association (I.D.A.). 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                           2                  3          4         5          
      Credit No. 391 IN 
11 Project Agreement (Madhya Pra-            8-6-73 
    desh Agricultural Credit Pro- 
    ject) between International 
    Development Association and 
    Agricultural Refinance Corpo- 
    ration and Madhya Pradesh 
    State Co-operative Land Deve- 
    lopment Bank Limited. 
      Credit No. 391 IN 
12 Madhya Pradesh Agreement                  8-6-73 
    (Madhya Pradesh Agricultural 
    Credit Project) between the 
    State of Madhya Pradesh and 
    International Development 
      Credit No. 392 IN 
13 Development Credit Agreement              8-6-73 
    (Uttar Pradesh Agricultural 
    Credit Project) between India 
    and International Development 
      Credit No. 392 IN 
14 Project Agreement (Uttar Pra-             8-6-73 
    desh Agricultural Credit Pro- 
    ject) between International Deve- 
    lopment Association and Agri- 
    cultural Refinance Corporation 
    and Uttar Pradesh State Co- 
    operative Land Development 
    Bank Limited. 
      Credit No. 392 IN 
15 Uttar Pradesh Agreement (Uttar            8-6-73 
    Pradesh Agricultural Credit Pro 
    Project) between the State of 
    Uttar Pradesh and International 
    Development Association. 
      Credit No. 402 IN 
16 Development Credit Agreement             25-6-73 
    (Eighth Industrial Imports Pro 
    ject) between India and Inter- 
    national Development Associa- 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                 2                             3           4         5        
    International Labour Organization 
17 Instrument for the Amendment                          26-5-73 
    of the Constitution of the Inter. 
    national Labour Organisation 
    United Nations High Commissioner 
        for Refugees 
        Project No. RF/LS/IND.1/73 
18 Agreement under the Programme             15-3-73 
    of the United Nations High 
    Commissioner for Refugees for 
    Assistance to Land settlements/ 
    repairs in Chandragiri/Mahen- 
        Project No. 71/LS/IND 5 
19 Supplementary Agreement under             15-6-73 
    the Programme of the United 
    Nations High Commissioner for 
    Refugees for Assistance towards 
    Local settlement. 
        Project No. 73/LS/IND. 4(a) 
20 Agreement under the Programme             10-8-73 
    of the United Nations High 
    Commissioner for Refugees for 
    Vocational Training. 
        Project No. 73/LS/IND. 4(c) 
21 Agreement under the Programme             10-8-73 
    of the United Nations High 
    Commissioner for Refugees for 
    Vocational Training. 
        Project No. 73/LS/IND. 4(b) 
22 Agreement under the Programme             19-9-73 
    of the United Nations High 
    Commissioner for Refugees for 
    Vocational Training. 
   Project No. 69/LS/IND. 3-7 0-731 
        LS/IND 6 
23 Supplementary Agreement under             19-9-73 
    the Programme of the United 
    Nations High Commissioner for 
    Refugees for Consolidation of the 
    Manipat Land Settlement, 
    Madhya Pradesh, India. 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                   2                         3           4         5        6 

    Project No. 73/LS/IND. 5(c) 
24 Agreement under the Programme           27-9-73 
    of the United Nations High Com- 
    missioner for Refugees for Assis- 
    tance towards Local settlement. 
25 Credit Agreement between the            29-1-73               29-1-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the People's 
    Republic of Bangladesh for 
    Rupees twelve million three 
    hundred and ten thousand. 
26 Agreement between the Govern-            7-4-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of the People's Republic 
    of Bangladesh regarding the 
    supply of telecommunication 
27 Agreed Minutes of the meeting           25-5-73 
    held in Dacca on 22nd, 23rd and 
    24th May 1973, between the 
    Planning Commissions of India 
    and Bangladesh. 
28 Trade Agreement between the              5-7-73               28-9-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the People's 
    Republic of Bangladesh. 
29 Protocol with reference to Article       5-7-73               28-9-73 
    IV of the Trade Agreement (5th 
    July, 1973) between India and 
30 Agreement between the Republic of       27-8-73               27-8-73 
    India and the People's Republic 
    of Bangladesh on Co-operation in 
    the fields of the Peaceful Uses of 
    Atomic Energy. 
31 Exchange of Letters between the        29-11-73              29-11-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the People's 
    Republic of Bulgaria regarding 
    establishment of Joint Commis- 
    sion for Economic, Scientific and 
    Technical Co-operation. 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                       2                       3           4          5       
32 Agreement between the Govern-             31-1-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of Canada regarding Re. 
    scheduling of Loan Instalments 
    in respect of Rajasthan Atomic 
    Power Project, Stage 1. 
33 Exchange of Letters between the            2-2-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Canada for pro- 
    viding a further loan of C$3.0 
    Million (II Tranche) for ONGC/ 
    Oil India Ltd. 
34 Agreement between the Govern-             28-2-73 
    moat of India and the Govern- 
    ment of Canada regarding Re- 
    scheduling of Loam Instalments 
    in respect of the Loan for Diesel 
35 Exchange of Letters regarding             28-2-73 
    amendment of the agreement 
    signed on 21st February 1967, 
    concerning a development loan 
    in the amount of eleven, million 
    eight hundred and fifty thousand 
    Canadian dollars. 
36 Loan Agreement between the                16-3-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Canada for C$ 
    7.5 Million for Polybutadience 
    Synthetic Rubber Project of 
    Indian Petrochemicals Corpora- 
    tion Limited (I.P.C.L.). 
37 Exchange of Letters between the           31-3-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Canada for 
    amending the existing credit 
    agreement which was signed on 
    16th July 1971. 
38 Exchange of Letters between the          31-3-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Canada for 
    extending the terminal drawal 
    date from 31st March 1973, 
    to 31st December 1973, for 
    Canadian Development Loan of 
    C $ 6 Million for purchase of 
    Loco Components. 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                       2                     3          4         5          6
39 Exchange of Letters between the         21-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Canada regard- 
    ing amendment for inclusion of 
    certain items for procurement 
    of telecommunication equip- 
    ment by P&T Board (Under the 
    Agreement dated 30th Septem- 
    ber 1969, between India and 
    Canada for development loan in 
    the amount of C $ 40 Million 
40 Exchange of Letters between the         25-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Canada regard- 
    ing amendment to the agree- 
    ment signed on 16th July 1971. 
41 Canadian Development Loan               18-7-73 
    Agreement for C $ 50. 0 Million 
    for Industrial Commodities and 
42 Exchange of Letters for grant            6-8-73               6-8-73 
    assistance of C $ 15 Million for 
    import of rapeseed. or rapeseed 
    products front Canada. 
43 Canadian Development Loan                9-8-73 
    Agreement for three million nine 
    hundred and seventy two thou- 
    sand Canadian dollars for the 
    procurement of turbine genera- 
    tor equipment required for 
    augmentation Of Power Houses 
    Number 3 and Number 4 of the 
    KUNDAH Hydel Project in 
    Tamil Nadu. 
44 Memorandum of understanding              9-8-73               9-8-73 
    between India and Canada con- 
    cerning the Supply of the Turbine 
    Generator Equipment required 
    for the augmentation of Power 
    Houses Numbers 3 and 4 of the 
    KUNDAH Hydel Project in 
    Tamil Nadu. 
                          APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                   2                        3             4           5       
45 Exchange, of Letters between the       4-10-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Canada for C $ 6 
    Million to finance the purchase 
    of equipment etc., from Canada 
    for Oil and Gas exploration 
    by the ONGC/Oil India Ltd. 
46 Exchange of Letters between the       30-10-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Canada for pro- 
    viding freight financing for 
    'Potash' against Canadian Com- 
    modities/Fertilizers Loan Agree- 
    merit for C $ 50 Million of 18th 
    July 1,973. 
47 Agreement between the Govern-         27-11-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of Canada for develop- 
    ment Loan of C $ 10 Million for 
    import of Potash from Canada. 
48 Agreement between the Govern-          28-6-73             28-6-73 
    meat of Denmark and the 
    Government of India for the 
    setting up of an ABATTOIR at 
    CFTRI* Mysore. 
49 Exchange of Letters between the        30-8-73             30-8-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Denmark regard- 
    ing extension of the February 
    1963 Agreement for a further 
    period of five years i.e. until 18th 
    February 1978. 
    *Central Food Technological Research Institute. 
                            APPENDIX III contd. 
1                        2                     3             4          5      
59 Indo-French Financial Protocol-           7-2-73 
    1973-74 (Relative to French 
    credits for financing the Develop- 
    ment Plan in India). 
51 Indo-French, Special Financial            7-2-73 
    Protocol 1973-74 (Relative to 
    the French Credits for financing 
    the goods and services for the 
    Indian Atomic Energy and Space 
52 Agreement between the Govern-            18-9-73              18-9-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of France regarding debt 
    relief for 1973-74. 
53 Exchange of Letters between the          19-1-73              19-1-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Federal Republic 
    of Germany regarding the exten- 
    sion of the Agreement for Joint 
    Agricultural Development Pro- 
    jects in Mandi and Kangra Dis- 
    tricts of Himachal Pradesh. 
54 Additional Agreement between             28-3-73 
    the Government of India and 
    WIEDER-AUFBAU for a 
    Credit of DU 98 Million for Debt 
    Relief Prolongation-1972-73. 
55 Exchange of Letters between the           3-5-73               3-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Federal 
    Republic of Germany for the 
    supply of 6,000 tons of fertilizer 
    and 5,000 pairs of pruning 
    shears for Mandi Project. 
56 Exchange of Letters between the           3-5-73               3-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Federal 
    Republic of Germany for the 
    supply of 4,000 tons of fertilizer 
    for Kangra Project. 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                2                            3           4           5        
57 Exchange of Letters between the          3-5-73                 3-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Federal 
    Republic of Germany for the 
    supply of 3,120 tons of fertilizer 
    to Almora Project. 
58 Exchange of Letters between the          3-5-73                 3-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Federal Re- 
    public of Germany for the sup- 
    ply of 3,000 tons of fertilizer for 
    Mandi Project. 
59 Exchange of Letters between the          3-5-73                 3-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Federal Re- 
    public of Germany for the 
    supply of 3,200 tons of fertilizer 
    for Kangra Project. 
60 Loan Agreement between                  24-7-73 
    WIEDER-AUFBAU and the 
    Government of India for DM 
    12,000,000 (Caustic Soda Pro- 
    ject T.C.C.). 
61 Arbitration Agreement with              24-7-73 
    reference to Article X, paragraph 
    (6) of the above mentioned 
    Loan Agreement dated 24th 
    July 1973. 
62 Project Agreement between               24-7-73 
    WIEDER-AUFBAU and the 
    Travancore-Cochin Chemicals 
    Ltd. (India). 
63 Arbitration Agreement with re-          24-7-73 
    ference to Article VI, paragraph 
    (5) of the above mentioned Pro- 
    ject Agreement dated 24th July 
64 Agreement between the Govern-           28-8-73                 28-8-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of the Federal Republic of 
    Germany concerning Financial 
    Assistance in 1973-74. 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                    2                       3          4          5          6
65 Exchange of Letters between the         18-9-73              18-9-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Federal Re- 
    public of Germany regarding 
    extension of the agreement 
    concerning Indo-German Agri- 
    cultural Development Project, 
    Almora (U.P.). 
66 Additional Agreement between           19-10-73 
    WIEDER-AUFBAU and the 
    Government of India for DM 
    98,000,000 for Debt Relief 
67 Arbitration Agreement with             19-10-73 
    reference to Article IX, para- 
    graph (6) of the above men- 
    tioned agreement dated 19th 
    October 1973. 
68 Exchange of Letters between the        11-12-73              11-12-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Federal Re- 
    public of Germany regarding 
    extension of the agreement con- 
    cerning Indo-German Agricul- 
    tural Development Project, 
    Nilgiris (Tamil Nadu). 
69 Loan Agreement between the             21-12-73 
    Government of India and 
    one hundred million (Commodi- 
    ties XV). 
70 Arbitration Agreement with re-         21-12-73 
    ference to the provision of Article 
    X, paragraph (6) of the above 
    noted Loan Agreement. 
71 Trade Agreement between the             31-1-73              31-1-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Greece. 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                      2                     3           4            5        
72 Exchange of Notes between the                                  28-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Imperial Government of Iran 
    for the avoidance of double 
    taxation of income of enterprises 
    operating aircraft. 
   Notes of Imperial Government 
    of Iran-29-3-1973 and Govern- 
    ment of India-1-4-1973. 
73 Agreement between the Govern-            6-4-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment, of Iraq bearing title "Co- 
    operation Agreement" between 
74 Agreement on Economic and                6-4-73    26-7-73     26-7-73 
    Technical Co-operation bet- 
    ween the Government of India 
    and the Government of the Re- 
    public of Iraq. 
75 Cultural Agreement between the          19-4-73    13-9-73     13-9-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Republic of 
76 Exchange of Notes between the           26-1-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Japan regarding 
    foreign exchange requirements. 
        XII Yen Credit (1972-73) 
77 Loan Agreement between the               2-2-73 
    Export-Import Bank of Japan 
    and the President of India. 
78 Rescheduling Agreement between           2-2-73                2-2-73 
    the Export-Import, Bank of 
    Japan and the President of 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                 2                            3            4          5       
79 Agreement between the Govern-             2-2-73                2-2-73 
    ment of India and His Majesty's 
    Government of Nepal regarding 
    the supply of Iodised Salt to 
80 Agreement between the Govern-            23-2-73 
    ment of India and His Majesty's 
    Government of Nepal for a tem- 
    porary stand-by Credit of Rs. 10 
81 Agreement between the Govern-             5-3-73                5-3-73 
    ment of India and His Majesty's 
    Government of Nepal regarding 
    the Projects taken up under the 
    Additional Assistance Prog- 
82 Exchange of Letters between the           5-3-73                5-3-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Nepal regarding 
    the Projects taken up under the 
    Additional Assistance Prog- 
83 Credit Agreement between the             22-8-73 
    Government of India and De 
    Nederlandse Investerings Bank 
    Voor Ontwikkelingslanden 
    68,000,000 Netherlands guil- 
84 Addendum to the Loan Agree-              22-8-73 
    ment between the President 
    of India and De Nederlandse 
    Investerings Bank Voor Ont- 
    wikkelingslanden dated 22nd 
    Augusts 1973, for a maximum 
    amount forty-five million 
    Netherlands guilders as project 
    Loan in addition to the eighteenth 
    Loan for 68,000,000 Nether- 
    lands guilders. 
85 Exchange of Letters between the          3-10-73               3-10-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Netherlands for 
    setting up of Joint Indo-Nether- 
    lands Committee for Economic 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                        2                     3           4           5       
86 Agreement between India and              28-8-73 
    Pakistan, concluded with the 
    concurrence of the Government 
    of Bangladesh. 
87 Cultural Agreement between                6-9-69     20-12-73    20-12-73 
    India and the Philippines. 
88 Exchange of Letters between the           7-3-73                   7-3-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of Sweden regar- 
    ding Debt Relief. 
89 Agreement between the Govern-            18-6-73                  18-6-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of Sweden regarding Deve- 
    lopment Co-operation. 
90 Trade Agreement between the              19-9-73                  19-9-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the Republic of 
91 Protocol between the Minister           27-12-73 
    of Heavy Industry and Steel & 
    Mines of India (Shri T. A. Pai) 
    and Minister of Coal Industry 
    of the U.S.S.R.(Shri B. F. Brat- 
    chenko) for further expansion 
    of scientific and technical co- 
    operation in the field of Coal 
                            APPENDIX III-contd. 
1                         2                     3          4         5         
92 Exchange of Letters between the           7-3-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the United 
    Kingdom regarding amendment 
    to the United Kingdom/India 
    Maintenance Loan, 1972. 
93 Exchange of letters between the          28-3-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the United 
    Kingdom regarding the second 
    amendment to the United 
    Kingdom/India Maintenance 
    Loan, 1972. 
94 Exchange of Notes between the            24-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of the United 
    Kingdom of Great Britain and 
    Northern Ireland regarding 
    United Kingdom/India Capital 
    Investment Loan, 1973 for four- 
    teen million pounds sterling 
95 Exchange of Letters between the          24-5-73 
    Government of India and the 
    Government of United Kingdom 
    of Great Britain and Northern 
    Ireland regarding United 
    Kingdom/India Capital Invest- 
    ment Loan, 1973 for fourteen 
    million pounds sterling. 
96 Agreement between the Govern-            30-1-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of USA regarding Amend- 
    ment No. 1 to PL 480 Loan 
    Agreement No. 386-G-182 dated 
    March 8, 1968. 
97 Agreement between the Govern-            30-1-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of USA regarding amend- 
    ment No. 1 to PL 480 Loan 
    Agreement No. 386-G-197 dated 
    March 10, 1969. 
                            APPENDIX III-concld. 
1                         2                  3             4          5        
98  Agreement between the Govern-         30-1-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of USA regarding Amend- 
    ment No. 1 to PL 480 Loan 
    Agreement No. 386-G-205 dated 
    January 14, 1970. 
99  Agreement between the Govern.         30-3-73                  30-3-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of the United States of 
    America regarding the Consoli- 
    dation and Rescheduling of 
    certain debts owed to the United 
    States Government and its 
100 Agreement between the Govern-         30-3-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of the United States of 
    America regarding the Consoli- 
    dation and rescheduling of pay- 
    ment under PL 480 Title I Agri- 
    cultural Commodity Agreement. 
101 Agreement between the Govern-         30-3-73 
    ment of India and the Govern- 
    ment of U.S.A. relating to debt 
    relief on AID Loans. 
102 Protocol on Economic, Commer-         23-1-73 
    cial, Technical, Scientific, Cul- 
    tural, Aviation and Maritime 
    Co-operation between the Govern- 
    ment of India and the National 
    Executive Council of the Re- 
    public of Zaire. 
pg157> Sep 28, 1970

Appendix IV ITEC Programme

ITEC Programme

(A) Proposal for Training under Consideration

1. Afghanistan 12 trainees are proposed to be accepted in Mining and Industry, and others in Health. 2. Cyprus Three trainees in weights and measures are expected to come. 3. Ethiopia 6 trainees are likely to come for training in Forestry, Handloom technology etc. 4. ECA 8-10 trainees are expected to come from ECA for training in research and develop- ment in Science and Technology with particular reference to industrialization. The candidates are expected to be men holding top-managerial positions in their home countries. 5. Fiji 3 trainees in rural development are expect- ed. 6. Laos One nominee for training in forestry is ex- pected. Besides, two officers are expected to visit India for a month to study the administration of forests. 7. Libya 31 trainees in vocational courses are ex- pected to come. 8. Madagascar Trainees in meteorology, coking coal, etc are expected. 9. Mauritius A number of trainees in small scale indus- tries, community development and allied fields are expected. 10. Maldives 17 trainees are expected to come for training in primary school education and higher education and telecommunications. 11. Nigeria As a result of the visit of a delegation led by the Chairman of the Nigerian Oil Cor- poration, requests were received for facili- ties in India for the training of their en- gineering geologists and technicians in the field of Oil exploration, refining and fertilizer industry, and arrangement for a special training course at the Institute of Petroleum Exploration, Dehra Dun. In the, field of Steel, the Nigerians have requested training facilities for their technicians and pg158>


the Steel Authority of India Ltd., have agreed to train 24 Nigerian technicians in batches of six each. A batch of 22 trainees are undergoing training in Oil exploration at Dehra Dun. Three more trainees in Hydrographic Survey at the Hoogly River Development Board, Calcutta, are expect-. ed.

12. Papua-New Guniea 5 trainees in electrical engineering are ex- pected to come. 13. Senegal One trainee for training at the Film and T.V. Institute, Poona is expected to come. 14. Sudan 15 trainees are expected to come in Phar- macy, medicine, dentistry, radiography, law, animal husbandry, mica. 15. Sri Lanka Trainees in various fields including card- board, handmade paper, sugar, glucose, mica, etc. are expected. 16. Tanzania 38 trainees are proposed to be accepted for training in the fields of Pharmacy, Enginee- ring, Accountancy and Commerce and Small Scale Industries. 17. Western-Samoa An Officer from the Government of Western Samoa is expected to visit for 60 days to study small scale industries. Besides four trainees in small scale industries are ex- pected to come. 18. Zanzibar 13 trainees in small scale industries are ex. pected to come. 19. Zambia 2 trainees in Personnel Management/Tea- chers Training in India, are expected to come. (B) Deputation of Indian Experts under consideration 1. Afghanistan 48 experts in the fields of health, irrigation and power, industry, education, public works, mining etc., are expected to be deputed. 2. Barbados A proposal to send an lnsurance Supervisor is under consideration. 3. Democratic Republic of A proposal to depute 5 experts in different Vietnam fields of Agriculture arid Animal Hus- bandry is tinder consideration. 4. Ecuador A two-member team is proposed to be de- puted to advise that Government on food technology. 5. Ethiopia A proposal to depute a Gynaecologist and a nurse/midwife is under consideration. pg159> APPENDIX IV-contd. 6. Fiji An engineer for conducting studies in the possibilities of development of hydroelec. tric resources in Fi j is under consideration. 7. Indonesia Two additional teachers are likely to be de. puted. 8. Iraq A delegation of 21 Railway experts is pro. posed to be deputed shortly. 9. Mauritius 20 experts are proposed to be deputed in agriculture, engineering architecture, edu- cation, fisheries, tea management, etc. 10. Maldives One teacher is proposed to be deputed. 11. People's Demotratic Republic One Bus Transport Economist is proposed of Yemen to be deputed. Besides 3 experts are pro- posed to be deputed to explore possibili- ties of technical and economic co-opera- tion. 12. Peru An expert in leather technology is proposed to be deputed. 13. Sri Lanka Two experts in animal husbandry, four for installation of microwave link between India and Sri Lanka and another for collect- ing the necessary data in connection with the Kotamalee Project, are proposed to be deputed. 14. Somalia A proposal to depute one Legal Adviser on land tenure matters, is under consideration. 15. Sudan A proposal to depute two experts-one Economic Adviser and one Pharmacologist is under consideration. 16. Tanzania 8 experts in fields of coconut cultivation, paper technology and agriculture are pro- posed to be deputed. 17. Tonga It is proposed to depute a Mechanical En- gineer to work for the Ministry of Works. 18 Zambia Two experts in Imports and Exports and Planning are proposed to be deputed. (C) Donations/Gifts under ITEC Programme 1. Afghanistan Technical literature on irrigation, agricul- ture, electric generation, etc. costing Re. 26,000 has been made. 2. Burma Chemicals and books costing Rs. 50,000 have been gifted. 3. Cambodia An additional grant of Rs.5,86,000 has been made to the multi-national Prek Thnot irrigation project. pg160>


4. Fiji A gift of scientific and laboratory equipment worth Rs. 50,000 has been made to the South Pacific University. A gift of grass carp fish for breeding purposes is to be made shortly. 5. Guinea Hospital equipment costing Rs. 1 lakh has been made. 6. Iraq 100 Kgs. of oil seeds have been donated by the Punjab Agricultural University. An- other gift of agricultural implements cost- ing Rs. 25,000 has been made during the year. 7. Laos Donation of vegetable seeds worth Rs. 16,500 has been made. 8. Malaysia Equipment costing Rs. 3.25 lakhs for the proposed Technical Training Centre in the State of Negri Sembilan is being gifted. 9. Mauritius A consignment of 25,000 fish fry costing Rs. 2600 was presented for experimental purposes. A grant of Rs. 44 lakhs has already been agreed to be made towards our contribution to the Mahatma Gandhi Institute which covers deputation of experts and cost of equipment and mater- ial. Another gift of 100 goats costing Rs. 1 lakh has been made. 10. Oman Laboratory equipment and chemicals cost- ing Rs. 1 lakh has been made for use in their Agricultural Research Institute. 11. Peru Electrical equipment costing Rs. 3.73 lakhs is being gifted for a transmission network. 12. Somalia 62 sewing machines and 50 knitting machi- nes costing about Its. 85,000 are being gifted. 13. Sudan It is proposed to donate books/publication on Indian Law and a provision of Rs. 10,000 has been made. 14. Tanzania A common facility centre as part of the In - dustrial Estate is proposed to be donated at a cost of Rs. 10.5 lakhs. 15. Y.A.R. A gift of 100 irrigation pump sets costing Rs. 8 lakhs is contemplated during the current year. 16. Zambia A donation of drugs and pharmaceuticals costing Rs. 3.64 lakhs has been made. pg161>


(D) Deputation of Indian Experts under ITEC Programme Name of the country During 1973-74 (Up to Oct. 1973) AFGHANISTAN 87 CYPRUS 1 E.C.A. 1 ETHIOPIA 4 FIJI (including Tonga) 8 INDONESIA 2 IRAN 2 IRAQ 21 KENYA 1 LAOS 2 MALAYSIA 7 MALDIVES 2 MAURITIUS 31 MALTA 1 MOROCCO 31 OMAN 4 SOUTH YEMEN 13 SENEGAL 2 SOMALIA 16 SRI LANKA 7 TANZANIA 17 UPPER VOLTA 2 ZAMBIA 1 235 pg162> Jan 01, 1973

Appendix V Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts Abroad


Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts Abroad during 1973-74

The expenditure during 1973-74 on Headquarters of this Ministry is of. the order of Rs. 283.12 lakhs, a sum of Rs. 133.95 lakhs is towards Establishment charges, a sum of Rs. 104.88 lakhs for publicity, cables, diplomatic bags services etc., a sum of Rs. 36.53 lakhs for travelling expenses and the balance of Rs. 7.76 lakhs for Interim Relief.

The expenditure on Missions/Posts including Special Missions in Thimpu and Gangtok is Rs. 1326.90 lakhs out of which a sum of Rs. 727.57 lakhs is spent on Establishment charges including Foreign and other Compensatory allowances, a sum of Rs. 66.36 lakhs on passages for transfers and local tours, Rs. 39.96 lakhs for publicity contingencies and Rs. 491.01 lakhs on official and residential accommodation, P&T charges and other office contingencies. The average expenditure per Mission comes to Rs. 11.34 lakhs.

The expenditure mentioned above (viz., Rs. 1610.02 lakhs as per details below) on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad includes expenditure on External Publicity programme/activities. The break-up of this expenditure is as under:-

 (Rs. in lakhs) 

(a) HEADQUARTERS (i) Salaries (Officers 25, Staff 119) 8.68 (ii) Travelling Expenses 2.06 (iii) Publicity Contingencies Charges 37.00 47.74 pg163> APPENDIX V-concld. (b) Missions/Posts Abroad (i) salaries (officers 50, Staff 304) 44.64 (ii) Foreign Allowance, Compensatory allowance 24.88 (iii) Passages and Travelling Expenses 5.27 (iv) Publicity Contingencies 39.96 (v) Other Charges including renting of residential acco- mmodation and other Office contingencies.. 16.85 131.60 TOTAL EXTERNAL PUBLICITY 179.34 The expenditure on External Publicity as detailed above comes to 8.98% of the expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad. (Rs. in lak hs) Establish- Travelling Other To tal ment Expenses Charges Charges I. SECRETARIAT (a) Headquarters 133.03 34.47 67.88 235 .38 (b) External Publicity Division 8.68 2.06 37.00 47 .74 141.71 36.53 104.88 283 .12 II. OVERSEAS ESTABLISHMENT (a) Missions/Posts abroad 658.05 61.09 476.16 1195 .30 (b) Publicity Wing 69.52 5.27 56.81 131 .60 727.57 66.36 532.97 1326 .90 GRAND TOTAL 869.28 102.89 637.85 1610 .02 pg164> Jan 01, 1973


Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts Abroad during 1973-74

The expenditure during 1973-74 on Headquarters of this Ministry is of. the order of Rs. 283.12 lakhs, a sum of Rs. 133.95 lakhs is towards Establishment charges, a sum of Rs. 104.88 lakhs for publicity, cables, diplomatic bags services etc., a sum of Rs. 36.53 lakhs for travelling expenses and the balance of Rs. 7.76 lakhs for Interim Relief.

The expenditure on Missions/Posts including Special Missions in Thimpu and Gangtok is Rs. 1326.90 lakhs out of which a sum of Rs. 727.57 lakhs is spent on Establishment charges including Foreign and other Compensatory allowances, a sum of Rs. 66.36 lakhs on passages for transfers and local tours, Rs. 39.96 lakhs for publicity contingencies and Rs. 491.01 lakhs on official and residential accommodation, P&T charges and other office contingencies. The average expenditure per Mission comes to Rs. 11.34 lakhs.

The expenditure mentioned above (viz., Rs. 1610.02 lakhs as per details below) on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad includes expenditure on External Publicity programme/activities. The break-up of this expenditure is as under:-

 (Rs. in lakhs) 
    (i) Salaries (Officers 25, Staff 119)               8.68 
   (ii) Travelling Expenses                             2.06 
  (iii) Publicity Contingencies Charges                37.00 
                             APPENDIX V-concld. 
(b) Missions/Posts Abroad 
    (i)  salaries (officers 50, Staff 304)                          44.64 
   (ii)  Foreign Allowance, Compensatory allowance                  24.88 
  (iii)  Passages and Travelling Expenses                            5.27 
   (iv)  Publicity Contingencies                                    39.96 
    (v)  Other Charges including renting of residential acco- 
         mmodation and other Office contingencies..                 16.85 
                        TOTAL EXTERNAL PUBLICITY                   179.34 
   The expenditure on External Publicity as detailed above comes 
to 8.98% of the expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts 
                                                                    (Rs. in lak
                                    Establish-    Travelling    Other        To
                                    ment          Expenses     Charges 
    (a) Headquarters                  133.03        34.47       67.88       235
    (b) External Publicity Division     8.68         2.06       37.00        47
                                      141.71        36.53      104.88       283
    (a) Missions/Posts abroad         658.05        61.09      476.16      1195
    (b) Publicity Wing                 69.52         5.27       56.81       131
                                      727.57        66.36      532.97      1326
       GRAND TOTAL                    869.28       102.89      637.85      1610
  Jan 01, 1973

Appendix VI List of Indian Missions/Posts

Jan 01, 1973 
                            APPENDIX VI 
        List of Indian Missions/Posts opened in the year 1973-74 
S.      Country              Location                 Remarks 
1       Bangladesh           Rajshahi               Assistant High 
Para    Line       Correction to be made 
1       10         Add s after State 
        1-2        Insert  after Bengalees, 
                   POWs & Agreement 
1       6          Read Prime Minister for Prime Minster 
1       4          Delete 1 in Majestly 
4       3          Read 83 crores for 64.3 crores 
2       3          Read over-flights for over-light 
1       22         Read over-flights for over-lights 
2       3          Add full stop after Bali 
2       3          Read INS for INC after Bali 
4       1          Read year for years 
3       3          Read Australia for Austarlia 
1       9          Read forestry for foretry 
2       3          Read Minister of Planning for 
                   Miniser of Planning. 
3       4          Read Manea for Manean. 
6       1                -do- 
3       7          Read Non-aligned for Non-alignment 
        8          Read Sweden for Sudan 
                   Commission for Commi 
3       4          Read "third and fourth meetings" 
                   for "third meetings" 
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