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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1976-77

I. India's Neighbours 9
II. South-East Asia 20
III. East Asia 24
IV. West Asia and North Africa 30
V. Africa (South of the Sahara) 37
VI. Europe 43
VII The Americas 53
VIII. United Nations and International Conferences 57
IX. Technical and Economic Cooperation 77
X. External Publicity 91
XI. Cultural Relations 96
XII. Protocol Matters 100
XIII. Passport, Visa and Consular Services 101
XIV. Administration and Organisation 104
NUMBER                                             PAGE 
I.    Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc. 
      organised by Inter-Governmental Organisations at which 
      Government of India was represented in 1976-77     109 
II.   Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars 
      organised by Non-Governmental Organisations, at 
      which India was represented with Government 
      assistance in 1976-77    119 
III.  Miscellaneous International Conferences etc. in 1976-77
      at which Government of India was represented or at which 
      India was represented with Government of India's 
      assistance.    120 
IV.   International organisations of which India became 
      a member or ceased to be a member during the year 1976-77                122 
V.    Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by 
      India with other countries in 1976              123 
VI.   Statement showing the number of Indian experts deputed to 
      various countries under ITEC Programme (1976); and 
      Trainees from developing countries receiving training 
      in India (1976-77) under ITEC Programme             136 
VII.  Distribution of Reserved Medical/Engineering seats during 
      1976-77                                           138 
VIII. Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad 
      during 1976-77                                   139 
IX.   List of Indian Missions/Posts opened in the year 1976-77       
Jan 01, 1976
Jan 01, 1976

Against the background of an international situation relatively free from tension, India was able to take during the year some purposeful initiatives in improving relations with its neighbours, with the developing world and with the developed countries. Some longstanding problems were resolved and others contained. India's constructive approach was acclaimed by the international community and considered a positive contribution towards pro- moting peace and furthering international cooperation. The initiatives taken by India, (without a feeling of insecurity or diffi- dence,) were made possible because of the dynamism and resilience the economy and the foundations of technological and scientific infrastructure laid in the decades since indepen- dence. The peaceful change of government in March 1977, following free and fair elections, had a favourable international impact by projecting an image of strength and stability based on sound democratic traditions. The substance of the country's foreign policy, however, was not an issue during the elections. The decision of the new government to hold the meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Conference, sche- duled for April, was a demonstration of the essential continuity of India's foreign policy. The new Government reaffirmed its commitment to the policy of non-alignment. The Prime Minister made it clear that India would try to maintain cordial and good relations with all countries and relations with any one country would not be allowed to come in the way of another.

Though there were a number of important developments, there was no dramatic change in the international situation. The United States and the Soviet Union, despite their differences, continued to reiterate their adherence to the spirit of detente. Talks between them regarding the Strategic Arms Limitation did not yield any fruitful results but there was no emergence of a situation resulting in a confrontation. Political transition in


some other important countries inhibited any major initiative by them affecting international relations. At the same time, there was no extension of detente and conflicts continued to smoulder in some parts of the world. While there was a definite improve- ment in the situation in South-East Asia since the termination of the conflict in Indo-China, the region was still not free from tension. The littoral States did not succeed in their efforts to remove external influence and rivalries from the Indian Ocean area. In West Asia, the Arab-Israeli problem defied solution and a precarious status quo continued between Israel and its neighbouring Arab States. The unhappy and infructuous civil war in Lebanon threatened to add a new and dangerous dimen- sion to the already unstable situation in the region. In Cyprus, the constitutional problem remained unsolved despite an inter- communal dialogue, initiated under the auspices of the United Nations, to bring about a settlement. In Africa, a major develop- ment was the intensification of the liberation struggle by the African people against white minority regimes in Southern Africa. The killing of African children by the police in Soweto in June 1976 focussed world attention on the repressive and discrimi- natory policies of the South African Government. The white- dominated governments in Southern Africa found them- selves under increasing international pressure to come to terms with the African majority to avoid military con- frontation and self-destruction. Economic dimensions of diplo- macy focussed attention on the quest for a new economic inter- national order. Efforts continued to find ways and means to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor countries and to reach a consensus among the developed and developing countries for mutual cooperation on the basis of equality and justice to solve economic problems that confronted and affected all of them.

Taking into account the various aspects of the international situation, India played an active role towards promoting the cause of peace, freedom and security. Convinced that detente should not be limited to any region and its scope should extend


to all parts of the world, it opposed the escalation of foreign military presence and the establishment of bases in the Indian Ocean. It supported the stand that the Indian Ocean should be a zone of peace as agreed to by most of the littoral States and according to the resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. Further, it considered the de-escalation of the arms race, the convening of a World Disarmament Conference to consider measures towards universal disarmament and the non-use of force in international relations as vital steps to lessen international tension. It further stressed that cooperative rela- tions among nations should be established on the basis of non- interference, equality and peaceful co-existence.

India worked for the extension of detente in its own region by trying to normalise and improve relations with all the neigh- bours. A number of issues were settled through bilateral nego- tiations. The entire maritime boundary with Sri Lanka was delimited on the basis of agreement signed with that country. An agreement was concluded with the Maldives for delimitation of the maritime boundary between the two countries. Friendly ties were maintained with Afghanistan and Nepal. Exchange of visits with Afghanistan and Nepal, at the ministerial and offi- cial levels, and the discussions held during these visits reflected a spirit of goodwill and understanding. Initiative was taken to normalise relations with China and diplomatic ties were re-estab- lished with that country at the level of Ambassador. This step, it was hoped, would lead to the development of improved bilateral relations.

Another significant development was the change achieved in India's relations with Pakistan. The steps toward normalisation envisaged in the Simla Agreement of 1972, which had been delayed due to one reason or the other, were carried out in a single diplomatic operation, during the middle of the year, in which both countries cooperated fully. Diplomatic relations were resumed at the level of Ambassador in July 1976. This was accompanied by restoration of railway links and resumption of private trade between the two countries.


Friendly exchanges were made between the leaders of India and Pakistan after the formation of the new government in India. The new government was hopeful of maintaining and promoting friendly relations with Pakistan.

With Bangladesh also, India continued its efforts to normalise and improve relations and some progress was registered in econo- mic and commercial matters. There was almost a continuous exchange of visits between the two countries to identity the basic questions relating to the allocation of the waters of the Ganga at Farakka in order to resolve the problem. It was India's hope that, through a spirit of shared sacrifice and mutual goodwill and friendship, this problem would lend itself to an acceptable and lasting solution.

Besides its immediate neighbours, India continued to work for strengthening bilateral ties and explore avenues of economic cooperation with the countries of South-East Asia and West Asia. An agreement regarding the maritime boundary was con- cluded with Indonesia. The visit of the Deputy Minister of Ex- ternal Affairs to Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philip- pines aimed at promoting friendly ties with these countries by exploring avenues of economic and cultural cooperation. India welcomed the efforts of the countries of the region towards re- gional cooperation through ASEAN and supported the concept of making South-East Asia a zone of peace, freedom and neutra- lity.

The visit of the President of Laos to India opened up prospects of closer economic cooperation. India welcomed the reunification of the two zones of Vietnam and affirmed its sup- port for the admission of Vietnam into the United Nations. The visits of the Special Envoy of the Prime Minister and of the Foreign Minister of Vietnam to India, could lead to greater cooperation in many fields.

In East Asia close business and diplomatic ties were main- tained with Japan through the meetings of the Indo-Japan


Business Cooperation Committee and the Consultative Committee of the officials of the Foreign Affairs Ministries of the two countries. Friendly relations were maintained with the Republic of Korea and the Democratic Republic of Korea. During the visit of the Minister of External Affairs to Mongolia, both sides agreed to further strengthen political, economic and cultural ties between the two countries.

As regards West Asia, India reaffirmed its support for the Arab cause and worked for closer ties with all countries of the region. It was India's firm belief that a just settlement of the Arab-Israel problem could be reached on the basis of Israeli withdrawal from Arab territories under its illegal occupation and the restoration of the legitimate rights of the people of Palestine. There was increase in economic and commercial ties between India and West Asian countries. Apart from exchange of goods and commodities, India's cooperation with the Arab world was characterised by an enormous increase in the supply of technical and semi-skilled manpower to this region. An innovatory feature of international cooperation with countries of this region was the contribution made by India towards their industrialisation by the supply of material and technical know- how. The benefit of India's own experience of industrialisation was placed at the disposal of these nations for beneficial use in their own planned development. Close contacts and economic ties were also developed with Iran and States of the Gulf region.

The holding of a Conference of Indian Envoys in West Asia and North Africa in New Delhi, in January 1977, reflected the importance India attached to the area and its efforts to explore ways and means to strengthen ties with the countries of this region.

In Africa, wide-ranging technical and economic cooperation was fostered with Tanzania and Zambia. Under the umbrella of inter-governmental cooperation, thousands of Indian experts were chosen and deployed in diverse branches of the develop- mental infrastructure of these two countries. India's coopera- tion was particularly relevant not only in the field of small-scale


industries and industrial estates but also in technologically sophis- ticated areas like sugar manufacture and exploration of oil. A hopeful beginning was also made in the cooperation with these countries in science and technology. Exchange of visits at a high-level between India and a number of African countries demonstrated their mutual desire to increase contacts and pro- mote cooperation.

With the independence of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa, the focus of international attention shifted to the liberation struggle in Zimbabwe. India reiterated its commit- ment to provide all possible assistance to the people of Zimbabwe in their struggle to achieve effective majority rule. Equally, the continued and illegal occupation of Nambibia by the South African regime was condemned and India pledged its support to the Nambibian people in their legitimate struggle for indepen- dence, under the leadership of SWAPO. In an unusual gesture, the Special Committee against apartheid in the United Nations held a special meeting to acknowledge India's contribution to the world struggle against apartheid in South Africa.

The holding in New Delhi of a Conference of Indian Heads of Missions in countries South of the Sahara reflected India's keenness to promote bilateral cooperation with the African count- ries in various fields.

A significant feature of India's external relations was the continuing friendship and cooperation with the Socialist countries, particularly the Soviet Union. These relations found sustenance from a similarty of views on most international problems as well as a tradition of mutually by beneficial bilateral cooperation in various fields over a considerable period. The visit of former Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, to the Soviet Union and the visits of senior leaders of Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Romania to India reflected the strong ties of friendship between India and these countries. The visit of the Soviet Foreign Minister, Mr. Gromyko, in April 1977, soon after the formation of the


new Government, was of particular significance. The agree- ments signed during the visit and the Joint Communique issued reflected the desire of the two countries to further develop their friendship and economic cooperation.

The existing commercial, technological and economic ties between India and the European Economic Community and the other countries of Western Europe were still further developed during the period under review. In the political field, friendly relations were maintained through exchange of visits at a high level. The visit of the Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany in April 1977 held out prospects of greater under- standing and cooperation with that country.

India's relations with the United States were marked by a dialogue at various levels to explore ways and means to develop cooperation. The United States showed great understanding and appreciation of the peaceful change of government through demo- cratic methods as a result of a free and fair elections. It was India's hope that relations with the United States would develop on the basis of equality, understanding and mutual benefit.

The association with India of several countries of South and Central America as members of the non-aligned group provided greater scope for cooperation. India signed a number of bilateral agreements and furthered its contacts, through exchange of visits, to increase cooperation with the countries of the region.

The economic challenges faced by the world community because of the disparity between the rich and the poor countries continued to engage India's attention. Self-reliance and coopera- tion among the developing countries in various fields is necessary to withstand outside pressures and means an effort to bring about some redistribution in the decision-making processes in the world economic system. The series of UNCTAD Conference over the last 13 years had achieved some results : there was, how- ever, much more to be done and, in the meantime, the gap between the rich and the poor countries had been widening.


Both, in these Conferences and in the Paris Conference on Inter- national Economic Cooperation, India tried to project a cons- tructive point of view, trying to reconcile differences between the developed and the developing countries and also, in some cases, between the developing countries themselves.

India took a leading role in the Ministerial Conference of non-aligned countries on the Press Agencies Pool, held in New Delhi in July 1976, which recommended the constitution of a non-aligned press agencies pool. At the Colombo Summit, India stressed the relevance of non-alignment and the importance of solidarity and cooperation among the non-aligned countries. India hosted the Conference of Foreign Ministers of the Bureau of Non-Aligned countries that met in New Delhi in April 1977. Addressing the twenty-five member Bureau the Prime Minister said that non-alignment had become the mainstream of interna- tional life. For India it represented a national consensus and India would remain non-aligned in the real sense of the term. The Minister of External Affairs called for the implementation of the decisions of the Colombo Summit in a concrete and co- ordinated manner. He said that the challenge before the non- aligned countries was to show their willingness, to adjust, share and, if necessary, sacrifice in order to realise by collective efforts and self-reliance their collective aspirations. India believes that the developing countries should safeguard their interests through mutual cooperation and self-reliance but it is necessary that equitable interdependence based on mutual benefit should be evolved leading to a new international economic order that will lay the foundation of economic and political stability based on overall peace and prosperity.


Jan 01, 1976


India's, Neighbours



The traditionally friendly relations between India and Afgha- nistan were further strengthened by the visit of the Prime Minister to Afghanistan from 4 to 7 July. It provided an opportunity for exchange of views with the Head of State and Prime Minister of Afghanistan on matters of bilateral, regional and international interest. Both countries reaffirmed their faith in the non-aligned movement and its role in strengthening world peace and security and in promoting international cooperation. The visit also helped to underline the results achieved by Indo-Afghan Joint Commis- sion for Economic and Technical Cooperation. India undertook to further expand the area of bilateral cooperation between the two countries for the forthcoming seven-year development plan of Afghanistan. The significant event in the cultural field was the completion of the restoration work by the Archaeological Survey of India on the Khawaja Parsa mosque at Balkh in Afghanistan.


The visit to New Delhi of a high-level delegation from Bangladesh, headed by Mr. Justice A. Sattar, in December, 1975, initiated a dialogue on normalisation of relations between the two countries. Unfortunately, however, relations between the two countries remained strained because of various misunder- standings. The visit of a goodwill delegation from India under the leadership of Chairman, Policy Planning Committee, Shri G. Parthasarathi, to Dacca in June 1976 failed to reverse this trend. The Non-aligned Summit Conference in Colombo pro- vided an opportunity for discussions between the delegations of


the two countries on bilateral issues also. Unfortunately, these turned out to be nonproductive.

Most of the difficulties between the two countries stemmed from the Farakka problem; there was also the allegation that India was providing sanctuaries to miscreants and encouraging them to indulge in subversive activities along the Indo-Bangla- desh border. The Government of India refuted these charges and repeatedly assured Bangladesh that it was vitally interested in the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Bangladesh and had no interest in promoting instability or dis- Order in that country because that was bound spill over into India.

On the Farakka issue India continued to express its readiness to work for an equitable solution through bilateral negotiations. Before the commencement of the 1976 lean season India invited Bangladesh for talks with a view to reach an equitable solution. The talks at the level of experts were held in April and May and the goodwill delegation which visited Dacca from 18 to 23 June devoted most of its time to the discussion of this issue. In Sep- tember 1976 India renewed its invitation to Bangladesh for further talks and these were held in New Delhi from 7 to Sep 10, 1976. During these negotiations, India made far- reaching proposals to reduce its withdrawals at Farakka during the lean season to accommodate Bangladesh. Further, it offered to undertake joint investigation and study of all possibilities for a long-term solution for augmenting the flow of the Ganga in the lean period; The Bangladesh Government were not satisfied with these compromise solutions and decided to take their com- plaint to the United Nations. In the United Nations, a con- sensus statement recommended by the Special Political Committee led Bangladesh to withdraw a draft resolution submitted by it on the subject. The consensus statement declared that India and Bangladesh had decided to meet in Dacca at the Ministerial level with a view to arrive at a fair and expeditious settlement.

An Indian delegation led by Shri Jagjivan Ram, Minister for Agriculture and Irrigation, visited Bangladesh for bilateral talks


on the Farakka issue from 6 to 8 December 1976. Progress was made in the talks towards understanding each other's position and it was decided to resume the talks shortly. In January 1977 talks were held at Dacca and again at New Delhi but unfortunately these did not lead to a settlement of the problem.

Direct negotiations on the Ganga waters were resumed im- mediately after the formation of the new Government. An Indian delegation led by Shri Jagjivan Ram, Minister for Defence in the new Government, had extended discussions in Dacca in April 1977. These resulted in the arrival of a common under- standing in principle on the allocation of waters during the lean season. This was followed by discussions at the official level from 7 to 11 May between the Bangladesh delegation led by Mr. Abbas and the Indian delegation led by the Foreign. Secre- tary, Shri Jagat Mehta. Considerable progress was made in working out the details of a possible solution. It is hoped that this and further rounds of talks at the official level will lead to a permanent solution of the problem of allocation of the Ganga waters both during the lean season and throughout the year.

The Trade Agreement between India and Bangladesh and the Indo-Bangladesh Cultural Cooperation Programme which were to expire at the end of September 1976, were extended through exchange of letters. Annual trade talks between the two coun- tries took place in the second week of February 1977.

India agreed to import newsprint, molasses, nephtha and fur- nace oil worth about 25 crore Taka from Bangladesh. It is hoped that this will contribute to lessening the trade gap between the two countries.

Since the emergence of Bangladesh as an independent country India has provided or committed assistance totalling Rs. 316.02 crores to Bangladesh by way of official grants and credits as well as commercial credits. During the year under report, a sum of Rs. 4.77 crores was utilised (up to the end of November 1976), covering supplies of commodities and equipment under official credits and grants. Under its Technical


Assistance Programme India provided 100 scholarships to Bang- ladesh nationals in various disciplines. Supplies of capital equipment to Bangladesh under commercial credits extended by India also continued during the year.

An agreement was reached among India, Bangladesh and Nepal to set up a Jute International designed mainly to carry out research and development work relating to raw jute and jute manufactures and to coordinate the policies of the three gov- ernments with a view to improving the market prospects and export earnings from jute.


India's relations with Bhutan continued to be characterised by close friendship and understanding.

On his way to attend the Fifth Non-aligned Summit in Colombo, H.M. the King of Bhutan spent two days in Delhi in 13 and 14 August 1976. During his stay, he held meetings/ discussions with Indian leaders. At the summit in Colombo die. King praised India's good neighbourly policy and characterised India's efforts to normalise relations with Pakistan & China as contributory to peace and stability in Asia. The King also paid a handsome tribute to the generous financial and technical co- operation extended "by our good friend and neighbour India" to his country.

At the invitation of the Government of India, the Royal Grandmothers of the King, Ashi Phuntsog Chhoden and Ashi Pema Dechhen visited India in January 1976.

On official invitation, HRH Ashi Dechhen, sister of the king of Bhutan and his representative in the Ministry of Development, visited New Delhi from 2 to 7 January 1976. Apart from visit- ing the Bhakra and Beas Projects, the Princess had discussions with the Minister of External Affairs on Bhutan's Fourth Five Year Plan (1976-81).


The Foreign Secretary paid a visit to Bhutan from 24 to 26 July 1976, and held useful discussions with the King, the Foreign Minister and other prominent personalities.

The Government of India continued to bear special respon- sibility for providing assistance for Bhutan's socioeconomic deve- lopment. For the Fourth Five Year Plan (1976-81), it was decided that the Government of India would contribute as grant a sum of Rs. 70.29 crores. Certain Projects like Area Develop- ment, Poultry, Fishery, Animal Feed Plant, Fruit Canning, etc., have also been identified and would be executed by the Gov- ernment of India, on behalf of the Government of Bhutan. For the annual plan (1976-77) the Government of India agreed to provide Rs. 12.00 crores to the Government of Bhutan. This excluded India's assistance to Bhutan in financing the Chukha Hydel Project and Penden Cement Plant, on which Agreements had already been signed. The Chukha Project Authority came into being on 27 September 1975, when its first meeting was held in Thimpu. The second and third meetings of the Autho- rity took place on 26 March and 15 October 1976 respectively. The work of the Project has now gone into full swing.

As in the past, cooperation between the two countries in various development fields continued to be implemented through visits and surveys by Indian teams of experts and specia- lists to Bhutan, in the field of Forestry, Minerals, Telecommuni- cation, Hydel Survey, etc. Students and trainees from Bhutan continued to receive educational and training facilities in India in various fields including science, technology, medicine, public administration, forestry, telecommunications, etc.

The King of Bhutan visited India in April 1977 and had talks with the leaders of the new government. The visit gave an opportunity to both sides to reaffirm their unique links of friendship and brotherhood.



Relations with Burma continued to be cordial throughout the year. The India-Burma Boundary Commission held a meeting in New Delhi in March, 1976, at which maps relating to the sectors already demarcated were initialled by both sides. Under a Memorandum of Understanding signed in June 1976, India agreed to supply 15 pilot plants to Burma under the ITEC Programme, The Burmese Minister of Culture, U Aye Maung, paid a brief visit to India in June 1976.

The Foreign Secretary, Shri J. S. Mehta, led a delegation to Rangoon in March 1977. He held discussions with the Burmese Ministry of Foreign Affairs on matters of bilateral importance with special emphasis on economic cooperation.

The Maldives Friendly relations between India and the Republic of the Maldives were further strengthened during the year. India wel- comed the admission of the Maldives to the non-aligned Group.

In September 1976, a resident Indian Embassy was estab- lished in Male.

H. E. Amir Ahmed Hilmy Fashana Kilegefaanu, Vice-Presi- dent of the Republic of the Maldives, paid a visit to India from 24 December 1976 to 2 January 1977 on the invitation of the Government of India. During the course of the visit, an agree- ment was signed by H. E. the Vice-President and India's Minis- ter of External Affairs at New Delhi on 28 December 1976 deli- miting the maritime boundary between India and the Maldives.

India has proposed economic and technical cooperation with the Maldives in a number of fields including tourism.



There was a great deal of positive movement in the relations between the two countries. There were several visits at the political and official levels which provided an opportunity for a continuing dialogue between the two Governments. From the Nepalese side, visitors included the Prime Minister, Foreign Minis- ter, Minister of Commerce & Industry (in April) and Their Royal Highnesses, Prince Gyanendra and Prince Dhirendra, the younger brothers of His Majesty the King of Nepal (in November). At the official level, the Nepalese Foreign Secretary visited India in March and India's Foreign Secretary returned the visit in October.

In March Shri Y. T. Shah, Secretary, Ministry of Energy, led an Indian delegation to Nepal and exchanged views with the Nepalese officials on matters relating to the utilisation of the water of the rivers common to both the countries. Shri S. S. Sidhu, Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Home Affairs, led another Indian delegation to Nepal during November-Decem- ber to discuss ways and means for facilitating the visit of Nepa- lese nationals to various protected and restricted areas of India. Questions relating to the joint harnessing of the vast potential of river waters for the benefit of both the countries were sorted out. Understanding was reached between the two countries to hold joint investigations for the Pancheswar Dam Project on the River Mahakali and also for the Flood control scheme on the River Rapti. The Nepal Eastern Gandak Canal was completed and handed over to the Nepalese Government. An agreement was reached about the cost estimates of Chandra and Pump Canals which would be constructed by the Nepalese Govern- ment and financed by the Government of India. The estimated cost would be Rs. 11.90 crores.

The Government of India decided that the Nepalese nationals wanting to visit protected/restricted areas of India shall be treat- ed on par with other foreign nationals and as such would be re- quired to obtain permits for this purpose. In order to ensure


that bona fide Nepalese travellers to these areas were not incon- venienced, simple and convenient procedures were laid down for the issue of such permits.

The Indo-Nepal Treaty on Trade and Transit, 1971 came up for renewal during the year. Two rounds of discussions have already been held and it was hoped that the text of the new Treaty would be finalised at the next meeting. Pending the finalisation of the new document, the 1971 Treaty was extended by mutual agreement till such time as the new one was signed and came into force. This was done to ensure that there was no hindrance in the flow of essential commodities to Nepal and the Nepalese transit trade with third countries did not suffer. There appeared greater awareness on the part of the two coun- tries to stop smuggling and deflection which, in the past tended to affect Indo-Nepal trade relations.

The 25th anniversary of the Colombo Plan, under which India has been extending capital and technical cooperation to Nepal on a bilateral basis, was celebrated during the year. Budget provision made for grants-in-aid for development schemes, in Nepal in 1976-77 amounted to about Rs. 10 crores.

Important projects in Nepal, completed during 1976, were the Industrial Estates at Nepalganj and Dharan, a drinking water treatment plant at Rajbiraj and black-topping of the 49-km long Rani Pauwa-Trisuli Road. The major schemes under imple- mentation were the 250-km long East-West Highway, a 1300- line cross bar telephone exchange at Biratnagar and the Kamla River Bridge on the East-West Highway. During the year, the Government of India provided funds for the construction of cer- tain infra-structural works at the site of the 14-MW Hydro-elec- tric project at Devighat. Assistance for this will be provided under the Indian Economic Cooperation Programme.

The King of Nepal, who was on a private visit to India, visited Delhi in April 1977 and had detailed exchange of views with the Prime Minister and his colleagues in the new government.



Since the signing of the Simla Agreement in July 1972, India took various initiatives to normalise relations between the two countries with a view to establishing a durable peace in the sub-continent. As a result of this, many outstanding prob- lems were resolved.

On 27 March 1976, the Prime Minister of Pakistan wrote to the Prime Minister of India that Pakistan was prepared to with- draw its case from the International Civil Aviation Organisation with a view "to impart to the normalisation process the impetus that it needs". India had already urged such a course of action in order that the normalisation process could continue. Con- sistent with India's firm belief that the Simla Agreement provi- ded a sound framework for the establishment of durable peace and harmonious bilateral relations, the Prime Minister, replying on 11 April 1976 suggested that the Foreign Secretaries of the two countries should meet and discuss not only civil aviation matters but also resumption of rail and road communications as well as restoration of diplomatic relations between the two coun- tries. The Prime Minister of Pakistan accepted these sugges- tions. As a result, the Foreign Secretaries of India and Pakis- tan met at Islamabad from 12 to 14 May 1976 and issued a Joint Statement which embodied an agreement between the two sides to restore all the severed links between the two countries. The two sides also agreed to open their bilateral trade to the private sector.

The entire package embodied in the Joint Statement was put into effect between 17 and 24 July 1976. The air links between the two countries were restored on 21 July, the first train left Amritsar for Lahore on 22 July, and the Ambassadors of the two countries presented their credentials on 24 July.

During the latter half of the year, the delegations of India and Pakistan met in New Delhi & Islamabad to consider Pakis- tan's objections to the design of the Salal Hydro-electric project


on the river Chenab in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. The project is being set up in accordance with the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960 under which India is allowed the use of the waters of the three western rivers, namely, Chenab, Jhelum and Indus, for the generation of hydro-electric power provided that the design, construction and operation of these plants conform to the criteria laid down in the Treaty. The matter had been kinder discussion in the Permanent Indus Commission comprising the representatives of India and Pakistan for the last six years. As the Commission could not reach an agreement, Pakistan proposed in July 1976 that the question should be referred to Neutral Expert in terms of the Treaty. India, however, sugges- ted that before such a reference was made, the issue should be discussed bilaterally. Pakistan accepted this suggestion. Two rounds of discussions took place in New Delhi and Islamabad in October 1976. These were held in a cordial atmosphere and were constructive and useful. The Joint Statement issued at the end of the talks held in Islamabad expressed the hope that in the third round of talks to be held in New Delhi a final agree- ment would be reached.

The process of normalisation by and large went smoothly and resulted in the restoration of many links which had remain- ed severed for a number of years. These developments were widely appreciated internationally.

After the formation of the new Government, friendly messages were exchanged. Mr. Bhutto sent a special emissary to New Delhi in April 1977 with a personal message for the Prime Minister. The new government hope to maintain and promote friendly relations with Pakistan. In the same month, following the visit of a Pakistani delegation, the two countries decided to set up a Joint Commission to review and further pro- mote trade between them.

Sri Lanka

A historic landmark in the friendly cooperation between India and Sri Lanka was the signing of two Agreements, extending


the maritime boundary in the Palk Bay, delimited in July 1974, in the Gulf of Manaar and the Arabian Sea, upto the Trijunction with the Maldives on one hand and in the Bay of Bengal, upto a distance of 200 miles, on the other. Thus the entire maritime boundary between India and Sri Lanka now stands delimited.

The friendly relations between the two countries were fur- ther strengthened in 1976 by expanding collaboration in the economic, cultural and technical fields and by exchange of high- level visits.

Mrs. S. Bandaranaike, Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, paid an official visit to India, from 13 to 15 April 1976 and held friendly talks with the Prime Minister of India on matters of international and bilateral interest.

The Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs visited Colombo in August 1976 in connection with the Non- aligned Summit and were accorded a warm and friendly wel- come by the Government and the people of Sri Lanka. Close and continuous cooperation between the two sides on the eve of and during the Summit further strengthened the cordial rela- tions between the two countries.

Under the 1964 Agreement on Persons of Indian, origin 2,37,390 persons were repatriated to India and 1,35,680 persons were registered as Sri Lanka citizens till 31 December 1976.


Sep 10, 1976


South-East, Asia


Australia Despite differences of approach on the establishment of a Zone of Peace in the Indian Ocean, India and Australia conti- nued to work for closer cooperation at the bilateral level. The 8th round of Indo-Australian bilateral talks was held in Canberra.

In August, the Minister of Commerce, visited Australia and signed the Indo-Australian Trade Agreement. The Agreement formalised bilateral trade relations between India and Australia and provided that the two countries should take all measures to facilitate, strengthen and diversify bilateral trade which will be conducted in accordance with the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) to which both countries are parties. The Trade Agreement provided for an increased level of contacts between Indian and Australian enterprises through the develop- ment of Industrial cooperation, including joint ventures, between the two countries. On 16 September, an Australian parliamen- tary delegation arrived for a 6-day visit to India. The delegation showed keen interest in understanding the progress recorded by the Indian economy during the last one-and-a-half years. On the occasion of the inauguration of Air India's 747 service between Bombay and Sydney, the Minister of State in the Ministry of Home Affairs, and the Minister for Parliamentary Affairs led a Parliamentary delegation.

There was also an exchange of visits by the Secretaries of the Department of Science & Technology to identify the areas of cooperation and to assist on-going projects. I.N.S. BETWA paid a goodwill visit to Port Darwin and Port Brisbane in May and June respectively.



On the question of East Timor, India extended its full support to Indonesia. This was appreciated by the Govern- ment and people of Indonesia. During the year, negotiations were completed on the extension of maritime boundary bet- ween India and Indonesia in the Indian Ocean and the Andaman Sea. This had been partly delimited in 1974.

At the 7th round of annual bilateral talks held in Djakarta in July 1976, the Foreign Ministers of India and Indonesia re- viewed bilateral relations and also exchanged views on the inter- national situation.

Two prominent Indian visitors to Indonesia were the Speaker of Lok Sabha, B. R. Bhagat, and Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Minister of Revenue & Banking. Shri Bhagat led an Indian Parliamentary delegation to Indonesia. From the Indonesian side, the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Marshal Saleh Basarah and the Chief of Inteligence. Yoga Sugama, paid an official visit to India. In order to identify capital goods for import from India, an official industrial delegation from Indonesia visited India.


The year saw further intensification of the tempo of economic cooperation between India and Malaysia. In order to promote industrial collaboration an Agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation was signed. Four more industrial joint ven- tures came on stream during the year. Educational institutions in India continued to play host to a large number of Malaysian students. In March, bilateral talks at the official level were held in New Delhi.

Among important Malaysian visitors to India were the Malaysian Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, Tan Sri General Ibrahim bin Ismail and the Solicitor-General, Tan Sri Haji Mohammad Sallahin Abbas. From the Indian side, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Minister of Fevenue & Banking, and Shri Bipinpal


Das, Deputy Minister of External Affairs and General T. N. Raina, Chief of the Army Staff, paid official visits to Malaysia.

The Philippines

President and Mrs. Marcos touched New Delhi in May on their way back from the UNCTAD-IV meeting. The Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs were among those who received them at the airport. President Marcos called on President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed at the Rashtrapati Bhavan India took note of Philippines' desire to come closer to the non- aligned group and welcomed its admission to the non-aligned Summit at Colombo as guest.

Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Minister of Revenue & Banking and Shri Bipinpal Das, Deputy Minister of External Affairs, visited Manila.

A highlight of technical cooperation between India and the Philippines was the agreement signed by the ICAR with its counterpart in the Philippines for collaboration in agricultural research.


Friendly relations between India and Singapore were pro- moted with the official visits of Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Minister of Revenue & Banking, and Shri Bipinpal Das, Deputy Minister of External Affairs to Singapore.


Despite political changes in Thailand, steady progress was maintained in the development of bilateral relations. This was evident from the visits of Shri Jagjivan Ram, Minister for Agri- culture and Irrigation, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Minister of Revenue & Banking and Shri Bipinpal Das, Deputy Minister of External Affairs.

Places of Buddhist pilgrimage in India continued to attract a large number of Thai pilgrims, the most notable of whom during the year was Prof. Sanya Dharmasakti, President of the Privy


Council of Thailand and former Prime Minister. An appreciable number of Thai students continued to receive University educa- tion in India.


Mr. Jone B. Naisara, Minister for Information of Fiji, visited India in September 1976 as a guest of the Government of India. Shri Vishwanath Pratap Singh, Deputy Minister of Commerce, inaugurated an Indian trade exhibition in Suva in November. In June, I.N.S. BETWA paid a goodwill visit to Suva.


Relations between India and the Republic of Nauru were further strengthened during the year when the President of that country, Mr. Hammer D. Roburt, in his capacity as Minister for Industries and Minerals, visited India. He came to finalise an agreement on the establishment of a joint venture in India for the manufacture of phosphoric acid based on Nauru phosphate.

New Zealand

India's relations with New Zealand continued to be friendly and cordial and progress was maintained in cooperation in var- ious fields.

Papua New Guinea

In May, India and Papua New Guinea decided to establish diplomatic relations. Subsequently, India's first High Commis- sioner presented his Letters. of Credence to the Governor-General on Aug 26, 1976.


In April 1976 the Crown Prince of Tonga visited India.

pg23 Aug 26, 1976


East Asia


India took the initiative to normalise relations with China and, through bilateral exchanges and friendly contacts, worked for understanding and cooperation with other countries of East Asia.


Informal exchanges between the two countries at official level on restoration of diplomatic representation to the Ambass- adorial level took place in early 1976. These talks proved fruit- ful and were followed by the announcement in April 1976 of the nomination of Shri K. R. Narayanan as India's Ambassador to the People's Republic of China. China, making a positive response to India's initiative, announced, in July 1976, the appointment of Mr. Chen Chan-yuan as its Ambassador to India. The Indian Ambassador presented his credentials in July 1976. The Chinese Ambassador, while presenting his credentials in September stated that the normalisation of relations through joint efforts was in full accord with the interests of the people of the two countries. India considered the restoration of channels of communication at the Ambassadorial level, after a lapse of 15 years, as a first step towards the normalisation of relations and for developing constructive and meaningful bilateral relations with China.

The Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs sent messages of sympathy to the Chinese leaders following the earth- quake in North Eastern China in August 1976. The offer to assist in the relief of earthquake victims was greatly appreciated by the Chinese Government. The Prime Minister also sent felicitations to Chairman Hua Kuo-feng on his appointment to


the office of Chairman of the Communist Party and expressed the hope that relations between India and China would develop fur- ther in the years to come.

The visit of the Chinese badminton team to India in Octo- ber/November and the visit of an un-official Indian delegation to China in December 1976, on the inauguration of the Dr. Kotnis Memorial Hall, reflected hopeful trends towards in- creasing between the two countries.

A non-official Trade Delegation from India, including re- presentatives of State Trade organisations, visited the Canton Spring Fair in April 1977. Preliminary agreements have been signed and it is hoped that these will lead to some substantial progress in renewing the commercial relations between the two countries.


Relations between India and Japan were marked by contin- ued contacts and exchanges at various levels. The inauguration of Japan-India Parliamentarians Friendship Association in March 1976, which was joined by 84 Diet members of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, was an important step towards promoting friendly relations.

The Governments of the two countries exchanged notes, in March 1976, pertaining to Commodity Loan of Yen 7 billion (Rs. 21 crores). By another exchange of notes in November 1976 Japan agreed to grant debt relief loan to India of Yen 12.2 billion (Rs. 40 crores) for 1976-77.

The Ninth Joint Meeting of the India-Japan Business Co- operation Committee was held in Madras on 16-Nov 17, 1976. The Japanese delegation was led by Dr. Shigeo Nagano, Director and Honorary Chairman, Nippon Steel Corporation. More than 100 delegates from both sides participated in the deli- berations of this Committee.


The Eleventh Consultative Meeting of the. officials of the Ministry of External Affairs of India and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan met in India on 6-7 December 1976. The Indian side was led by Shri M. A. Vellodi, Secretary (East) and the Japanese delegation by Mr. Keisuke Arita, Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs. The two sides affirmed their intention to maintain close contacts on all matters of mutual interest through diplomatic channels and promote greater interaction at all levels between the two countries.

Shri G. S. Marak, Minister in-charge of sericulture and weav- ing of. Meghalaya visited Japan in July 1976 for study of the latest technological, scientific and organisational developments in the Japanese sericulture industry.

Republic of Korea

An economic study mission of the Government of the Re- public of Korea led by Mr. Seung Jae Koh, Executive Member, President's Council of Economic and Scientific Advisers, visited India from 2 to 6 October 1976. During the visit, he held dis- cussions with the Minister of Commerce, Minister of Industry and Civil Aviation, the Vice-Chairman of Planning Commission and the Deputy Minister of Commerce. An Indian trade dele- gation from the Ministry of Commerce visited the Republic in December for trade review talks.

The Deputy Minister of External Affairs, Shri Bipinpal Das, paid a goodwill visit to the Republic from 19 to 23 December 1976, at the invitation of its Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs. He called on the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister and some other leaders and had wide ranging discussions on bilateral and other matters of mutual interest. In the cultural field, India took part in the 22nd Asian Film Festival held in Pusan, from 15 to 17 July 1976, and two entries from India won prizes.


Democratic People's Republic of Korea A trade mission from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, led by Mr. Li tae Baek, Vice-Minister of foreign trade visited New Delhi in March 1976 and signed a Trade Protocol for 1976.

A 3-member delegation of the Foreign Ministry of the Demo- cratic People's Republic visited India from 2 to 6 July 1976. During the course of the visit, the delegation called on the Mini- ster of External Affairs. An agreement on cultural cooperation between India and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was signed on 2 July 1976. The Vice-President of India sent a message of condolence on the occasion of untimely death of Mr. Chow Yong Kun, Vice-Premier of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.


The Minister of External Affairs paid an official and friendly visit to Mongolia from 4 to 8 September 1976. The two coun- tries had exchanged several high-level visits since the establish- merit of diplomatic relations in 1956, but this was the first visit by an Indian Minister of External Affairs to Mongolia. During the visit, both sides expressed satisfaction at the continuing de- velopment of relations between the two countries and reaffirmed their determination to further strengthen and expand political, trade, cultural and other ties.

India agreed to give a more positive content to its trade re- lations with Mongolia. Both sides agreed to make efforts to identify areas in which the existing relations between the two countries could be expanded to mutual benefit.


India's relations with Vietnam were marked by efforts to promote friendship and cooperation. Before the two Vietnams


were united, the Foreign Minister of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam, Madame Nguyen Thi Binh, paid a friendly visit to India in May 1976. Discussions between her and the Minister of External Affairs showed unanimity of views on various issues. India welcomed the reunification of Vietnam in June 1976, to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, as it marked the fulfilment of the cherished aspirations of the Viet- namese people. India viewed with special interest and sympathy the efforts of the Vietnamese Government towards reconstruction of the economy. The Indian Red Cross made a gift of 101 buffaloes and an Indian agricultural delegation visited Vietnam in October 1976. In its discussions with the Vietnamese agri- cultural delegation the two sides identified a number of fields for cooperation between the two countries.

A postal agreement, signed with Vietnam in November 1976, was aimed at establishing postal and telecommunication relations with a view to developing communications between the peoples of the two countries.

A Cultural Agreement signed with Vietnam, in December 1976, sought to promote and develop relations and-understanding between the two countries in the realm of art, culture, education, including academic exchanges in the fields of science and tech- nology, sports, public health and public media.

The Government of Vietnam granted permission to Air India. for overflying its territorial space.

Mr. Phen Hien, Special Envoy of the Prime Minister of Vietnam, during his visit to India in February 1976, held dis- cussions to further consolidate relations and promote cooperation between India and Vietnam in various fields.

The Foreign Minister of Vietnam, Mr. Nguyen Duy Trinh, visited India during April 1977 and had talks with the leaders of the new Government. The Minister of External Affairs offered India's help to share India's experience and trained personnel in the task of reconstruction of Vietnam. The two Ministers


further discussed how to strengthen relations between their two countries in the political, economic, technical and cultural fields.


Cambodia was renamed "Democratic Kampuchea" under the new constitution that country adopted on 5 January 1976. The President, Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs sent warm messages of felicitations to their Kampuchean counter- parts, who were elected to these high offices under the new con- stitution. They expressed the hope that friendly relations bet- ween the two countries would be further strengthened. Views were exchanged between the leaders of the two countries when the Minister of External Affairs met Mr. Ieng Sary, Vice-Premier incharge of Foreign Affairs of Kampuchea, at New York in October 1976.


A major event in the steadily improving relationship between the two countries was the visit of President Souphanouvong to India which concluded on 19 January 1977. A joint communi- que was issued after the visit. Responding to the wishes of Loas, India agreed to share its technological experiences and reaffirmed its willingness to cooperate in the task of post-war reconstruction in Laos.

The Indian Red Cross Society sent textiles worth Rs. 2 lakhs and medicines costing about Rs. 50,000 to Laos as emergency aid.

India is operating an on-going Technical Assistance Pro- gramme for the benefit of Laos. The Programme is estimated to cost Rs. 20 lakhs and involves, among other items, Indian assistance in conducting techno-economic surveys, training of Lao technicians and deputation of Indian experts to that country.




West Asia And North Africa




India continued to attach great importance to the further strengthening of bilateral relations and cooperation with countries of West Asia and North Africa. Significant expansion took place in India's commercial, economic and technical coopera- tion with these countries built on the complementarities of their economies and needs of development. Frequent exchanges of high level visits, as well as discussions at other levels, re- affirmed the traditional ties and the close similarity of views on important international and regional issues between India and the countries of West Asia and North Africa.

The Government of India continued its firm support for the Arab States in their efforts to obtain a just solution of the Arab- Israeli problem, based on Israeli withdrawal from all Arab terri- tories occupied in 1967 and the realisation of the legitimate rights and aspirations of the Palestinian people. India was greatly relieved at the prospects of complete cessation of the tragic fratricidal fighting in Lebanon, which cast its shadow over the region for the greater part of the year.

The understanding shown by some of the oil exporting coun- tries of the problems facing a friendly country like India, due to the sharp rise in prices of crude oil and fertilisers, helped, to some extent, in mitigating the effects of these price increases on the Indian economy. India hoped that this understanding would continue.

A conference of 21 Heads of Indian Missions in West Asia and North Africa was held in New Delhi in January 1977. The importance of this region to India was highlighted at the


Conference. It was further stressed that sustained efforts should continue to further improve the already existing cordial relations between India and these countries.

West Asia

The violence and bloodshed in Lebanon, and the repeated failure of attempts to put an end to the fighting, was a matter of great concern to the Government of India. The personnel of the Indian Mission in Beirut were reluctantly withdrawn. when it became difficult to assure their safety. The majority of other Indians living in Beirut also left. The Government of India was gratified when the collective wisdom of Arab statesmen at the Riyadh and Cairo summits was able to bring about a settlement resulting in the subsiding of the fighting and bloodshed. It was the hope of the Government of India that normal political and economic life in Lebanon would be speedily restored and that its sovereignty, integrity and non-aligned character would be preserved. The Government of India ex- pressed its readiness to offer all possible cooperation and assistance towards economic reconstruction and in the restora- tion of public services and utilities. The Government of India welcomed the reconciliation between Syria and Egypt which it considered vital for a united effort by the Arab States to realise their objectives. Statements made re- garding the reconvening of the Geneva Conference on the Middle East provided a cause for cautious optimism. The Govern- ment was of the view that the Conference, to be meaningful, would require the effective participation of all concerned parties, including the Palestine Liberation Organisation.

The treatment by Israel of the Arab population in its occupied territories was a matter of concern. India was convinced that the restoration to the Palestinians of their legitimate national rights was crucial for an Arab-Israeli settlement. Israel's in- cursions and occupation of territories in Southern Lebanon, however, reduced the credibility of statements by Israeli leaders expressing their desire for a peaceful settlement.


India's bilateral relations with countries in the region were strengthened through exchange of visits, discussions and con- clusion of bilateral agreements.


The visit of Prime Minister Hoveyda and the Iranian Com- merce Minister, Dr. Manuchehr Taslimi, from 10 to May 14, 1976, opened new vistas for Indo-Iranian cooperation. The President and Begum Abida Ahmed visited Iran, from 26 to 30 June 1976, and held wide ranging discussions with the Shahanshah of Iran on matters of mutual interest including bila- teral cooperation. Their Imperial Majesties accepted the in- vitation of the President and Begum Abida Ahmed to visit India.

Shri K. V. Raghunatha Reddy, Labour Minister, visited Iran, from 20 to 24 September 1976, to attend the Asian Labour Ministers Conference. Shri K. D. Malaviya, Minister of Petroleum, visited Iran, in October 1976, and had discus- sions with the Shahanshah and others. The Chief of the Army Staff, General T. N. Raina, visited Iran from 10 to 18 November 1976. He called on the Shahanshah and the Iranian Prime Minister and visited Iranian defence establishments.

Among other Iranian dignitaries who visited India during the year were H. E. Mr. Ali Daftrian, Governor-General of Ostan (25 April to 7 May 1976), General Azhari, Chief of the Sup- reme Commanders' Staff of the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces (2 to 9 March 1976), Mr. Manuchehr Eghbal, President of the Iranian Oil Company (August 1976) and Mr. Pakdaman, Chairman of the Iranian State Railways (October 1976).

A party of instructors and students of the Imperial Iranian National Defence University visited India in June 1976 while a party of the staff and students of the National Defence College visited Iran in August 1976. The multi-faceted economic relationship between India and Iran continued to register notable progress throughout the year


under review. Almost all the projects in which the two countries are engaged are not only quantitatively impressive by themselves but have a special significance in the developing economies of either country. To single out any one of them would be invidious but the Kudremukh Project which has already made an excellent beginning deserves special mention.


Dr. Saadoun Hammadi, Iraqi Minister of Foreign Affairs, visited India, from 25 to 26 February 1976, as the personal Envoy of the President of Iraq. He held discussions with the Indian Minister of External Affairs on matters relating to the Non-aligned Summit at Colombo. Mr. Mir Hikmat Al-azzawi, Iraqi Minister of Foreign Trade, paid a one-week visit to India in February 1976. Com- mercial and economic matters were discussed in depth during his visit.

Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma, Minister of Communications, visited Baghdad (4 to 8 May 1976) and discussed matters re- lating to cooperation in the field of telecommunications. Pro- fessor S. Nurul Hasan, Minister of Education & Social Wel- fare, during his visit (7 to 9 July 1976), held discussions re- lating to cooperation in the field of education, science and tech- nology. Shri T. A. Pai, Minister of Industry, who visited Baghdad in October 1976, reached a broad understanding on exchange of know-how, equipment and construction of projects. A number of other official visits were also exchanged with a view to further expanding the existing economic relations bet- ween the two countries.

United Arab Emirates

The President of India, accompanied by Begum Abida Ahmed, paid a State visit to the United Arab Emirates from 4 to 7 October 1976. The President held discussions with the UAE


President Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al-Nahyan and Vice Presi- dent Sheikh Rashid on issues of international importance and on bilateral cooperation. These revealed a close similarity of views between the two countries. The visit reaffirmed and streng- thened the close friendship and cooperation between India and the UAE.


A Cultural Agreement between India and Jordan was signed on 15 February 1976 and a Trade and Economic Agreement on 25 February 1976.

His Royal Highness Prince Hassan Bin Talal, accompanied by his wife Princess Sarvath and by Princess Alia, visited India, from 24 November to 1 December 1976, at the invitation of the Vice-President of India. The Crown Prince and members of the delegation held discussions with the Indian leaders on topics of mutual interest mainly pertaining to economic coopera- tion between India and Jordan. Agreements on Economic and Technical Cooperation and on cooperation in the fields of Science and Technology were also initialled during the visit.


A two member Syrian delegation attended the Seminar on Non-alignment held in New Delhi (24 to 26 April 1976). The Syrian Information Minister led a delegation to the Non-aligned News Agencies Conference held in New Delhi in July 1976.


A direct shipping service was established between India and Somalia during the year.


Shri S. D. Sharma, Minister of Communications, led an Indian delegation to the Tripartite Meeting between Egypt, India and Yugoslavia in Cairo (20 April to 3 May 1976). The meeting


dealt with commercial and Industrial cooperation among the three participating countries.

A two member delegation from Egypt. participated in the Seminar on Non-alignment, organised by the India International Centre in New Delhi in April 1976.

North Africa

The continuing dispute regarding the Western Sahara and the differences between Libya on the one hand and Egypt and Sudan on the other distressed the Government of India. Special Envoys from the Presidents of Morocco and Mauritania visited India to explain their position on the Western Sahara question. It was India's hope that a satisfactory solution of their dis- putes and differences could be brought about through bilateral discussions between the countries concerned, in a spirit of good- will and cooperation.


Indo-Libyan economic cooperation developed rapidly during the year. Indian firms and organisations were awarded contracts for airport construction, power generation and transmission, etc. The Industries & Civil Supplies Minister, Shri T. A. Pai, paid a two-day visit to Libya in April 1976, and signed a pro- tocol with his counterpart on industrial and technical coopera- tion.

The Deputy Minister of External Affairs, Shri Bipinpal Das, visited Libya from 15 to 18 March 1976 and had discussions with the Libyan Prime Minister and others on strengthening bilateral relations and on important international issues.


A special delegation headed by Deputy Minister of External Affairs, Shri Bipinpal Das, participated in the 20th Anniver- sary celebrations of Tunisia's Independence, from 9 to 12 March 1976.



The Minister of External Affairs visited Algiers in May-June 1976 for the Non-aligned Bureau meeting and called on Presi- dent Boumedienne. He signed a cultural agreement with the Foreign Minister of Algeria. The agreement provided for edu- cational and training facilities in India, for exchanges in the fields of radio and television, exchange of cultural troupes and cooperation in the field of journalism. H.E. Mr. I. Yaker, Algerian Minister of Foreign Trade, visited India in January-February 1976 and called on the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs. Dr. Ahmed Taleb Ibrahim, Algerian Minister of Information and Culture, visited India from 7 to 14 July 1976, to participate in the Ministerial Conference of the Non-aligned News Agencies Pool.


H.E. Mr. Mohamed Sidi Ali and H.E. Mr. Ahmedou Ould Tolba, Special Envoys of the President of Mauritania, visited India in April and July 1976 respectively to explain Mauritania's position on the Western Sahara issue.

His Excellency Mr. Moktar Ould Dadah, President of Mauritania, visited India in August 1976 and had wide ranging talks with Indian leaders on strengthening bilateral cooperation and on international issues. The discussions revealed a close similarity of views between the leaders of the two countries.


May 14, 1976



AFRICA (South of the Sahara)

India's relations with the countries of Africa, South of the Sahara, were marked by greater contacts in order to promote understanding and increase cooperation with them. These con- tacts were developed through the exchange of visits by important leaders and signing of bilateral agreements in various fields. They highlighted the keen interest of India in the developments in Southern Africa and its opposition to colonialism, recialism and apartheid and its material and moral support for the African liberation movements in their struggle to end white domination. India's friendly relations with the countries of East Africa were reflected through the exchange of visits at different levels. The Foreign Minister of Kenya, Mr. F. M. Waiyaki, visited India in August 1976 and exchanged views with the Minister of Exter- nal Affairs on international affairs and the further strengthening of relations between India and Kenya. Two Indian naval ships paid a friendly visit to Kenya. The payment by the Govern- ment of Uganda of a sum of Rs. 1,44,88,792.60 marked the successful resolution of the problem of compensating Indian nationals who had been expelled from Uganda in 1972. A large amount of the sum received was disbursed to the claimants con- cerned, after due scrutiny, by the Uganda compensation settle- ment office set up in Bombay for that purpose. The visit of the Ministers of Industry and Power and of Transport and Com- munications of Uganda to India helped to promote commercial and economic cooperation between India and Uganda.

The most important development in India's relations with African countries was the visit of the Prime Minister of India


to Mauritius (8-11 October), Tanzania (11-14 October), Zambia (15--17 October) and Seychelles (17 October). India's close cultural ties with Mauritius had already been demonstrated earlier when India sent a 30-man official delegation, headed by the Minister of Health and Family Planning, Dr. Karan Singh, to the Second World Hindi Sammelan held in Mauritius. These were further highlighted when the Prime Minister, during her visit, inaugurated the Gandhi Institute. Earlier, the visit of the Minister of Information and Broadcasting at the time of independence day celebrations of Mauritius and the visit. of the Minister of Steel and Mines reflected friendly ties between India and Mauritius.

There were many exchanges of visits between senior officials of India and Tanzania before the Prime Minister visited that country in October. In April 1976, India and Tanzania signed an agreement for cooperation in the establishment of a number of small scale industries projects in Tanzania. The visit of the Prime Minister to Zambia constituted another stage in a conti- nuing dialogue with a friendly country with which India had developed the tradition of constructive cooperation. During the visit, both sides expressed satisfaction at the progress made in strengthening bilateral cooperation in the economic and technical fields and agreed to explore further areas to expand their relations. The distinguishing feature of the visit of the Prime Minister was the common interest shown by her and the leaders of Mauritius, Tanzania and Zambia in the developments taking place in Southern Africa. The visit underlined India's solidarity with these countries in their total support for the oppressed people of Southern Africa in their just struggle. The Prime Minister, during the visit, met the leaders of the African Libera- tion Movements and assured them of India's full support in their struggle. India and these countries also reaffirmed the in- alienable rights of the people of Namibia to freedom and inde- pendence and pledged their moral and material support for them in their heroic struggle under the leadership of the SWAPO. As


regards Zimbabwe, India and these countries noted the favour- able developments, reflected in the declaration made by the racist regime of Rhodesia, in September 1976, to allow majority rule in the country within a period of two years. India welcomed the holding of the Constitutional Conference at Geneva and expressed the hope that this would lead to immediate majority rule in Zimbabwe. The Prime Minister further made it clear that if the Constitutional Conference failed, the Government of India would fully support the intensified struggle for the inde- pendence of Zimbabwe.

The Prime Minister's brief visit to Seychelles demonstrated India's desire to strengthen friendship with that country. India had already established friendly contacts with Seychelles when the Minister of State for Tourism and Civil Aviation, Shri Surendra Pal Singh, led the Indian delegation to the island on the occasion of its independence on 29 June. A 10-member cultural troupe and a flotilla of 3 Indian ships also took part in the celebrations to mark the occasion. The Prime Minister of Seychelles, Mr. F. A. Rene, visited India in September and ex- changed views for further strengthening relations between India and Seychelles.

The Government of India maintained its boycott of the racist regime of South Africa and denounced its pernicious policy of racial discrimination. It condemned the brutal action taken by the South African Government against school children of the African township of Soweto who had protested against the im- position of Afrikaans in schools.

India's interest in Southern Africa was further demonstrated by development Of friendly ties with Mozambique and closer con- tacts with Lesotho and Botswana. Shri Bipinpal Das, Deputy Minister of External Affairs during his visit to Mozambique in October, expressed the continued desire of the Government of India to help Mozambique to strengthen its newly won indepen- dence. An agreement on technical, economic and scientific co- operation was signed during his visit. India also pledged a grant of Rs. 900,000 as part of the collective contribution by the Com- monwealth for the purchase of some of its necessary requirement's


from India. This would help Mozambique to meet the loss it would be incurring because of closing the border with Rhodesia in response to the UN resolution. The Foreign Minister of Lesotho, Mr. C. D. Molapo, visited India in August and an agreement on technical and economic cooperation was signed between India and Lesotho during the visit. A cultural agree- ment was signed with Lesotho during the visit of India's Deputy Minister of External Affairs to that country on the occasion of the celebrations of its 10th anniversary of independence. The visit of the President and the Foreign Minister of Botswana in April 1976 marked India's developing contacts with Botswana. India and Botswana agreed to expand their relations in the economic, commercial, scientific and technical fields. Relations were further strengthened when India's Deputy Minister of External Affairs attended the 10th anniversary celebrations of independence of Botswana on Nov 30, 1976.

As regards West Africa, India strengthened its relations with Angola and increased contacts with Ghana and Nigeria. The Special Envoy of the Prime Minister, during his visit to Angola, in April 1976, carried a message from the Prime Minister to President Agostinho Neto as well as a consignment of medicines. This gesture was appreciated by the President of Angola. India expressed its support for the people of Angola in their struggle to defend and strengthen their newly won freedom.

A significant development in regard to relations with Ghana and Nigeria was the signing of air services agreements with these countries. In terms of these agreements, Air India would be able to operate two services a week to Lagos and Accra and this would help to promote greater contacts between India and these countries. Relations with Ghana were further promoted by the visit of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Shri A. N. Ray, to Ghana to attend the centenary celebrations of the Sup- reme Court of Ghana and the visit of Mr. Joe Appiah, the Roving Ambassador of Ghana, to India on the invitation of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations.


Ghana's Minister for Works and Housing, Col. K. A. Jackson, during his visit to India, was impressed by the design and tech- niques used to provide houses for low and middle income group. India offered to assist Ghana in the construction field.

As regards other countries of West Africa, the visit of the Minister of Commerce and Industrial Development of Upper Volta to India in March 1976 resulted in the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on economic, technical and cul- tural cooperation between India and Upper Volta. India, as a friendly gesture, in response to an appeal from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, sent medicines worth Rs. 30,000 to Guinea (Bissau) as its contribution towards drou- ght relief. A contribution towards drought relief was also sent to Cape Verde Island.

The visit of the Foreign Minister of Mali, Col. Charles Cissoko, Samba, to India marked the beginning of establishing friendly contacts with Mali.

The holding of a Conference of Heads of Indian Missions in African countries South of the Sahara in New Delhi, in December 1976, highlighted the significance which India atta- ched to Africa and its detsire to obtain first-band information on developments in various countries in order to explore ways and means of strengthening relations with them through mutual cooperation. The Conference was attended by Indian envoys to Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya (designate), Madagascar (desig- nate), Mozambique, Zaire, Senegal, Ghana, Mauritius, Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and the Acting High Commissioner in Nigeria. It discussed in depth India's policy and diplomatic ob- jectives and problems and perspectives relating to economic and technical cooperation. It was felt that India had a vast reservoir of experience in the field of development and this could be shar- ed with African countries. India had made great progress in industry, science, technology and agriculture and its methods and


innovations were more suited to African needs and circumstances than those of the richer countries. This basic complementarity between India and African countries could be translated into reality through greater technical cooperation. The Conference decided to strengthen India's presence in Africa and stressed the need for encouraging visits from the present and potential lea- ders of African countries in political, economic and technological fields.


Nov 30, 1976




Western Europe India's relations with the countries of Western Europe, by and large, progressed satisfactorily. The mutuality of interests and benefits was reflected in the growth of relations in economic and commercial fields. The countries of Western Europe accounted for almost a quarter of India's total foreign trade and a predominant contribution of the development assistance-finan- cial and technological-received by India from the outside world. Relations were marked by increase in exchanges in the fields of education and culture, science and technology.

India continued its efforts to promote relations with the European Economic Community through greater and more diversified trade, increased foreign investment in approved areas, particularly in entirely export-oriented sectors, transfer of tech- nology and joint cooperation projects in third countries. Efforts were also made to strengthen bilateral relations through exchange of high-level visits and discussions to promote coopera- tion in various fields.

United Kingdom

Indo-British relations remained friendly and cordial. Among significant visits made by important British leaders and persona- lities to India were those of Mr. Michael Foot, Lord President of the Council, Mrs. Margaret Thatcher, Leader of the Conser- vative Party, Mr. Jeremy Thorpe, former leader of the Liberal Party and the Archbishop of Canterbury. From the Indian side, the Minister of External Affairs, Shri Y. B. Chavan and a few other Ministers of the Indian Government as well as some other Indian leaders visited Britian. The External Affairs


Minister during his visit, conferred with Mr. James Callaghan, Prime Minister of Britain, and had wide ranging talks with Mr. Anthony Crosland, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and with Mr. Michael Foot.

A high-powered British industrial delegation led by Sir Ralph Bateman, Vice-President of the Federation of British Indust- ries, came to India in October 1976 to explore possibilities of greater Indo-British trade and economic cooperation as well as collaboration in third countries. A ministerial-level meeting of Indo-British Joint Committee on Trade and Economic Cooperation was held in London. British development assistance to India in the year 1976-77 amounted to Pounds 112 million (about Rs. 170 crores), the largest amount received from any country. This assistance was given entirely in the form of grants.


An Indo-French Committee on Technical and Economic Cooperation was set up at Ministerial level during the visit of French Prime Minister to India in January 1976. Prof. Chatto- padhyaya, Minister of Commerce, visited Paris in July 1976 for preliminary discussions on issues relating to cooperation between the two countries. The visit of Shri T. A. Pai, Mini- ster of Industry, and Shri K. D. Malaviya, Minister of Petro- leum, to France indicated Indias efforts to explore possibilities of further economic cooperation with France. France was the first member of the Aid India Consortium to conclude a Development Assistance Agreement with India for the year 1976-77. Financial credits of Francs 340 million (about Rs. 60 crores) for the purchase of French goods and services was extended during the year.

Among the many delegations exchanged between the two countries was an Indian Parliamentary delegation led by the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, which went to France in October 1976.


Federal Republic of Germany

India's relations with the Federal Republic of Germany con- tinued to be marked by cordiality and mutual desire for better understanding and cooperation. In June 1976, an agreement was signed whereby the Federal Republic would provide DM 362 million (Rs 124 crores) as development assistance to India for the year 1976-77. As in the previous years, this assistance was completely untied and was given on very favourable terms, same as those of IDA, the soft loan affiliate of the World Bank. Friendly relations were also marked by exchange of high- level visits between the two countries. Prof. Nurul Hassan, Minister of Education, visited the Fede- ral Republic, of Germany in, June 1976 and the Deputy Minister of Finance, Shrimati Rohatgi, in November 1976. From the German side a delegation of 15 prominent industrialists, led by the President of the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, visited India from 10 to Mar 13, 1976 to attend the 20th anniversary celebration of the Indo-German Chambers of Commerce. An Indo-FRG seminar, held in New Delhi in November 1976, provided an opportunity for Indian and West German educationists and scholars to discuss common problems and challenges of education and economic development.

An important event in the relations with West Germany was the visit of the Foreign Minister of that country, Mr. Genscher, to India in April, 1977. The visit provided an opportunity to reinforce mutual understanding and explore prospects of pro- moting further cooperation. The two sides agreed to set up an Ad hoc Joint Commission to explore further improvement in economic and technical cooperation.


New ground in bilateral relations was broken with the sign- ing, in November 1976, of the first Cultural Agreement between


India and Italy. The first meeting of the Indo-Italian Joint Com- mittee on, Trade and Economic Cooperation was held in Rome in December 1976. Prof. Chattopadhaya, Minister of Commerce, attended its concluding session.


Netherlands maintained its liberal and helpful development cooperation policy-towards India. It increased development assis- tance to India from Guilders 150 million in 1975-76 to Guilders 170 million (Rs. 38 crores) for 1976-77.


The visit of the Danish Minister for Foreign Economic Affairs, Mr. Ivar Norgaard, to India in October 1976 paved the way for strengthening economic cooperation between India and Denmark. In December, Mr. Orla Moller, Danish Minister for Justice and Defence, visited India and exchanged views on matters of mutual interest with India's Minister of Defence and Minister of Law.


There was no significant change in the situation, in Cyprus. Bi-communal talks between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots seemed to have come to a standstill. India consistently favoured continued negotiations between, the two communities to arrive at a just and equitable solution. India continued its support for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence and non-aligned character of the Republic of Cyprus and early implementation of the relevant United Nations resolution.


The Minister of External Affairs visited Turkey from 31 March to 4 April 1976. He had talks with the Turkish Presi- dent, Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and leader of the oppo- sition. The visit strengthened the friendly ties between India and


Turkey and brought about better understanding of each country's position on various issues of bilateral and multilateral interest. An Indo-Turkish agreement- on cooperation in the fields of science and technology was signed during the visit and the cultural exchange programme was reactivated. It was also deci- ded to encourage the exchange of delegations between the two countries to boost Indo-Turkish economic cooperation and to hold the first meeting of the Joint Committee, established under the Indo-Turkish Trade Agreement of 1973, at an early date.


Shri Jagjivan Ram, Minister of Agriculture and Irrigation, visited Norway and held discussions with the Norwegian Gov- ernment on further cooperation between India and Norway in agriculture, fisheries and other fields. A delegation from Nor- way, including Government and private representatives dealing with the oil industry and allied fields, visited India in November 1976. Indo-Norwegian cooperation in these fields was discussed and various possibilities of Norwegian technical assistance to India including supply of equipment for off-shore prospecting for oil and oil production were identified. Norway agreed to build 6 to 8 fishing vessels as an extension of the Norwegian assistance programme for fisheries development in India.


The Swedish Foreign, Minister, Mr. Sven Andersson, visited India from 1 to 6 March 1976, Official talks held during the visit covered wide range of bilateral and international issues. His visit reflected the friendly relations existing between India and Sweden. The Second meeting of Indo-Swedish Joint Commission took place in Stockholm in October 1976. It examined further possi- bilities of increasing bilateral trade, industrial collaboration and transfer of technology.


Swedish assistance to India amounted to Swedish Kr. 230 million (about Rs. 47 crores) for 1976-77. It was given entirely in the form of grants.

The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

The Soviet Union

The relations of friendship and mutual beneficial coopera- tion with the Soviet Union were promoted through the signing of a number of important agreements. These included agreements on trade, merchant shipping and cultural exchange programme. Close contacts were also maintained through exchange of visits at a high level. The visits included that of India's Prime Minister to the Soviet Union in June 1976 and of the Minister of External Affairs in August 1976 while on his way to the Mongolian People's Republic. From the Soviet, side, the Deputy Minister Mr. Firyubin visited Delhi in March 1976 to hold periodical dis- cussions between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Indian and the Soviet Union. The next round of such consultations took place in Moscow in February 1977. The Indian delegation was led by Shri Jagat Mehta, Foreign Secretary.

The Soviet Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. Arkhipov, visited India in April-May 1976 to attend the inauguration of the Hot Strip Mill at Bokaro Steel Plant and again in November to inaugurate the first Soviet National Exhibition. Dr. G. S. Dhillon, Minister of Shipping and Transpor visited the USSR in June 1976 to attend the celebrations in Odessa on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the opening of the Shipping service between India and the USSR. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shri B. R. Bhagat, led a Parliamentary delegation to the USSR, during his visit from 25 July to 4 August. Messages were exchanged between the leaders of the two countries on the occasion of the 5th anniversary of the signing of the Indo-Soviet Treaty.

The Soviet Foreign Minister, Mr. Gromyko visited India in April 1977 to exchange views with the new leaders of the gov- ernment. The visit provided an opportunity for exchange of views


on many international problems and matters of mutual interest. Three agreements were signed during the visit relating to econo- mic and technical cooperation, trade and establishment of tele- communication links. These were expected to further promote cooperation between, the two countries. During the visit, leaders of both sides expressed their desire to further strengthen and develop their ties in the fields of culture, art, literature, education, sports, and tourism. The discussions held indicated a broad simi- larity of views between the two countries on most international problems.


The highlight of Indo-Bulgarian, relations was the visit to India in November 1976 by H.E. Mr. Todor Zhivkov. President of the State Council of the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Talks during his visit confirmed the close identity or broad similarity of views of the two countries on current international issues of mutual concern. Satisfaction, was expressed at the pace of imple- mentation of the mutually agreed collaboration programme. An agreement on Merchant Shipping, Protocol of the third session of the Indo-Bulgarian Joint Commission for Economic, Scienti- fic and Technical Cooperation, a Cultural Exchange Programme for 1977 and 1978, and Trade Protocol for 1977 were also sign- ed during the visit.

German Democratic Republic The visit of Prime Minister of India to the GDR, at the in- vitation of Mr. Erich Honecker, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, was a land- mark in relations between the two countries. The two sides ex- pressed their determination to further intensify and expand mu- tual cooperation in the political, economic, scientific, technologi- cal, cultural and other fields. Earlier, the Chief Justice of India, Shri A. N. Ray, and the Minister of Information and Broadcast- ing, visited the GDR.


The Indo-GDR Trade Protocol for the. year 1976 envisaged a trade turnover of over Rs. 110 crores. It provides for increas- ed exports of non-traditional items from India to the GDR, particularly the engineering goods and polyster-based X-ray films.


The visit of Mr. Pal Losonczi, President of the Presidential Council of the Hugarian People's Republic in, December 1976 reflected close understanding and cooperation between India and Hungary. In the talks held during the visit, there was broad identity and close similarity of views on various issues. Satisfac- tion, was also expressed regarding cooperation in the political, economic, scientific, technological and cultural fields. It was also felt that there was good possibility of further developing the eco- nomic and trade relations between the two countries. An agreement in the field of trade and another agreement on, coope- ration in the field of public health was signed during the visit.


Cooperation between India and Poland, especially in the field of trade and economic relations, steadily grew. Among the socia- list countries of Eastern Europe, Poland is the second biggest trade partner of India. During the visit of the Polish Minister of Foreign Trade and, Shipping to India from 19 to 22 October 1976, a 4-year Trade Protocol, covering the period 1977-80, was signed. The Trade Plan for 1977 envisaged a trade turn- over of Rs. 230 crores next year as against Rs. 190 crores in 1975, rising to Rs. 260 crores by 1980. The new Protocol envis- aged increased exports of non-traditional items by India and import of textiles, machinery, ships and fishing trawlers from Poland. The two countries also agreed to explore avenues of pro- duction, cooperation as well as joint ventures in third countries. A number of agreements for industrial cooperation were conclud- ed during the year between the respective organisations of the two countries.


Mr. Edward Gierek, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party, visited India in January 1977. Earlier, the notable visits from India were those of the Minister of Education, Social Welfare and Culture, Prof. Nurul Hasan, and the Minister for Civil Supplies and Cooperation, Shri A. C. George.


An important event in relations between India and Romania was the visit to India of the Romanian, Prime Minister, Mr. Manea Manescu in May 1976. During his visit, a Protocol on Economic, Commercial, Scientific and Technological Cooperation and the Indo-Romanian Cultural Exchange Programme for 1976-78 were concluded. The Minister of External Affairs, Shri Y. B. Chawan, visited Romania in January 1977. He held wide ranging and fruitful talks with the Romanian leaders and his visit served to underline the importance both countries attach to continued understanding and cooperation between, them. The Indo-Romanian Trade Protocol for 1977, concluded in November 1976 in Bucharest, provided for exchange of commodities of the total value of Rs. 133 crores as against Rs. 124.7 crores in 1975. The Education Minister, Prof. Nurul Hasan, paid a visit to Romania in October 1976 and a Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker, Shri B. R. Bhagat, was in Bucharest in Novem- ber at the invitation of the Romanian Grand National Assembly.


During the year, a number of important visits were exchang- ed between India and Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav Foreign Minis- ter, Mr. Milos Minic, and Information Minister, Mr. Mohd. Berberovic, visited India in April and March 1976 respectively. From the Indian side, the Commerce Minister Prof. D. P. Chat- topadhyaya, Co-Chairman of the Joint Indo-Yugoslav Economic Committee, headed India's delegation to the 10th session of the


Committee held in Belgrade in March 1976. Prof. Chattopadhyaya had a, detailed review of bilateral trade and economic relations as well as industrial cooperation in third countries and various other matters including the strengthening of the tripartite econo- mic cooperation between Yugoslavia, Egypt and India. In Sep- tember, the Minister of Industry, Shri T. A. Pai, visited Belgrade where he had talks for the further expansion of trade and ex- change of commodities. A Protocol on the equivalence of degrees and diplomas accorded by the two countries was signed in New Delhi in November 1976.

India and Yugoslavia cooperated very well at both the July 1976 New Delhi conference of non-aligned countries on the Press Agencies Pool and the Colombo Summit in August 1976.


Mar 13, 1976


The Americas


United States of America

India continued its efforts towards promoting understanding and cooperation with the United States. It was felt that there was much that the two countries could do to strengthen peace and in- ternational cooperation. Indo-US relations were marked by a common desire for strengthening bilateral relations, improvement in trade and economic spheres, and exchange of views on inter- national economic problems. It was hoped that in view of the trend towards global detente Indo-American relations would also move towards a phase of friendly and cooperative relations based on equality and mutual understanding.

The year saw exchange of visits by Ministers and officials from both sides. The Minister of External Affairs paid a visit to the United States and met the US Secretary of State. Other Pro- minent Indians to visit were Shri Om Mehta Minister of State for Home Affairs, Shri Godey Murahari, Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, and Shri Dharam Bir Sinha, Deputy Minister for Information and Broadcasting. These visits contributed to a bet- ter understanding and awareness of India's view point in the United States.

The Indo-US Joint Business Council, that met in Washington in February 1977, pointed out that commercial ties between India and the United States could be strengthened through in- crease in trade, joint ventures and industrial cooperation in third countries. The Council decided to take steps to increase aware- ness in the United States about trade prospects with India. To mark the Bi-Centennial Anniversary of the United States independence, India took a number of steps, such as release of


a special postage stamp on that date, publication of an illustrated book on Indo-American contacts in the past 200 years as well as the deputation of a cultural troupe to convey the friendly feelings of the people of India towards the people of the United States. President Carter showed his goodwill towards India by sending a special delegation led by his mother Miss Lillian Carter to the funeral of late President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. There was great appreciation in the United States of the change of government in, India by peaceful and democratic methods through fair and free elections. Cordial messages were exchanged between the President and the new Prime Minister. It was expected that there would be greater sympathy and understanding between the two countries to enable them to re-establish their bilateral rela- tions on a firmer foundation.


Indo-Canadian differences on nuclear cooperation had been the subject of detailed discussions at various levels in earlier years. In March 1976, the officials of the two countries reached an understanding on all outstanding issues. However, on May 18, 1976, Canada unilaterally decided to terminate nuclear coopera- tion. Shortly afterwards, the Minister of External Affairs made a detailed statement in the Parliament on the subject expressing India's regret.

South and Central America

A conscious effort was made by India and Latin American and Caribbean countries to promote their relations and interests as developing countries. This trend was underlined by nascent awareness in Latin America that its destiny lies in closer politi- cal and economic cooperation with the rest of the developing world. In spite of the constraints imposed by local and regional compulsions, the urge for greater independence in foreign affairs continued to be widespread. Many countries of this region ac- cepted India's view of non-alignment that this movement was a symbol of true courage against military alliances and ideological


conformity. Seven of these countries are, full members of the non-aligned movement and four were elected at Colombo to the Coordination Bureau. Several others have closely followed the meetings of the group and developments within the non-aligned movement.

At the bilateral level, India's interest in Latin America and the Caribbean region increased further. It was decided to open one more Resident Mission shortly and two Honorary Consulates- General. India now has diplomatic relations with 23 countries and Resident Missions in 12 Capitals of the region. For the first time, India and Cuba would cooperate in cultural matters and in special fields of science and technology. Three agreements were ratified-one with Argentina in the cultural field and two with Colombia in the fields of culture and trade. Detailed pro- grammes for cooperation under the cultural and science and technology agreements, signed with Mexico, in 1975, were also drawn up. A Venezuelan team of officials visited New Delhi to discuss a cultural agreement.

Among important Indian leaders and delegations to visit Latin America and the Caribbean were the Minister of Shipping and Transport, the Minister of State for Home Affairs, who at- tended the Inter-Parliamentary Union, in Mexico City, the Spe- cial Envoy of the Prime Minister, who attended the inauguration of the Third World Centre in Mexico City, the Minister of In- formation and Broadcasting and the representatives of the Gem and Jewellery Export Promotion Council, the SAIL, India Invest- ment Centre, the Indian Aluminium Cables Ltd., Bharat Alumi- nium and MECON. Important visitors from the region, to India were Dr. Manuel Peraz Guerrero, Venezuelan Minister for Inter- national Economic Affairs; Dr. Zoilo Morinello, President of the Cuban Academy of Science and First Vice-President of the State Committee for Science and Technology ; the Hon'ble Arthur D'Hanna, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Bahamas ; a trade delegation from Brazil as well as Brazilian Members of Parliament and representatives of the Jamaican In- dustrial Investment Corporation.


The overall volume of India's trade and economic coopera- tion with countries in this region is still modest. However, there is sufficient potential as is shown by the joint cooperation pro- gramme in, Guyana. Various steps were taken to promote trade, including organising an industrial exhibition in Brazil. Discussions were held between the Indian and Brazilian trade officials. Ac- cording to the agreement reached during these talks, Brazil ex- pressed willingness to buy from India a wide range of steel items and engineering goods. The Indian side indicated interest in buy- ing ships, fishing trawlers and certain chemical items from Brazil. Both sides also agreed that STC, which is the canalising agency for castor oil, and the corresponding Brazilian organisation will come to an understanding regarding the export prices of this commodity. The possibilities of starting a two-way service bet- ween Argentina and India were discussed with an Argentine ship- ping line which showed interest in extending its service to Bom- bay,. The Shipping Corporation of India has a bimonthly service to the Caribbeans and one of Scindia's ships calls periodically at Colon (Panama).


May 18, 1976


United nations And International



Important international conferences were held during the year 1976 dealing with major political, economic and other contem- porary issues. The Fifth Conference of Heads of State/Govern- ment of non-aligned countries held in Colombo in August 1976 was of exceptional importance. It reinforced the role of non-align- ment as the bulwark of an ever widening area of peace, a shield against external pressures and a catalyst of a new international economic order based on equality and justice. The Nineteenth Session of the UNESCO General Conference held in Nairobi in October-November 1976 was noteworthy for the increasing em- phasis on orienting its programmes to meet the needs of develop- ing countries in the education, cultural, information and mass media fields. The Conference of International Economic Co- operation (CIEC) opened in Paris amidst much hope and expec- tation of a dialogue among developed and developing countries in a spirit of cooperation in order to move towards the solution of pressing international economic issues. The Fourth Session of UNCTAD was held in May 1976. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) became operative before the end of the year. The 31st regular session of the U.N. General Assembly was held in New York during September-December 1976. India actively participated in all these and other interna- tional conferences.

Two important meetings of non-aligned countries were held during the year preparatory to the Summit Conference at Colombo--a Conference of Foreign Ministers of 17-nation Coordi- nating Bureau of non-aligned countries at Algiers from 30 May to Jun 02, 1976 and a Conference of the Ministers of Information


of the non-aligned countries held in New Delhi from 8 to 13 July 1976.

The Algiers Bureau Meeting reaffirmed the importance of maintaining the positive thrust of non-alignment and preserving unity and cohesion among non-aligned countries so that they could play an increasingly effective role in world affairs. It was felt that important international political and economic issues and organi- sational questions such as the, question of admission of new members, observers and guests and the mandate and composition of the Coordinating, Bureau that may come up at the Summit Con- ference should be resolved on the basis of consensus keeping in view at the same time the need not to deflect from the fundamental principles of non-alignment.

The Conference of the Information Ministers of non-aligned countries held in New Delhi in July 1976 highlighted the fact that the emancipation and development of national information media was an integral part of the overall struggle for political, economic and social independence for a large majority of the people of the world who should not be denied the right to inform and be informed objectively and correctly. The Conference approved the constitution and establishment of a Press Agencies Pool of non-aligned countries and the composition of its Coordi- nation Committee. The setting up of an Inter-Governmental Coordination Council was recommended in order to effectively promote cooperation between non-aligned countries in different fields of information and mass media. The Conference also re- commended draft paragraphs for inclusion in the Political Dec- laration of the Colombo Summit stressing that a new international order in the field of information and mass-communication was as vital as a new international economic order.

The Fifth Summit Conference of non-aligned countries held in Colombo from 16-19 August 1976, the first to be held in Asia, was the largest ever of its kind. It was attended by 86 member countries, 10 Observer States, 12 Observer Organisa- tions and 7 Guests. The Conference adopted (1) a Political


declaration, (2) an Economic Declaration and (3) An Action Programme for Economic Cooperation. In addition, 16 Resolu- tions were approved on political subjects and 12 on economic subjects. The Summit was preceded by a meeting of the Bureau at officials! level from 9-11 August and by a Conference of Foreign Ministers of all non-aligned countries from 11-14 August.

The Political Declaration emphasized the need to preserve the integrity, unity and cohesion of the movement and to adhere to its fundamental principles. The section on "Asia and non- alignment" which traced the evolution of non-alignment in Asia beginning with the Asian Relations Conference held in New Delhi in 1947 and expressed the determination of the non-aligned counties in Asia to defend and preserve their freedom by eschewing involvement in military blocs and alliances. The sec- tion on Southern Africa in the Political Declaration reflected the growing feeling that eventually resort to armed struggle may be necessary to secure the liberation from the remaining vestiges of colonialism, racism and apartheid. On disarmament, the Poli- tical Declaration called for the convening of a Special Session of the General Assembly exclusively devoted to disarmament matters which has since been accepted at the 3lst Session of the U.N. General Assembly. This would not be substitute for the World Disarmament Conference, but would consider, inter alia, the question of convening such a World Conference. The Political Declaration also reflected the consensus views, of all non-aligned countries on the need to be vigilant against the poli- tics of pressure and domination by outside powers in the internal affairs of non-aligned countries. Other issues covered were the situation in the Middle East and the question of Palestine, the role of the United Nations of the Historic victories of the countries of Indo-China, the question of Cyprus, the Indian Ocean as a Zone of peace, the admission of Angola and Vietnam to the U.N., the question of Korea, etc.

The Colombo Summit unanimously approved all the re- commendations of the New Delhi Conference of Information


Ministers of non-aligned countries. The Political Declaration in- corporated paragraphs recommended by the New Delhi Confe- rence on cooperation in the field of information and mass media. The Economic Declaration adopted at the Colombo Summit analysed the current international economic situation and the prospects for developing countries. Disappointment was ex- pressed at the lack of progress made so far at the Paris Con- ference (CIEC) and at the lack of substantive programmes and results achieved at UNCTAD-IV. At the same time, the accent was on improving the collective bargaining position of non- aligned and developing countries by promoting mutual help and cooperation. There was also growing realisation of the need to concentrate on the implementation of the decision taken at pre- vious Conferences.

The emphasis in the Action Programme for Economic Co- operation was on increasing the extent and diversity of coopera- tion among non-aligned and developing countries. This prog- ramme, while covering old and familiar fields of cooperation, namely trade, industrialisation, science and technology, monetary and financial cooperation, raw materials etc. contained new addi- tional sections on food and agriculture, fisheries, transport, tele- communications, insurance, public enterprises, health, technical cooperation and consultancy services, employment and human resources development, role of women in development, research and information system and tourism. India continued to be one of the Coordinators in the field of financial and monetary cooperation among non-aligned countries. It had also been appointed one of the Coordinators in the field Of scientific and technological development and technical coope- ration and consultancy services. India played an active role both in the deliberations as well as in the decisions finally adopted at the Conference.

The Coordinating Bureau of the non-aligned countries was expanded from 17 to 25 to include 12 from Africa, 8 from Asia. 4 from Latin America and 1 from Europe. The mandate


given to the expanded Coordinating Bureau reflected the need for continuous coordination of activities at a political level to enable the non-aligned countries to play an effective role at the U.N. and other international forums.

The Conference of Foreign Ministers of the Coordinating Bureau of Non-Aligned countries was held as scheduled from 6-11 April in New Delhi. Apart from 25 members of the Bureau. the meeting was attended by observers from several other coun- tries. The meeting marked the first occasion for a stock-taking regarding political and economic programmes adopted at the Colombo Summit. Inaugurating the Conference, the Prime Mi- nister said that for India non-alignment represented a national consensus and India would remain non-aligned in the real sense of the term. The struggle for freedom from want and freedom from fear should inspire attitudes in international affairs. He called upon non-aligned countries to forge meaningful bonds of cooperation and collaboration among themselves. The Minister of External Affairs, addressing the plenary session, reiterated India's firm commitment to the policy of non-alignment. He laid special emphasis on the removal of the last vestiges of colonialism and racialism from Africa. He called for unity and collaboration among non-aligned countries to realise their collective aspirations through self-reliance. He placed particular emphasis on the in- creasing relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement in the global effort to achieve a new economic order which would ensure equi- table principle of decision-making as well as a just distribution of resources and assets in the world economic system.

The 31st Regular Session of the UN General Assembly was held in New York from 21 September to 21 December 1976. Major international political, economic, social. humanitarian, legal and other issues figured in its debates and resolutions. India played an active role in its deliberations. The membership of the World Body which stood at 144 prior to the commencement of the Session increased to 147 with the admission of three new Members Seychelles, Angola and


Western Samoa. The admission of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was, however, once again vetoed in the Security Coun- cil. On the initiative of non-aligned countries, the General Assemb- ly subsequently adopted a Resolution, with an overwhelming majority, calling for the admission of Socialist Republic of Vietnam to the U.N. and recommending that the Security Council consider the matter favourably in strict conformity with Article 4 of the Charter of die U.N. more India co-sponsored this Resolu- tion. The Commonwealth Secretariat was also granted Observer status during this Session.

The General Assembly re-elected Dr. Kurt Waldheim for a second five-year term on the unanimous recommendation of the Security Council.

There were 124 items on the Agenda of the 31st Session. The General Assembly adopted in all 208 Resolutions. An interesting development which was widely welcomed was the withdrawal by the sponsors of the two conflicting draft resolutions on the Korean Question before the formal adoption of the Agenda. It will be recalled that at the previous sessions both such resolu- tions were adopted.

At the request of Bangladesh a new item entitled situation arising out of a unilateral withdrawal of waters at Farakka was included in the Agenda. India opposed the inscription of the item on the agenda on the ground that it was a bilateral matter which needed to be settled by direct negotiations and any attempt to internationalise a bilateral legal-cum-technical issue may only prove counter-productive. The item was allocated to the Special Political Committee. Three meetings were devoted to the subject in the Committee-the first one (November 15) in which Bangla- desh made a statement, the second one (November 16) in which India made a statement, and the third one (November 24) at which the Committee adopted a consensus statement calling upon both parties to resume bilateral negotia- tions with a view to arriving at a settlement. Bangladesh withdrew


the draft resolution earlier tabled by it on the subject. With the adoption of the consensus statement the discussion on the item was concluded. India participated actively in the deliberations of the General Assembly on items pertaining to Colonialism and apartheid in accordance with its well-known stand in such matters. India continued to be a member of the UN Special Committee on de- colonisation (The Committee of 24), the Special Committee on Apartheid and the Council for Namibia.

The policies of apartheid of the Government of South Africa and the illegal regime in Zimbabwe came under severe attack at the 31st Session. To highlight its importance apartheid was discussed in the Plenary, instead of in the Special Political Com- mittee as in earlier years. More than 100 delegations participated in the debate and as many as 11 resolutions were adopted on apartheid alone-8 of them co-sponsored by India. For the first time, the General Assembly endorsed armed struggle as a legi- timate weapon in the hands of the oppressed people of Southern Africa. It proclaimed that the Pretoria regime was illegal and reaffirmed the right of the people of South Africa to struggle by all means for their liberation. Further, the General Assembly demanded the immediate release of all persons imprisoned for their involvement in the struggle for liberation in South Africa and gave renewed call to the Security Council to impose a mandatory arms embargo against the Pretoria regime. Another Resolution condemned any collaboration with the Pretoria re- gime as being "a hostile act against the oppressed people of South Africa" and condemned actions of all States and foreign economic interests continuing to collaborate with the regime. A resolution condemning Israel for "continuing and increasing collaboration with the South African racist regime" was also approved. The Assembly authorised the Special Committee against Apartheid to organise a World Conference in Africa (Ghana) in 1977 to set forth a programme listing measures which could be taken by Governments, Specialised Agencies and other Organi- sations. Also approved without opposition was the decision to


set up a Drafting Committee to prepare an International Conven- tion against apartheid in Sports and an appeal for generous con- tributions to the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa which provides humanitarian assistance to victims of discrimina- tory legislation. The Assembly further rejected the proclamation of independence of Transkei--one of the Bantustans or "home- lands" of South Africa-and declared it to be invalid. The estab- lishment of Bantustans was condemned as designed to consoli- date apartheid, to perpetuate white minority domination and to dispossess the South African people of their inalienable rights, and Governments were called on to deny any form of recogni- tion to "the so called independent Transkei" and to refrain from having any dealings with it or with other Bantustans.

In pursuance of decisions taken at Colombo, a Pledging Con- ference on the Non-aligned Support and Solidarity Fund for the Liberation of Southern Africa was also convened. The Govern- ment of India decided to contribute US $30,000 to this Fund. A note-worthy event was that the Special Committee against Apartheid held a Special Meeting to pay warm and eloquent tributes to India for its contribution to the world struggle against apartheid in Southern Africa.

On Namibia, 8 resolutions were adopted, all co-sponsored by India. South Africa's continuing refusal to comply with the resolutions and decisions of the UN, its continued illegal occu- pation of Namibia, its brutal repression of the Nambian people, its persistent violation of their human rights and its efforts to destroy the national unity and territorial integrity of Namibia were strongly deplored and condemned. Further, the General Assembly re-affirmed the inalienable rights of the people of Namibia to self-determination, freedom and national indepen- dence in accordance with the relevant UN Resolutions. The armed struggle of the Namibian people led by SWAPO to achieve free- dom and national independence was also endorsed. The General Assembly called for free elections in Namibia under the supervi- sion and control of the U.N. It was also decided to observe the week beginning with 27 October as a week of solidarity with the


people of Namibia and its liberation movements. An important development was the invitation to SWAPO to participate in the Sessions and work of the General Assembly and in the work of all international conferences, convened under the auspices of the Assembly and other Organs of the UN, in the capacity of Observer.

Two resolutions, both co-sponsored by India, were adopted on the situation in the Middle East. The resolutions condemned Israel for its continued illegal occupation of Arab territories since 1967 and called for its withdrawal as well as attainment by the Palestinian people of their inalienable rights as a prere- quisite to a just and lasting peace in the Middle East. The reso- lutions also called for the early resumption of the Geneva Peace Conference with the participation of all the parties concerned, including the PLO. On Palestine, a series of resolutions were adopted by the General Assembly. An important development was the endorse- ment by the Assembly of the recommendations of the "Com- mittee on Palestinian Rights" as a basis for resolving the Pales- tinian question.

Resolutions on the problem of Palestine refugees called upon Governments to make generous contributions to UNRWA, and for continued assistance to persons displaced as a result of 1967 hostilities, etc. The mandate of the UNEF was extended by one year and that of UNDOF by six months.

In regard to the proposal that the Indian Ocean be declared a Zone of Peace, the General Assembly adopted a procedural resolution which requested the littoral and hinterland States to continue their consultations with a view to formulation a Programme of Action leading to the convening of a Conference on the Indian Ocean. It also renewed the invitation to all States, in particulars, the Great Powers, and the major maritime users of the Indian Ocean, to cooperate In a practical manner in the


implementation of the UN resolutions on the subject. The Resolu- tion was adopted by 106 votes in favour, none against and 23 abstentions. The question of Cyprus was also on the agenda of the 31st General Assembly and a resolution tabled by the Contact Group of Five Non-aligned Countries (Algeria, Guyana, India, Mali and Yugoslavia) was approved with 94 votes in favour, 1 against and 27 abstentions. The Resolution reaffirmed the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and non-alignment of the Republic of Cyprus and called for the cessation of all foreign interference. Further, it requested the Secretary General for the continuation of his good offices for negotiations between the re- presentatives of the two communities.

The mandate of the UN Force in Cyprus was extended by a further period of six months. It may be mentioned that the Commander of the UNFICYP, Lt. Gen. Prem Chand of India, resigned from his post after serving with distinction for a period of 7 years.

India supported a proposal made by the Soviet Union for concluding a World Treaty for the Renunciation of Force in international relations and co-sponsored a resolution calling upon the Secretary General to ascertain the views and suggestions of member-States on the draft Soviet Treaty for further examina- ion at the next Session. India also supported the initiative taken by the Federal Republic of Germany on the setting up of a Committee to prepare an International Convention against the taking of hostages. The resolution, amended after consultation among different groups, was adopted by consensus. A 35 member Ad-hoc Committee has been set up to draft the Convention which would come up for examination at the next Session of the General Assembly. On Western Sahara, the General Assembly postponed con- sideration of the item to the 32nd Session next year and requested the Secretary General of the OAU to inform the U.N. Secretary


General of the progress achieved in the implementation of the decisions of the OAU concerning the holding of an Extraordinary Summit on the questions of Western Sahara, On Timor, the General Assembly rejected the integration of East Timor with Indonesia and called upon Indonesia to withdraw all its forces from that territory. India voted against this Resolution. The Resolution on the Comorian Island of Mayotte called upon France to withdraw from Mayotte which was an integral part of Comoros.

In the field of disarmament, the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) of which India is a member since the establishment of the Committee in 1962 was in session from 17 February to 22 April and again from 22 June to 3 September 1976. The Committee appointed a Working Group for negotia- ting the text of a draft convention on the prohibition of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques (ENMOD Convention) and an Ad-hoc Group of scientific ex- perts to consider international cooperative measures to detect and identify seismic events.

The Working Group succeeded in evolving an agreed draft ENMOD Convention which was remitted to the 31st Session of the UN General Assembly. India co-sponsored a resolution at the 31st UN General Assembly Session referring this Convention to all States for their consideration, signature and ratification and re- questing the UN Secretary General in his designated capacity as its depository to open it for signature by all States at an early date.

At the 31st Session of the UN General Assembly, there were as many as twenty items regarding disarmament, outer space and atomic energy on the agenda, on which a total of 23 reso- lutions were adopted. Of these, India co-sponsored 6 resolutions, all of which were adopted, four of them without a vote. India voted for 9 other resolutions, abstained on 4, and voted against 1 (that sponsored by Pakistan on the question of establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South Asia). Three other resolutions were adopted without a vote.


The decision to convene a special session of the UN General Assembly to consider disarmament was by far the most im- portant development in the field of disarmament during the 31st session. In pursuance of the recommendation of the Colombo Summit, several non-aligned countries including India co-sponsored a resolution, which was adopted and under which it was decided to hold a special session of the U.N. General Assembly devoted to disarmament in May-June 1978.

Pakistan again tabled a resolution on the question of the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South Asia. India did not table any draft resolution during this session, as its position had been already made clear in the various state- ments made on this subject as also in the negative votes either cast or indicated on the Pakistani resolutions at the 29th and 30th Sessions, at which it had tabled alternative resolutions which had been duly adopted by the UN General Assembly. In fact, the only time when both the Indian and Pakistani resolutions were voted upon-at the 29th Session-the Indian resolution had received a larger number of affirmative votes than the Pakistani resolution. In order, however, to reiterate the unacceptability of the Pakistani proposal, India voted against the Pakistani reso- lution. In essence, India's position on the Pakistani proposal is that it is not feasible to think of establishing a nuclear-weapon- free zone in South Asia, so long as nuclear weapons exist in the region of Asia and the Pacific of which South Asia is an integral part.

In the field of conventional disarmament, India reiterated its consistent view that any controls on conventional weapons should be comprehensive and should properly be considered in the con- text of general and complete disarmament, the highest priority being accorded to the question of the elimination of nuclear wea- pons and all other weapons of mass destruction. Consistent with this position, India succeeded in bringing about the deferment of consideration of a resolution which had been proposed on the


subject of merely controlling international transfers of conven- tional weapons without any curbs on their production, sophisti- cation and stockpiling and also without any commitment to the highest priority objective of nuclear disarmament and elimina- tion of all weapons of mass destruction.

The 31st Session of the UN General Assembly did not regis- ter any substantive progress on the various other aspects of the question of disarmament and remitted to the CCD for further consideration and negotiation a number of issues, particularly the conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear weapon test ban and the prohibition of chemical weapons on a priority basis. These issues were again taken up by the CCD during its 1977 spring session which commenced on 15th February, 1977.

The Ministry continued to coordinate with and assist the Department of Atomic Energy as well as the Department of Space in respect of the international aspects of their activities. India continued to be a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for being amongst the nine globally most advanced members of the IAEA in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.

The Conference on International Economic Cooperation, which had met in Paris in December 1975, had set up four Commissions to deal with problems of energy, raw materials, development and financial affairs. India was a member of the Commission on Energy Development and Financial Affairs and was an Observer on the Commission on Raw Materials. These Commissions met at periodical intervals in Paris during 1976. A mutually acceptable work programme was finalised in September and in October the four Commissions outlined the positions of the developing and developed countries on the items in the work programme. There were wide differences between the positions of the two groups on almost all the major subjects under discussion. Attempts to re- concile these differences did not succeed. The Indian delegation throughout played a moderate and constructive role. There were


considerable disappointment among the developing countries at the meagre results achieved so far.

The Conference on Economic Cooperation among developing countries was held in Mexico in September 1976. The third ministerial meeting of the group of 77 which had met in January- February 1976 had decided that such a Conference at inter-gov- ernmental level should be held in Mexico. The Indian delegation to the Conference stressed that the stage had come when develop- ing countries should move from declaration to action and from programmes to their implementation. It worked for adoption of complete action-oriented measures and operational mechanism in this regard. The Conference identified several areas which had the potential for expanding mutual cooperation and commissioned detailed studies regarding them.

On the economic side, the 31st Session of the U.N. General Assembly expressed its deep concern and disappointment at the failure of the Paris Conference on International Economic Coope- ration to achieve any concrete results. At the initiative of the Group of 77 it decided to hold, if necessary, a resumed session in the first half of 1977 to discuss question of International Eco- nomic Cooperation in the light of the outcome of the Paris dialogue. The 31st Session also called upon the Secretary-General to collect data for the formulation of a new International Development Strategy for the Third Development Decade. Further, it was decided to convene a U.N. Conference on technical cooperation among developing countries in March/April 1978 in Argentina, a Conference of Plenipotentiaries during the second half of 1977 to consider the constitution of UNIDO as a Specialised Agency and a U.N. Conference on Science and Technology for Develop- ment in 1978.

The United Nations Water Conference held at Mar del Plata in Argentina in March 1977 decided to designate the period 1978-1988 as a decade for international action to provide all peoples of the world with adequate drinking water and sanitation facilities.


The World Food Conference of 1974 had recommended the creation of an International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) to provide increased concessional financing for food production in the developing countries. This Fund, which will now become operative since the US $ 1,000 million target of initial contributions has been reached, is considered to be an important achievement of the United Nations.

The 31st Session of the General Assembly, adopted a number of resolutions on social and humanitarian questions including racial discrimination world social situation, etc. India played an active role in projecting the view point of developing countries and specially in tabling resolutions on the Role of Youth, on National Experience for Social Progress, on Role of Cooperatives and in co-sponsoring many other resolutions, all of which were adopted with overwhelming majority. The Commission on the Status of Women, at its meeting in September 1976, adopted a programme for the U.N. Decade for Women (1976-85) as a follow up of the World Conference of the International Women's Year. The General Assembly also adopted a number of resolutions aimed at improving the status of women in the field of education, employment opportunities and emancipation. At the national level, a 31-Member National Committee on Women has been set up to guide and advise the Central and State Governments on formulating programmes for women and ensuring their implementation. India sponsored a reso- lution in the Fifth Committee which, inter alia called for greater representation of women at all levels and particularly at the senior levels in the U.N. and its Specialised Agencies.

Both during the general debate and in the Third Committee during the 31st Session of the U.N. General Assembly, India exercised its right of reply to reiterate its consistent and well- known position regarding Jammu and Kashmir being an integral part of India in response to misleading contentions made by Pakistan.


India's contribution to the U.N. budget has been reduced for the coming year from 1.2 per cent to 0.7 per cent in accor- dance with a new scale of assessments recommended by the Com- mittee on Contributions. India played an active role in facilitating the adoption of a compromise resolution on the question concern- ing the scale of assessments. The new scale of assessments would be valid only for one year. In the meantime, the Committee on Contributions will re-examine the question taking into account new guidelines provided in the discussions at the 31st Session of the U.N.

The Nineteenth Session of the General Conference of UNESCO was the first to be held in Africa and was only the second General Conference in UNESCO's thirty years of existence to be convened outside UNESCO's Headquarters in Paris (the only other Session held outside Paris was in Delhi in 1965). The UNESCO General Conference decided to consider at its Twentieth Session, two years from now, a draft Declaration on the Fundamental Principles governing the use of the mass media in strengthening peace and international understanding and in combating war propaganda, racism and apartheid. This should be the first time that an inter- national body would be considering such a Declaration on the guidelines for activity in the field of mass media. Other significant resolutions adopted at the General Conference which would add new dimensions to UNESCO's activities over the coming biennial related to the role of UNESCO in developing a climate of public opinion conducive to halting the arms race and the transition to disarmament; and to UNESCO's contribution in the establishment of a New International Economic Order.

India was elected a member of the Security Council for the term 1977-78 replacing Japan whose two-year term expired at the end of 1976. India was re-elected to the Executive Board of UNESCO on which it has served since its inception with Dr. S. Gopal replacing Shri G. Parthasarathi. India was re-elected to the Human Rights Commission, the Commission on the Status of Women, the Committee on Natural Resources, ICAO Council


and Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organisation (IMCO). Mr. Venkataraman was re-elected as member of the U.N. Administrative Tribunal and became its Chairman. Dr. Jagota, Legal Adviser in the Ministry of External Affairs, was elected as a member of the International Law Commission. Dr. Nagendra Singh, Judge of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) was elected as Vice-President of the Court. The 31st Session of the U.N. General Assembly also approved the re-nomination by the U.N. Secretary-General of Shri P. N. Haksar as a member of the International Civil Service Commission and of Shri B. K. Nehru as a member of the U.N. Investment Committee.

During 1976, the fourth (15 March to 7 May) and fifth (2 August to 17 September) sessions of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea were held in New York. At the fourth session, discussions were held on the basis of the Single Negotiating Texts prepared by the Chairman of the three main Committees with respect to their respective subject-matter, namely, International Seabed Area and its Resources (Committee I), Law of the Sea (Committee II), and Scientific Research and Marine Pollution (Committee III). In addition to this, Ambassador H. S. Amerasinghe, President of the Conference, also submitted the Fourth Informal Single Negotiating Text on settlement of dis- putes. As a result of these discussions, these SNTs were revised.

The fifth session considered further the Revised Single Nego- tiating Texts. Considerable progress was made during these sessions and a consensus was reached on a 12-mile territorial sea, a 200-mile economic zone, and the continental shell extending to the outer edge of the margin with the understanding that the outer limits will be precisely defined. Some questions remained to be further discussed, namely, provisions concerning navigation through international straits, the question whether the economic zone is part of the high seas or whether the high seas start beyond the economic zone, the question of coastal State jurisdiction con- cerning the conduct of scientific research and the control of marine pollution within the economic zone and the question of settlement of disputes. As regards the resources of the international seabed


area, the technologically developed states and the Group of 77 of the developing countries continued to differ on the system of their exploitation, the financial arrangements to be entered into between the Authority and the operators in the area and the role and relationship of the principal organs of the proposed Inter- national Seabed Authority.

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) met thrice in Geneva and New York, alternatively, during 1976. It completed the final reading of the Draft Conven- tion on the Carriage of Goods by Sea and the Draft Convention on the International Sale of Goods. It also completed the second reading of the Draft Uniform Law on International Promissory Notes. It adopted the Draft Set of Arbitration Rules for optional use in ad hoc arbitration relating to international trade.

The fifteenth session of the Legal Sub-Committee of the United Nations Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, was held at Geneva in May 1976. It considered questions relating to (a) draft treaty on the moon, (b) artificial earth satellites for direct television broadcasting and (c) legal implications of remote sensing of the earth from space.

On the subject of a draft treaty relating to the moon, the Legal Sub-Committee was not able to reach compromise on the controversial principles that the moon and its resources are the common heritage of mankind and the exploitation of the resources of the moon should be undertaken only in accordance with the international regime to be established.

On the item of elaboration of principles governing the use by States of artificial earth satellites for direct television broadcasting, the Sub-Committee was successful in formulating nine principles. These principles took care of India's own position as a country which in the not too distant future would possess advanced knowledge and be in a position to use DBS technology of its own. On the item relating to remote sensing of earth from space not much progress was made by the Sub-Committee.


The voluminous report of the International Law Commission for 1976, was considered by the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly. It dealt with the questions of most favoured nation clause, state responsibility, law relating to international water- courses, and succession of states in matters other than treaties. On the question of most favoured nation treatment, it was urged that the article concerning the most favoured nation clause in relation to treatment under a generalized system of preferences should be strengthened by including a reference to "a differential and more favourable treatment in favour of developing countries." Regarding the application of the clause to rights and facilities extending to landlocked states, it was stated that it should be restricted to the neighbouring landlocked States and should not automatically apply to distant landlocked States.

On the question of non-navigational uses of international water- courses, India extended its support to the concept of international drainage basin on the ground that it would provide a broader framework for the equitable sharing of waters and for their opti- mum utilization by all concerned. India further emphasised that the utilization by a riparian state of its reasonable and equitable share of a river or a basin within its own territory could not be subject to veto by another riparian or co-basin state.

An Indian team participated in the deliberations of the Second International Conference on Water Law and Administration (AID-II) held in Caracas from 8 to 14 February, 1976. The Indian team emphasised that states should themselves evolve a legal framework for the optimum utilisation of the water resources without any external interference.

India was represented at the second meeting of UNEP Inter- Governmental Working Group of Experts on Natural Resources Shared by Two or More States held in Geneva in September 1976. The Group discussed principles concerning the establish- ment of a system whereby States register information on activities within their jurisdiction which may have significant environmental impact beyond their jurisdiction or control; suitable procedure


for mutual warning and cooperation in case of emergencies, such as natural disasters ; settlement of disputes ; use of good Offices of UNEP ; and responsibility of States and liability for environ- mental damage concerning a shared natural resource.

India also participated in the third session of the Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Humani- tarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts held in Geneva from 21 April to I 1 June, 1976. The Conference was concerned with the revision of the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

During 1976, India concluded 74 agreements, a list of which is given in Appendix V.


Jun 02, 1976


Technical And Economic Cooperation


Indian emerged as a larger reservoir of trained man-power and the demand for the services of Indian doctors, engineers, technicians and other categories of trained personnel grew rapidly. It offered to share its own experience of develop- ment with fellow developing countries. ln this context, the Eco- nomic Division of the Ministry assisted in coping with the task in cooperation with the Department of Personnel and the Ministry of Labour. With a view to ensure that recruitment of Indian ex- perts for service in foreign countries is consistent with India's national interests, it was decided that organised recruitment of Indian experts by foreign governments and/or foreign agencies should be channelised through the Government of India. The Department of Personnel & Administrative Reforms was designa- ted as the agency for this parpose. Skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour from India will in future be recruited through licensed recruiting agencies. These recruiting agencies will be licensed and registered by the Directorate General of Employment and Training, Ministry of Labour. It was expected that these new procedures would serve to regulate the outflow of Indian manpower consistent with India's national interests and also ensure fair treatment for Indian personnel abroad.

The fact that the economic content of contemporary diplomacy had grown vastly was particularly felt in India's relations with the West Asian and North African countries. To meet the situation, an Economic Wing of the WANA Division was created in September 1976.

Joint Conmmissions

Meetings, of several Joint Commissions with the countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and the USA were held during the year and these meetings identified new areas of potential cooperation.



In terms of the Joint Economic Commission with Afghanistan, India undertook to further expand the area of bilateral coopera- tion for the forthcoming 7-year Development Plan of that country. At the fourth meeting of the Joint Commission, it was agreed that India would supply equipment worth Rs. 4 lakhs to the ENT Institute and depute 4 experts to assist in its establishment.

The third meeting of the Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Commission. was held in New Delhi in February 1976. It took some important decisions to further accelerate bilateral cooperation in the areas, of trade, agriculture and animal husbandry, and fisheries. It was agreed that the Government of India would supply machinery and equipment for the establishment of some Rural Technical Centres and Gobar Gas units. The second meeting of the Indo-Iraqi Joint Commission was. held in New Delhi from 29. March to Apr 03, 1976. Important issues discussed or decided during this meeting included bilateral trade plan for 1976, provision of training facilities in India for Iraqi nominees, deputation of experts from India and an agree- ment on the further development of air services between India. and Iraq.

A meeting of the Indo-UAE Joint Commission was held on 22 and 23 April 1976 in New Delhi when it was decided to, examine prospects of collaboration in the field of fertilisers and the setting up of a steel mill.

Eastern Europe

The third meeting of the Indo-Soviet Joint Commission on Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was held in Moscow during March-April 1976. The Protocol concluded after the meeting envisaged wider economic ties in many fields and made special mention of new forms of cooperation in production on compensation basis. New fields identified for cooperation included agriculture-based products, textiles, electronics and an alumina


plant based on bauxite deposits. A broad programme was also drawn up to intensify cooperation in the field of ferrous metal- lurgy, machine-building and power, coal and mining industry, oil and gas prospecting, production and refining of petroleum, and science and technology. Both sides agreed to cooperate in third countries. Tripartite cooperation was also discussed in rela- tion to projects constructed by Soviet organisations in third countries on turn-key basis. The second meeting of the Indo-Hungarian Joint Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was held in Budapest in April 1976. In the protocol concluded after the meeting, both sides agreed to take steps to strengthen coopera- tion in the fields of telecommunications and electronics, drugs and pharmaceuticals, trade exchanges, industrial cooperation, science and technology, agriculture and food processing industry, water resources development and allied subjects.

The second and third meetings of the Indo-Romanian Joint Commission for Economic, Technical and Scientific Cooperation were held in New Delhi (April 1976) and Bucharest (November- December 1976) respectively; During these meetings, both sides agreed on strengthening cooperation in the fields of petroleum and chemicals, trade, industrial cooperation, machine building, mining and metallurgy, shipping and science and technology. During the second meeting, a 3-year Executive Programme (1976-78) for cooperation in the fields of science and technology was signed.

The third and fourth meetings of the Indo-Polish Joint Com- mission for Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technical Coopera- tion were held in Warsaw and New Delhi in June and December 1976 respectively. While in the Protocol signed after the second meeting the two sides agreed to expand cooperation for the development and modernisation of coal mines in India, in the Protocol following the third meeting, it was agreed to strengthen cooperation in the fields of trade exchanges, industrial coopera- tion, agriculture, fisheries and science and technology. In both


the meetings, the need for developing cooperation in third coun- tries was emphasised and specific fields were identified. The third meeting of the Indo-Bulgarian Joint Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was held in New Delhi in October 1976. A Protocol was initialled at the, end of the meeting and it was later signed on 18 November during the visit of the Bulgarian President to India. In the Protocol, both sides agreed to strengthen existing economic cooperation in the fields of agriculture and food processing, machine building and heavy industry, electronics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, science and technology, and trade. Of particular interest, was the desire expressed by both sides to expand cooperation in the setting up of rural agro-industrial complexes in India with Bulgarian assistance.

The 7th meeting of the Indo-Czechoslovak Joint Committee for Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was held in December 1976. In the subsequent Protocol, it was agreed to increase and diversify economic cooperation in the fields of trade exchanges, industrial cooperation, electronics and science and technology. Czechoslovakia expressed its desire for importing from India a number of heavy engineering goods. With Czechoslovak collaboration, the HMT will manufacture Z-5711 tractors in India. A team of Indian experts would visit Czechoslovakia to study possibilities of industrial cooperation and imports by India in certain identified areas such as textile industry, metallurgy, power- generation, ship-building, cement plant, etc. The two countries would also cooperate in joint ventures in third countries.

Western Europe

The second meeting of the Indo-Swedish Joint Commission was held in Stockholm in October 1976. Three Working Groups were set up on trade and tourism, industrial cooperation, and science and technology. Detailed discussions were held in the res- pective fields and efforts were made to identity areas wherein Indian exports to Sweden could be stepped up. The Working Group on


Industrial Cooperation identified new product lines of coopera- tion, special emphasis being placed on agro-processing industries. As a new dimension to Indo-Swedish industrial cooperation, the possibility of Indian sub-contracting in Joint ventures in theird countries was considered good. In the field of science and techno- logy, progress on the three on-going projects on oil seed protein concentrates, enzyme engineering and detonics research were reviewed and 12 additional areas of cooperation were identi- fied.

The United States

The scheduled meeting of the Indo-US Joint Commission, to be held in October in Washington, was postponed because of the US Presidential elections. However, the Sub-Commissions met as scheduled during the year. The Economic and Commercial Sub-Commission met in March 1976. It was preceded by the first meeting of the Indo-US Business Council which was held in Feb- ruary. Discussions centered round bilateral trade and coopera- tion as well as the general climate for multilateral economic cooperation. The sub-Commission on Education and Culture met in New York in May 1976. The meeting discussed the Indo- American Fellowship and Visitorship Programme in the context of the principles and levels of exchange, and certain guidelines were laid down Two seminars were organised by the Joint Museum Committee. An Indo-US Workshop on Solar and Wind Energy was held in New Delhi in August 1976.

Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme

The ITEC Programme expanded considerably and the ex- penditure incurred during the year was estimated at Rs. 508 lakhs, as against Rs. 400 lakhs spent in the previous year. A country-wise break-up of Indian experts on deputation and foreign trainees undergoing training in India is given at Appen- dix VI. The Programme developed substantially and there was increasing demand in foreign countries for training facilities in


India, including on self-financing basis. In some cases foreign trainees received funds from third countries. The number of Indian experts going abroad under direct contract showed a phenomenal increase in recent year. The Government of India evolved a uniform and regulated procedure for their recruitment which will safeguard both the interests of the experts and those of the receiving countries.

Economic and Technical Cooperation

The volume of economic and technical cooperation between India and the developing as well as the developed countries appeared significant.


(i) India's neighbours

At the recent fourth meeting of the Indo-Afghan Joint Commission, satisfaction was expressed over the working of the Indian technical and economic assistance programme under which cooperation is being extended in various fields. During the Indo- Afghan Trade Review talks held in September 1976 it was agreed that there should be a growth of 18 per cent in trade dur- ing 1976-77, over the exchanges during 1974-75.

A sum of Rs. 4.20 crores was assigned for the supply of commodities and equipment to Bangladesh under the existing government-to-government assistance programme. The Industrial Development Bank of India continued to extend some commer- cial credit for the supply of capital goods to Bangladesh. A sum of Rs. 20 lakhs was committed under the Indo-Bangladesh Cultu- ral Cooperation Agreement. The Indo-Bangladesh Trade Agree- ment of 1973 which expired on 27 September, 1976 was renewed for a further period of three years.

A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Governments of India and the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma for the establishment of 16 Pilot Plants for the manu- facture of machine tools, chemicals, straw and hard board, food


processing, etc. Linked training programmes were also organis- ed for the Burmese nominees. The Government of India assisted the Maldives in setting up a fish canning plant. Three Indian teachers and one Indian medical officer were deputed to work in the Maldives.

Training was imparted to Sri Lanka nominees in the field of small scale industries. Arrangements are also underway to provide training facilities in hydropower generation, laboratory glassware industry and mica mining. Indian experts in sugar technology, mica mining and animal husbandry were deputed to Sri Lanka.

(ii) East and South East Asia

Bilateral technical cooperation between India and Indonesia received added stimulus with the visit of a high-level official Indo- nesian delegation to India. Useful discussions were held during the visit. India responded to the wishes of Loas to share its technolo- gical experiences and affirmed its willingness to cooperate in that country's post-war reconstruction. Medicines and irrigation pumps were supplied to Loas under an emergency aid programme. Training facilities were extended in bicycle assembly and arti- ficial limbs' manufacture. The Director-General of the Indian Council for Agricultural Research led a delegation to Hanoi in September-October 1976 to discuss matters relating to technical cooperation in the field of agriculture.

A trade agreement was signed with Australia in August 1976, While formalising bilateral trade, it provided for a continuing forum for-identifying opportunities of increased economic and industrial cooperation between the two countries. Proposals for setting up joint ventures, including in third countries were consi- dered.


(iii) West Asia and North Africa

In Iran the Indian commercial and parastatal organisations did well in the commercial field. Iran continued to recruit medical and paramedical personnel from India and 223 such experts were sent during the year.

The Engineering Projects India Limited won contract for the setting up of a water filtration plant at Umm Qasr (Iraq) worth Rs. 12 crores, and a mechanical training workship, worth appro- ximately Rs. 10 crores. The Oil and Natural Gas Commission continued its exploratory work in surveying and drilling for petro- leum in Iraq. Rail India Technical and Economic Services (RITES) negotiated with the Iraqi Government for the construc- tion of a part of the Baghdad-Husaibah rail link. Various private Indian organisations also won contracts for civil construction and supply of industrial equipment to Iraq. During the visit of the Crown Prince of Jordan to India in November 1976, agreements on economic technical cooperation as well as science and technology were initialled between India and Jordan. These agreements covered exchanges of experts, training facilities, collaboration in the fields of industrial organi- sation and patents, development of tourism and the exchange of information on science and technology. Three economic dele- gations from Jordan visited India during the year.

The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development gave a loan of KD 15 million to assist in financing Kalinadi Hydro Electric Project (Stage 1) in Karnataka. The Engineering Projects India Limited secured a contract worth Rs. 230 crores, for the construction of 5,000 houses, together with ancillary structures, at Haldan, Kuwait. Two Indian firms obtained sub-contracts for thermal insulation and mechanical erection works connected with the expansion of Doha power plant.

The Projects and Equipment Corporation won a turn-key pro- ject, worth Rs. 8 crores, for the installation of transmission towers and lines in the UAE. The Engineering Construction Corporation


was awarded a sub-contract, worth Rs. 28 crores, for the civil works involved in the construction of the new Abu Dhabi Inter- nation airport. Gammons India Private Limited won a Rs. 32 crores sub-contract for the civil work involved in the construc- tion of the Sharjah lnternation airport. Private Indian entrepre- nuers also succeeded in a number of joint ventures in different parts of the UAE. The Indian Telephone Industries were awarded a Rs. 2 crore contract by Oman Telephones Company for the installation of a 3000 line telephone exchange.

An economic delegation from the PDRY visited India and it signed the first ever Indo-PDRY Cultural Exchange Programme. valid for a period of 2 years. This provided for various educational and training facilities in India for the PDRY nomi- nees, for exchange in the field or radio and television, and cultural troupes, and also for cooperation in the field of archaeo- logy. 30 University teachers from India were selected on direct contract basis by the PDRY Government for services ion the University of Aden. During the year, Somalia recruited 15 teachers and professors for Mogadishu University on a direct contract basis.

The International Airport Authority of India won a contract for the construction of an airport at Ghat (Libya) for a value of about Rs. 38 crores. The Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited were awarded a contract of the value of Rs. 102 crores for the extension of Tripoli West power generating station. The National Building Construction Corporation and the Libyan National Housing Cor- poration formed a joint company to execute projects, parti- cularly in the construction of 1300 housing units in Ben Walid and Ghat, a hospital in Ghat and also to provide experts and training facilities in India. Kamani Engineering Corporation won a contract of a total value of approximately Rs. 28 crores for the construction of 220 KV transmission lines.


An economic delegation from Morocco visited India to dis- cuss the furthering of economic relations between the two count- ries. During the visit, it was agreed to examine the possibility of concluding, agreements on science and technology, and economic and technical cooperation.

Africa (South of the Sahara)

India and Kenya collaborated in various fields including deve- lopment of small scale and agro-based industries. During the visit of Uganda's Minister of Industry and Man- power in June 1976, a Memorandum of Understanding on Econo- mic, Technical and Scientific Cooperation was signed. It covered cooperation in setting up small and medium scale industries and rehabilitation of sugar and textile industries, power generation, minerals and other joint ventures. In September, a NIDC team visited Uganda for related surveys.

In April 1976, the Minister of State for Industry visited Tan- zania and signed a Memorandum of Understanding for providing consultancy services in setting up 52 small scale industrial units in Tanzania. India gifted machinery and equipment for 4 of these units under the ITEC Programme. In July 1976, the Special Assis- tant for Economic Affairs to the President of Tanzania visited India and signed a Memorandum of Understanding for coopera- tion in the fields of shipping and oil. About 250 Tanzanian nationals were under training at various institutes in India during the year. Indian experts were deputed to Tanzania to help in some development projects. India gifted machinery and equipment worth Rs. 10 crores for the Zanzibar Industrial Estate.

Academic and medical personnel were deputed to the Ethio- pian institutes, and Ethiopian nominees were provided training in handloom technology and mass-communication media in India. A symbolic contribution of Rs. 50,000 was made towards the building of a University campus in Botswana. A team from Botswana visited India in October 1976 to recruit engineers, teachers, telecommunication experts, accountants, etc.


During the visit of the Foreign Minister of Lesotho to India in August 1976, an agreement on economic, technical and scien- tific cooperation was signed. Lesotho's Minister of Commerce and Industry visited India in October and held discussions with the Ministers of Industry, Tourism and Civil Aviation, as well as with NIDC, RITES and the Development Commissioner for Small Scale Industries. Scholarships were given to Lesotho nominees for various courses in India.

The Secretary-General of the Zambian National Council for Scientific Research visited India in September-October 1976. He visited the national laboratories, and industrial concerns in Bombay, Bangalore, Madras and Delhi and also interviewed scien- tists for recruitment. The Special Assistant to the President of Zambia came to India in November 1976 to study the working of small, medium and agro-based village industries. Several teams from Zambia visited India to recruit engineers, doctors and ac- countants for Zambian parastatal organizations. During the visit of the Deputy Minister of External Affairs to Mozambique, an agreement on scientific, technical and eco- nomic cooperation was signed. As a follow up, a delegation from Mozambique arrived in India in November 1976 to recruit doctors, teachers, accountants, civil engineers and experts in rail- ways, civil aviation and tele-communication.

49 Indian experts are on deputation to Mauritius under the ITEC Programme and requests for 13 more are under considera- tion. The Mahatma Gandhi Institute was formally inaugurated during the Prime Minister's visit to Mauritius in October 1976. A Rail India Technical and Economic Services team visited Ghana in May 1976 at the invitation of the Government of Ghana to propose improvements in the railway system. An agreement to provide technical expertise was concluded and implemented.

A three-member delegation from Cameroon visited India in September 1976 to study the progress made by India in different aspects of its economic development particularly in the field of small scale industries.


India provided services of two experts from MECON to assess proposals received by Nigeria for setting up two 10-million ton direct reduction steel plants. In recognition of the excellent ser- vices rendered by MECON, the Nigerian Ministry of Industry appointed this organisation as their official consultants.

Latin America

Economic and technical relations between India and the Latin American countries are of more recent origin. India signed four trade agreements, two agreements on science and techno- logy and one on cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy with the Latin American countries. Efforts were made to establish joint ventures and particular success was achieved in Guyana. Delegations sponsored by the STC, FICCI, PEC, EEPC and the All India Manufacturers Organisa- tion had visited Latin American countries earlier and had identi- fied projects for which there were export potentials, such as railway equipment, bulk handling and mining equipment, cotton textile and sugar mill machinery, power distribution equipment, etc. An Indian Industrial Exhibition was organised in Brazil. SCI recently introduced services to Panama, Guyana, Trinidad, Jamaica, Barbados and Surinam. Talks have been held with the Argentine national shipping line ELMA on extending its service to Bombay.

Western Europe

During the first half of 1976, in spite of world-wide reces- sion, India was able to increase exports to the EEC. However, the Indo-EEC exchanges in trade and industrial collaboration do not adequately reflect the economic potential. A Sugar Agreement was concluded for the supply of 25,000 tons per annum to the Community by India with price guarantees and supply conditions on par with the Sugar Protocol of the Lome Convention. Negotiations were concluded with the EEC for an agreement on trade in textile products. The decisions taken at


the third session of the Indo-EEC Joint Commission were ins- trumental in establishing and strengthening business level con- tacts on a sectoral basis. There was now greater awareness in the Community about the potential of developing industrial cooperation with India and earlier reservations gave way to an agreement to take concrete action within the framework of the Indo-EEC Joint Commission.

During the visit of the British Secretary of State for Trade to India in January 1976, an agreement was signed to set up an Indo-British Joint Committee on Economic Cooperation and Trade in order to discuss issues of bilateral economic relations as well as industrial cooperation, technological collaboration and investment. The Committee met in London in June 1976 and reviewed a variety of industries which provided the possibility of further collaboration and long-term supply arrangements. During the first half of 1976, Indian exports to the FRG amounted to Rs. 139 crores, representing an increase of 63 per cent over the figures for the corresponding period in 1975. How- ever, in dealing with India's adverse balance of trade it is neces- sary to further improve our exports. There were encouraging prospects of further development in Indo-FRG cooperation. The agreement covering West German financial assistance for 1976-77 provides for an amount of DM 362 million on favour- able terms. The FRG Minister for Economic Cooperation and a business delegation made useful visits to India.

During the visit of the French Prime Minister to India in January 1976, the following three agreements were signed : an agreement on collaboration in the field of power generation and distribution; exchange of letters to raise the level of the Indo-- French Joint Committee on Economic and Technical Coopera- tion to Ministerial level; and an agreement on collaboration in the field of tele-communication.

In order to explore the possibilities of trade between India and Portugal, an Indian trade delegation visited that country


in February 1976. In December, a Portuguese delegation, led by the Secretary of State for Foreign Trade and including rep- resentatives of the Ministries of Industry and Technology and Shipping, visited India. At the conclusion of the talks, a Trade, Economic, Industrial and Technological Agreement was ini- tialled.

The first Indo-Spanish Joint Committee meeting was held in Madrid from 1 to 5 July 1976. Wide ranging discussions with the Spanish authorities and private importers and exporters were held and ways and means of improving and diversifying trade exchanges between the two countries were studied. Agree- ment was also reached on industrial co-operation in ship-building and auxiliary industries, mining equipment, chemicals and phar- maceuticals, electrical components, railway equipments and auto- mobile ancillaries. Possibilities of joint ventures were also considered.

During the visit of the Minister of External Affairs to Turkey (March-April 1976), an agreement on cooperation in the field of science and technology was signed. A Joint Committee has already been established under the Indo-Turkish Trade Agree- ment of September 1973.

The United States

There was growing realisation in the USA that Indian public and private sector engineering firms can offer effective assistance to US contracting firms either as partners in joint ventures or as sub-contractors by providing design-engineering and skilled and semi-skilled manpower in addition to quality construction materials, fabricated items and equipment at very attractive rates. Several items of interest to India did not find a place in the GSP. Exports of cotton textile were hampered because of quotas, and tariff and non-tariff barriers. The first meeting of the Indo-US Joint Business Council in February 1976 in New Delhi resulted in useful dialogue. Both sides felt that more frequent direct contacts between the business communities of the two countries were called for.


Apr 03, 1976


External Publicity


EXTERNAL PUBLICITY The External Publicity Division continued to work for pro- moting a correct understanding and appreciation of develop- ments within the country and of India's foreign policy. This called for close contacts with Indian and foreign press and with various Ministries and Departments of the Government. It also involved production and supply of books, films, photographs, articles, pamphlets and exhibition material to Indian Missions for utilization in connection with their publicity efforts.

The international media showed keen interest in India's domestic and foreign policies, particularly in the several positive developments in the country's external relations with the imme- diately neighbouring countries. Advantage was taken of this in- terest to project to the media publicity material in the form of telegraphic despatches, radio transmissions, pamphlets and other publications produced in India. Continuous efforts were made both at headquarters and though Indian Missions to project the policies and activities of the Government of India. In addition, the Joint Secretary for External Publicity, in his capacity as the official spokesman, held regular briefings for Press correspondents in Delhi. Meetings were also arranged between foreign corres- pondents and Ministers/Secretaries of some other Ministries to enable the correspondents to get an authoritative and correct view of the activities of those Ministries. There was, however, a divergence in assessment of developments in the country between several of these foreign correspondents and the Government and external censorship was imposed for some months. This was, how- ever, lifted some time in the middle of 1976.

The Indian Missions made efforts to project a correct image of India and its policies through TV/Radio interviews, speaking engagements and suitable contacts with representatives of the


press, intellectuals, political leaders and others. The External Publicity Division rendered assistance to the Missions through supply of appropriate publicity literature in Indian and other languages. The Ministry's regular publicity work continued under the following heads.

Press Relations

The Press Relations section catered to the need's of 73 visiting journalists and 48 television teams. It also provided assistance to 18 Indian journalists going overseas on professional visits, some on Cultural Exchange Programmes. Fifteen forign journalists visited India as guests of the Government of India. In addition to the Press releases put out in cooperation with the Press Information Bureau, the Division also issued 230 press releases on various subjects, material for which was generally supplied by Indian Missions and the Territorial Divisions of the Ministry. Representatives of mass media, both Indian and foreign, made use of these releases, as well as of the transmission unit of the Division and All India Radio.

The Transmission Unit regularly sent out two newscasts per day to Indian Missions. These conveyed information on all deve- lopments taking place in India, with particular stress on those which were engaging the attention of the world press. Items in- cluded not only matter requiring immediate publicity, but also background information on various issues.

Audio Visual Publicity

India participated in 28 film festivals/film weeks with some selected feature and documentary films. These took place in Ankara, Port Louis, Tehran, Ottawa, Karlovy Vary, Accra, Buenos Aires, Cannes, Tashkent, Tunis, Cairo, Santiago, Brasilia, Kinshasa, Pusan, Bangkok, Shiraz, Manila, Panama, Sofia, Chi- cago, Ulan Bator, Belgrade, Moscow, Berlin and Melbourne. In


most cases films were obtained in cooperation with the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Special compilation films were produced on the President of Tanzania's visit to India and the Prime Minister's visit to the Soviet Union. Six prints in Swahili and English on the former visit were presented to the Tanzanian Government. Seven prints of documentary films, on small-scale industries were also presented to the Tanzanian Government.

The following audio-visual equipment was sanctioned

(i) 16 mm film projectors for Missions at Bonn, Cairo, Lisbon, Laos, Lima, Dar-es-Salaam, Tananarive, Peking and Pyongyang. A 16 mm India-made projec- tor for presentation to the Rabindarnath Tagore School in Mexico through the Mission there.

(ii) Cinema van for the Mission in Bangkok.

(iii) Radio Receiving set for the Mission in Dar-es-Salaam.

(iv) Tape-recorder for Indian Missions at Addis Ababa and Warsaw.

(v) One stereo-electrophone for the Mission at Dacca. Over 100 gramophone records of Indian classical, vocal, instrumental and popular film music were supplied to different Missions.

Over 40,000 photographs including about 3,000 in big size on various subjects-developmental activities, tourism, visits of VIPs, etc.-and 317 colour slides depicting Indian progress in heavy industry were sent to Indian Missions.

Exhibition and Cultural Work

For putting up exhibitions in Ottawa, Damascus, Rangoon, Suva, Kinshasa, Copenhagen, The Hague, Paris, Vientiane, Lima and Kathmandu, Indian Missions/Posts in these places were sup- plied with photographs, album pages and postal stamps, books,


ourist folders, black and white positives, artistic repro- ductions, and other relevant publicity material. Many Missions were also assisted in organising Children's Day Painting Compe- tition on 14 November.

Print Publicity

The production of attractive publicity material was stepped up at Headquarters and in the Missions for appropriate distribu- tion. A illustrated book "India : Portrait of People" received wide acclaim for its artistic excellence and effectiveness in pro- jecting a correct and balanced image of India. Another effective publication "India--Questions and Answers" intially brought out in English was subsequently produced in French, Spanish, German and Arabic. A book entitled "United States and India", to mark the bicentennial of the United States, made a favour- able publicity impact in that country. Special publicity literature in English on "Islamic Treasures in India" and "Industrial Prog- ress in India" and in French on "India and the African Libera- tion Struggle" was produced for wide distribution. Besides these, a number of other pamphlets were brought out by the Division and material provided for the production of pamphlets through the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Notable among these were pamphlets produced on the occasion of the visit of the Prime Minister to the Soviet Union and on the visit of President Kaunda of Zambia to India. A Pamphlet "India-An Introduction" was produced in French and another "Bharat" in Bengali. Two pamphlets explaining, in a compre- hensive manner, the correct position on the "Farakka Question" were published in different languages for wide distribution.

The production of regular publicity material at Headquarters included "Foreign Affairs Record" (Monthly), "Indian and Foreign Review" (Fortnightly) and "Courrier de L'Inde" (Fort- nightly in French). Steps were initiated to further improve the format and contents of "Courrier de L'Inde" to bring it on par with its English counterpart "Indian and Foreign Review" which received a National Award for excellence in publication. Besides


these, attractive publications in Russian, Arabic, Spanish, Swahili and Bengali were produced by some of the Indian Missions con- cerned. Pamphlets in Thai, on different aspects of India, were produced by the Missions concerned for distribution in the appro- priate area.

The Division also distributed through Indian Missions over 1 00,000 phamplets on the various facets of the country's national life. These were procured from DAVP, Publications Division, ITDC and the Ministry of Health and Family Planning.

About 200 articles on socioeconomic progress in India were supplied to the Missions for use in their weekly/fortnightly/ monthly bulletins/press releases etc.

About 4,000 books on Indian history, philosophy, religion, art, culture and recent developments were supplied to Indian Missions for their libraries and for presentation to local nationals. Indian Missions were also supplied more than 100 newspapers/ periodicals for their reading rooms and for distribution. About 150 books were sent to the Mission in Bucharest for presentation to the President. In addition, maps of India, Tourist pamphlets, special issues of leading Indian journals were also supplied.

A large number of enquiries by foreign scholars and general public on various aspects of the Indian history, economy and other aspects were attended to and material collected from various sources to help them.


Jan 01, 1976


Cultural Relations

CULTURAL RELATIONS The Indian Council for Cultural Relations remained engaged in the twin task of promoting and interpreting abroad Indian Culture in its widest sense as well as in establishing, reviving and strengthening cultural ties between India and other countries. This was done through a variety of activities such as sponsoring the exchange of scholars, writers, artists and youth delegations, organizing lectures, film festivals and exhibitions, and carrying on the publication and book-presentation programmes.

During the period under review, the Council looked after 70 distinguished visitors from abroad. Similarly, the Council sent out 35 Indian scholars, writers, artistes, etc. to foreign countries on goodwill-cum-lecture tours. As an annual feature, cultural troupes were sent for Indepen- dence Day celebrations to Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, Iran, Mauritius and Seychelles. Besides, the Council also sent :

(i) a delegation of scholars and performing artists to U.K. to participate in the Tagore Symposium and Festival at Dartington Hall, (ii) Kathak dancer Sitara Devi and her troupe and the Bharat Natyam Dancers Dhananjyans to U.S.A., (iii) the Darpana Puppet troupe to the Milan Fair and (iv) folk dancers and singers to U.S.A. in connection with the bi-centennial cele- brations.

The Council organized some fine exhibitions within India in collaboration with some of the local Embassies and institutions which were as follows : (i) Photographic exhibition of Miche- langelo's works; (ii) Modern Porcelain and Glass Works from G.D.R.; (iii) Modem Slovak Graphic Art from Czechoslovakia;


(iv) Tapestry from U.S.S.R.; (v) African arts and crafts; (vi) Engraving from maps and scene of Rome called 'Romeographica'; (vii) Toys comprising dolls, plush animals, electric train, dolls' houses and children books from G.D.R. The Council sent 28 paintings of 8 young Indian artists to Menton Biennale and also participated in the Biennale at Cagnes-Sur-Ner (France). Other significant participations of this period were sending an exhibition of Urdu and English language books to the Pakistani book fair, sending of 50 reproductions of Indian painting from Ajanta to Modern Times to Zaire and 30 paintings by children between 7 and 16 years of age to Hungary to participate in the International Children's Competition.

The Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understand- ing for the year 1974 was presented to Dr. Raul Prebisch at a formal ceremony held at Vigyan Bhavan on Apr 26, 1976. The Jury of the Award also announced the names of the reci- pients of the Award for 1975 and 1976. They are Dr. Jonas Salk, an eminent scientist of U.S.A. and Dr. Guiseppe Tucci an eminent Indologist of Italy, respectively. The Award was presented to Dr. Jonas Salk on 10 January 1977. Council organised a festival of French film., in Delhi, Madras and Pondicherry during the period under review.

A number of music and dance performances were organised by the Council at Azad Bhavan in collaboration with other cul- tural organisations. Mention may be made of performances of Kuchipudi dance by Swapan Sundari, concerts by the Brown University, Helsinki University chorus, concerts by George Neerwein and the Bombay Chamber Orchestra, Piano recital by Edith Peinemann and Helmut Berth, Barmberg Woodwind Quintet, Swiss Chamber ballet etc. The Council also organised a fortnight long Indo-German festival in Calcutta, during March 1976. The programmes included dance, recital, film-shows, dramas, exhibition of sculpture and drawings etc.


Ambassador Joe Appiah of Ghana delivered the Azad Memo- rial Lecture on "The Role of Democracy and Law in Develop- ing Societies" on 20 February 1976. An Indo-German Seminar on education systems in the two countries and questions relating to foreign students and Indo-FRG cooperation in the fields of higher education, scientific research and technology was orga- nised by the Council in November 1976.

The Council is actively involved in the welfare of foreign students studying in India. Because of growing demand, this year, the Council organised six summer camps in Kashmir, Darjeeling and South India and a number of study tours to various parts of the country. Similarly, the Council arranged orientation programmes for foreign students, school teachers and professors who come to India. The Council also organized the "Experience India 1976" project.

Another important activity of the Council was to look after delegations of foreign youth from abroad under the exchange of youth delegations programme. During October-November, two such delegations, a delegation of 5 Mexican youths and another 50-member youth delegation from over 30 countries, visited India under the auspices of the Council. The Indian Centre of Africa of the Council continued to function for the benefit of students and scholars interested in African affairs. The Centre organised in collaboration with various African associations a number of functions to celebrate the national days of African countries.

The documents relating to the standing instructions were signed by the Foreign Secretary and the Director General of the British Council regarding the management of the British Council's establishments outside Consular towns within India by the ICCR for the next five years.


Similarly, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed by the Soviet Embassy and the Council for the running of the House of Soviet Culture at Trivandrum by the ICCR. The other general activities of the Council during the period under review were as follows :

(i) Maintenance of Chairs of Indian Studies in Poland, Afghanistan, G.D.R., Yugoslavia, Romania, Guyana Senegal, Bulgaria, Mexico, Indonesia, and Trinidad.

(ii) Under the presentation programme, books and ob- jects of art were sent to universities and institutions in the following countries : Afghanistan, Austria, Bulgaria, Fiji, U.S.A., Switzerland, Hungary, Mauri- tius Philippines, Guyana, Indonesia, Mexico, Malaysia, Japan, Algeria, Oman, Belgium.

(iii) Maintenance of Indian Cultural Centres in Fiji, Guyana, San Francisco, and teachers of Indian music and dance in Afghanistan, Mauritius and Trinidad.

(iv) Organising essay competitions in foreign countries.

(v) Participation in the international Koran reading com- petition held annually in Kaula Lumpur. The scheme of nominating self-financing foreign students from developing countries of Asia and Africa in medical and engineer- ing seats was continued during this year. The selection from among the applicants is done, primarily on the basis of merit, by a Selec- tion Committee.

During 1976, admissions of 303 foreign students (excluding students from Nepal & Bhutan) to Engineering and Medical courses were arranged as against 250 (excluding students from Nepal & Bhutan) during 1975. Out of these, 229 were for engi- neering and 74 for medical courses. Countrywise breakup is given at Appendix VII.


Apr 26, 1976


Protocol Matters

PROTOCOL MATTERS One of the noteworthy developments which which took place during 1976-77 in the context of India's relations with its neigh- bours was the resumption of diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan. H. E. Mr. S. Fida Hassan, Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, presented his credentials to the President on Jul 24, 1976.

Diplomatic relations between China and India were restored at the ambassadorial level during this period. H. E. Mr. Chan Chao-Yuan became Ambassador of the People's Republic of Chinna with effect from 20 September 1976. Three countries nominated their first Ambassadors to India in this period. His Excellency Mr. Mohammed Ibrahim Egal, Ambassador of the Somali Democratic Republic, assumed charge on 23 July 1976, while His Excellency Mr. Ahmed Rageb Fitur and His Excellency Mr. Petur Thorsteinsson, Ambassadors of the Libyan Arab Republic and Iceland, took up their posts on 15 and 20 November 1976, respectively. The envoy of Iceland will be resident at Reykjavik (Iceland).

As a result of the decision to re-establish diplomatic relations between Portugal and India at Ambassadorial level, His Excel- lency Dr. Luis Gaspar da Silva, who was appointed Ambassador of Portugal, presented his credentials on 19 July 1976. Following the reunification of North and South Vietnams their Embassies in India merged to become the Embassy of the Social- ist Republic of Vietnam. His Excellency Mr. Nguyen Van Sinh, the former Ambassador of the Republic of South Vietnam, took over as, the first Ambassador of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.


Jul 24, 1976


Passport, Visa And Consular Services

PASSPORT, VISA AND CONSULAR SERVICES The year 1976 witnessed a 50 per cent increase, over the previous year, in the number of passport applications received by the Regional Passport Offices in India.
       Year  Passport applications received. 

       1974                     3,47,449 
       1975                     4,72,324           
       1976                     7,02,840
The increase is mainly attributable to the increasing employ- ment opportunities in the Gulf region. During the year, the Regional Passport Office, Madras, was bifurcated and a separate Regional Passport Office was opened by Shri Bipinpal Das, Deputy Minister, in Hyderabad on Sep 15, 1976. The total sanctioned strength of the Central Passport and Emigration Organisation at the end of 1976 was as follows:
      Regional Passport Officers           --          9 
      Assistant Passport Officers          --         10 
      Public Relation Officers             --         11 
      Superintendents/Protectors of 
      Emigrants                            --         24 
      Non-gazetted clerical staff          --        422 
      Class III (Non-clerical Jeep 
      Drivers                              --          2 
      Class IV Staff-Record sorters, 
      Daftry, Gestetner Operators, 
      Watchmen, Sweepers, Peons, 
      Messengers and Farash.               --        125 
      TOTAL                                          603


One of the highlights of the year was the Conference of the Regional Passport Officers in New Delhi between 21 and 24 September 1976. Alongwith the officials of the Ministry of External Affairs and the Regional Passport Officers, the Confer- ence was also attended by officials of the various Ministries and Departments of the Government of India dealing with passport and emigration matters. The Conference provided an opportunity to the Passport Officers to discuss, in view of the increase in workload, the problems of simplifying procedures, staffing and organisation so that the public is provided with an efficient, prompt and courteous service. Following the Conference, the Ministry of External Affairs are examining measures to improve systems in order to assist the Rigional Passport Offices in renter- ing better service to the public. The Ministry has also taken up the question of amending the Passports Act, 1967, in the light of recommendations made a the Conference.

During the year, Indian firms participated in increasing numbers in development projects in the Gulf region and Africa. With this increasing participation which has involved the tem- porary emigration, in large numbers, of Indian workers abroad, it became necessary to ensure their protection as also to hasten up the process of granting passports to them. Suitable steps were taken to liberalise the procedures involved in the issue of passports to Indian workers going abroad, as also to simplify existing emigration formalities. The Ministry of Labour wag made the focal point for the recruitment and despatch of skilled, unskilled and semi-skilled workers abroad and for the licensing of Indian recruiting agents. As a consequential step, the Emigration Act, 1922, is shortly to be amended suitably.

As more and more Indian firms participate in projects abroad, it has become necessary for Indian Missions to know more about their activities so that they can protect adequately the interests of Indian workers abroad and monitor the progress of the various projects. With this end in view, the Indian Missions have been requested to collect, on a continuing basis, facts relating to Indian participation in projects abroad.


The number of ordinary, diplomatic and official passports issued or serviced, and other miscellaneous services rendered during the year 1976, is given below (1975 figures in brackets)
Ordinary passports:           5,73,527  (4,52,437) 
Diplomatic passports:           941          (800) 
Official passports:            4,469      (3,031) 
Miscellaneous services 
rendered on passports:        92,577    (1,04,212) 
Diplomatic and Official 
passports services:           2,615       (2,264) 
The number of visas 
issued to foreigners 
(diplomats and other 
staff of foreign 
Missions in India):         3,473        (3,043) 
The revenue earned by the Regional Passport Offices register- ed a significant increase during the year. In 1975, it was Rs. 162 lakhs, while in 1976, it was Rs. 213 lakhs. The corresponding figures for expenditure were Rs. 58 lakhs in 1975 and Rs. 61 lakhs in 1976, yielding a surplus of Rs. 104 lakhs in 1975 and Rs. 152 lakhs in 1976.

Consular Section coordinates Consular functions of Indian Missions abroad. Besides extending financial assistance to 34 stranded Indians abroad, 179 destitude Indians were repatriated to India. 47 cases of arrests and deportation were dealt with. 233 requests for the registration of persons as Indian citizens were processed in consultation with the Ministry of Home Affairs. 55 cases of deaths of Indians abroad alongwith 48 cases of estates of deceased Indians were looked into. Apart from looking after the interests of Indians abroad, in general, foreign Missions in India were also assisted in tracing the whereabout of missing foreigners in India; in the disposal of dead bodies of foreigners and their estates. 120 requests from foreign missions in India for verifying various documents originating in India were enter- tained. 36,356 judicial, commercial and educational documents were authenticated to facilitate their production abroad.


Sep 15, 1976


Administration And Organisation


Shri Y. B. Chavan and Shri Bipinpal Das respectively the Minister and Deputy Minister of External Affairs relinquished charge on Mar 28, 1977 because of the change in government following the results of the general elections. Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee assumed charge as Minister of External Affairs the same day. Shri G. Parthasarathi continued as Chairman, Policy Planning, with the status of Cabinet Minister up to 26 March 1977.

During the year, there were several changes at the level of Additional Secretary and above. On the retirement of Shri Kewal Singh, Shri J. S. Mehta, Secretary (East), assumed charge as Foreign Secretary from 1 April 1976. From the same day, Shri M. A. Vellodi, who was on deputation with the Department of Space, took over as Secretary (East). On the retirement of Shri B. K. Sanyal, Shri V. K. Ahuja assumed charge as Secretary (Economic Relations) from 1 June 1976. Sarvashri K. L. Dalal, J. C. Ajmani and Thomas Abraham assumed charge as Additional Secretary from 1 April, 1 April and 1 June 1976 respectively. Shri Ajmani relinquished charge on 8 February 1977 and Shri Romesh Bbandari took over as Additional Secretary with effect from the same date.

During the year under review, 20 officers were on deputation to other Ministries/Departments and International Organisations.

The Foreign Service needs to reassess priorities continuously, taking into account changes in the international scene and the fresh requirements, in consequence, of diplomatic activity. Re- cognising these considerations, and as part of the process requir- ed by the, Cadre Rules, review of the IFS cadre was completed


during the year and the recommendations made by the Cadre Re- view Committee were approved. A separate Interpreters' Cadre is also being constituted in the functional interests of the Ministry. The Headquarters, of the Ministry was organised in 19 Divi- sions (of which five are specialist Divisions) with a total strength of 521 officers and 1754 non-gazetted staff. There were 129 resi- dent Missions/Posts abroad (including five Special Offices com- prising the Representative in Bhutan, Permanent Representatives to the U.N. in New York and Geneva, Ambassadorial Missions to E.E.C. and European Coal & Steel Community, and P.M.I. to International Organisation in Vienna) with a total strength of 619 Diplomatic Officers and 2470 non-diplomatic Staff, including local employees. India has concurrent representation in 49 coun- tries. Thus, with resident and concurrent accreditation as above, India was represented in most of the countries in the world.

Embassies in Islamabad and Male (Maldives) under the charge of a Resident Ambassador and C.D.A. respectively were opened during the year. A Consulate General in Chicago (U.S.A.) was established during the year. The Consulate General in Ho- Chi-Minh City (formerly Saigon) closed down with effect from 31 July 1976. The year witnessed two major reforms in the field of Finance and Accounts. The Internal Finance and Associate Finance of the Ministry were integrated with effect from I June 1976. The scheme of departmentalisation of accounts was introduced in the Ministry with effect from I October 1976, thereby relieving the Comptroller and Auditor General of the responsibilities for com- piling the accounts of the Ministry of External Affairs.

This is the second year of the working of the Supply Wings, High Commission of India, London and Embassy of India, Wash- ington, after the transfer of their administrative and budgetary con- trol from the Department of Supply to the Ministry of External Affairs. A number of steps with accent on functional efficiency and economy were taken during the period to streamline their functioning.


The expenditure of the Ministry during the financial year, 1976-77 is estimated to be of the order of Rs. 107,69.69 lakhs (excluding loans to Bangladesh and Bhutan amounting to Rs. 10,75.00 lakhs), details of which are given below:-


                                             R.E. 1976-77 
                                             Rs. in lakhs 
Headquarters                                      512.81 
Missions/Posts abroad                            2232.95 
Supply Wings                                      137.65 
Other Items: 
Contribution to the U.N., Commonwealth 
Secretariat and other International Insti- 
  tutions                                        395.75 
Central Passport and Emigration Organisa- 
  tion                                            87.62 
Other Miscellaneous Items                       3012.15 
Subsidies and Aid: 
Subsidy to Bhutan                               2347.50 
Aid to Nepal                                    1056.44 
Aid to other developing countries in Asia 
  and Africa                                     650.00 
Aid to Bangladesh                               288.17 
Social Security & Welfare                        48.65 
                          Total               10769.69 
Details of sub-head wise expenditure on Headquarters, Mis- sions/Posts abroad and on External Publicity are given in Appen- dix VIII.


Economy was the over-riding consideration of the Ministry's organisation and administration, and the imperative need for the optimum use of resources led to special efforts on the part of the Ministry to contain expenditure and increase output. The Minis- try's functioning both at home and abroad was, accordingly, close ly reviewed. However, due to inflationary trends, an increase in outlay was unavoidable in respect of foreign allowances, rents and salaries of local employees. This increase was partly offset by effecting economies in other spheres.

During the year, the Foreign Service Inspectors carried out inspections of Indian Missions in Colombo, Thimpu and Male. While constantly trying to meet the genuine demands of our per- sonnel abroad, effective vigil is kept on a continuing basis to maintain economy and austerity. Special measures continue to be taken by the Ministry to streamline administration by rationalising the work methods.

The Parliamentary Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes examined the subject of Reservations for, and employment of, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Ministry of External Affairs, its attached and subordinate offices, including Indian Missions abroad. Oral evidence was tendered before the Committee on 27 September 1976. Exhaustive material and extensive data on the subject were provided to the Committee to enable it to examine the implementation of reserva- tion orders by the Ministry.

In the context of world-wide escalation of rents, the Ministry decided to acquire buildings abroad for providing office accommo- dation and residences for Heads of Mission and staff. During the year, the Ministry spent nearly Rs.1 crore to acquire property abroad, and bought office-cum-residence of Consulate General in Medan (Indonesia), High Commissioner's residence in Kings- ton (Jamaica), Chancery building in Mexico, High Commissio- ner's residence and residences for two officers in Lusaka (Zambia). Construction of the Chancery buildings in Bangkok and Lusaka are expected to commence soon. The Ministry own Chancery


buildings in 14 countries, residences of Heads of Mission in 58 countries and residences for staff personnel in 11 countries and Chanceries-cum-residences in 3 countries. The Welfare Unit of the Ministry continued to look after the general welfare of all the officials serving at Headquarters and Missions abroad. Assistance was rendered to large number of officials in arranging admissions of their children in educational institutions.

Financial assistance out of the Staff Benefit Fund was provid- ed to the bereaved families of officials, and to other officials in cases of prolonged illness. Employment opportunities were also provided to the direct dependants of the deceased officials.

The Departmental Canteen was inaugurated by the Deputy Minister on 13 April 1976. Hindi is being progressively used in the official work of the, Ministry, the Regional Passport Offices and Indian Missions abroad. Instructions of the Ministry of Home Affairs relating to the use of Hindi for official purposes were implemented and re- mained under periodical review by the Official Language Imple- mentation Committee. Under the 'Scheme for the Propagation of Hindi Abroad', Hindi books, charts, linguaphone records and other teaching aids are supplied to Indian Missions abroad to enable them to cater to the needs of the people of Indian origin, as also foreigners, who wish to learn Hindi.

The Second World Hindi Convention was held in Mauritius from 28 to 30 August 1976. Delegates from a large number of countries attended the Convention. The Indian delegation com- prising 25 non-officials and 6 official members was led by Dr. Karan Singh, Minister for Health and Family Planning. The Sub-Committee of Kendriya Hindi Samiti in the Ministry of External Affairs has decided to honour foreign Hindi writers and literatures as a means of rewarding and encouragement for use of Hindi and an Award Committee has been constituted for this purpose.


Mar 28, 1977
Appendix I Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc. organised by Inter- Governmental Organisations at which Government of India was represented in 1976-77

S.No.  Title of Conference etc.(with venue & dates)           Foreign Exchange 

                                                            component of 
                                                            expenditure in Rs 

1              2                                                 3 
       Asian African Legal Consultative Committee 
1.     17th Session, Kuala Lumpur, 28 June-Jul 05, 1976      Rs. 8,448.95 
2.     18 Session Baghdad, 19-26 February 1977 
       Asian Development Bank 
1.     9th Annual Meeting, Jakarta, 16-28 April 1976         Rs. 7720.00 
2.     Meeting of the Consultative Committee for Agri- 
       cultural Survey, Manila, 26 September-2 October 
       1976                                                       Nil 
       Association of Iron Ore Exporting Countries 
       Meeting of the General Body London, 20-23 April 
       1976, Meeting of                                     Rs. 1,826.00 
       Association for Science Cooperation in Asia 
       5th Inter-Governmental Meeting, Bangkok, 14-21 
       April 1976 
       Colombo Plan 
       Seminar on Prevention of Narcotics Offences, 
       Tokyo, 16 September-23 October 1976                      Nil 
       Commonwealth Secretariat 
1.     Meeting on South China Sea Cable and Indian 
       Ocean Telecommunications Project, Hongkong, 
       27 April-1 May 1976                                  Rs. 1,200.00 
2.     Meeting of the Commonwealth Senior Officials, 
       Canberra, 26-28 May 1976                             Rs. 7,549.00 
3.     Meeting of Standing Committee of Telecommunica- 
       tions Council, Sydney, 1-4 June 1976 
                        APPENDIX I-contd. 
1              2                                                     3 
4.  Meeting of Finance Ministers, Hongkong, 28 
    September-1 October 1976                                    Rs. 15,000 
5.  3rd Conference of Commonwealth Postal Adminis- 
    trations, Colombo, 4-13 October 1976                       Rs. 7245.00 
6.  7th Education Conference, Accra, 9-18 March 
    1977                                                    Not available; 
    Conference on International Economic Cooperation 
    Meeting in Paris, 20-26 October 1976                     Rs. 2000. 000 
    Customs Cooperation Council 
1.  47/48th Sessions, Brussels, 14-18 June 1976              Rs. 30,453.00 
2.  9th Session of the Harmonised System Committee, 
    Brussels, 28 June-9 July 1976                           Rs. 20,701.000 
3.  10th Session of the Harmonised System Committee 
    Brussels, 20 September-1 October 1976                     Rs. 6,263.00 
    Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 
1.  2nd Session of the Committee on Industry, Housing 
    and Technology, Bangkok, 31 August-6 Septem- 
    ber 1976                                                      Rs. 3430 
2.  2nd Session on Foreign Investment and Tax Admini- 
    stration held under the aegis of ESCAP, Tokyo, 
    27 September-9 October, 1976                                      Nil 
3.  3rd Session of the Committee on Natural Resources, 
    Bangkok, September 1976                                        Rs. 600 
4.  2nd Round Table Conference of ESCAP, Bangkok, 
    7-11 December 1976                                     Expenditure borne 
                                                                    by UN 
    Food & Agriculture Organisation 
    1st Meeting of the Member Countries of the FAO 
    on World Food Security, Rome, 5-9 April 1976               Rs. 9353.90 
2.  1st Session of World Food Programme Committee 
    on Food Aid Policies, Rome, 26 April-7 May 1976          Rs. 20,553.00 
3.  Preparatory Meeting for the 2nd Session of World 
    Food Council, Rome, 10-19 May 1976                       Rs. 12,262.00 
4.  2nd Session of World Food Council, Rome, 
    14-16 June 1976                                           Rs. 59,824.0 
                        APPENDIX I-contd. 

1                    2                                              3 
5.  Technical Conference on Acquaculture, Kyoto, 
    Japan, 26 May-2 June 1976                                       Nil 
6.  Planipotentiary Conference for the Establishment 
    of IFAD, Rome, 6-13 June 1976                            Rs. 58,642.00 
7.  1st Session of the Preparatory Committee of the 
    IFAD, Rome, 26 September-1 October, 1976                  Rs. 4,812.00 
8.  2nd Session of the Preparatory Committee of the 
    IFAD, Rome, 11-18 December 1976                            Rs. 3000.00 
9.  1st Session of Regional Commission on Animal 
    Production & Health, Bangkok, 7-11 June 1975               Rs. 1871.00 
10. 3rd Session of Commission on Fertilizer, Rome, 
    8-11, June 1976                                            Rs. 6868.70 
11. Meeting of the Inter-Governmental Group on 
    Hard Fibres, Rome, 17-19 June 1976                          Rs. 315.00 
12. Preparatory Meeting for the Inter-Governmental 
    Group on Hard Fibres, Geneva, 6-10 December, 
13. Inter-governmental group on Hard Fibres, New 
    Delhi, 14-19 March 1977 
14. 69th Session of the FAO Council, Rome, 12-16 
    July 1976                                                 Rs. 16076.00 
15. 70th Session of the FAO Council, Rome, 29 
    November-10 December 1976                                Rs. 23,605.25 
16. 13th Session of Regional Conference of the FAO 
    for Asia & Far East, Manila, 5-13 August, 1976           Rs. 38,517.00 
17. Round Table Discussion on Regional Approaches 
    to Fisheries Development, Norway, 30 August-4 
    September 1976                                          All expenditure met
                                                                    by FAO 
18. Meeting of Inter-governmental group on Jute 
    Kenafe and Allied Fibres, Rome, 18-20 
    October, 1976.                                             Rs. 2825.00 
19. 20th Session of Desert Locust Control Committee, 
    Rome, 25-29 October, 1976                                     Rs. 1966 
20. 4th Session of Committee on Forest Development 
    & 3rd Session of Committee on Forestry, Rome, 
    15-27 November 1976                                        Rs. 5664.00 
21. 6th Session of Marine Environment Protection 
    Committee, London, 29 November-3 December 
    1976                                                       Rs. 2027.00 


APPENDIX I-contd. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22. Meeting of the FAO on Restructuring, Rome,15-26 November 1976 Rs. 13605.00 International Council on Archives 8th Congress, Washington , 27 September- 1 October, 1976 Rs. 4,160.00 International Civil Aviation Organisation 1. 4th Meeting of the Middle East/South East Asia Communications/Meteorological Regional Plann- ing Group, Bangkok, 18-26 May 1976 Rs. 2419.70 2. 22nd Session of Legal Committee, Montreal, 19 (esti- October-12 November 1976 Rs. 13850.00 mated) International Commission on Irrigation & Drainage 1st Regional Conference for Asia and Africa, Tashkent, USSR, 7-15 September 1976 Rs. 4728.80 International Federation for Information Processing South East Asia Regional Computer Conference (SEARCC), Singapore, 6-9 September Not available International Labour Organisation 1. 200th Session of the Governing Body of ILO, Geneva, May-June 1976 2. 201st Session of the Governing Body of ILO, Geneva, 16-19 November 1976 3. 202nd Session of Governing Body of ILO, Geneva, 1-4 March 1977 4. 61st Conference of ILO, Geneva, 2-23June 1976 5. Tripartite World Conference on Employment, Income Distribution, Social Progress and the International Division of Labour, Geneva, 4-17 June 1976 6. 8th Regional Conference of ILO, Colombo, 30 September-9 October 1976 7. 62nd Session of International Labour (Maritime) Conference, Geneva, 13-29 October 1976 8. 7th Session of the Committee on Work on Planta- tion, Geneva, 8-16 December 1976 --------------------------------------------------------------------------


APPENDIX I-contd. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- International Lead & Zinc Study Groud 20th Session of the International Lead & Zinc Study Group and the meetings of the Committees of the Group, Geneva, 4-13 November 1976 Rs. 12,000 (approx.) Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organisations 1. 34th Session of Maritime Safety Committee, Lon- don, 3-7 May 1976 Nil 2. 35th Session of Maritime Safety Committee, Lon- don, 4--8 October 1976 Nil 3. 5th Session of Maritime Environment Protection Committee, London, 24--28 May 1976 Rs. 2386.00 4. 6th Session of Maritime Environment Protection Committee, London, 29 November-3 Dec- ember 1976 Rs. 2027 5. 36th Session of Council, London, 7-11 June 1976 Rs. 6328.00 6. 37th Session of Council, London, 5-9October 1976 7. 8th Session of Subcommittee on Standards of training and watch-keeping, London, 14-18 June 1976 Rs. 4772.00 8. 9th Session of Subcommittee on Standards of Training and watch-keeping, London, 13--17 Dec- ember 1976 Rs. 3600.00 9. 29th Session of Legal Committee, London, 28 June --2 July 1976 Nil 10. 30th Session of Legal Committee, London, 6-10 September 1976 Nil 11. 31st Session of Legal Committee, London, 13-17 September 1976 Nil 12. 16th Session of Sub-committee on Radio Commu- nication, London, 19-23 July 1976 Rs. 4772.00 13. 1st Consultative meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Dumping Convention London, 20--24 September 1976 Nil 14. 13th Session of Committee on Technical Cooperation London, 4-5 October 1976 Rs. 7338.00 15. International Conference on Limitation of the Liability for Maritime Claims, London, 1-19 November 1976 Rs. 5962.00 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------


APPENDIX I-contd. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16. 19th Session of Sub-Committee on Fire Protection, London, 23-27 November 1976 Nil International Monetary Fund/international Bank for Reconstruction and Development 1. Meeting of Aid India Consortium, Paris, 27-28May 1976 Rs. 19,393.00 2. Annual Meeting of IMF/IBRD, Manila, 2-8 Octo- ber 1976 International Telecommunication Satellite System Meeting of INTELSAT Operation Representative for Indian Ocean Area and the Seminar on Earth Station Technology, Munich, W. Germany, 8-18 June 1976 Rs. 7,452.00 International Telecommunication Union 1. International Radio Consultative Committee Geneva, 3 May-6 June 1976 Rs. 12,172.42 2. Seminar on Satellite Broadcasting in the 1 GHz band, Kyoto, Japan, 10-18 September 1976 International Wheat Council Meeting of International Wheat Council, London, 29 November-2 December 1976 Rs. 3,480 Non-Aligned Group 1. Meeting of the Coordination Bureau, Algiers, 30 May-2 June 1976 Rs. 22,530.00 *2. Conference of Non-Aligned Countries on News Agencies Pool, New Delhi 8-13 July 1976 Rs. 4,93,269 3. Conference of the Heads of States/Governments of Non-Aligned Countries, Colombo, 16-19 August 1976 Rs. 4,73,696.00 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 1. 4th UNCTAD, Nairobi, 3-28 May 1976 . 2. 2nd Preparatory Meeting and Conference on Eco- nomic Cooperation among Developing Countries, Mexico,9-11 September 1976 and 13-21 Sept- ember 1976 respectively -----------------------------------------------------------------------------


APPENDIX I--contd. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- United Nations Development Programme 22nd Session of the Governing Council, Geneva, 14 June-4 July 1976 Rs. 8,245.00 United Nations Economic and Social Council 1. 12th Meeting of Regional Group of the United Nations Advisory Committee on the Application of Science & Technology to Development for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, 13--22 April 1976 Not available 2. 25th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, Geneva, 13 September-1 October 1976 Rs. 23,395.00 (Approx.) *3. 19th Session of the UN Statistical Commission, New Delhi, 8-19 November 1976 . . . Nil *4. UN project on International Comparison of National Accounts Aggregates-Regional meeting of Asian Participating Countries, New Delhi, 6-11 December 1976 Rs. 5,000.00 5. Meeting of the Operational Heads of the Narcotics Law Enforcement Agencies for East Region, Manila, 15-19 November 1976 Nil 6. 1st Session of the Inter-Governmental Working Group of UN Commission on Transnational Cor- porations, New York, 10-14 January 1977 Not available 7. Meeting of the Bureau of the Commission of Human Rights, Geneva, 30 January-5 February 1977 Rs. 24,055.00 (Approx.) 8. 33rd Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, 7 February-11 March 1977 Rs. 56,641.00 (Approx.) 9. UN Regional Seminar on Participation of Women in Political. Economic and Social Development with special emphasis on Machinery to Accelerate the Integration of Women in Development, Kath- mandu, 15-22 February 1977 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization *1. International Conference on Education and Train- ing of Engineers and Technicians, New Delhi, 20- 26 April 1976 Nil -----------------------------------------------------------------------------


APPENDIX I--contd. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- *2. International Seminar on Himalayan Geology, New Delhi, September 1976 Nil 3. 19th General Conference, Nairobi, 26 October-30 November 1976 Rs. 3,00,000 (Estimated) *4. Meeting of Experts on Urban Problems, and Edu- cation on Town Planning, Chandigarh, 6-11 December 1976 Nil 5. Meeting of the Experts on Regional Cooperation in Cultural Activities in Asia, Tokyo, 7-11 De- cember 1976 Nil 6. 2nd Meeting of Government Experts on Double Taxation of Copyright Royalties Remitted from One Country to Another, convened jointly by UNESCO/WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization), Paris, 8--17 December 1976 Rs. 3,015.00 United Nations Environmental Programme 2nd Session of the Inter-governmental Working Group of Experts on Natural Resources shared by Two or More States, Geneva, 22--30 September 1976 Rs. 463.82 United Nations General Assembly 1. Law of the Sea Conference, New York, 5 April-5 May 1976 Rs. 17,884.60 2. 5th Session of the UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, New York, 2 August - 17 September 1976 Rs. 17,800.00 3. 9th Session of the United Nations Commission on the International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), New York, 12 April-7 May 1976 . Rs. 38,623.70 4. 8th Session of Working Group of UNICTRAL on the International Sale of Goods 4-14 January 1977 5. Diplomatic Conference on the Re-affirmation and Development of International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts, Geneva 21 April- 11 June 1976 6. Meeting of the Legal Sub-Committee of the Com- mittee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Geneva, 3-28 May 1976 Rs. 9,126.21 7. Meeting of the Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, New York, 23-25 June 1976 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------


APPENDIX I-contd. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8. Regional Preparatory Meeting for the UN Water Conference, Bangkok, 26 July-2 August 1976 Not available 9. 31st Session of the UNGA, New York, 21 Septem- ber-22 December 1976 Rs. 873,151.58 10. Conference of Plenipotentaries on Territorial Asy- lum, Geneva, 10 January-4 February 1977 United Nations Children's Fund Meeting of Executive Board, New York, 17-28 May 1976 Rs. 21,985.O2 United Nations Industrial Development Organiza- tion 1. Round Table Meeting on Industrialisation of Agri- culture, Sofia, 20-24 May 1976 Rs. 12,299 (Estimate d) 2. Meeting of the Inter-governmental Committee on the Whole to draft Constitution for UNIDO as a Specialised Agency, Vienna, 28 June-9 July 1976 Rs. 25,597.50 Universal Postal Union 1. Meeting of the Executive Committee, Pattaya, Thai- Rs. 2,391.82 Cost of land, 1-4 November 1976 one return air-fare amounting to Rs. 3,430 will be reim- bursed by the AOPU 2. Meeting of the Consultative Council of UPU, Berne, 8-20 November 1976 Rs. 12,392.50 World Health Organisation 1. 29th World Health Assembly, Geneva, 3-17 May 1976 *2. 29th Session of the WHO Regional Committee for South East Asia, Srinagar, 14-20 September 1976 World Intellectual Property Organisation 7th Session of the Administrative Bodies, Geneva, 27 September-5 October, 1976 Rs. 17,500,(Approx.) World Meteorological Organisation 1. 9th Air Navigation Conference and 6th Session of Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology, Montreal, 1 April-14 May 1976 Rs. 4,472.00 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------


APPENDIX I-contd. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. Planning Meeting for Monsoon-77, Colombo, 17-21 May 1976 Rs. 6,819.75 3. 5th Session of Commission for Hydrology, Ottawa, 5-17 July 1976 Rs. 5,152.00 4. 2nd Scientific Conference on Weather Modifica- tion at Boulder, Colorado, USA, 2-6 August 1976 Rs. 1,335.00 5. 7th Session of WMO Commission for Basic Sys- tems Working Group on Global Telecommunica- tion, Geneva, 6-17 September 1976 Rs. 3,953.00 6. Extra-ordinary Session of Commission for Basic Systems, Geneva, 1-12 November 1976 Not available 7. 7th Session of Commission for Marine Meteoro- logy, Geneva, 29 November-10 December 1976 Not available ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- *IN India


Jul 05, 1976
Appendix II Major International Conference/Meetings/Seminars

Major International Conference/Meetings/Seminars organised by non- Governmental Organisations, at which India was represented with Govern- ment assistance in 1976-77
S. No.  Title of Conference etc. (with venue &           Foreign Exchange 
                       dates)                            component of ex- 
                                                         penditure in Rs. 

1                      2                                        3 

1.  16th World Congress of International Union of 
    Forestry Research Organisation, Oslo, 20 June- 
    Jul 02, 1976 
2.  18th International Conference on Social Welfare, 
    San Juan, Puerto Rico, 18-24 July 1976 
3.  33rd World Conference of the International Fede- 
    ration for Housing Planning, Helsinki, 9-13 August 
    1976                                                         Rs. 2409 
4.  26th Pugwash Conference, Muhlhausan, GDR, 
    26-31 August 1976                                       Not available 
5.  Conference of International Broadcasting Insti- 
    tutes, Kyoto, Japan, 28 August-7 September 1976      IBI paid the ex- 
6.  Symposium of Asian Productivity Organisation 
    on Farms Water Management, Tokyo, 7-13 Sep- 
    tember 1976                                          All expenses met 
                                                              by FAO 
7.  18th Session of the Governing Body of Asian Pro- 
    ductivity Organisation, Tokyo Manila, 17-20 May, 
    1976                                                    Not available 
8.  Meeting of Committee of the International Co- 
    operative Alliance on Agricultural & Fisheries etc., 
    20-27 September 1976                                    Not available 
9.  26th Congress of the International Cooperative 
    Alliance, Paris 28 September-1 October 1976                  Nil 
10. 18th Meeting of the International Cooperative 
    Alliance Council for South-East Asia, Tehran, 5-11 
    November 1976                                                Nil 
11. 60th Annual Session of the International Dairy 
    Federation, Quebec (Canada), 29 September- 
    8 October 1976                                          Rs. 31,889.23 
12. General Assembly of the International Organisa- 
    tion for Standardization, Geneva, 20-24 September 
    1976                                                         Nil 



Jul 02, 1976
Appendix III Miscellaneous International Conference

Miscellaneous International Conference etc. in 1976-77 at which Government of India was represented or at which India was represented with Government of India's assistance
Sl.  Title of Conference etc. (with venue & dates)       Foreign Exchange 
No.                                                      component of ex- 
                                                         penditure in Rs. 
1                  2                                              3 
1.  JOC Study Conference on the Development of 
    Numerical Models for the Tropics, Exeter, UK, 
    4-Apr 10, 1976                                           Rs. 1741 
2.  1st Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials 
    responsible for Physical Education and Sports, 
    Paris, 5-10 April 1976                                   Rs. 32818.82 
3.  Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educa- 
    tional Television & Radio, Milton Keyness, UK, 
    9-13 April 1976 
4.  International Law Conference, Rome, 9-14 May 
    1976                                                     Rs. 2,744.77 
5.  Hyog and International Conference, Kobe, Japan, 
    18-22 May 1976                                              Rs. 13368 
6.  Meeting on the establishment of International 
    Maritime Satellite System, 25 May-30 July 1976            Rs. 1848.00 
7.  Conference on Inter-Ocean 76, Dusseldorf (FRG), 
    June 1976                                         Rs. 11623 (Approx). 
8.  Session of the International Geological Congress 
    and meeting of the Commission for Geological 
    Map, Sydney, 15--28 August 1976                       Rs. 2,30,640.00 
9.  International Maritime Satellite System Confer- 
    ence 3rd Session for discussion with British Post 
    Office, London on telecommunications matters 29 
    August-18 September 1976                                Rs. 4,740. 00 


APPENDIX III-concld. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10. 8th General Assembly of Eastern Regional Orga- nisation for Public Administration (EROPA) and the regionwise conference on Asian Development strategies and the role of public enterprises, Tehran, Iran 16-23 October 1976 Foreign Exchange of 9347 Ris 11. World Wildlife Fund : 4th International Congress, San Francisco, 28 November-1 December 1976 -- 12. Working meeting of the participating countries in the International Development Research Centre, Chiangmai, Thailand, 11-20 January 1977 Nil --------------------------------------------------------------------------


Apr 10, 1976
Appendix IV International Organisations
Jan 01, 1976 
                            APPENDIX IV 
International Organisations of which INDIA became a Member or ceased to 
                   be a Member during the year 1976-77 
Sl.  Name of International Organisation         Name of International Organisa-
No.  of which India became a Member             tion of which India ceased to 

     during the year 1976-77                    be a Member during the year 
1.   Jute International                         1(A) International Association 

                                                    of Survey of Statisticians,
2.   International Agricultural Aviation 
     Centre, Cornfield Institute of Tech- 
     nology, England. 


Jan 01, 1976
Appendix V Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded of renewed by India
  Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded of renewed by India with other 
                       countries in 1976* 
                 (*This list is not exhaustive) 
Sl.  Title of Convention/Treaty/     Date of         Date of     Date on     Re
No.          Agreement               signature       ratifica-   which       ma
                                                     tion        entered 
                                                                 into force 
1                     2                  3              4           5          
     International Coffee Agreement 1976 
1.   International Coffee Agree-                                Provision- 
     ment 1976 :                                                ally in 
     India deposited the Instru-                                force 
     ment of Ratification on                                    1-10-76. 
     Sep 20, 1976. 
     European Economic Community 
2.   Exchange of Letters between      7-4-76 
     the Government of India 
     and the European Economic 
     Community regarding EEC 
     Food Aid-163,000 Metric 
     tons of Common Wheat- 
     1975 Programme. 
3.   Exchange of Letters between     28-9-76 
     the Government of India 
     and the European Economic 
     Community regarding EEC 
     Food Aid-1976-5,000 Me- 
     tric tons of skimmed milk 
4.   Exchange of Letters between     28-9-76 
     the Government of India and 
     the European Economic 
     Community regarding EEC 
     Food Aid-1976-Cereals 
     programme-175.000 Metric 
     tons of Common Wheat. 


14 M of EA/76-9 APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- International Development Association 5. Credit No. 616 in Develop- 26-2-76 ment Credit Agreement (Eleventh Industrial Im- ports Program Credit) bet- ween India and International Development Association. United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971 : 6. United Nations Convention 23-4-75 16-8-76 on Psychotropic Substances 1971. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 7. Convention on International 9-7-74 18-10-76 Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora- 1973. India-Sri Lanka-The Maldives Agreement 7A. Agreement between India, Sri Lanka 31-7-76 Sri Lanka and the Maldives 23-7-76 concerning the determi- India nation of the tri-junction 24-7-76 point between the three Maldives countries in the Gulf of 31-7-76 Mannar. Bilateral Austria 8. Agreement on Capital Re- 8-4-76 8-4-76 payment between the Gov- ernment of India and the Austrian Federal Govern- ment for a credit of 52.43 Austrian Shillings. Bangladesh 9. Agreement relating to the 23-7-76 1-8-76 Exchange of Postal Par- cels between the Government of India and the Govern- ment of People's Republic of Bangladesh. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- Canada 10. Exchange of Letters between 1-2-76 the Government of India and Canada for amending the Canadian Development Loan Agreement dt. 27th October, 1967 for C $1 1.00 million for import of Equip- ment, Services, etc. for Idukki Hydro Electric Project in Kerala. 11. Exchange of Letters between 25-2-76 the Governments of India and Canada for amending the Canadian Development Loan Agreement dt. 9th August, 1973 for C $1.2 mil- lion for import of Equipment for KUNDAH Hydel Pro- ject (Stage IV) in Tamil Nadu. 12. Exchange of Letters between 16-6-76 16-6-76 the Governments of India and Canada for the import of wheat from Canada worth approximately Forty Million Canadian Dollars (C $40.00 million) n the form of a Grant. 13. Exchange of Letters between 16-6-76 16-6-76 the Government of India and the Government of Ca- nada regarding the Canadian Assistance or rapeseed oil worth six million Canadian dollars (C $6.0 million) in the form of a Grant. 14. Exchange of Letters between 29-6-76 the Governments of India and Canada for amending the terminal date of Loan Agreement dt. 12th August, 1971 relating to the purchase in Canada of bulk fertilizer equipment for the ports of Kandla and Haldia. 15. Exchange of Letters between 1-9-76 the Government of India and the Government of Canada regarding amend- ment to Section 4.03 of the ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- Canadian Development Loan Agreement dt. 16th March, 1973. 16. Exchange of Letters between 15-9-76 the Governments of India and Canada for amending the agreement between India and Canada dt. 23rd August, 1968 for development of a sub-loan relating to the pur- chase in Canada of diesel locomotive components and spare parts for the Railway Board. 17. Exchange of Letters between 15-9-76 the Governments of India and Canada for amending the agreement dt. 30th July, 1969 between India and Canada for a development of a sub-loan relating to the purchase in Canada of a 747 flight simulator for Air India. 18. Exchange of Letters between 1-10-76 the Governments of India and Canada for amending the agreement concluded between India and Canada on 27th May, 1968 for develop- ment of a sub-loan relating to the purchase in Canada of Equipment, Materials and services for a ground station for a communication satellite system. 19. Exchange of Letters between 15-10-76 the Governments of India and Canada for amending the terminal date of develop- ment loan agreement dt. 27th October 1967 relating to the purchase of equipment and services for the Idukki Hydro-Electric Power Project. 20. Development Loan Agree- 27-10-76 ment between the Govern- ments of India and Canada for C $10.0 million for im- port of Potash fertilizer from Canada. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- 21. Exchange of Letters between 27-10-76 the Governments of India and Canada for amending the Letters exchanged bet- ween the Governments of India and Canada on 16th June, 1976 relating to the purchase in Canada of rape- seed oil under the Canadian grant 1976-77. 22. Exchange of Letters between 1-12-76 the Governments of India and Canada for amending the amounts specified in the Memorandum of Under- standing dt. 30-12-1972 to cover the additional cost of providing field installation assistance in setting up of the Satellite Earth Station near Dehra Dun. Cuba 23. Memorandum of Under- 22-7-76 standing between the Go- vernment of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Cuba. Federal Republic of Germany 24. Exchange of Letters between 22-1-76 22-1-76 the Government of India and the Government of the Federal Republic of Ger- many regarding the supply of fertilizer for the Almora Project in pursuance of the Agreement of 31st December, 1971. 25. Exchange of Letters between 20-2-76 20-2-76 the Government of India and the Government of the Fed- eral Republic of Germany regarding extension of the assignment of the Specialist in Fruit Processing at the Indo-German Agricultural Development Project Mandi (H.P.). -------------------------------------------------------------------------------


14 M of EA/76-10 APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 26. Agreement between the Go- 24-6-76 24-6-76 vernment of India and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany con- cerning Financial Assistance in 1976 DM 362,000,000 (three hundred and sixty two million Deutsche Mark.) 27. Supplementary Agreement 25-6-76 between the Government of India and KREDITANS- TALT FUR WIEDERAUF- BAU for DM 140 million for Debt Relief 1976-77. 28. Arbitration Agreement bet- 25-6-76 ween the Government of India and KREDITANS- TALT FUR WIEDERAUF- BAU with reference to Article VIII. Paragraph (5), of the Supplementary Agreement dt. 25th June, 1976. 29. Loan Agreement between 25-6-76 the Industrial Credit & In- vestment Corporation of India Ltd. and KREDITAN- STALT FUR WIEDERAU- FBAU for DM 10,000,000. 30. Arbitration Agreement bet- 25-6-76 ween the Industrial Credit & Investment Corporation of India Ltd. and KREDITAN- STALT FUR WIEDERAU- FBAU with reference to Article X, paragraph (6), of the Loan Agreement dt. 25th June, 1976. 31. Guarantee Agreement bet- 25-6-76 ween the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Ltd. and KREDIAN- STALT FUR WIEDERAU- FBAU with reference to Loan Agreement dt. 25th June, 1976. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 32. Arbitration Agreement with 25-6-76 reference to Article IV, para- graph (7), of the Guarantee Agreement dt. 25th June 1976 between the Industrial Credit and Investment Cor- poration of India Ltd. and KREDITANSTALT FUR WIEDERAUFBAU. 33. Loan Agreement between 25-6-76 the Industrial Finance Cor- poration of India and KREDITANS LT FUR WIEDERAUF for DM 15,000,000. 34. Arbitration Agreem bet- 25-6-76 ween the Industrial Finance Corporation of India and KREDITANSTALT FUR WIEDERAUFBAU with reference to Article X, para- graph (6), of the Loan Agree- ment dt. 25th June, 1976. 35. Guarantee Agreement bet- 25-6-76 ween the Industrial Finance Corporation of India and KREDITANSTALT FUR WIEDERAUFBAU with reference to Laon Agree- ment dt. 25th June, 1976. 36. Arbitration Agreement with 25-6-76 reference to Article IV, para- graph (7), of the Guarantee Agreement dt. 25th June, 1976 between the Industrial Finance Corporation of India and KREDITANSTALT FUR WIEDERAUFBAU. 37. Exchange of Letters between 15-9-76 15-9-76 the Government of India and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany regarding supply of 3,400 tonnes of fertilizer to the Indo-German Agricultural Development Project, Mandi (H.P.) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 38. Exchange of Letters between 16-11-76 16-11-76 the Government of India and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany regarding extension of the Agreement for the Indo-Ger- man Agricultural Develop- ment Project, Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. 39. Exchange of Letters between 28-12-76 28-12-76 the Government of India and the Government of the Fed- eral Republic of Germany regarding extension of the Agreement for the Indo- German Agricultural De- velopment Project, Almora (U.P.) France 40. Protocol between the Go- 15-1-76 15-1-76 vernment of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of France re- garding the Debt Relief. 41. Financial Protocol between 19-2-76 19-2-76 the Government of India and the Government of France for General Credit-1976-77. 42. Financial Protocol between 19-2-76 19-2-76 the Government of India and the Government of France for Special Credit-1976-77. 43. Protocol Agreement between 9-3-76 9-3-76 the Government of India and the Government of France for Food Aid Grant of 30,000 tons of wheat. 44. Exchange of Letters between 9-3-76 the Government of India and the Government of France regarding financing of Indian Economic Development Pro- jects. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- Iraq 45. Loan Agreement between 6-5-76 6-5-76 the Government of India and the Government of Iraq amounting upto $33,300,000 (Thirty three million & three hundred thousand US Dol- lars) to cover partial value of Iraqi crude oil supplies du- ring the period from 1st May, 1976 until end of December, 1976. Italy 46. Exchange of Letters between 6-4-76 6-4-76 the Governments of India and Italy for the Grant of Debt Relief Assistance for the year 1974-15 to a maximum of 5.250 (5 billion and 250 million) Italian Lira. Japan 47. Agreement between the Government of India and 31-3-76 the Japan Leprosy Mission for Asia (JAIMA) for taking over a Leprosy Treatment, Rehabilitation, Training and Research Centre established at Agra by Japan Leprosy Mission for Asia on 30th May, 1963. 48. Loan Agreement No. ID-CI 31-3-76 Loan Agreement concerning Commodity Loan to the Government of India bet- ween the Overseas Economic Co-operation Fund, Japan and the President of India. 49. Agreement on scientific Ex- 28-6-76 28-6-76 changes between the Indian National Science Academy and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- Jordan 50. Trade and Economic Agree- 24-2-76 24-2-76 ment between the Govern- ment of the Republic of India and the Government of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Korea 51. Agreement between the 5-3-76 30-8-76 Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Korea on Cooperation in the fields of Science and Technology. Nepal 52. Exchange of Utters between 24-12-76 the Government of India and the Government of Nepal regarding the renovation and extension of Chandra Canal, Pumped Canal and Western Kosi Canal distribution sys- tem in Nepal. Netherlands 53. Exchange of letters between 14-6-76 the Government of India and the Government of Nether- lands for 5,000 tons of wheat within the framework of the Food Aid Convention com- mitments for the year 1975- 76. Norway 54. Exchange of Letters between 26-10-76 26-10-76 the Government of India and the Government of Norway for a financial grant not exceeding Norwegian Kronor 1.2 million for financing of fees for services to be rendered by M/s. Shipping Research Services, Oslo, for preparation of a Detailed Project Report on a Central Marine Design and Research Organization in India. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 55. Memorandum of Agreement 5-11-76 5-11-76 between the Government of India and M/s. Shipping Re- search services, Oslo, for preparation of a Detailed Project Report on a Central Marine Design and Research Organization to be set up in India. Pakistan 56. Agreement between the 16-7-76 20-7-76 Government of India and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan relating to Air Services. Sri-Lanka 56A. Agreement between India 23-3-76 6-4-76 10-5-76 and Sri Lanka on the 4-5-76 Maritime Boundary bet- ween the two countries in the Gulf of Manaar and the Bay of Bengal and related matters. Sweden 57. Agreement between the 20-5-76 20-5-76 Government of India and the Government of Sweden, for furthering economic and social development in India. Turkey 58. Agreement between the 2-4-76 16-9-76 Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Turkey on Cooperation in the fields of Science and Technology. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 59. Consular Convention bet- 29-11-73 19-1-76 4-7-76 In stru- ween the Government of the me nt Republic of India and the of Government of the Union of Ra tifi- Soviet Socialist Republics. ca tion Ex ch- an ged on 4th Ju ne, 19 76. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------


APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- United Kingdom 60. Exchange of Letters between 6-1-76 6-1-76 the Government of India and the- Government of the United Kingdom for estab- lishing an Indo-British Eco- nomic Committee. 61. Exchange of Letters between 11-2-76 the Government of India and the Government of the United Kingdom regarding amendment to the United Kingdom/India Mixed Pro- ject Grant 1975. 62. Exchange of Notes between 19-2-76 the Government of India and the Government of the United Kingdom regarding food grant of 50,400 metric Tons of wheat. 63. Memorandum of Under- 12-7-76 standing between the Government of India and the Government of the United Kingdom concerning the provision of British Technical Assistance for the Indo-British Ground Water Exploration Project in the Upper Catchment of the Betwa River Basin in parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. 64. Exchange of Letters between 2-8-76 the Government of India and the Government of the United Kingdom concerning arrangements for the United Kingdom/India Capital Investment Loans and Grants. 65. Exchange of Letters between 1-9-76 the Governments of India and the United Kingdom regarding amendment to the "United Kingdom/India Durgapur Loan 1970". ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- APPENDIX V-contd. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 1 2 3 4 5 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- 66. Exchange of Letters between 1-9-76 the Governments of India and the United Kingdom regarding amendment to the "United Kingdom/India Capital Investment Loan 1974". 67. Exchange of Letters between 1-9-76 the Governments of India and the United Kingdom regarding amendment to "the relevant Exchange of Notes" concerning Investment Loans and Grants. United States of America 68. Agreement between the Government of India and the Government of the United States of America for sales of Agricultural Commodities. and 3-5-76 3-5-76 Agreed Minutes between the two Governments regarding the Public Law 480 Title 1, Agreement for Fiscal Year- 1976 dt. 3rd May, 1976. Vietnam (The Socialist Republic of) 69. Agreement between the 10-11-76 10-11-76 Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on the Exchange of Letter Post Items and Parcels and Tele-Communi- cation Services. Joint Communiques Pakistan 70. Joint Statement issued in Islamabad on 14th May, 1976 with the objective of resuming normalization of relations between the two countries as envisaged in the Simla Agreement, 1972. 71. Joint Communique issued in New Delhi on 7th October, 1976 on the conclusion of talks concerning the Salal Hydro Electric Project. 72. Joint Communique issued in Islamabad on 21st October, 1976 on the conclusion of talks concerning the Salal Hydro Electric Project. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---- APPENDIX V-concld. Statement showing the number of Indian experts deputed to various countries under ITEC Programme (1976) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sl. Name of country Experts in No. position ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Afghanistan 124 2. Ethiopia. 2 3. Fiji 5 4. Ghana 3 5. Guyana 10 6. Indonesia 5 7. Maldives 4 8. Mauritius 49 9. PDRY (Aden) 12 10. Senegal 1 11. Somalia 1 12. Sri Lanka 5 13. Tonga 2 14. Cyprus 1 15. Malta 3 16. Zambia 1 17. Barbados 1 18. Laos 1 --------- TOTAL 230 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------


Sep 20, 1976
Appendix VI Trainees from developing countries
Jan 01, 1976 APPENDIX VI-contd. Trainees from developing countries receiving training in India (1976-77) under ITEC Programme
Sl.   Name of country                                         Number 
1.   Afghanistan                                                   5 
2.   Cyprus                                                        1 
3.   Ethiopia                                                      2 
4.   Ghana                                                         1 
5.   PDRY                                                          2 
6.   Maldives                                                     12 
7.   Sri Lanka                                                    14 
8.   Sudan                                                         8 
9.   Tanzania                                                   232* 
10.  Zambia                                                        4 
11.  Burma                                                         6 
12.  D.R.V.N.                                                     16 
13.  Laos                                                          1 
14.  Trinibab and Tobago                                           6 
15.  Thailand                                                      1 
16.  Egypt                                                         2 
17.  Nigeria                                                       4 
18.  Iraq                                                          5 
19.  Zimbabwe                                                      2 
20.  Guyana .                                                      2 
21.  Algeria                                                       1 
22.  Brazil                                                        1 
23.  Ecuador                                                       1 
24.  Mauritius                                                     1 
25.  Mexico                                                        1 
26.  Libya                                                         1 
27.  Zaire                                                         1 
28.  Argentina                                                     1 
                                                TOTAL            340 
*167 of these trainees are under a grant received by Tanzania from Sweden;- 
all the arrangements for training are, however, made by India. 


Jan 01, 1976
Appendix VII > Distribution of Reserved Medical/Engineering
Jan 01, 1976 
                              APPENDIX VII 
       Distribution of Reserved Medical/Engineering seats during 1976-77 
Sl.  Name of the country                 Engineering       Medical 
No.                                      seats             seats 
                                         allotted          allotted 
1.   Rhodesia                                3                - 
2.   Kenya                                  15                3 
3.   Malawi                                Nil                1 
4.   South Africa                            2                3 
5.   Tanzania                               15                3 
6.   Uganda                                  5                1 
7.   Zambia                                  2                1 
8.   Lesotho                               Nil                1 
9.   Sudan                                   2                - 
10.  Nigeria                                 1                1 
11.  Mauritius                              21               18 
12.  Afghanistan                             6                1 
13.  PDRY                                    1                1 
14.  Iran                                   40                5 
15.  Iraq                                    7              Nil 
16.  Jordan                                 26                1 
17.  Kuwait                                  3              Nil 
18.  U.A.E.                                  1                1 
19.  Lebanon                                 2                - 
20.  Syria                                   1              Nil 
21.  Bahrain .                               1                - 
22.  Fiji                                    4                2 
23.  Malaysia                               38               15 
24.  Singapore                               1                - 
25.  Thailand                                5                3 
26.  Sri Lanka                              21                7 
27.  Guyana                                  2                3 
28.  West Indies                             -                2 
29.  Hungary                                 1                - 
30.  Bangladesh                              3              Nil 
31.  Maldives                              Nil                1 
                                          -------          ----- 
                        TOTAL               229              74 


Jan 01, 1976
Appendix VIII Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad
Jan 01, 1976 APPENDIX VIII Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad during 1976-77 The expenditure during 1976-77 on Headquarters Ministry is. of the order of Rs. 5,12,81 lakhs; a sum of Rs. 181.11 is establish- ment charges, a sum of Rs. 50.41 lakhs for Dearness Allowance a sum of Rs. 205.77 lakhs for publicity, cables, diplomatic bags service etc., a sum of Rs. 74.35 lakhs for travelling expenses and a sum of Rs. 1. 17 lakhs for Departmental Canteen. The expenditure on Missions/Posts abroad including special Mission in Thimpu is Rs. 2232.95 lakhs out of which a sum of Rs. 1021.64 lakhs is spent on Establishment Charges including Foreign and other compensatory allowances, a sum of Rs. 201.59 lakhs on passages for transfers and local tours, Rs. 52.61 lakhs for Publicity Contingencies and Rs. 957. 11 lakhs for official and residential accommodation, P&T charges and other office contin- gencies. The average annual expenditure per Mission comes to Rs. 18.3 lakhs. The expenditure mentioned above (viz. Rs. 2745.76 lakhs=Rs. 512.81 lakhs + 2232.95 lakhs) as per details below on Headquarters and Missions/ Posts abroad includes expenditure on External Publicity programme acti- vities. The break-up of this expenditure is as under:-
(a) Headquarters                                            (Rs. in lakhs) 
    (i)   Salaries(officers 28, staff 53)                        10.00 
    (ii)  Travelling Expenses                                     4.25 
    (iii) Publicity Contingencies Charges                        93.56 
(b) Missions/Posts abroad 
    (i)   Salaries (officers 51, staff 258)                      43.77 
    (ii)  Foreign Allowance, Compensatory Allowance              28.31 
    (iii) Passages and Travelling Expenses                        6.01 
    (iv)  Publicity Contingencies                                52.61 
    (v)   Other Charges including renting of residential 
          accommodation and other Office Contingencies           16.90 
TOTAL EXTERNAL PUBLICITY                                        255.41 
  The expenditure on External Publicity as detailed Above comes to 9.3% 
of the expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad. 


APPENDIX VIII-concld. (In lakhs of Rupees) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Establish- Travell- Office Total ment ing Ex- Expenses Charges penses ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Secretariat Headquarters 221.52 70.10 113.38 405.00 External Publicity Division 10.00 4.25 93.56 107.81 ------ ----- ----- ------- TOTAL 231.52 74.35 206.94 512.81 ------ ----- ------ ------- Overseas Establishment (a) Missions/Posts abroad (excluding Publicity Wings) 949.56 195.58 940.21 2085.35 (b) Publicity Wings 72.08 6.01 69.51 147.60 ------- ------ ------- -------- TOTAL 1021.64 201.59 1009.72 2232.95 ------- ------ ------- -------- GRAND TOTAL 1253.16 275.94 1216.66 2745.76 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Jan 01, 1976
Appendix IX List of India Missions/Posts
Jan 01, 1976 
                              APPENDIX IX 
        List of India Missions/Posts opened in the Year 1976-77 
Country                       Location                    Remarks 
Pakistan                      Islamabad                   Embassy 
Maldives                      Male                        Embassy 
U.S.A.                        Chicago                     Consulate 


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