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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1982-83

CHAPTERS Pages(iii-viii)
I. India's Neighbours 1-6
II. South-East Asia 7-9
III. East Asia 10-12
IV. West Asia and North Africa 13-15
V. Africa (South of the Sahara) 16-17
VI. Europe 18-24
VII. The Americas 25-28
VIII. United Nations and International Conferences 29-45
IX. Foreign Economic Relations 46-49
X. Policy Planning 50
XI. External Publicity 51-54
XII. Cultural Relations 55-58
XIII. Protocol 59
XIV. Passport, Emigration and Consular Services 60-62
XV. Administration and Organisation 63-65
XVI. Use of Hindi in Official Work 66-68
Appendices 69-96
The conduct of India's foreign policy during the year under review remained firmly anchored in the nation's objectives of preserving its sovereign independence, its commitment to non- alignment, promotion of world peace, and our resolve to help bring about a new international economic order on the basis of justice and equality.

The current international situation has been marked by widespread tensions and lack of progress in resolving the major political and economic issues facing the world. The erosion of detente and the revival of the cold war atmosphere, intensification of great power rivalry and general deterioration in East-West relations, a new round of the arms race and production of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, continuation of "local wars" and conflict situations in many regions and, finally the stalemate in global negotiations towards a new international economic order heightened the sense of concern and anxiety about the future. At the politico-strategic level, the renewal of emphasis on alliance was accompanied by search for new allies and friends, expansion of spheres of influence, and a fresh scramble for military bases and facilities and new forms of interference, intervention, political and economic pressures. The worsening security environment in the Indian Ocean area cannot but lead to new dangers and threats to the peace, stability and independence of the nations of the region.

It is difficult to claim that all this activity in the name of security has contributed to the real security even of the most powerful nations themselves or added to their ability to maintain world peace. There can be little doubt, however, that humanity as a whole feels less secure and more uncertain today than at any time since the last World War. It is not only the fear of a nuclear holocaust that grips the minds of men and women everywhere but equally the long-term consequences of the present trends and developments, especially for the independence and viability of non-aligned nations. Also, despite a widespread desire for a meaningful change, the present structure of international relations contains a substantial degree of inequity, discrimination and exploitation against poor nations. Their situation has been aggravated by current recession and high budgetary deficits n the industrial countries as well as by the long term problems of food, energy, trade and financial flows.

It was against this background that leaders of non-aligned nations met in New Delhi in March. Despite short notice, India agreed to host the Seventh Non-Aligned Summit. It is a measure of the vitality and relevance of the Movement that one hundred member nations and many observer and guest delegations participated in the New Delhi deliberations. The main questions before the Summit which was still in progress at the time this report was being prepared include peace, development, disarmament

and strengthening the independence of non-aligned nations. The Summit will issue a political and economic declaration as well as make specific proposals and recommendations on matters of common concern to the whole world. (A supplementary report on the Summit deliberations will be issued separately after the conference is over).

Alongside concerted multilateral activities, India's foreign policy initiatives were directed towards promoting cooperative bilateralism in the neighbourhood and enlarging the areas of understanding and cooperation with all countries. The Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, showed considerable personal interest and took several bold initiatives in multilateral as well as bilateral diplomacy to promote the basic objectives of India's foreign relations. Her dialogues with the Presidents of France, USA and USSR served to underline the importance attached by India to the promotion of better understanding and cooperation between nations with differing socio-economic and political systems. Her visits to Mozambique and Mauritius gave a new dimension to India's political, economic and cultural relations with these countries. The Minister of External Affairs also undertook several tours in order to further India's foreign policy goals. As a part of the Summit preparations, senior Indian officials visited many countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Significant progress was made in Indo-Bangladesh relations during the year under review. Bilateral dialogue between the two Governments was continued at various levels culminating in the State visit of the Chief Martial Law Administrator of Bangladesh, Lt. Gen. Ershad, in October. An important development during the visit was the conclusion of an Agreement on the establishment of a Joint Economic Commission and another on the terms of the lease in perpetuity of the Tin Bigha area to Bangladesh. A Memorandum of Understanding was also signed by the two sides on the question of sharing of Ganga waters.

The progress towards good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan, registered in the previous year, gained ground during the year under review. While further progress was made on the establishment of an Indo-Pakistan Joint Commission, exchanges and visits at various levels contributed to a better understanding of each other's approach to the establishment of peace, friendship and cooperation in the Subcontinent. The dialogue is continuing.

The Government of India persevered also with the efforts to improve relations with China and, to this end, two rounds of official talks were held. Though the talks mainly, covered key aspects of the boundary question, several other bilateral matters were also discussed. India and China also exchanged delegations in such diverse fields as railways, petroleum, agriculture, sciences, health etc.
India continued to take active interest in the well-being and development of its other immediate neighbours, especially Nepal and Bhutan. A grant of Rs. 25 crores was pledged for the year 1982-83 towards the implementation of the Fifth Plan of Bhutan.

In addition, India continued assistance in various projects including the construction of a major hydroelectric project at Chukha, construction of Indo-Bhutan microwave link and the building of inftastructure in Bhutan. The process of shifting Tibetan rcfugees living in Bhutan to India has been completed during the year under review.

Indo-Nepal relations continued to be guided by a spirit of mutual understanding. There were regular exchanges of visits, private and official, at various levels. Indo-Nepal economic cooperation took further strides with the decision to set up a joint industrial committee to strengthen industrial cooperation between the two countries. The Indo-Nepal Boundary Committee, at the joint technical level, continued its good work. India has agreed to supply 10,000 tonnes of rice to Nepal on an urgent basis and to consider supply of wheat.

Relations with Burma, Sri Lanka and Maldives proceeded apace on cordial and cooperative lines. Cooperation with Sri Lanka under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme as well as TCDC Programme under the UNDP auspices was further increased.

India displayed considerable interest in resolving the situation in Afghanistan through a negotiated political settlement. India's policy towards Afghanistan is based on its abiding interest in the traditional non-alignment, independence, sovereignty and stability of that country.

India attaches great importance to the developing relationship with Iran, based on historical bonds, non-alignment and mutual benefit. The Head of Iranian Majlis, the Foreign Minister and the Deputy Foreign Minister of Iran visited India during the year while several other delegations from Iran were also received. An economic and commercial delegation from India visited Iran and signed a Memorandum of Understanding on commercial and economic cooperation.

India's traditional relationship with countries in South-East Asian region maintained a steady and progressive improvement. The Kampuchean issue continued to dominate the South-East Asian political scene and, in the context of the New Delhi Non-Aligned Summit, special efforts were made to suitably explain India's position on this and allied issues to the Non-aligned members of the ASEAN group. Special efforts were made to increase trade exchanges with Malaysia, with the organisation of an Indian Trade Exhibition in that country. A significant step in the development of Indo-Thai relations was the official visit of the Indian Minister of External Affairs to that country.

India's commitment to develop long term cooperation with the States of IndoChina was further demonstrated during the year under review. An Agreement for Rs. 100 million credit to Vietnam was signed and an Indo-Vietnamese Joint Commission was set up. Mutual understanding prevailed in India's relations with Australia, New Zealand and Fiji. The visit of the President of Nauru was marked by the signing of

an Agreement for a joint venture Fertiliser Plant based on phosphate supplied by Nauru.

Friendly relations with Japan were consolidated and developed through bilateral contacts at high levels. The Indian and Japanese Foreign Ministers exchanged visits while the Prime Minister made a stop over in Tokyo, on her way back from a visit to USA. Efforts are continuing towards the improvement of India's balance of trade with Japan.

Relations with ROK, DPRK and Mongolia continued to be friendly and mutually beneficial.

India persevered in its role as a friend and partner in the political and economic development of the Arab world and maintained its policy of full support for the Arab and Palestinian cause. The visit of the PLO Chairman to India provided an opportunity for the reaffirmation of India's belief that no solution to the West Asian situation is possible without full recognition of the rights of the Palestinians. India severely condemned Israeli invasion of Lebanon and the massacre of innocent civilians. Mutually beneficial economic relations with Arab countries, especially Saudi Arabia, Iraq, UAE and Kuwait continued to be developed. Indo-Saudi relations received an impetus with the visit of the Prime Minister to Saudi Arabia. Relations with the Arab North African countries were further strengthened with exchange of visits at high level, including that of the President of Algeria and the First Lady of Tunisia to India, and those of the Indian Minister of Planning and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha to Algeria and Morocco respectively.

India's total and unflinching support to the cause of African freedom was further demonstrated during the year. The visit of the leaders of SWAPO and ANC of South Africa demonstrated the faith and confidence of these liberation movements in India's policy and assistance. In keeping with the tradition of high level exchange of visits with the independent countries of Africa, India played host to the Presidents of Mozambique and Nigeria and the Prime Minister of Mauritius, while our Prime Minister visited Mauritius and Mozambique. Delegations were also exchanged at various levels, with Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mauritius, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Burundi and Upper Volta.

India's relations with Western Europe continued to expand and develop and there were wide contacts in the economic, cultural and scientific fields both at the official and non-official levels. The visit of the French President to India contributed considerably to the strengthening of Indo-French relations and underlined the increasing degree of similarity in the approaches of the two countries to key international issues. The conclusion of the nuclear fuel agreement with France for supply of enriched uranium for the Tarapur atomic power plant marked the beginning of a new area of Indo-French cooperation. As in the past, there were exchanges of visits at high level with various West European countries such as our President's visit to Ireland, the visits to India of

the President of Greece, the Prime Ministers of UK and Sweden, the Foreign Ministers of Austria, Denmark and Finland.

The visits of the former President, Shri Sanjiva Reddy to Yugoslavia and of the Prime Minister to the Soviet Union, highlighted the ever-increasing bilateral relations with East European countries. Indo-Soviet cooperation in the economic and commercial fields was increased. The Prime Minister's visit provided an occasion for strengthening mutual trust between the leaders and ties of close friendship between India and the Soviet Union. With Yugoslavia, apart from strengthening bilateral relations, there was continuous and constant coordination concerning issues affecting the Movement of Non-Aligned countries.

There was considerable improvement in the climate of Indo-US relations following the visit of the Indian Prime Minister to the USA in July/August. The visit helped in the resumption of annual bilateral consultations on a regular basis and facilitated increased cooperation in the economic, scientific and technological fields. India continued to seek greater understanding from the US Administration on issues of particular concern to this country. There was, however, little indication of any change in US policy to induct sophisticated armaments into the Sub-continent. Differences also persisted in the perceptions of the two countries over political developments in West and south west Asia, Indian Ocean and south east Asia.

India's relations with the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean were marked by a greater interest in tackling mutual problems and the desire to expand existing cooperation and extend it to new fields. Many useful exchanges of visits took place between India and Latin America towards this end and agreements on economic and technical cooperation were signed with a number of Central and South American countries.

India continued to strive towards global negotiations for the amelioration of the steadily deteriorating state of the world economy. The prospects for meaningful international economic cooperation, especially between the affluent North and severely deprived South, however, remained bleak. There was some progress in the field of South-South cooperation and follow-up on the Caracas programme of action for economic cooperation among developing countries acquired some momentum. South Asian Regional Cooperation was another area in which progress was registered during the year under review.

India's bilateral, economic and technical cooperation as well as trade relations, especially with developing countries, continued to receive considerable attention. The Joint Commissions with Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Iraq met and achieved significant results. The Joint Commissions with various East European countries continued to be active.

The renewed armaments race and the growing threat of a nuclear catastrophe lent urgency to the deliberations of the Second Special Session of the UN General

Assembly devoted to disarmament held in July. India worked closely with other Nonaligned countries to ensure that the focus remained fixed on the urgent issue of the prevention of nuclear war and agreement on nuclear disarmament. With this end in view, India put forward a number of important proposals including a freeze on the production of Nuclear Weapons and the conclusion of a Convention on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons. A concrete programme of action was also presented in a message from our Prime Minister to SSOD-II. The failure of the Session to adopt even a minimal programme of urgent and practical measures for the prevention of nuclear war and towards nuclear disarmament compelled India to dissociate itself from the Chapter on conclusions of the final Declaration.

There was disappointment in India and like-minded countries over the failure, once again, of the UN Ad-hoc Committee on Indian Ocean to make progress towards making the Indian Ocean a Zone of Peace. Even the prospects of holding the United Nations Conference on Indian Ocean have greatly receded owing to the uncompromising attitude of some non-regional powers who have sought to exploit the prevailing tensions within the region. The renewed appeal of the Non-aligned countries for the establishment of the Zone of Peace in the Indian Ocean is a shot in the arm for the concept and its supporters.

It was a matter of deep satisfaction for India that the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea and four related resolutions were adopted in April and opened for signature from December. India has signed the official Act of the Conference as well as the Convention on the Law of the Sea. India's interests have been protected in the Convention and its status as a pioneer investor in the international sea bed area has been recognised.

In accordance with the Prime Minister's directive to ensure the maximum efficiency together with economy in expenditure, a high level committee has been set up to study the working of the Indian Missions abroad and to suggest measures to improve their functioning. The committee is expected to submit its report by the middle of May.

The principal thrust of India's diplomatic activity during the year under review has thus been towards reducing tensions and improving the climate of peace. In a year of unprecedented activity, India can rightly lay claim to having worked with much success towards these goals. Even if the serious international problems remain unsolved, hopes of progress have been revived because of the demonstration of unity of purpose and action by the Movement of Non-Aligned countries. The coming year promises to be another period of increasing endeavour to further the causes cherished by the majority of mankind, namely, peace, disarmament and international cooperation.




The political situation in Afghanistan continued to remain fluid and tense, causing concern about its negative impact on the peace and stability of the entire region. The Government of India's policy towards Afghanistan was guided by India's abiding interest in the independence, sovereignty, non-alignment, stability and security of Afghanistan, and the well-being of its people.

The Government of India have, from the beginning, held that the situation in Afghanistan can only be resolved through a negotiated political settlement. In this context, India supported efforts of the UN Secretary-General to establish a dialogue between Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran, in the hope that it would lead to direct negotiations and, ultimately, to a comprehensive settlement of all issues affecting the Afghan situation. India's approach, reflecting the non-aligned consensus of February 1981 has gained acceptance and support in the international community.

Bilaterally, Indo-Afghan relations gained in content through economic exchanges which reflected India's desire to assist in the development process of Afghanistan.

Good neighbourliness and friendly cooperation have characterised Indo-Bangladesh relations, and it has remained the constant endeavour of the Government of India to continue to nurture the development of harmonious relations with Bangladesh and foster bilateral cooperation in as many areas as possible. During the past year especially, the Governments of the two countries have been able to make progress in dealing with some of the major outstanding issues between them.

As in the past, bilateral dialogue between the two Governments was continued at the level of Secretaries and other senior officials of the Foreign Offices of the two countries, as well as at the political level. The visit of the Minister of External Affairs, Shri Narasimha Rao, to Bangladesh in May formed part of the chain that began with his visit in August 1980, the return visit by the Bangladesh Foreign Minister to India in September 1981, culminating in the State visit of the Bangladesh Chief Martial Law Administrator, Lt. Gen. H.M. Ershad in October 1982.

A landmark in Indo-Bangladesh relations was the State visit paid by Lt. Gen. H.M. Ershad to India on 6 and 7 October in response to an invitation extended by the Prime Minister. The visit was characterised by warmth and cordiality. During the visit, the two Governments concluded agreements on the establishment of a Joint Economic Commission and on the terms of the lease-in-perpetuity of the Tin Bigha area, which

will provide Bangladesh overland transit facilities through a corridor across Indian territory thus affording it access to its enclave.

A Memorandum of Understanding was also signed by the two sides on the question of Ganga Waters. India and Bangladesh have agreed to work towards a permanent and early solution for the augmentation of the Ganga Waters to meet the requirements of both countries, so that the shortages which have to be shared at present do not become a permanent feature. While over the next 18 months sharing of waters during the lean period will be ensured, the two sides will jointly complete the pre-feasibility study of the possibilities of augmentation.

The Government of India continued its efforts to improve relations with Pakistan on the basis of its commitment to respect the sovereignty, territorial integrity and stability of Pakistan and its desire to establish a friendly and mutually beneficial relationship.

Several high-level visits were exchanged to this end, the foremost being the visit of President Zia-ul-Haq to New Delhi on 1 November, which imparted a fresh impetus to Indo-Pakistan relations. The Pakistan Foreign Minister had visited India from 29 January to 1 February 1982, for bilateral talks. Discussions also took place at the official level in May, August and December.

One concrete result of the deliberations was the finalisation of the Indo Pakistan Joint Commission proposed by the Indian Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, in 1982, Following the directive given by the two Heads of Government on 1 November, discussions were held in December on the Indian draft which had been handed over to the Government of Pakistan in June. An Agreement establishing an Indo-Pakistan Joint Commission for cooperation in various fields was initialled on 24 December.

There has been a simultaneous movement towards clarification of the concepts underlying the Pakistani draft of an Agreement on Non-aggression and Non-use of Force given to India in May, and India's draft of a Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation, handed over to Pakistan in August. The discussions, which had to be postponed owing to the vitiation of the atmosphere caused by Pakistan's statement on Jammu and Kashmir at the UN Human Rights Commission meeting in February 1982, and the appointment of observers from the 'northern areas' in Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir to the Pakistan Federal Council, were sought to be resumed at the instance of the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, who addressed a letter to President Zia on 25 May. Subsequent exchanges contributed to a better understanding of each other's perceptions.

India and Pakistan signed a Protocol on Consular Access on 2 November. The Protocol provides for regular exchange of information on nationals of each country

detained or imprisoned in the other, consular access to them and discussions on the modalities of their exchange.

The cordial relations between India and Bhutan continued to progress on the basis of trust, confidence and mutual benefit. Highly satisfactory achievements were made in all spheres of cooperation. The King of Bhutan visited India in March, and the Foreign Minister, on an unofficial visit, during November/December. Aside from this, senior officials of both countries exchanged visits in order to ensure that cooperation in multifarious spheres went on apace.

India has played an important role in the development of Bhutan's economy since the inception of Bhutan's planning process. India has decided to make a contribution of Rs. 134 crores towards the 5th Plan of Bhutan during the period 1981-87. As part of this contribution, India pledged a grant of Rs. 25 crores for the year 1982-83. Although Bhutan is seeking multilateral assistance and is hopeful of generating its own internal resources, the assistance from India continues to be the preponderant source of financing.

Indian economic assistance to Bhutan is not restricted to the Plan support that it gives. The Government of India is constructing a major hydro-electric project at Chukha which is expected to be commissioned by the end of 1984 and will produce 336 MW of power. The power thereby generated will meet the needs of Bhutan and, in addition, will meet the requirements of the north-eastern region of India. This project, which is being financed by India on a grant-cum-loan basis in the ratio of 60 : 40, will cost about Rs. 180 crores. The project has shown highly satisfactory progress and is working almost to schedule.

Amongst other projects of importance that India is financing and constructing in Bhutan is the Indo-Bhutan microwave link. This link is expected to be completed in 1983 and will greatly facilitate Bhutan's communications. The Penden Cement Plant with an installed capacity of 1 lakh tonnes per annum, which was completed and gifted to the Royal Government of Bhutan by India, is performing well and is supplying cement to India's north-east region in addition to meeting the requirements of Bhutan and the Chukha Hydel Project. Construction of roads, bridges and the like is being carried out with Indian assistance; and blacktoping of Bhutan's major east-west high-way is being carried out as part of Bhutan's 5th Plan.

Discussions are taking place between India and Bhutan to consider the possibility of harnessing the water resources of the Manas and Sankosh rivers. A pre-feasibility study was carried out by Indian experts in 1982.

The national airline of Bhutan, Druk Air, is expected to start operations in February 1983. The airline would be operated in technical and commercial collaboration

with Indian Air Lines. India is providing pilots and other technical personnel to assist the Bhutanese in setting up their airline.

Technical cooperation between the two countries is facilitated by the deputation of a large number of Indian experts to Bhutan. Experts in agriculture and forestry, industry, road-building, minerals, geological exploration and communications have been deputed from India. Besides, a large number of Bhutanese students receive higher education in India on scholarships. India has also been providing a large number of teachers for Bhutan's educational institutions.

All 1500 Tibetan refugees living in Bhutan, whom India had agreed to receive, have arrived in India. The 728 refugees who came in 1982 are now settled in Dehra Dun.

Indo-Nepal relations remained friendly and cordial during the year under review. Based as these are, on ties that are rich, diverse and timeless, there were constant attempts to realise yet further dimensions of cooperation between the two countries. To this end, a meaningful dialogue was carried on at various levels throughout the year on issues of mutual interest. Discussions were held by the President and the Prime Minister with the King during his private visit here in April. The Minister of Industries, Shri N.D. Tiwari, headed the Indian delegation to the Solidarity Meeting in December held under the auspices of UNIDO and the Nepalese Government. He also held discussions on bilateral issues with the Nepalese Prime Minister and the Industries Minister. There was a regular exchange of visits at the level of Foreign Secretary and other senior officers.

Economic cooperation was, as always, an important base of Indo-Nepal relations. In the area of water resources, a subject of considerable significance to both countries, there was a constant exchange of views on how best to implement the agreements already arrived at on common river projects. Work proceeded smoothly on the Rs. 48 crore Devighat Project which is expected to be completed much ahead of schedule in June 1983.

In March 1982, a fresh agreement was signed with the Government of Nepal for the supply of iodised salt and the setting up of iodisation plants in Nepal at a total cost of Rs. 2 crores. This salt assistance programme is extremely important for controlling goitre in the hill and remote areas of Nepal.

The 5th Inter-Governmental Committee (IGC) meeting between India and Nepal to discuss problems related to trade and transit and unauthorised trade was held in Kathmandu in May and was marked by the same friendly and constructive approach that characterised the previous meetings. Problems relating to these areas were sorted out and Nepal expressed much appreciation for India's cooperation and help.

The second meeting of the Joint Technical Level Indo-Nepal Boundary Committee was held at Kathmandu in July. The reports of the field teams were reviewed and it was decided to continue the work along the general pattern adopted earlier. A joint review of the inspection work is to be undertaken shortly.

In September, discussions were held with an industrial delegation from Nepal on ways and means of strengthening industrial cooperation between the two countries. It was also decided to set up a Joint Industrial Committee for this purpose. The Committee is expected to come into existence shortly.

An important on-going project nearing completion is the Central Sector of the East-West Highway. It is proposed to hand over the completed stretches to the Nepalese Government in the near future.

Another important aspect of cooperation was on the food front. India signed an agreement with Nepal in September for the supply of 10,000 tonnes of rice on an urgent basis. Discussions are presently going on for the supply on for the supply of 15,000 tonnes of wheat

India's relations with Burma continued at an even pace. A Burmese delegation led by the Managing Director of the Burmese Export-Import Corporation, visited India in December for discussions on trade matters. The Indian Ambassador to Burma gifted prosthetic and orthotic components to the Hospital for the Disabled in Rangoon. A National Defence College delegation from India visited Burma in September. The visit further strengthened the friendly relations between the two countries. An Indian Book Exhibition organized by the UBS Publishers in Rangoon in October, drew a large number of visitors.

Warmth and cordiality continued to inform Indo-Sri Lanka relations during the period under review.

The Governments of India and Sri Lanka continued to be in touch in respect of the residual problem of stateless persons of Indian origin. The earnest desire indicated by President Jayewardene to have the problem solved as early as possible, has facilitated the efforts of the two Governments.

Bilateral exchanges between the two countries under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Programme and the TCDC activities under UNDP auspices were further increased. During the year, 10 senior Indian engineers were sent to Sri Lanka in connection with the Mahawali Development Project. Besides providing training facilities for Sri Lanka personnel in India, services of Indian experts were made available to that country.

India continued to have close political, economic and cultural relations with the Maldives.

Several requests for technical experts including teachers and doctors, were received and met. Places in Indian educational institutions were also made available to Maldivian students. A Maldivian Foreign Service probationer was given training at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie. India provided medicines worth Rs. 1.04 lakhs to fight the diarrhoea epidemic which broke out in Maldives in summer. India also gifted material worth Rs. 25,000 to the Government of Maldives as help for the handicapped.

India attaches importance to developing close relations with Iran, based on historical bonds, non-alignment and mutual benefit. Several high-level visits were exchanged to further this objective.
The Speaker of the Iranian Majlis, Hojjattoleslam Rafsanjani, visited India in August. He held talks with the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, which led to a better understanding of each other's views on international issues and enhancement of the mutual desire to strengthen the friendly relations between the two countries. Earlier, an Iranian delegation led by the Deputy Minister for Mines and Exploration had visited India in February. The Iranian Foreign Minister paid an official visit to India from 30 April to 2 May at the invitation of the Minister of External Affairs. This was followed by the visit of the Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister to Delhi in October, to discuss consular and cultural relations. The Deputy Minister for Mines and Metals of Iran also visited India in December, for discussions on the Kudremukh Project.

From India, an economic and commercial delegation went to Iran in March. This was followed by an official visit, in August, by the Commerce Minister. A Memorandum of Understanding on commercial and economic cooperation was signed during this visit. Draft agreements for setting up an Indo-Iranian Joint Commission and for Cultural Cooperation are also in the process of finalisation.




In line with India's traditional and close relationship with the countries in the region, the period under review was characterised by the exchanage of several important visits and activities of considerable bilateral significance.

Kampuchea dominated the South-East Asian political scene. In the context of the Non-Aligned Summit Meeting in New Delhi, India's position was suitably explained to the non-aligned members of the ASEAN grouping as well as of Indo-China.

In economic and technical areas, bilateral relations with practically all the countries in the region saw a steady and progressive increase. A Joint Commission was established with Vietnam in December. During his visit to Fiji in connection with CHOGRM in October, the Minister of External Affairs had the opportunity of meeting several leaders of the Pacific countries with whom India already has significant economic/technical relations. Earlier, in May, during the State visit of the President of Nauru to India, an agreement of significant economic importance was signed.

Progressive increase in activities of bilateral significance, especially of an economic and technical nature, characterised India's relations with Indonesia during the period.

Special efforts were made to increase trade exchanges with Malaysia. The Malaysian Minister of Primary Industries, Dato Paul Leong, paid a visit to India in March. An Indian Trade Exhibition, comprising heavy and light engineering products, electrical and electronic components, cotton and handlooms, machine tools, tractors and agricultural equipment, was held in Kuala Lumpur from 29 October to 7 November. The exhibition, organised by the Trade Fair Authority of India was successful in displaying the wide variety of technological and sophisticated goods produced by India and promoting trade relations between the two countries.

The Secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs Shri K.S. Bajpai, visited Singapore in October. Coupled with his visit to Jakarta this provided an opportunity for

explaining India's position regarding the Non-Aligned Summit Meeting in New Delhi, especially with reference to the Kampuchean issue.

Bilateral relations between India and the Philippines remained friendly and there was increased interaction between the two countries in technical and economic matters.

A significant step in the development of Indo-Thai relations was the official visit paid by the Minister of External Affairs, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, to Thailand in February 1982. The visit led to an improvement in mutual understanding of the positions of the two countries on a number of important international issues and to better bilateral relations. The Thai Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Boon-Ua Prasertsuwan, paid a visit to India in March 1982.

There was considerable strengthening of India's relations with the Indo-China states during the period under review. As a result of the recommendations made by a team of experts which visited Laos and Kampuchea in January 1982, the Government of India announced humanitarian assistance worth Rs. 10 million to Kampuchea.

The People's Republic of Kampuchea participated, for the first time, in the India International Trade Fair held in New Delhi in November.

Friendly bilateral relations between the Lao People's Democratic Republic and India continued to make steady progress.

There were useful exchange of visits between India and Vietnam at a high level. The Minister of External Affairs paid an official visit to Vietnam in February 1982. The Vietnamese Foreign Minister, Mr. Nguyen Co Thach, paid two visits to India, in April and December. These visits underlined the strong mutual desire of the two countries to develop long ter cooperation.

An agreement for a government-to-government credit of Rs. 100 million for purchase of diesel locomotives, spares and textile equipment from India was signed in Hanoi in November. A protocol for bilateral trade during 1983, and a Plan of Action for cooperation in science and technology between the two countries, were agreed to in December at the time of the Vietnamese Foreign Minister's visit. An Indo-Vietnamese Joint Economic, Scientific and Technical Commission was established in

December. In October, a delegation led by the Chairman of the People's Committee of Ho Chi Minh City, Mr. Mai Chi Tho, visited India at the invitation of the Minister of State for External Affairs.

Indo-Australian relations continued to be cordial. The Minister of External Affairs, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, visited Australia in October.

Several Indian delegations representing the commercial, scientific, metals and minerals and project fields visited Australia during the period.

India participated in an International Book Exhibition inaugurated by the Australian Prime Minister in Canberra in August.

The Secretary, Australian Department of Trade and Resources, Mr. J. Scully, visited India in April and discussed bilateral issues with special reference to commercial matters.

The former New Zealand Prime Minister and current leader of the opposition, Mr. Bill Rowling, visited India in September and made courtesy calls on the President, the Minister of External Affairs, the Minister of State for External Affairs, and the Commerce Minister.

The Minister of External Affairs, accompanied by Secretary in the Ministry, Shri K.S. Bajpai, visited Fiji in October for Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meeting, and had meetings with the Prime Minister of Fiji.

A meeting of the Working Group of Energy was held in Suva from 20 to 25 September. India was the convener of the Group, with participation by Science and Technology delegates.

A number of books selected by the National Book Trust of India, were displayed at an exhibition held in May at the Fiji Institute of Technology.

The President of the Republic of Nauru, Mr. Hammer DeRoburt, paid a State visit to India from 25 to 31 May, at the invitation of the President of India. The high light of the visit was the signing of a Participation Agreement for a joint venture between India and Nauru for the setting up of a Phosphoric Plant at Paradeep. The President of Nauru also paid private visits to India in December and February.




During the year, Government persevered with the effort to improve relations with China and to make progress on the boundary question in the official talks held for this purpose.

The second round of official talks on the boundary question and on the development of bilateral relations was held in Delhi from 17 to 20 May. The third round was held in Beijing from 29 January to 2 February, 1983. The talks were wide-ranging and conducted freely and frankly in a cordial atmosphere. India endeavoured to make constructive suggestions for facilitating discussion of the boundary question as well as for creating an atmosphere propitious for a settlement. However, progress on the boundary question has yet to be achieved. The talks are expected to continue.

The exchange of delegations in various fields continued. India sent to China a railway delegation, a petroleum delegation, an agricultural delegation, a scientists' delegation and a social scientists' delegation, and China sent a health delegation, a dairy delegation and a scientific delegation.

Friendly relations with Japan were consolidated and developed during the year through intensified bilateral contacts and meetings at a high level. The Minister of External Affairs, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, visited Japan for the 3rd Consultative Meeting with the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, held in Tokyo on 19 April. The Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, made an overnight halt in Tokyo on 5 August at the invitation of the then Japanese Prime Minister, Mr. Zenko Suzuki, on her way back to India from the United States. Later, the Japanese Foreign Minister, Mr. Yoshio Sakurauchi, visited India from 27 to 30 August, when the 4th Consultative Meeting of the two Foreign Ministers was held. The extensive, wide-ranging and thorough exchange of views between the two countries on international, regional and bilateral questions served to underline their common interest in the peace and security of the region, and promoted better mutual understanding of international and regional questions on which their perspectives are not always identical.

A disquieting trend in Indo-Japanese trade during the year was the further widening of the adverse balance against India which first occurred in the previous year. In order to ensure the growth of trade, to protect and expand Indian exports and to safeguard bilateral economic relations against global recessionary trends, special efforts

were made by the India-Japan Business Cooperation Committee. The 5th Joint Meeting of the Standing Committees of the India-Japan Business Cooperation Committee held at Kawana, Japan, on 12 April, set the target for reaching a volume of twoway trade of US 5 billion dollars in the next five years, and decided to establish task forces in order to promote trade by sector and by commodity.

The 15th Joint Meeting of the India-Japan Business Cooperation Committee was held in New Delhi on 7 and 8 December, at which detailed and in-depth discussions on the development of bilateral trade and economic relations were held.

Notwithstanding some negative trends affecting Indian exports and the impact of the world economic situation on bilateral trade relations, the year saw some promising developments. At the Aid India Consortium meeting held in Paris in June, the Government of Japan pledged assistance to India of the value of Rs. 133 crores (Yen 33 billion) which is an increase of Rs. 20 crores over the previous year's credit. The Maruti-Suzuki automobile joint venture was negotiated during the year, serving as a model for discussions initiated between other Indian and Japanese parties with a view to concluding similar collaborative arrangements in the automobile and other sectors. In August, at a meeting organised in Tokyo on the initiative of the Engineering Export Promotion Council, a large number of businessmen from both countries conducted a detailed examination of the possibilities of joint tendering and contracting in third countries.

The annual joint meeting of the India-Japan Study Committee was held in New Delhi on 8 and 9 November. While the meeting as usual provided the occasion for a wide exchange of views on international and regional questions in a non-official framework, it also undertook a detailed study of Japan's experience in introducing technology and of India's agricultural development, with a view to locating fruitful avenues of cooperation between the two countries in the scientific, technological and other areas.

As in the past, India's relations with the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), based on historical ties, remained warm and friendly. India continues to favour the peaceful reunification of the two Koreas through direct bilateral negotiations and has taken note of the various statements and proposals made by both sides towards this end.

The visit to India of the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Korea, Mr. Bum Suk Lee from 22 to 25 January, 1983, marked another milestone in the continuing friendly dialogue between the two countries. The Korean Foreign Minister was warmly received and had an extensive exchange of views with the Minister of External Affairs, on international, regional and bilateral questions of mutual concern. During his visit the Korean Foreign Minister was also received by the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

India's economic and trade relations with the Republic of Korea received considerable stimulus through contracts concluded during the year, including those for the import into India of television tubes, the fabrication of a platform for the ONGC and the construction of ships. It has, however, been noted that the balance of trade has swung further in favour of the Republic of Korea. Detailed examination of the possibilities of expanding Indian exports and of thus balancing trade has been undertaken through the meetings of the India-Korea Joint Business Council. The 4th meeting of the Joint Business Council was held in New Delhi on 17 March, 1982. The Standing Committee of the Council met in Seoul on 5 November.

During the year, several visits of commercial and other groups were exchanged. Apart from a delegation of the FICCI, groups of Indian businessmen visited Seoul, notably to study the procedures and institutions for the promotion of foreign trade and exports in the ROK.

India's relations with the DPRK remained warm and friendly. The Government took note of the importance attached by the DPRK to the 70th birthday celebrations of President Kim II Sung on 15 April. The Prime Minister sent a message of greetings to the DPRK President, and the Minister of State for Industry, Steel and Mines, Shrimati Ram Dulari Sinha, represented the Government at the celebrations held in Pyong Yang on this occasion.

The warm and friendly relations between India and the Mongolian People's Republic were further developed by the visit to India, from 12 to 14 August, of Foreign Minister Mr. Mangalyn Dugersuren. In their talks, the Foreign Ministers of the two countries exchanged views on international, regional and bilateral questions in an atmosphere of cordiality and understanding. Both in the talks between the Foreign Ministers and during the Mongolian Foreign Minister's call on the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, the sincere desire of both sides to develop and strengthen their close ties was stressed.

Extending the areas of cooperation that have already been established between the two countries, a Programme for Cooperation in the field of Health and Medical Sciences for the period 1982-83 and a Protocol for Cooperation in the field of Agricultural Research and Education were concluded during the Mongolian Foreign Minister's visit.




During the period under review, the situation in West Asia held the dangerous possibility of a wider conflagration, due to the wanton and unabashed Israeli aggression against Lebanon and the PLO. A redeeming feature, however, was the near-universal condemnation of, and revulsion against, the genocidal actions of Israel against the unarmed and hapless civilians in Lebanon. A further de-stabilising factor in the area was the continued fighting between Iran and Iraq. As a member of the Non-Aligned Ministerial Committee, India made every effort to seek a peaceful solution to the unfortunate conflict. A positive factor in the gloomy environment was the active role played by the Non-Aligned Movement, with its steadfast support to the PLO and the Arabs generally. India continued its role as friend and partner in the political and economic developments in the Arab world. The highlight of this relationship was the visit of the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, to Saudi Arabia in April.

Israel's massive air, land and sea assault on the Palestine Liberation Organisation's forces in Lebanon in June led to heightened tension in the region. This and sub-sequent developments brought about a new situation, which triggered off significant peace initiatives including the Fez Plan and the Reagan Plan. Continued Israeli violations of various fragile cease-fire agreements and heavy shelling of civilian areas of besieged West Beirut resulted in a large number of civilian casualties and destruction of property. Flouting all UN resolutions and world public opinion, Israel used military means to seek narrow political objectives. The PLO leadership, offices and combatants had eventually to evacuate Beirut.

India continued its policy of full support for the Arab and Palestinian cause and took various initiatives to resolve the Lebanese crisis. Government contracted various other governments, including those of the US, the USSR and France, directly and through diplomatic channels. The Israeli invasion was condemned in clear terms by the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs in their speeches in Parliament and elsewhere. It was reiterated that India would work for a peaceful settlement acceptable to all concerned.

As a member of the 9-country Non-Aligned Committee set up by the Extraordinary Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau at Nicosia, India played an important role in regard to the situation arising out of the Israeli invasion of Lebanon.

The cordial ties with the PLO were further strengthened when Chairman Arafat visited India at the invitation of the Prime Minister from 21 to 23 May. India's consistent and principled support for the Arabs and the Palestinians received favourable notice.

The Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, visited Saudi Arabia in April. The warmth of the welcome accorded to her gave evidence of the friendly Indo-Saudi relations. The visit further enhanced the well-developed bilateral relations between India and Saudi Arabia. It also acted as a catalyst to the process of greater economic and technical cooperation in both public and private sectors. High-level Saudi business delegations came to India in October and November. India ratified the Economic and Technical Cooperation Agreement that was signed between India and Saudi Arabia and in accordance with its provisions, the Indo- Saudi Joint Commission, Co-chaired by the Finance Ministers of the two countries, is scheduled to hold its first meeting early in 1983.

Efforts to strengthen mutually beneficial political, economic, commercial and cultural bonds between India and the countries of the Gulf continued. The Minister of External Affairs visited Bahrain; the Ruler of Sharjah came to India and the Minister of Water and Electricity of the UAE visited India. A Cultural and Technical Agreement with Qatar was ratified. A loan from the Kuwait Fund for the Thal Vaishit Fertilizer Project was arranged.

Egypt under President Hosni Mubarak has been seeking the re- establishment of its role in the Arab world and in the Non- Aligned Movement. President Mubarak paid an official visit to India from 30 November to 2 December along with a high-powered delegation. India agreed to the setting up of an Indo-Egyptian Joint Commission. A Parliamentary delegation paid a six-day visit to Egypt from 30 December.

India's economic relations with Iraq remained strong despite the difficulties caused by the continuing war. At present, there are 97 Indian companies executing projects worth over Rs. 5,000 crores in Iraq, and a large number of Indian experts and workers are stationed there. The Indian participation in the Baghdad International Fair 1982 was greatly appreciated. The Minister of State for Railways, Shri C.K. Jaffar Sharief, was present at the inauguration of the Fair, and had useful discussions. The Foreign Minister of Iraq, Mr. Sadoun Hammadi, visited India in July as a personal envoy of the President. The Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Hammadi Alwan, also visited India in the same capacity.

Relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic continued to grow at a satisfactory pace. Medicines, blankets and a medical team were sent to provide relief to the flood victims in DPRY and to the victims of an earthquake in the YAR. A six-member medical team was also deputed to the YAR. A six-member medical team was also deputed to the Yar.

Indo-Algerian relations received a further fillip with the visit of the Algerian President, Mr. Chadli Bendjedid, to India in April. The Minister of Planning, Shri N.D. Tiwari, visited Algeria as Co-chairman of the Indo-Algerian Joint Commission. The Commission reviewed economic cooperation and identified areas for further cooperation.

A Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Dr. Balram, Jakhar, visited Morocco from 11 to 16 January.

The Crown Prince of Jordan, Prince Hassan, paid an official visit to India in March.

Madam Wassila Bourguiba, wife of Tunisian President Mr. Habib Bourguiba, paid a successful visit to India in November.




In Africa, India vigorously pursued its policy of continued support to liberation movements and anti-apartheid campaigns, while maintaining close cooperation in the political, economic, scientific and technical fields with the independent countries of the region. In pursuit of India's well-known support for the cause of the African people, India renewed its all to the international community, through the UN and other forums, for the complete and effective isolation of the racist regime in South Africa and increased international pressure to force it to abandon its abhorrent policy of apartheid, internal repression and continued illegal occupation of Namibia. On numerous occasions, the Prime Minister, the Minister of External Affairs and various leaders of Indian delegations to international conferences reiterated India's total support to the "frontline States" which have been subjected to terrorisation and destabilisation by the racist regime, and strongly condemned the Pretoria regime for the continuation and consolidation of its repugnant system of apartheid through political manoeuvring and fraudulent means in total disregard of international public opinion. India also unequivocally condemned the racist regime's deliberate attempts at subverting the negotiations for the early independence of Namibia. India further categorically rejected, through the UN General Assembly debate on Namibia in December, the move to link Namibian independence negotiations with the extraneous issue of the presence of Cuban troops in Angola. As part of this policy, India Maintained its firm moral, material and diplomatic support to the liberation movements in South Africa, in particular the African National Congress (ANC) of South Africa and SWAPO of Namibia, India played host to the acting President of ANC, Mr. Oliver Tambo, in January 1983, and to the President of SWAPO, Mr. Sam Nujoma, in February 1983.

In keeping with the tradition of high-level exchange of political and official visits with the independent countries of Africa, India received the Heads of State of Mozambique and Nigeria in April 1982 and January 1983 respectively, while the Prime Minister of India paid visits to Mozambique and Mauritius in August. The Union Minister of Commerce, Shri Shivraj Patil, visited Ethiopia in November when, apart from signing a trade agreement with Ethiopia and holding a conference of Indian Commercial Representatives in Africa, he also reached agreement with the UN Economic Commission for Africa regarding India's assistance to ECA projects in developing African countries. Among other high-level visitors from Africa were the Ministers for Manpower, Planning and Development and Information from Zimbabwe in April,

the Minister of Commerce and Industry of Burundi in June, and the Minister of Transport from Upper Volta in September.

Indo-Mozambique relations took on a new dimension when, in April, the President of Mozambique paid an official visit to India and the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, paid a return visit in August. As a result, a protocol on economic cooperation and a cultural agreement were signed in April and India agreed to provide a fresh line of credit worth Rs. 50 million to Mozambique.

The Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, paid an official visit to Mauritius from 23 to 25 August, at the invitation of the Mauritian Prime Minister, Mr. Aneerood Jugnauth. The Indian Prime Minister was the first foreign dignitary to be invited by the new Government after the June general elections. The Prime Minister's visit has given a further fillip to the bilateral political and economic relations between the two countries. India has agreed to give a credit of Rs. 100 million to enable Mauritius to tide over its financial difficulties and also offered to help it in oil refining and prospecting, civil aviation, shipping and small scale industries. An agreement on avoidance of double taxation was also signed during the Prime Minister's visit. A relief of Rs. 10 lakhs was announced for the displaced Illois community of Diego Garcia.

The President of Nigeria paid a State visit to India in January 1983; he was also the Guest of Honour at the Republic Day Celebrations. During the visit, a trade agreement and a protocol on cooperation between the Nigerian Buildings and Road Research Institute and the CSIR were signed. Instruments of ratification of the Cultural agreement were also exchanged.

The traditionally close relations between India and Tanzania were further strengthened with the signing of an air services agreement with that country in September. In Zambia, the Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Clinic, set up with funds raised by the local Indian community and equipment supplied by the Government of India, was inaugurated in Kabwe in April. Later in the month, the Zambian President inaugurated a bicycle plant with a capacity for producing 100,000 bicycles annually, set up with Indian assistance at Chipata.




With Western Europe, which has further emerged as a positive and important entity in the world, India's relations continued to expand and develop. These relations were further consolidated by several important visits and by a growing appreciation among the countries of Western Europe of India's special problems and sensibilities. Apart from the French President, the other important visits were by the President of the EEC Commission, the President of Greece, the Prime Minister of Sweden and the British Prime Minister, as well as the Foreign Ministers of France, Denmark, UK and Austria. There were wide contacts between India and the countries of Western Europe in the cultural, scientific and economic fields, both at official and non-official levels. A Joint Business Council was established between India and Italy, and Parliamentary delegations from some European countries made visits to India.

Western Europe continued to be the most important trading partner of India and the ten EEC countries account for nearly 27 % of India's total trade. During the year under review, an agreement was signed between the EEC and India providing for the establishment of a Delegation of the EEC in New Delhi. Approval of the competent Indian authority was obtained and the agreement will enter into force shortly. Some of the personnel of the Delegation have already arrived in India and the EEC Representative is expected to take up his charge soon. The President of the EEC, Mr. Gaston Thorn, visited India in October/November. He had useful discussions with the Ministers of External Affairs, Commerce and Finance.

West European Countries also accounted for a large segment of India's development cooperation assistance, both multilaterally and bilaterally. They participated in technical and financial investments in this country. The major donors were the UK, the FRG, the Netherlands, France, Sweden, Denmark and Norway. India is one of the largest recipients of bilateral aid from several of these countries. However, due to the recession now prevailing in the world, all these countries are trying to limit, if not reduce, their aid to developing countries.

The President of France, Mr. Francois Mitterrand, paid an official visit to India from 27 to 30 November. He reviewed the international situation with the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, and exchanged views on several world issues. The talks

between the two sides covered economic, commercial, scientific, technological and cultural matters. The atmosphere was extremely cordial, particularly since the issue of fuel for the atomic power station at Tarapur had been resolved on the eve of President Mitterrand's arrival and was announced in the newspapers the same day. The visit contributed considerably to the strengthening of Indo-French relations in general and helped to improve the prospects for bilateral exchanges in several fields. The increasing degree of convergence in the approaches of the two countries on key issues constitutes a positive element which could contribute to stability and peace in the region.

The French Foreign Minister, Mr. Claude Cheysson who accompanied the President, had also paid a visit to India in August, when he held discussions with the Minister of External Affairs on bilateral matters in addition to various international issues such as Indo-China and West Asia. The French Minister for Culture, Mr. Jack Lang, was also a member of the President's party and had several discussions on Indo-French cultural cooperation. Of the various commercial agreements signed with France during the year, the most notable were those signed in July, in the field of telecommunications.

Relations between India and the FRG continued on an even keel. The FRG remains one of the major donors to India, giving aid to the tune of Rs. 148 crores of low-interest credit and Rs. 14.2 crores as grants. India remained the FRG's chief partner in development cooperation and the highest recipient of financial assistance from Bonn.

Several exchanges took place between the United Kingdom and India. The Prime Minister visited Britain in March to inaugurate the Festival of India which proved to be a great success. The Minister of State for Commerce also visited Britain in June. The British Prime Minister, Mrs. Margaret Thatcher, made a transit halt in India in September. In addition to this, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Duke of Gloucester, the Lord Mayor of London, the Minister of Defence and the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs visited India in 1982. A British Parliamentary delegation also came to this country.

The disbursal of UK's assistance to India in 1982-83 would be to the tune of Rs. 164.8 crores. In addition to this, Rs. 7.8 crores as a special grant would also be available for the Rihand Super Thermal Power Station. All assistance received from the UK since June 1975 has been in the form of outright grant. However, the assistance is substantially linked to conventional imports of goods and services of British origin. A non-UK content of 20% of the FOB value is normally permitted in such goods and services provided this is an integral part of the goods supplied and cannot be put to use independently.

The President of India, Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, visited Ireland in May. Indo-Irish trade, though small, has been growing steadily.

The visit of Prince Bernard of the Netherlands to India in May was a significant event in Indo-Dutch relations. The President of India made a technical halt in the Netherlands in October. Among the developed countries, the Netherlands is one of the most generous donors of development assistance and its ODA has surpassed the target of 0.7% of GNP. India is the largest beneficiary of Dutch bilateral assistance and has so far received approximately Rs. 725 crores. In 1982, India received about Rs. 80 crores.

The Austrian Foreign Minister, Dr. Willibald Pahr, transited through India in May. Austria is a member of the Aid-India Consortium and extends aid and technical assistance to India.

The then Swedish Prime Minister, Mr. Thorbjorn Falldin, visited India in February. During his stay, he called on the President and had a number of discussions with the Prime Minister. The two leaders discussed the possibilities of reinforcing further the economic, industrial and trade relations between India and Sweden. They concluded that prospects were particularly favourable for closer cooperation in the engineering. metallurgical, energy, forestry, transport and communications sectors and requested their Ministers of Industry to lay down the basis for further work in these fields. An agreement was signed during the visit for Swedish economic and technical assistance to the Tamil Nadu Social Forestry Programme. The Indian side also suggested cooperation in the field of environmemtal protection.

The President of Greece, Mr. Constantine Karamanlis, visited India in March. The discussions centred on the international situation, matters of mutual interest and bilateral issues. The visit strengthened the existing cordial relations between Greece and India.

The then Danish Foreign Minister, Mr. Kjeld Olesen, visited India in March. He stressed the importance that Denmark attaches to the Non-Aligned Movement and to India's role in it. Denmark is one of the few countries to have reached the target of 0.7% of GNP as ODA. The Danish Foreign Minister stated that Denmark was aiming at 1% aid even though it faced certain economic problems at home.

The Finnish Foreign Secretary, Mr. M. Tuovinen, visited India in April. The Indo-Finnish official talks held on 2 April revealed the close similarity of views between the two countries.


India's relations with the Soviet Union and other countries in Eastern Europe have been friendly and cordial and cooperation in different fields developed satisfactorily. The period under review witnessed an increase in trade and a widening of economic relations. The principal high-level visits to this area were those of President Shri N. Sanjiva Reddy to Yugoslavia; of the Prime Minister to the Soviet Union; of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha to Romania, and of the Minister of External Affairs to Bulgaria.

There was an intensification of cooperation in the economic and other fields and an exchange of high-level visits with the Soviet Union. The Prime Minister, Shrimati Gandhi, was received with great warmth and hospitality by the Soviet Government and people during her visit in September. She had wide-ranging talks with the late President Brezhnev, the Soviet Prime Minister and other Soviet leaders on bilateral relations and leading international issues. Besides Moscow, the Prime Minister visited the Star City (Where Indian cosmonauts for the Indo-Soviet Space Programme are being trained), Tallin and Kiev. She was honoured by the University of Kiev with a degree honoris causa.

The Joint Declaration signed by the two leaders indicated profound satisfaction at the results of the visit and noted that it had further strengthened mutual trust between the leaders and ties of close friendship between the peoples and welcomed the expansion of cooperation in various field. The importance of international cooperation in the preservation and consolidation of peace and stability in Asia and the world on the basis of peaceful co-existence was noted.

India mourned the passing away, in November, of President Brezhnev, an outstanding statesman and friend of India. The Prime Minister visited Moscow to attend the funeral. During this visit, she had a meeting with the newly-elected General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Mr. Y. V. Andropov, which took place in an atmosphere of warmth and cordiality. The mutual desire of India and the USSR to further strengthen friendship and cooperation was re-affirmed.

The Minister of External Affairs, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, had visited Moscow in September to attend the meeting of the Indo- Soviet Joint Commission. Other leading visitors during the year were the then Union Information and Broadcasting Minister, Shri V.P. Sathe, and the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Navy.

Among the distinguished visitors from the Soviet Union, was the Defence Minister, Marshal Ustinov who, during his visit, called on the President and the Prime Minister.

The Soviet Minister for Construction of Heavy Industry Enterprises and President of the Soviet-Indian Friendship Society, Mr. N.V. Goldin, and the First Deputy
-22> Chairman of the Supreme Court of the USSR, Mr. S. I. Gusev, visited India in September. The Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and Chairman of the Kazakh SSR Presidium, Mr. S. N. Imashev, also came to participate in the Independence Day festivities.

Indo-Soviet trade and economic cooperation developed further during the period under review, both sides working closely for the realisation of the objectives set out in the Long Term Programme of Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technical Cooperation of March 1979, and the Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation signed during President Brezhnev's visit to India in December 1980.

The trade turnover between India and the Soviet Union in 1982 is expected to be over Rs. 3,000 crores. The 1983 Trade Plan envisages a turnover of Rs. 3,625 crores, an increase of 11% over the previous year. The Soviet Union continues to be India's single largest trade partner.

The Monitoring Group of the Indo-Soviet Joint Commission had earlier met in Moscow in March. Working Groups for cooperation in Power and Coal met in New Delhi in December. The credit agreement for the second phase of the Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant was finalised in the same month. The Vice-Chairman of the State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations of the USSR, Dr. Litvinenko, visited India and had discussions on the expansion of Indo-Soviet economic cooperation. Other visitors included the Soviet Ministers for Land Reclamation and Water Management and the Forest and Timber Industry.

Leading visitors from the Indian side connected with economic cooperation, included the then Union Minister of Irrigation, Shri Kedar Pandey.

The visit of the Minister of External Affairs, Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, to Bulgaria in May was in continuation of the active exchange of high-level visits between the two countries. He had discussions on bilateral and international issues with the Foreign Minister of Bulgaria, Mr. Petar Mladenov. He also called on the Prime Minister, Mr. Grisha Filipov, and the President, Mr. Todor Zhivkov. The trust and goodwill between the two countries as well as the mutual desire for further strengthening friendship and cooperation were reaffirmed.

India's relations with Czechoslovakia developed in the tradition of friendship and cooperation. The Czechoslovak Minister for General Engineering, visited India at the invitation of the Minister of Industry, Steel and Mines in October. The Indo-Czechoslovak Trade Plan for 1983 provides for a turnover of Rs. 3,862 million, a growth of 14 % over 1982.

There was a steady growth of cooperation with the GDR and the exchange of visits indicated the cordial relations between the two countries. The principal high-level visit from the GDR was that of the Minister of Culture, Mr. Hans Joachim Hoffman. The Cultural Exchange Programme for 1982-84 was signed on this occasion. Mr. Hoffman called on the Prime Minister and had talks with other leaders.

Trade between India and the GDR has been expanding. The Trade Plan for 1983 provides for a total turnover of Rs. 2,982 million, an increase of 15 % over the previous year.

Member of the Planning Commission, Shri Mohammad Fazal, visited the GDR in April and conducted talks with GDR Planning Commission officials on cooperation in the field of planning.

Other high-level visitors included the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Dilbagh Singh.

India's friendly relations with Hungary continued to develop well in various fields. The Minister of Culture and Education of the Hungarian People's Republic, Mr. Imre Pozsgay, visited India in April. During the visit, the Indo-Hungarian Cultural Exchange Programme for 1982-84 was signed.

The Prime Minister of Poland, General Jaruzelski, sent messages to the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, explaining internal developments in Poland and also indicating Poland's interest in economic cooperation with India. The 1983 Indo-Polish Trade Plan provides for a turnvover of Rs. 3.456 million an increase of 26 % over the previous year.

The Polish Foreign Minister, Mr. Olszowski, visited India in November, and had talks with the Minister of External Affairs, Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao. He also called on the Prime Minister. He reviewed the internal situation in Poland and also explained Poland's willingness to participate in India's programme of energy development.

Indo-Romanian relations were marked by exchange of political and economic delegations which further strengthened friendship and cooperation. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Dr. Balram Jakhar, led a 5-member delegation to Romania at the invitation of the Grand National Assembly. He had talks with President Ceausescu and other dignitaries. The urgent necessity of reducing international tensions through negotiations was stressed, as well as the need for measures to reduce the gap between rich and poor countries. 4 EA/82-5

The Indo-Romanian trade plan for 1983 provides for a turnover of Rs. 3,130 million, an increase of 19 % over the previous year.

India's relations with Yugoslavia developed satisfactorily in a spirit of friendship and cordiality. India and Yugoslavia continued their cooperation in non-aligned forums. The then President, Shri N. Sanjiva Reddy, visited Belgrade in May, where he was warmly received by the leaders and the people of Yugoslavia. In his talks with the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Mr. Sergei Kraigher, views were exchanged on a number of bilateral and international issues. The importance of the UN Charter and non- alignment were stressed, and special attention was devoted to international economic cooperation and to measures for establishing a New International Economic Order. A Yugoslav Parliamentary delegation, led by the President of the Assembly, visited India in March. Another important visitor was the member of the Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Mr. Radovan Vlajkovic. He called on the President and the Prime Minister.




The visit of the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, to the United States in July/August marked the beginning of a dialogue between India and the United States. During her visit, the Prime Minister held talks with President Reagan and met senior officials of his Administration. She addressed US Congressmen from the House of Representatives and the Senate, besides addressing meetings of American and Indian intellectuals and businessmen. Her discussions covered regional questions and international issues. It was India's endeavour not merely to articulate its views on important political and economic questions, but to seek greater understanding from the US Administration on issues of particular concern and sensitivity to India.

On the eve of the Prime Minister's visit to the United States, an understanding was reached between Indian and US officials on the question of fuel supply for the Tarapur atomic power station. This understanding envisaged the substitution of USA by France as the source of fuel within the framework of the 1963 Indo-US Agreement and the 1971 Trilateral Agreement. Subsequently, India and France signed an Agreement on 26 November, and an exchange of notes took place between the Governments of India and the USA on 30 November, formally confirming this understanding.

During the Prime Minister's visit, India and the United States examined ways and means to strengthen cooperation in various fields. A delegation of the US Overseas Private Investment Corporation is scheduled to visit India to explore possibilities of further American investments in India. An exchange of trade delegations between the two countries was also envisaged. On the cultural side, a concerted effort would be made by the two countries to intensify cultural exchanges, so as to project better each country's heritage to the other. A Blue Ribbon Panel was also constituted to identify priority areas for bilateral collaboration in the field of science and technology.

Despite an improvement in the climate of relations, differences between India and the United States continued to persist on a number of issues of special concern to India. There was little indication of any reconsideration on the part of the US Administration of its decision to supply sophisticated arms to Pakistan which was completely disproportionate to that country's actual defence needs. India's concern on this issue was reiterated on a number of occasions including the Prime Minister's visit. Differences between the two countries in their perceptions of political events in West and

South-West Asia continued. India's anxiety over the presence of non-littoral naval forces in the Indian Ocean remains at odds with US actions. Nevertheless, it was hoped that the growing dialogue between the two countries at various levels would improve bilateral relations, despite the differing world views held by the two Governments.

On the economic side, India continued to be concerned by US policy towards multilateral development banks. Of particular concern to India has been the negative impact of US decisions on the IDA programme of the IBRD, and on India's request for assistance in certain key sectors such as energy.

The practice of bilateral official consultations was resumed in 1982, and talks took place on 16 November in New Delhi. The Indian team for the bilateral talks was led by the Foreign Secretary, Shri M. Rasgotra and the US side by the Under Secretary for Political Affairs, Mr. Lawrence Eagleburger.

Three Sub-Commissions of the Indo-US Joint Commission met as scheduled. The meeting of the Sub-Commission on Education and Culture took place in February in New Delhi. This Session was jointly chaired by Shri G. Parthasarathi and Dr. Franklin Long. The Economic and Commercial Sub-Commission also held its meeting in February in New Delhi, under the Co-chairmenship of Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, Shri R. N. Malhotra, and Assistant Secretary, Mr. Robert Hormats. The Agricultural Sub- Commission met in June, in Washington. Secretary, Agriculture, Shri S. K. Mukherjee, led the Indian side while the US side was led by Under Secretary Mr. S. G. Lodrick.

The meeting of the Indo-US Policy Group regarding the Blue Ribbon Panel on Science and Technology took place in November. This was co-chaired by Member, Planning Commission, Professor M. G. K. Menon, and the Science Adviser to the US President, Dr. George Keyworth. Areas of specific interest to the two countries were identified.

The year witnessed a number of other visits from India to the United States including that of the Finance Minister, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, and the then Minister of Information and Broadcasting, Shri Vasant Sathe. An Indian delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Dr. Balram Jakhar, and including the Minister of Works, Housing and Parliamentary Affairs, Shri Bhishma Narain Singh, visited the United States in November, to observe the US elections.

The birth centenary of President Roosevelt was marked in India by a seminar sponsored by the Ministry of External Affairs on "Roosevelt and Nehru-Styles of Democratic Leadership".

In a year of continued friendly relations between India and Canada, the positive approach displayed by the Canadian Government towards the IDA programme was, in particular, appreciated by the Government of India.

The Finance Minister, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, visited Canada in September for the IMF meeting at Toronto. During his visit, the Finance Minister met the Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs.

The Canadian Minister of Transport, Mr. J. L. Pepin, visited India in September. During his visit, Mr. Pepin and accompanying members of his delegation called on the Prime Minister and the Ministers of Shipping and Transport, Finance, Defence, Planning and Railways. Meetings were also held with the Ministers of State for Civil Aviation, Energy and Coal as well as with officials of the Ministry of External Affairs.

An Air Services Agreement was signed between the Governments of India and Canada on 20 July, in New Delhi.


India's relations with the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean were marked by a greater interest in mutual problems and the desire to increase cooperation and understanding with these countries. In view of the deteriorating global economic situation, there was recognition that the developing countries, even those which are geographically far removed, must cooperate in fighting the problems of under-development. Against this background, many useful exchange of visits took place between Indian and Latin American leaders, providing an opportunity to discuss matters of common interest.

Dr. Rafael Caldera, former President of Venezuela and President of the Inter-Parliamentary Council, visited India at the invitation of the Lok Sabha Secretariat, from 23 to 27 April. Subsequently, Dr. Oswaldo Paez Pumar, Director General in the Ministry of External Relations of Venezuela, visited India in September. Dr. Leopoldo Diaz Bruzual, President of the Central Bank of Venezuela, visited India for a week from 17 to 24 April, to discuss bilateral issues which could lead to greater cooperation between the two countries.

A significant development during the year under review was the request of Colombia to be admitted to the Non-Aligned Movement. The Colombian President, Dr. Belisario Betancur, sent a special envoy, former President, Misael Borrero Pastrana, to meet the Prime Minister, Shrimati Gandhi, and to express Colombia's desire to join the Non-Aligned Movement. Colombia's application to the Non-Aligned Movement for membership will be taken up at the Non- Aligned Summit to be held in India in March 1983. A Colombian Parliamentary delegation, led by Dr. Gustavo Dajer Chadid, President of the Senate of Colombia, visited India in June.

The Legal Adviser to the Peruvian President and former Minister of Justice in the Government of Peru, Dr. Felipe Osterling, visited India as guest of the ICCR in June.

The Vice-Minister for International Economic Relations of Argentina, Dr. Felix Alberto Pena, visited India in August.

An agreement on economic and technical cooperation was signed between India and Mexico on 12 November. This was followed by an agreement between Oil India and Mexico's PROTEXA, under which the Mexican Oil Exploration Agency was given a contract for on-shore drilling and ancillary services in the Mahanadi Basin. A protocol of cooperation was also signed between Engineers India Limited and the Mexican Petroleum Institute to facilitate greater cooperation between the two.

With Cuba, India continued to have friendly contacts. The Minister of External Affairs, Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, visited the country in June to attend the Plenary Session of the Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned countries. The Cuban Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs, Dr. Peregren Torras, came to India in August, to continue further discussions on the Non-Aligned Summit Meeting. The Cuban Vice- President Mr. Carlos Rafael Rodriguez visited India from 2 to 6 February, for consultations in connection with the Non-Aligned Summit. He called on the President and the Prime Minister and had two rounds of talks with the Minister of External Affairs, exchanging ideas on the more important topics likely to come up at the Summit.

A Parliamentary delegation of 35 members led by the Speaker, Dr. Balram Jakhar, attended the 28th Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference in October, held in the Bahamas.

During the year under review, Argentina and Britain were involved in an armed conflict over the Malvinas/Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. India regretted the outbreak of hostilities and urged both sides to resolve the problem through peaceful negotiations and to desist from the use or threat of use of force.




As in the past, India played an active and constructive role in various international conferences and different sessions of the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council which were held during 1982. The main developments during the year related to Israel's wanton attack on Lebanon and the UK-Argentina war on the question of Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. The General Assembly also held its Second Special Session on Disarmament from 7 June to 10 July. There were also resumed Special Sessions on Palestine and the Situation in Occupied Arabs Territories.

During the year, India continued to play an active role in the UN on social and humanitarian issues. Apart from its involvement in the work of the Third Committee of the General Assembly and other related UN bodies like ECOSOC, the Human Rights Commission, Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations and the Advisory Committee on the International year of Disabled Persons, India continued to chair the Consultative Committee for Voluntary Fund for the UN Decade for Women.

The Non-Aligned Movement held several meetings during the year. These were the Extraordinary Ministerial Meetings of the Coordinating Bureau in Kuwait (5 to 8 April); Nicosia (15 to 17 July) ; Havana (31 May to 5 June); Meeting of the Foreign Ministers and Heads of Delegation of the Non-Aligned Countries to the 37th Session of UNGA in New York (4 to 9 October) and the Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau at Managua (Nicaragua) from 10 to 14 January 1983.

Emergency Special Sessions of the General Assembly and Security Council Meetings

The Ninth Emergency Special Session of the UN General Assembly was held from 29 January to 5 February, 1982, in view of the failure of the Security Council meeting of 20 January to adopt a resolution on the question of the situation in the occupied Arab Territories. After a lengthy debate, the Assembly adopted a resolution with 86 in favour, 21 against and 34 abstentions. India co-sponsored with 55 other countries the Resolution which declared that Israel's record and actions confirmed that it was not a peace-loving Member State and its continued occupation and effective annexation of the Syrian Golan Heights constituted "a continuing threat to international peace and security". The resolution also called on all Member States to cease forthwith all dealings with Israel in order to totally isolate it in all fields, and called on all operational

agencies of the UN system and others to bring their relations with Israel in line with the terms of the resolution.

The General Assembly resumed from 20 April its Seventh Emergency Special Session (adjourned in July 1980), to consider the question of Palestine as requested by the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned countries. India spoke in the debate and also co-sponsored the resolution which was adopted on 28 April with 86 for 20 against and 36 abstaining, reaffirming that "all the provisions of the Hague Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War" be applied to "all territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem".

In view of the continuing Israeli aggression against Lebanon, the Seventh Emergency Special Session of the General Assembly was resumed for two days on 25 and 26 June, and again from 16 to 19 August, to discuss the situation in the Middle East, especially in Lebanon. India co-sponsored the resolutions which were adopted at these meetings. The resolution adopted on 20 June condemned Israel for its non-compliance with the earlier Security Council resolutions, while in the August Session it was also resolved that an international conference on Palestine would be held in Paris in August 1983.

On the Falkland crisis, the Government of India distressed at the deterioration of Argentine-UK relations, issued a statement on 3 April regretting the use of force by the Government of Argentina to resolve what was essentially a political problem. India appealed to the parties concerned to desist from the use or threat of use of force and to return to the process of peaceful negotiations. Later, participating in the Security Council debate on 25 May, India's Permanent Representative made an appeal for action in support of the purposes and principles of the UN Charter to restore peace and assist in the peaceful resolution of the dispute. The question of Malvinas/ Falkland Islands was inscribed on the agenda of the 37th Session of the UN General Assembly, at the request of 20 Latin American countries.


During the year under review, India played a significant and constructive role in the Committee on Disarmament in Geneva. As in earlier years, the Indian approach was to focus attention on the issue of prevention of nuclear war, and press for multilateral negotiations on urgent measures for nuclear disarmament. It was largely due to the pressure that India exercised, in association with other non-aligned and neutral countries within the Committee on Disarmament, that a consensus could be reached on the setting up of an Ad hoc Working Group on the Prevention of Nuclear War, with a view to reaching agreement on certain appropriate and practical measures for the prevention of nuclear war. The proposal also won the support of the group of Socialist

countries represented in the Committee on Disarmament. Interest in the proposal was also expressed by certain West European States.

The Second Special Session of the UN General Assembly devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-II) was held in New York from 7 June to 10 July. The Session was convened with the objective of adopting a comprehensive Programme of Disarmament that would chart the course towards the goal of General and Complete Disarmament under effective International Control, and to review the progress achieved in the implementation of the recommendations and decisions of the First Disarmament Session of UNGA held in 1978. As a member of the Preparatory Committee for the SSOD-II, India worked closely with other non-aligned countries to ensure that the focus of the international community continued to remain on the urgent issues of the Prevention of Nuclear War and Nuclear Disarmament. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of External Affairs, Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao.

At the Session, India put forward a number of important proposals among which were a draft resolution entitled 'Freeze on Nuclear Weapons', proposing that all nuclear-weapon states should agree to a freeze on nuclear weapons and the adoption of a Convention on the Prohibition of the use of Nuclear Weapons, and submitted a draft convention for consideration. India, with Mexico, co-sponsored a draft resolution on the prevention of nuclear war.

The Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, in a message to the SSOD-II put forward the following concrete programme of action:-

(i) The Session should negotiate a binding convention on the non-use of nuclear weapons;

(ii) As a first step towards the eventual reduction of existing stockpiles, there must be a freeze on nuclear weapons, providing for the total stoppage of any further production of nuclear weapons, combined with a cut-off in the production of fissionable material for weapon purposes;

(iii) Immediate suspension of all nuclear weapon tests;

(iv) Towards this objective, disarmament negotiations must once again revert to the task of achieving a Treaty on General and Complete Disarmament, within an agreed time-frame as was discussed between the USA and USSR in the Agreed Principles and Draft Treaties of the early sixties. Although the problems involved have become far more complex, the basic approach and the principles then formulated could still provide a basis for meaningful negotiations; and

(v) The United Nations and its Specialised Agencies should take the lead in educating the public on the dangers of nuclear war, the harmful effects of the

arms race on the world economy as well as the positive aspects of disarmament and its link with development.

In addition, the Prime Minister suggested that the Session should consider issuing a call to devise legally-binding restrictions on various types of scientific and technological research for purposes that are inconsistent with humanitarian laws and principles. It was recommended that the Secretary- General may be requested to undertake an independent expert study towards that end.

The Second Special Session ended in failure, primarily because of the refusal of the major powers to accept any concrete and practical measures for halting and reversing the arms race, in particular the nuclear arms race. There was also a refusal on their part to accept any multilateral discipline on their behaviour and action in the field of disarmament and international security. The Session was, therefore, compelled to adopt a bland consensus document which merely reaffirmed the commitment on the part of the members of the UN to the Final Document of the First Special Session. The failure to adopt even a minimal programme of urgent and practical measures for the prevention of nuclear war and for nuclear disarmament, in disregard of the hopes and expectations of peoples all over the world, led India to dissociate itself from the Chapter on Conclusions of the concluding Document of the Second Special Session.

37th Session of the UN General Assembly

The 37th Session of the UN General Assembly commenced on 21 September. The Indian delegation to the Session was led by the Minister of External Affairs, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, who addressed the General Assembly on 1 October when he reaffirmed India's commitment to the principles and purposes of the UN. He referred to India's efforts at building up self-reliance internally and maintenance of an independent policy externally. Commenting on the report of the UN Secretary-General, the Minister said that the hands of the Secretary-General needed to be strengthened so that he could advise and, if necessary, even prod the Security Council into action to prevent outbreak of fresh conflicts. The Minister of External Affairs blamed the Permanent Members of the Security Council for their inability to rise above their narrow national objectives, thereby paralysing and immobilising the Security Council.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Javier Perez de Cuellar, presented his first report to the General Assembly which generated considerable interest during the Session. India co-sponsored the resolution on the report of the Secretary- General, which emphasised the need to strengthen the role and effectiveness of the United Nations as indispensable for the maintenance of international peace and security, and called upon the organs of the United Nations to discharge their responsibilities fully and effectively. The resolution was adopted by consensus.

The issue of disarmament once again came up at the 37th Session. The proposals put forward by India at the Second Special Session had been communicated to the 37th regular Session of the General Assembly for consideration and action. India's proposal for a freeze was adopted by an overwhelming majority including positive votes cast by China and the Soviet Union, both nuclear weapon states. According to the terms of this resolution, the multilateral negotiating body in Geneva, the Committee on Disarmament, will consider negotiations on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons, taking as a basis the draft Convention submitted by India at the Second Special Session.

India and Sweden, along with a number of non-aligned and neutral countries, also submitted a proposal for a UN study on the implications of military research and development for disarmament, with a view to ensuring that achievements of science and technology are ultimately used only for peaceful purposes. This proposal too was supported by an overwhelming majority in the General Assembly.

India voted in favour of the UN General Assembly resolution on Malvinas, which, inter alia, requested the two Governments (UK and Argentina) to resume negotiations with a view to finding an early peaceful solution to the dispute on sovereignty over the islands and requested the UN Secretary-General to undertake a renewed mission of good offices.

The problem of West Asia received considerable attention from the General Assembly which adopted a number of resolutions many of which were co-sponsored by India. The new major elements in the resolutions were the support by the General Assembly for the Arab Peace Plan, adopted at the 12th Arab Summit Conference held at Fez, Morocco, the acknowledgement of the Declaration of the PLO "to pursue its role in the solution of the question of Palestine on the basis of the attainment in Palestine of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people in accordance with the relevent resolutions of the UN," and the acknowledgement of "the right of all the States in the region to existence within internationally recognised boundaries".

A number of Arab and Islamic countries placed their reservations on the credentials of the delegation of Israel to the 37th Session, voicing their indignation over Israel's flagrant and persistent violation of the principles of international law and the United Nations Charter. Taking note of the reservations made, the Indian delegation observed that this reflected a sense of outrage by the overwhelming majority of the Member States of the United Nations over the defiant refusal by Israel to comply with the UN resolutions and violation of its Charter obligations. The Indian representative added that it was also a reflection of the feeling of horror and revulsion of the International Community over the brutal acts of Israel against the Lebanese and Palestinian people and the genocidal massacre perpetrated there. India placed on record its historical and consistant support to the people of Palestine and the Arab cause. The General Assembly, however, approved a Finnish motion by 74 votes in favour, 9 against

and 31 abstentions, not to take any action on the proposal made by Iran to reject Israeli credentials to the 37th Session of the General Assembly. Most Arab countries did not participate in the vote on the Finnish motion. India abstained.

The General Assembly also adopted a resolution on the armed Israeli aggression against Iraqi nuclear installations. While voting for the resolution, as it clearly expressed the condemnation by the international community of the blatant act of aggression committed by Israel against Iraq, the Indian delegate stated that the gravity of the Israeli crime would not have been any the less had Iraq not been a signatory to the NPT or the attack had been directed against any other target in Iraq. It was clarified that India's support to the resolution was without prejudice to its well known views on such issues as NPT and related fullscope safeguards which figured in the resolution.

As in previous years, the General Assembly adopted a resolution on the cooperation between the United Nations and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference seeking to expand the institutional linkage between the UN and the Islamic Conference. The resolution was adopted without vote. In this context, India registered its view that a narrow sectarian approach in dealing with political, economic, social, cultural or humanitarian questions or the use of religious sentiments for promoting sectarian interests should be discouraged. India expressed the hope that the Islamic Conference would strive for a progressive, sovereign and just society and for a world order based on freedom, equality, justice and brotherhood.

The resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly on Afghanistan was similar to the one adopted last year except for a reference to the constructive steps taken by the UN Secretary- General in the search for a solution of the problem. The Indian delegate took note of the progress made by the Secretary-General as a vindication of the approach of India which had advocated a comprehensive political solution from the very beginning. The Indian representative noted that the co-sponsors of the draft resolution had chosen to emphasise, as in the previous year, only one element of a comprehensive solution to the detriment of others which had equal validity and applicability. India called upon the General Assembly to make a collective contribution to the furthering of a settlement of this question. The resolution was adopted by 114 votes in favour, 21 against and with 13 abstentions. India abstained.

As in previous years, the General Assembly adopted a resolution sponsored by Pakistan on the establishment of a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone in South Asia by 99 votes in favour, 2 against (India and Bhutan), and 45 abstentions.

The situation in Kampuchea once again proved to be controversial in the deliberations of the General Assembly. An amendment to exclude the acceptance of the credentials of Democratic Kampuchea, sponsored by a number of non-aligned countries, including India, was rejected with 29 votes in favour, 90 against and 27 abstentions. The substantive resolution on Kampuchea was adopted by 115 votes in favour, 23

against and 20 abstentions. India abstained on the ground that the adoption of a resolution that satisfied only one side would obstruct rather than encourage constructive contacts. India advocated a comprehensive political solution as recommended by the Movement of Non-Aligned countries.

The prospects for holding a Conference on the Indian Ocean receded further when the General Assembly voted a resolution requesting the Ad hoc Committee "to make every effort to accomplish the necessary preparatory work for the conference including consideration of its functioning not later than the first half of 1984". The Western powers maintained that there was no possibility of convening a Conference as long as foreign intervention in Afghanistan continued. In addition, they wanted the Ad hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean to harmonise views with regard to the concept of the zone of peace and the objectives of the Conference. The resolution, prepared after months of intensive negotiations, followed the pattern of the resolution of 1981 since the Western powers held to their inflexible position. India played an active and constructive role in the negotiations as the spokesman of the Non-Aligned countries in the Ad hoc Committee.

The debate on the question of apartheid in the plenary session of the General Assembly was based mainly on the report of the UN Special Committee against Apartheid, in the preparation of which India had played an active role. The General Assembly adopted as many as 14 resolutions on the policy of apartheid of the Government of South Africa. India co-sponsored most of these resolutions. India's representative in the Special Committee against Apartheid was also elected Chairman of the Task Force for political prisoners in South Africa.
The question of Namibia was once again considered in the plenary of the General Assembly which adopted 5 resolutions on the subject by an overwhelming majority. These resolutions were prepared and submitted for the Assembly's consideration by the UN Council for Namibia of which India is a member. In keeping with its longstanding and deeprooted commitment to the Namibian cause, India supported all the resolutions. The draft resolution on the programme of work of the UN Council for Namibia was also introduced by India in the General Assembly.

The General Assembly adopted a number of resolutions on various de-colonisation matters which included Western Sahara and East Timor. On Western Sahara, India voted in favour of a resolution tabled by Algeria. On East Timor, India, as in previous years, voted against the resolution which, however, was adopted by the Assembly by 55 votes for, 46 against and 50 abstentions.

Other UN Conferences

The World Assembly on Ageing was held in Vienna from 26 July to 6 August. The Prime Minister's message to the Conference emphasised that "pooling of experiences

and ideas from different countries will be useful in helping us to tackle our own problem." The Indian delegation's role was constructive and prominent in this conference, and resulted in the acceptance of an International Plan of Action on Ageing.

The Second UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE-82) was held in Vienna from 9 to 21 August. The Indian delegation was led by the Secretary, Department of Space, Prof. S. Dhawan. The Prime Minister's message to the Conference drew attention to the use of advanced technologies to reduce the glaring wealth disparities which divided people into the rich and the poor and the expression of her hope that the Conference would strive to ensure peace in space. During the Conference, the Indian delegation helped to forge agreements on contentious issues such as the militarisation of space' utilisation of the geo-stationary orbit, direct broadcasting by satellites, and remote sensing of earth by satellites. Besides, India participated in the exhibition held concurrently with the Conference, where it displayed applications of space technology to developmental purposes.

The IAEA-sponsored International Conference on Nuclear Power Experience was held in Vienna from 13 to 17 September. The Indian delegation, led by the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, Dr. H.N. Sethna, made valuable contributions, drawing particular attention to the needs and experiences of nuclear programmes in developing countries. India was once again designated as one of the nine globally most advanced countries in nuclear technology, for membership on the IAEA Board of Governors. The 26th General Conference of the IAEA from 20 to 24 September saw the rejection by the Conference of the credentials of the Israeli delegation. Along with other Non-Aligned Member States, India continued to maintain its principled position on issues such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and full-scope safeguards.

The Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, sent a message of good wishes to the Conference on Women and Apartheid organised by the Special Committee against Apartheid, at Brussels from 17 to 19 May. Member of Parliament, Shrimati Krishna Sahi, who attended the Conference from India, played an active role in the deliberations of the Conference.

Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement

During the year, the Non-Aligned Movement held a number of meetings. In pursuance of the decision of the Ministerial Conference of the Non-Aligned Countries held at the UN Headquarters in New York during September 1981, the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned countries met in Kuwait from 5 to 8 April, in order to evaluate the situation and take practical measures to strengthen comprehensive assistance to the struggle of the Palestinian people under the leadership of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO). In all, 80 member countries participated in the meeting, including all the 34 members of the Coordinating Bureau. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of External Affairs, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao.

The Conference adopted a Programme of Action. The Ministers decided, inter alia, to call upon the UN Secretary-General to initiate contacts with all parties to the Arab-Israeli conflict with a view to achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting solution. The Conference called upon the UN Security Council to apply comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against Israel under the provisions of chapter VII of the UN Charter, until Israel complied with the relevant UN resolutions.

Another Ministerial-level meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned countries was held in Havana from 31 May to 5 June, and was attended by all the 34 members of the Bureau and 48 other members of NAM. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of External Affairs. While Cuba was the Chairman of the Ministerial meeting, Zambia was elected Chairman of the political committee and India of the Economic Committee. The Conference succeeded after prolonged discussions in adopting consensus decisions on various important political and economic issues such as the Middle East and Palestine, South-East Asia, South-West Asia, Indian Ocean, Southern Africa and Disarmament. On Malvians, the Ministers deplored the use of a large military force by the UK and called for a cessation of hostilities and for a just, negotiated, peaceful and permanent settlement in accordance with the Security Council resolutions and decisions of the NAM.

As Chairman of the Economic Committee, India played an active and constructive role in redrafting the economic part of the Declaration. The highlights of the Declaration on economic issues included a balanced approach on the conceptual framework of the introductory and subsequent chapters. The Conference made definite and concrete recommendations on global negotiations, transfer of resources, monetary and financial issues, trade, ECDC and Science and Technology.

Another Extraordinary Ministerial meeting of the Coordinating Bureau was held in Nicosia from 15 to 17 July, at the request of Chairman Yasser Arafat of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), in order to examine the grave situation in Lebanon brought about by Israeli aggression. The meeting was attended by 32 members of the Bureau including India, and 27 other members of NAM. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of External Affairs. India became Chairman of the Drafting Committee at this meeting as well. Speaking in the general debate, Shri Narasimha Rao put forward a five-point proposal for dealing with the existing situation and advocated a comprehensive settlement of the question of Palestine.

The meeting adopted a Communique and a Programme of Action. The meeting condemned Israel for its aggression against Lebanon and the Palestinian people and for its refusal to comply with the UN resolutions. It called upon all Member States of the Movement and also other States, to take appropriate measures by severing diplomatic, economic, cultural and other relations with Israel. It set up a nine member Committee consisting of Cuba, Nicaragua, Guyana, Senegal, Benin, Cyprus,

Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka and India, to take appropriate measures to maintain a continuing and vigilant watch over the situation in Lebanon.

The annual meeting of the Ministers and Heads of Delegation of the Non-Aligned countries attending the regular session of the UN General Assembly was held in New York from 4 to 9 October, to consider the position they might take with regard to various items on the agenda of the General Assembly Session. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of External Affairs. The meeting expressed its gratitude to the Prime Minister, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, for responding positively to the proposal to hold the VII Non-Aligned Summit in New Delhi. Shri Narasimha Rao, who was designated as the first speaker at the meeting, proposed the dates for the Summit as 7 to 11 March, 1983, and announced India's intention to commence consultations on a Draft Document. His suggestion was accepted. Cuba, as Chairman, also presented a report at the meeting, which highlighted the activities of the 9- nation Ministerial Committee on Lebanon. The meeting decided to convene an Extraordinary Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau in Managua, Nicaragua, from 10 to 14 January, 1983. This meeting discussed the problems of Central and South America as well as certain organisational issues relating to the VII Non- Aligned Summit in New Delhi.

In view of the uncertainties caused by the continuing war between Iran and Iraq, doubts were raised on the feasibility of holding the VII Summit in Baghdad. When approached by several non-aligned states for hosting the Summit, India responded positively in spite of the logistical and practical difficulties involved in organising a Summit at such short notice, provided the entire Movement felt that India should host the VII Summit. The current Chairman of the Movement, President Fidel Castro of Cuba, ascertained the consensus over the change in venue through the circulation of a letter and on the basis of the response declared that the members were "unanimously" in favour of holding the VII Summit in Delhi. The VII Summit will be held in New Delhi from 7 to 11 March, 1983, and will be preceded by a meeting of the Foreign Ministers on 3 and 4 March.

The New Delhi Summit will deliberate upon issues of concern and importance to the non-aligned countries. On the political side, the Heads of State/Government will undertake a general review and appraisal of the international political situation and of measures of solidarity of the Non-Aligned countries in the implementation of their policy. They will also devote attention to issues like the role of the Non-Aligned Movement, colonialism, racism, disarmament and international security, West Asia and the Indian Ocean. On the economic side, discussion will be focused on an assessment of the world economic situation, global negotiations and achievement of NIEO, emergency measures on trade, finance, food and energy. The Summit will also draw up an action programme for economic cooperation laying down specific areas of cooperation in various fields among non-aligned and developing countries. At the conclusion of the Conference, it is expected that a Declaration will be issued setting forth


the views of Heads of State/Government on the various international problems discussed and indicating the areas where the non-aligned countries should coordinate their actions.

By virtue of the VII Summit being hosted in India, the responsibility of Chairmanship of the Movement will also be discharged by India for the next three years. Unqualified support for the change of venue of the VII Summit to New Delhi reflected the prestige which India enjoys in the Non-Aligned Movement as a result of its principled and balanced position on international issues.

International Law : Developments and Activities

During 1982, the International Law Commission completed the final reading of the draft articles on the topic of the Treaties concluded between States and International Organisations or between two or more International Organisations, and recommended that an international conference of plenipotentiaries be convened to conclude a convention on the topic. The Commission considered other topics such as State Responsibility, International Liability for Injurious Consequences arising out of acts not prohibited by International Law, Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property, Status of the Diplomatic Courier and the Diplomatic Bag not accompanied by Diplomatic Courier, and Draft Code of offences against the Peace and Security of Mankind. The Commission further reviewed its Programme of work for the current five years and established priorities which will guide the study of the topics on its programme of work.

On 30 April, 1982, the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea adopted the Convention on the Law of the Sea together with four related resolutions namely, on Preparatory Commission, Protection of Preparatory Investments in Pioneer Activities by States and private consortia, Rights and Interests of Territories which have not attained independence or self- government, and on the right of recognized liberation movements to sign the Final Act of the Conference. All these documents were adopted as a package by a single vote of 130 in favour, 4 against and 17 abstentions. Voting against were Israel, Turkey, the United States and Venezuela. The United States voted against the Convention because of its dissatisfaction with the provisions of the Convention concerning deep sea-bed mining.

On 10 December, the Final Act of the Conference and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea were opened for signature in Montego Bay, Jamaica. The Final Act was signed by more than 150 States and other delegations. The Convention was signed by 117 States and Namibia and the Cook Islands. India signed the Convention as well as the Final Act. Since more than 50 States have signed the Convention, the Preparatory Commission has been convened to hold its first session in Jamaica from 15 March, 1983 onwards, to take preparatory steps for the establishment of the

International Sea Bed Authority, the Law of the Sea Tribunal, and to prepare Draft Rules.

According to a resolution passed by the 37th General Assembly on 3 December, 1982, the expenses of the Preparatory Commission are to be borne out of the regular budget of the United Nations. It is estimated that about four million dollars would be needed for the work of the Preparatory Commission during 1983. This UN Resolution was approved by 135 votes in favour, 2 against (USA and Turkey) and 8 abstentions. The US opposed the provision of funds for the work of the Commission from the regular budget of the UN because of its overall opposition to the Convention on the Law of the Sea. The United States also announced, on 30 December, that it would not pay its share of assessed contribution of about one million dollars towards the expenses of the Preparatory Commissioni in 1983. Arrangements are, nevertheless, under way, for the Commission to meet and carry out its work in accordance with its mandate.

Of particular interest to India is the Resolution governing preparatory investment in pioneer activities which established an interim regime for protecting pioneer investments in deep sea-bed mining. This had been requested by the Western Industrialised countries which wanted to ensure that the Consortia, that had been spending money for mineral prospecting and development of technology for deep sea-bed mining, could be sure of being able to mine the sea-bed when it became commercially feasible. The Resolution listed four States namely, USSR, France, India and Japan and four Consortia controlled by 8 States namely, USA, UK, FRG, Canada, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Japan, as "Pioneer Investors" States and Consortia which have spent an amount of US 30 million dollars prior to 1 January, 1983 in deep seabed mining activities qualify as Pioneer Investors for registration with the Preparatory Commission. Thus the scheme would permit 8 Potential mine-sites to be explored by States and Consortia of East and West, if their controlling States have signed the Convention. There would be no commercial production until the Convention comes into force. When it does, the registered Pioneer Investors are assured of production authorisation to mine their sites upto the limits permitted by the overall sea-bed production ceiling established under the Convention. During the same period, the business arm of the International Sea Bed Authority called the Enterprise would be authorised to mine two sites. The scheme allows other developing countries, which may be in a position to do so to become Pioneer Investors by 1 January, 1985.

The Convention will enter into force 12 months after 60 States have ratified it. Fiji was the first State to deposit its Instrument of Ratification on 10 December. Although 117 States from all regions have signed the Convention, the position of the non-signatories, especially from the European Economic Community and other States controlling Pioneer Investors, could conceivably create difficulties in the effective

implementation of the Convention, particularly its provisions concerning deep sea-bed mining. Of the EEC countries, only five States have signed the Convention. The UK, FRG, Belgium, Luxembourg and Spain have not signed. Of the Pioneer Investors, France, India, USSR, Canada and Netherlands have signed the Convention. The United States, UK, FRG, Italy, Belgium and Japan have not signed it.

The United States has only signed the Final Act of the Conference. Though they are entitled to participate in the work of the Preparatory Commission as observer, they have announced that they would not participate in the work of the Preparatory Commission. Later, in December, they announced that they would not pay for the expenses of the PREPCOM. In September, USA, UK, FRG and France had also concluded an agreement for resolving their disputes as explorers in sea-bed mining.

The Convention establishes a 12-mile territorial sea, another 12-mile contiguous zone and a 200-mile exclusive economic zone. The Coastal States would have sovereign rights over the continental shelf for the purpose of exploring and exploiting its natural resources. The shelf would extend up to at least 200 nautical miles from the shore, and in certain cases may extend up to 350 miles. An exception has been made for the southern part of the Bay of Bengal where the outer limits may extend up to I kilometre thickness of sedimentary rocks which in the case of Sri Lanka, may extend up to 500 nautical miles or more from their coastline. The same exception will apply to India in that region. A decision to this effect has been embodied in the Final Act of the Conference. Coastal States would share with the International Sea-Bed Authority part of the revenue they derive from the exploitation of the resources from any part of their shelf beyond 200 nautical miles. A developing State which is a net importer of the minerals produced from the shelf beyond 200 nautical miles has been exempted from making such payment. Delimitation of overlapping shelves would be on the same basis as for the exclusive economic zone. A Commission on the limits of the continental shelf would make recommendations to States on the outer limits of the continental shelf.

Detailed provisions have been made in the Convention concerning the International Sea-Bed Area and its resources which have been declared as the Common Heritage of Mankind. A parallel system of exploitation would govern the exploration and exploitation of the resources of the International Sea-Bed Area. All activities in the Area would be under the control of the International Sea-Bed Authority which would also conduct its own mining operations through its Enterprise. At the same time the Authority would contract with private and State ventures to give them mining rights in the area so that they could operate in parallel with the Authority. The system of exploitation will be reviewed after 15 years of commercial production. The Convention also provides for financial arrangements, production limitation and protection of interests of landbased producers.

The Convention is open for signature and accession to States, associated States and International Organisations, like the European Economic Community.

India continued to participate in the deliberations of the Legal Sub-Committee of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The Sub-Committee held its tewnty first session in Geneva from 1 to 19 February 1982, and discussed, inter alia, the questions concerning the legal implications of remote sensing of the earth from space, with the aim of formulating draft principles, the possibility of supplementing the norms of international law relevant to the use of nuclear power sources in outer space, and the definition and or delimitation of outer space activities bearing in mind, inter alia, questions related to the geostationary orbit.

Regarding the remote sensing of the earth by satellites, the Sub-Committee conducted a first review of the draft principles, in particular principles relating to access to data (principle XII) and dissemination of data obtained from remote sensing activities (principle XV). While no final decision was reached, the exchange of views during the meeting of the group focused on certain outstanding issues such as the access of the sensed States as well as other States to the data gathered through remote sensing, the question whether the authorisation of the sensed States was needed prior to carrying out the remote sensing, and whether the sensing State could indiscriminately publish the results of the remote sensing, and whether the sensed States could oppose such a publication, and the question as to what would be the method for settling differences.

In regard to the use of nuclear power-source objects in outer space, the Committee following a proposal by its Chairman, discussed the assistance to States affected by accidental re- entry of a space object with a nuclear power-source on board. During the discussions, some delegations felt that the existing norms of international law should be supplemented while others felt that prior to the decision on supplementing the existing international law, several questions such as definition of 'necessary assistance', methods of determining the extent and duration of search and clean-up operations, the steps immediately to be taken by the affected State, the payment of costs of search and clean-up operations not conducted by the launching State, should be further discussed with a view to working out mutually acceptable concepts.

Regarding the definition and/or delimitation of outer space, some delegations felt that such a definition and delimitation should take place without further delay and that it ought to be spatial namely, that agreement should be reached on a certain altitude as the boundary between air space and outer space. The view was also expressed that outer space law has thus far been successfully developed and applied without a definition or delimitation of outer space, and a future definition or delimitation would cause more problems than it would solve. The question of the geostationary orbit had been the subject of close consideration and there again opinions had differed.

The General Assembly at its 37th Session adopted a Resolution on Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for Direct Television Broadcasting by a majority vote. According to these principles, a State which intends to establish or authorise the establishment of an international direct television broadcasting satellite service shall, without delay, notify the proposed receiving State or States of such intention and shall promptly enter into consultation with any of those States which so request.

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) held its 15th Session at New York from 26 July to 6 August. Its report contained an account of the progress made by the working Groups on the subjects of International Contract Practices, International Payments, International Commercial Arbitration and the New International Economic Order. The Working Group on International Contract Practices is examining the draft uniform rules on liquidated damages and penalty clauses which have been prepared by the UNCITRAL Secretariat. Thereafter, the Commission will take a decision as to form, na m ely, whether these rules should be in the form of a Convention or in the form of Model Law. The examination of the Draft Convention on Bills of Exchange and International Promissory Notes and Draft Convention on International Cheques is almost complete. These Draft Conventions will now be submitted to governments for their comments. It is worth noting that the Working Group has successfully completed its work in the highly technical field of negotiable instruments law. It is hoped that this will facilitate the international financial and commercial transactions and will further the interests of the international community.

The UNCITRAL is also discussing the Model Rules on Arbitration Law which should be of particular interest to those developing countries who still do not have a law on arbitration. The Working Group on New International Economic Order has been examining the various clauses related to contracts for the supply and construction of large industrial works. The discussion on the clauses has been completed. The UNCITRAL Secretariat would now draft a legal guide on this subject.

A significant outcome of the work of the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly at its 37th Session was related to agenda item 122 on Peaceful Settlement of Disputes between States, which adopted, by consensus, the Manila Declaration on Peaceful Settlement of Disputes. India joined in the consensus and welcomed the Manila Declaration which, inter alia, stresses the need for settling international disputes "on the basis of sovereign equality of States and in accordance with the free choice of means".

On the basis of a recommendation of the Sixth Committee, the General Assembly approved by a recorded vote of 136 votes in favour, I against (USA) and no abstentions, convening of a UN Conference on the Succession of States in respect of State property, Archives, and Debts in Vienna from 1 March to 8 April, 1983.

-44> With regard to agenda item 127 relating to the Report of the Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organisation, the Sixth Committee considered the Libyan proposal regarding amendment of the Charter to either eliminate or reduce the role of veto in the Security Council, and to make resolutions of the General Assembly relating to the maintenance of international peace and security binding. The Permanent Members of the Security Council, with the exception of China, took exception to the Libyan proposal and opposed attempts to amend the Charter of the United Nations. India emphasised the desirability of trying to rectify, through practice, the loopholes or imbalances in the working of the United Nations Charter, rather than go in for the impractical prospect of amending the Charter. The Special Committee on Charter Review will continue its work during 1983.

The Sixth Committee also reviewed the progress made with respect to the question of development of a convention prohibiting the activities of mercenaries, development of principles relating to the non-use of force and the creation of a New International Economic Order.

The Hague Conference on Private International Law is working closely with the UNCITRAL on the subject of Conflict of Laws, namely on the Law applicable to International Sale of Goods. For this purpose, it invited the non-members of the Hague Conference who are members of the UNCITRAL. A session of the Special Commission of the Hague Conference was held at the Hague from 6 to 15 December. India participated for the first time in the work of this Conference. The Conference discussed the various issues relating to the Choice of Law in case of conflict of laws applicable to international sale of goods.

During the year, India concluded 73 treaties and agreements of which a list is given at Appendix I.

Elections to UN bodies and other International Institutions

Shri Brajesh Mishra was reappointed as the UN High Commissioner of Namibia for a one-year term beginning 1 January, 1983. India's Permanent Representative to the UN, Shri N. Krishnan, was re-elected as Vice-President of the UN Council for Namibia. Vice-President of the Indian Standard Institution, Shri D.C. Kothari, was elected as the President of the International Organization of Standardization for the term 1983-1985. Rear Admiral F. L. Fraser was elected as Director and President of the Directing Committee of the International Hydrographic Bureau, Monaco. India was re-elected to the UN Commission on Human Rights for a three-year term and to the Commission on Social Development and the Commission on Non-Governmental Organisations for four- year terms beginning 1 January, 1983. India was re-elected as a member of the World Health Organization Joint Co-ordinating Board of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases for three-year term beginning 1 January, 1983. India was re-elected as member of the Administrative Council of the

International Telecommunication Union as also to the Inter- governmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO for the term 1983-84. Director in the Legal and Treaties Division of the Ministry, Dr. R.K. Dixit, was unanimously elected as Chairman of the Panel of Legal Experts of the International Telecommunication Satellite Organization.

Lists of major international conferences/meetings/seminars organised by government/non-governmental organisations in which India participated and of which India became a member, are at Appendices II, III and IV.




The year witnessed further deterioration of the state of the world economy as well as a crisis in international economic cooperation. North-South negotiations were virtually paralysed and there was an erosion of the spirit of multilateralism. As the world recession deepened, developing countries intensified their attempts to reverse the negative trends. India continued its efforts at focusing attention on North-South and South-South economic relations and played a key role in these deliberations. It took the initiative to convene the New Delhi Consultations in February 1982, among senior representatives of 44 developing countries to take stock of the various issues involved. This proved useful and timely in generating an atmosphere of constructive cooperation. There was a consensus that the launching of Global Negotiations would represent the most far- reaching endeavour of the international community for multilateral international cooperation for development. There was also agreement on the urgency of taking immediate steps in certain key areas affecting developing countries, such as food, energy, trade and financial flows. Following the New Delhi Consultations, the developing countries came up with a new proposal for the enabling resolutions for the launching of Global Negotiations which took into account most of the concerns of the industrial nations. It was largely this accommodation shown by the Group of 77 that prompted the seven major industrialised nations to come up with a statement at their Summit meeting in Versailles in June supporting the early launching of these negotiations.

Though the general world economic outlook and the prospects for meaningful international economic cooperation remained bleak, the year showed some progress in the field of South-South cooperation. The New Delhi Consultations, inter alia, focused on the opportunities and perspectives for such cooperation covering specifically, implementation and financing mechanisms in the sectors of trade, food, science and technology and energy. Some important ideas which emerged a result of these discussions were subsequently followed up in the relevant international forums. These included two Indian proposals namely, the setting up of a multilateral financing facility for project development in developing countries and the establishment of an expert level agricultural coordinating group to formulate a matrix, based on the four major parameters of need, potential, technology and capital, for undertaking joint ventures and collaboration projects.

Follow up of the Caracas Programme of Action for Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries also acquired some momentum. A series of sectoral meetings

took place during the year, including the meeting of Heads of National Agencies of Science and Technology held in New Delhi in May. The reports of these meetings were considered by the Inter- governmental Follow up and Coordination Committee which outlined the future course of action for the implementation of the various accommodations and also framed guidelines for holding further ECDC technical meetings. The suggestions of the IFCC were endorsed by the Ministers of the Group of 77 at their annual meeting in October. There were important gains for developing countries as a result of these various ECDC activities. Some of them were the launching of the negotiations on Global System of Trade Preferences among developing countries, the call for the harmonisation of the Caracas Programme of Action and the Non- Aligned Action Programme for ECDC to avoid duplication of effort, the strengthening of the implementation and coordination mechanisms of the Caracas Programme of Action like the ECDC account, the core group of assistants to the chairman of the Group of 77 and the stress on closer coordination among the various chapters of the Group of 77. These developments underscored the commitment and determination of developing countries to fully explore and strengthen their potential for achieving collective selfreliance.

South Asian Regional Cooperation was another area in which progress was registered during 1982. The third meeting of Foreign Secretaries of the region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) was held in Islamabad in August. It was agreed at this meeting that, on the basis of the reports of the various working groups, an integrated programme of action in the eight agreed areas of cooperation (agriculture, postal services, meteorology, transport, health and population activities, telecommunications, science and technology and rural development) should be prepared, with specific recommendations regarding modalities and mechanisms for implementation, coordination and monitoring, and to the extent possible, with indications of the financial implications of the short-term component of the programme and possible funding arrangements for its long-term components. The idea is that once the elements of the integrated programme are worked out, action can be initiated immediately in these areas and projects where expenditure can be met from available financial resources. The Foreign Secretaries are expected to finalise the integrated programme at their next meeting which will also consider the possibility of a Ministerial level meeting to launch the programme and give directions for future course of action. Regional cooperation in South Asia, as it is emerging, represents an important political initiative which will have far-reaching and mutually beneficial effects on the economic development of the concerned countries.

A growing and important dimension of India's economic and scientific-technical cooperation is the holding of periodic meetings of Joint Commissions which have been established between India and various countries.

The sixth meeting of the Indo-Afghan Joint Commission for Economic Cooperation was held in Kabul in May. It identified areas of technical and economic cooperation that would be of direct benefit to the people of Afghanistan.

The first meeting of the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Economic Commission was held in New Delhi on 16 and 17 November, under the Co-chairmanship of the Minister of External Affairs, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, and the Foreign Minister of Bangladesh, Mr. Shams- Ud-Doha. The Joint Commission has imparted greater impetus and content to the economic relationship between the two countries.

The Iraqi Minister for Oil, Mr. Qassim A. Taqi, led the Iraqi delegation to the 8th session of the Indo-Iraq Joint Commission in New Delhi from 10 to 15 January, 1983. The session reviewed past progress and indetified areas of cooperation and exchanges for 1983.

Progress was made in the economic relations between India and Italy at the Fifth meeting of the Joint Commission held in Rome in November. Several offers for projects for production and/or transfer of technology with financial assistance were made by the Italian side, in fields like electronic teleprinters, fertilisers and thermal and hydropower plants. The two sides agreed to set up a Joint Business Council.

There was an upsurge in economic contacts between India and the East European countries through the meetings of India's Joint Commissions with these countries. During the year under review, meetings of the Indo-Soviet, Indo-Bulgarian, Indo-Czechoslovak, Indo-GDR, Indo-Hungarian, Indo-Polish and Indo-Romanian Joint Commissions were held at Ministerial level, at Moscow, Sofia, Prague, Berlin, Budapest, Warsaw and New Delhi respectively. At these meetings, important aspects of economic cooperation such as sectoral cooperation in metallurgy, power, coal and oil, diversification and expansion of trade; industrial cooperation in third-country projects, cooperation in agriculture, drugs, pharmaceuticals and mining, were discussed in depth.

India's economic and technical cooperation with the developing countries continued to progress during the year under report. A sum of Rs. 7.13 crores was earmarked for implementation of various ITEC Programmes during the year 1982-83. This was in addition to the individual technical and economic cooperation programmes with Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.

India paid a contribution of Rs. 16.68 lakhs to the Economic Commission for Africa in addition to its contribution of Rs. 90 lakhs to the IDU of Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation under the ITEC Programme. Other activities included gifting of equipment and spares, valued at Rs. 29 lakhs, to Cuba for UNIDO aided project, and equipment worth Rs. 9 lakhs for the Butiama Workshop in Tanzania. The two Indian-aided Research Centres established in Vietnam under ITEC started functioning. A proposal for conducting 10 feasibility studies in PDRY by NIDC was also finalised.

Seven hundred and twenty nine ITEC experts were deputed to various developing countries since the inception of the ITEC Programme. Detailed break-up of these experts is given at Appendix XIII.

One hundred and fortysix Indian experts are currently assisting various countries under the ITEC Programme of the Ministry of External Affairs as detailed in Appendix XIV. One thousand two hundred foreign trainees from various countries received training in India in technical and specialised fields including agriculture, management, banking, insurance, public administration, civil aviation, English language, water resources development, journalism, industry, fruit and vegetable processing, machine tools, dairy development and rail technology. A sizable number of trainees came from countries such as Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Malaysia, Iraq, Laos, PDRY, Vietnam and Suriname. There were 32 trainees from Africa, West Asia and South Asia. Nearly 10 economic delegations and study teams visited countries like Vietnam, Kampuchea, Botswana, Tanzania, Togo and Mauritius. A number of delegations from Uganda, Madagascar, Zimbabwe and Mauritius were provided local hospitality under ITEC.




The Policy Planning and Review Division of the Ministry, strengthened after the merger with the Historical Division, now consists of a corps of foreign service and research cadre officers, with supporting staff and facilities including a modern library. The Division functions under the overall guidance of the Foreign Secretary and the supervision of an Additional Secretary.

During the year under review, the Policy Planning and Review Division prepared about 50 policy papers and background notes on subjects of concern and special interest to India in the external domain. In preparing the studies, the Division interacted with other Divisions in the Ministry as well as with other Ministries and Departments in order to impart a multiple perspective to this study. As in the past, such studies were circulated to Missions abroad and territorial divisions of the Ministry as well as to other concerned departments and agencies in the Government.

The Division also continued to maintain contact with area studies centres of universities where scholars are involved in research and study of international affairs. The officers of the Division took part in various Seminars relating to India's foreign policy as well as on international affairs, at home and abroad. Mention may be made of the Seminar on Nepal at the Banaras Hindu University in March 1982; Seminar on India's Security.-The Politico-Strategic Environment, organised at the India International Centre, New Delhi, also in March 1982; the UN Seminar on Israeli violations of Human Rights in Occupied Territories, held at Geneva in October 1982; Seminar on India and Africa in World Affairs at S.V. University, Tirupati; and Seminar on South Asia-Stability and Regional Cooperation, Organised by the Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development, Chandigarh in January 1983. Scholars and other experts were invited to the Ministry for panel discussions while visiting Indian Ambassadors were requested to hold discussions with officers of the Division.

In addition, studies on Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka as well as one on Foreign Policy Issues in the Eighties, have been commissioned, which are expected to be ready shortly.

The Division has been actively associated in the preparation of briefs, basic documents and other studies for the VII Non- Aligned Summit. As usual, the Division coordinated the work relating to the Annual Report of the Ministry.

Within the Division, a special Cell has been set up to look after matters relating to people of Indian origin settled abroad. The information processed by the Cell is utilised in improving cultural contacts between India and Overseas Indians.




The External publicity Division continued to provide publicity and public relations support to the conduct of India's foreign relations.

The Division was reorganised earlier in the year to make for better coordination between its various sections and between the Division and the Indian Missions abroad, so as to provide comprehensive and prompt guidance to the Missions in their press, public relations and publicity work. Missions were regularly briefed on political, economic, social and general development in India to enable them to interpret all aspects of India's foreign policy and internal developments to the public and media of the countries of their accreditation.

Against the backdrop of a deteriorating international situation consequent upon increased great power rivalry and its growing impact nearer home in the Indian Ocean and South and South-East Asia, the Division provided publicity support in the renewed thrust of India's policy to mitigate discord and work towards friendly relations with neighbours, including Pakistan, Bangladesh and China. It was highlighted that India's sincere desire to have friendly and prosperous neighbours was the natural outcome of its policy to seek reduction in international tension and to build an environment of peace and cooperation.

The Official Spokesman continued to meet with the Press every working day.

India's participation in international Conferences such as the New Delhi Consultations and the Second UN Special Session on Disarmament as also the Prime Minister's visits abroad, were utilised by the Division to project not only India's views but the aspirations of the developing countries in general in securing a new world order. In this context, the country's contribution and capability in cooperating with other developing countries was highlighted. Efforts were also made to project India's firm commitment to democracy, non-alignment and world peace, peaceful uses of nuclear energy and outer space, moral and material support against apartheid and in support of majority rule in Namibia, and support for the Palestinian cause.

During the year, special attention was paid to the following aspects of the work of the Division:

(1) Publicity material sent to the Missions was geared to be responsive to issues of topical interest and to attitudes and views in different countries. The

requirements of the Missions, in terms of photographs, slides, documentary and feature films, books, as well as background material on economic, social and cultural developments, were met on a continuing basis.

(2) A phased programme to modernise and up-date the equipment available with the Missions abroad, started in 1981-82, was continued.

(3) The system of reporting by Missions was kept up and improved. An additional report has been added to the regular reports to enable the Division to monitor the quality and content of its transmissions and to make improvements on the basis of suggestions from the Missions both in regard to content and quality of reception.

(4) The proposal to open new publicity Wings in 25 Indian Missions located in the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, which has been under process, is still under active consideration and it is expected that it will materialise in the coming financial year by setting up new publicity wings in nine Missions in the first phase.

The External publicity Division continued to bring out its regular publications, which are:

(1) Indian and Foreign Review-English fortnightly.

(2) Courrier de l'Inde-French fortnightly.

(3) Foreign Affairs Record-English monthly.
During the year under review, the production values of Indian and Foreign Review were considerably improved by the entire publication being printed on art paper with an increased number of colour photographs including a centre spread.

A record number of 76 pamphlets and booklets was brought out during the year under review. The folder "A New India Emerges" was brought out in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic and Hindi; the publication "India-A Democracy on the Move" was brought out in Arabic, Russian, Japanese and Chinese. Several additional titles of books were supplied to Missions for their libraries and for presentation to dignitaries.


Efforts were made to improve the reception of the daily XP transmission by Indian Missions abroad by progressively switching over to satellite links from the existing radio links. PTI carried XP transmission to 27 Missions on satellite link through the national news agencies in the countries covered. Eight Missions in North America are being covered through satellite channel by RCA, other Missions are being covered

through radio signals, bi-weekly telexes, twice-weekly press cables and two-way teleprinter links.

Visiting Journalists

The Division continued to look after and organised visits of journalists from abroad with a view to projecting developments in India in the correct perspective. During the nine-month period ending 30 December, 55 foreign journalists visited India as guests of the Government. Another 240 journalists who visited India on their own or accompanied foreign VVIPs on State visits to India, were accorded necessary assistance during their stay here. Over 700 journalists are likely to visit India by the end of March 1983, to cover the Seventh Non-Aligned Summit, to whom necessary assistance and logistical facilities are being provided.

Seventy Indian journalists who visited foreign countries upto the end of December, were provided with necessary facilities. Another 30 are expected to visit abroad by the end of March 1983. Communication and Press facilities were extended on ten occasions during visits of foreign Heads of State or Government. Eighty one television/photographic teams visited India for making documentary films until December; 34 teams more are expected to visit by March 1983.

Audio-Visual Publicity

During the year under review, 1550 prints of a number of documentary films produced by the Films Division were sent to Missions abroad. These depicted items such as various aspects of India's industrial development, cultural heritage and places of tourist interest, and were dubbed in the Arabic, French and Spanish languages, in addition to English. Seven documentary films were commissioned/purchased from private producers and have been circulated to the Missions.

Twenty five prints of 5 feature films are under circulation among Indian Missions for non-commercial publicity. Fifty eight prints of 8 more feature films, purchased during the year for the same purpose, are being sub-titled in various foreign languages for circulation among Indian Missions abroad.

About 50,000 photographs were despatched on a fortnightly basis to Indian Missions abroad on matters of topical interest, such as visits of foreign dignitaries and the Ninth ASIAD. In addition, a large number of coloured transparencies and exhibition-size black and white photographs were sent to Missions.

Two major photographic exhibitions-"India Today" and "Jawaharlal Nehru" are being circulated to various Missions abroad. These exhibitions have already been held in over 30 Indian Missions.

News Agencies and Feature Agencies

The Division has subsidised the location of Indian correspondents belonging to the four Indian News Agencies in different countries since January 1980. During the year under review, a decision was taken to increase the number of AIR correspondents posted abroad from 4 to 8, mostly in the developing countries of the Non-Aligned world.

The Division continued to subscribe to special feature news services of news agencies and commissioned special feature articles on various aspects of development in India. During the year, to keep Indian Missions abreast of developments and to project them in the countries of their accreditation, 2 new feature services were added to the list. The publication of special supplements on India on national occasions, such as Republic Day and Independence Day, as also on the occasion of the visits of the Prime Minister to various countries abroad, was encouraged with the cooperation of the Trade Fair Authority of India.

A news service to Indian Missions was started in December, by supplying them a daily press round-up covering reports and comments on foreign affairs in the Indian Press.

Reporting on India in the Foreign Media
The nature of reporting by foreign media is kept under constant review by Indian Missions and by this Division. Whenever there has been a deliberate slant, it has been brought to the notice of the Correspondent in New Delhi by the Division and to the notice of the concerned publication through the Indian Diplomatic Mission and the correct factual position given.

Special Enquiries

Special enquiries received through Indian Missions on various aspects are handled by this Division and necessary responses/information conveyed to the Missions. A large number of Press releases are issued by this Division on events of interest to India. The World Press Review containing comments, summaries and analyses of foreign Press comment on India or of interest to India in foreign newspapers and periodicals, continued to be brought out in cyclostyled form. Till the end of December, 304 issues were brought out as against 194 in 1981-82. The Review has been revamped and made more comprehensive to include a country- wise round-up of foreign media.




The Indian Council for Cultural Relations continued to function as the main agency for promoting India's cultural relations with foreign countries.

During the period under review, the Council received nearly 100 distinguished visitors from fields such as fine arts and literature, education, musicology and science. They came from Australia, Bangladesh Brazil, Bhutan, China, Czechoslovakia, Cuba, Denmark, Egypt, France, Ghana, Hong Kong, Japan, Madagascar, Mauritius, Portugal, Peru, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Sweden, UK, USSR and Yugoslavia.

Under the programme of incoming performing arts delegations, more than 40 groups visited India from Australia, Algeria, Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Czecho slovakia, Cuba, Egypt, GDR, Kenya, Japan, FRG, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia UK, USA, USSR, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Zambia.

The highlight of the year in the field of incoming performing arts was the Festival of Asiad Performing Arts which was organised by the Council in New Delhi from 14 November to 5 December, and ran concurrently with the Asian Games. Sixteen prestigious troupes from Bangladesh, China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, YAR and PDRY participated. While the main festival was held in Delhi, mini-festivals were organised in association with the State and local authorities in Chandigarh, Jaipur, Gurgaon, Calcutta, Madras, Hyderabad, Bombay and Bangalore.

In pursuance of the policy of promoting close and friendly relations, particularly with neighbouring countries, the Council received a number of delegations from Bhutan. Of special importance were the visits paid by the religious leader of Bhutan, the Je Khenpo, in January and November/December. His Holiness was accompanied by Lamas and Budhist scholars who visited places of Budhist importance in India. The other delegations that visited included Bhutanese scholars, students, judges, teachers and members of the Bhutan-India Friendship Association. During the visit of the King of Bhutan in March, a Chair of Budhist studies was set up at the Nagarjuna University in Guntur, named after His Majesty the King of Bhutan.

As part of the cultural projection effort abroad, 62 visitors and 73 performing delegations were sent out to various countries. The individual visitors who were academicians, educationists, writers, artists and critics, participated in conferences

and seminars, delivered lectures and held exhibitions. The performing delegations visited Austria, Australia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, France, FRG, GDR, Hungary, Indonesia, Japan, Afghanistan, Malaysia, Norway, Nepal, Netherlands, Singapore, Switzerland, UK, USA, and the USSR. Some of them performed in important international festivals such as the Vienna Dance Festival, Commonwealth Arts Festival at Brisbane, and the Edinburgh festival in the UK.

As part of the Festival of India in the UK, a series of events of Indian performing arts were held from March to November in London and the provinces. Eminent dancers, vocalists and instrumentalists like Birju Maharaj, Yamini Krishnamurty, Bhimsen Joshi, Lalgudi Jayaraman, Amjad Ali Khan and others performed in the Festival.

Arts exhibitions were received from abroad and Indian exhibitions were sent out. Among the exhibitions received were photographs from Finland, graphic art from Czechoslovakia and contemporary paintings from Spain and Turkey. Among the Indian exhibitions sent out were a representative collection of modern Indian paintings to the Festival of India in London and to the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, and a sculpture exhibition by Amarnath Sehgal, to Switzerland.

Under the Council's publication activity, volume IV of 'Indian Poetry Today, and 'The Changing Language of Theatre' (Azad Memorial Lecture-1982 by Badal Sircar) were brought out. 'Vision of India' was formally released by the Vice-President, Shri M. Hidayatullah, on 5 February, 1982. The Thai translation of Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography, "My Experiments with Truth", which was brought out with financial assistance from the Council, was formally released by India's Ambassador in Bangkok, on the eve of the Republic Day. Besides, Panchatantra III and Jataka Tales were translated into French; Jataka Tales into Spanish and Panchatantra II in the Wolof language of Senegal, Mali and Gambia, and were brought out in the form of illustrated classics.

In connection with the centenary celebrations of poet Subramania Bharati, the Council brought out in French, Spanish and Arabic, a demisized non-priced monograph on the life and work of the poet, for distribution abroad.

Besides these, the Council's quarterly journals namely, Indian Horizons, Cultural News from India, Papeles de la India, Rencontre Avec l'Inde, Gagnanchal and Africa Quarterly, were regularly published.

Within the framework of the existing Cultural protocol, 75 Bangladesh scholars availed themselves of scholarships offered by the Government of India during 1982-83 for pursuing higher studies in India.

The Council performs an important function by way of looking after the welfare of foreign students studying in India. It has appointed foreign students advisers in

various universities to assist in this regard. Financial assistance was given to various foreign students associations for holding their National Day and other function. ICCR and the Government of India scholars were regularly paid their allowances and other dues.

Five Summer Camps were organised in Srinagar, Pahalgam, Tanmar, Bangalore and Ootacamund during the period under review. About 225 foreign students participated. Seven foreign students-2 from Italy and 1 each from the USA, West Germany, France, Iran and Peru were awarded ICCR scholarships for learning Indian music and dance, for a period of 2 years.

During the period under review, the Council launched two important new initiatives. One was the organisation of regular Saturday evening cultural performances at Azad Bhawan, with the objective of providing the Diplomatic Community in New Delhi and foreign students with an opportunity to familiarise themselves with and appreciate Indian culture, through programmes of instrumental and vocal music, dance, drama and films. So far, 17 performances have been held in this series which started on 15 August. The second initiative was to celebrate Foreign Students Day all over the country on 11 November (Maulana Azad's birthday) so as to focus attention on the presence of foreign students in India, and to motivate the Indian public to be kind and considerate to them.

In its programme of orientation course, the Council organised an evening of Indian Songs and Dances for the benefit of 40 professors of performing art and teachers from the USA.

Under the Presentation Programme, books and art objects were sent to universities, institutions and cultural organisations in Australia, Afghanistan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Bhutan, China, Cuba, Colombia, Denmark, FRG, Ghana, Indonesia, Kuwait, Mexico, Mauritius, Malaysia, Norway, Nepal, Pakistan, Qatar, Sudan, USA, Venezuela and Zambia. The art objects included musical instruments, puppets and dolls. These were also sent to Indian Missions abroad for essay competitions organised by them.

The library and reading room in Azad Bhawan has been attracting scholars, research students and readers in large numbers. During the period under review, about 2800 persons used the library. Five hundred and thirty five books were accessioned and subscriptions were made for 86 periodicals. Besides this, the library also received books sent as gifts from various institutions and organisations. Over 75 new members were enrolled. The African Section of the library maintained 117 files of clippings on current events and happenings in Africa.

The Azad Memorial lecture was instituted in 1958, to honour and commemorate the memory of the late Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Founder-President of ICCR, and held regularly thereafter. In 1982, it was delivered by the expert on theatre, Shri Badal Sircar, the theme being 'The Changing Language of Theatre'.

An Afro-Asian writers workshop on short story-writing was held in March 1982, in collaboration with the India International Centre. Representatives from 19 Afro-Asian countries participated.

As a mark of solidarity with the freedom fighters in South Africa, 26 June was observed as South Africa Freedom Day. Africa (OAU) Day, PLO Day and UN Day were also observed.

Under the scheme of maintenance of Chairs/Centres of Indian Studies abroad, the Council deputed Indian professors and lecturers of Indian Studies, Sanskrit, Hindi and Tamil to EL Colegio de Mexico and to the Universities of Guyana, Sofia, Bucharest, Havana, Humboldt, Berlin, West Indies, St. Augustine, and Trinidad. Besides, two other Hindi lecturers have been deputed, one to the Indian Cultural Centre in Suriname and the other to the ICC, Guyana.

For prompting greater awareness and appreciation of the Indian Cultural heritage, the Council has been maintaining Cultural Centres in Fiji, Guyana and Suriname. The Council continued to maintain one dance teacher and one tabla teacher in Trinidad and one teacher of instrumental music at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute in Mauritius. The Centres have libraries of basic books on India in English and Hindi, and also reading rooms where Indian periodicals and newspapers are available. The Centres also maintain a collection of films, slides, records and tapes of Indian music. The other main activities of the Centres include teaching of Indian dance and music, organisation of lectures, symposia, exhibitions and essay competitions, staging of Hindi plays, screening of films and organising cultural evenings of Indian dance and music. Distribution of books and other material on India, publication of news bulletins and developing contacts with a wide spectrum of local citizens including students, teachers, scholars and leaders of opinion are also undertaken.

The Council continued to oversee the activities of the foreign cultural centres in India by administering the British libraries at Bangalore, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Pune, Ranchi, Trivandrum, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, and the House of Soviet Culture in Trivandrum, and by maintaining liaison with the Max Mueller Bhavans and the Alliances Francaise in India.




During 1982, Heads of Mission of the following 19 countries left India on the completion of their assignment: Iraq, Ghana, Norway, Portugal, New Zealand, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Britain, Oman, Kenya, Mauritius, Nepal, Peru, Czechoslovakia, Kampuchea, Sudan and Algeria.

In the same period, Heads of Mission of the following 20 countries presented their credentials to the President of India: Hungary, Upper Volta, Syria, Greece, Guinea, Norway, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Iraq, Portugal, Pakistan, UK, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kenya, Oman, Algeria, Mauritius and Czechoslovakia.

The Republic of Rwanda appointed its first Ambassador to India with residence in Nairobi. The Ambassador of Rwanda presented his credentials to the President of India on 27 December.

Letters from the President were sent to all Heads of State on the assumption of charge by Giani Zail Singh of the office of the President of India.




Requests for issue of fresh passports and other related services in 1982 exceeded the all-time high figure reached in 1981. There was also an appreciable increase in the quantum of consular services rendered by Indian Missions abroad and the Ministry. During the year, the main emphasis was on the expeditious disposal of passport applications as weIl as improvement in the quality and services rendered to passport applicants.

As many as 15.34 lakh applications for the issue of fresh passports were received in Passport Offices in India during 1982 the highest figure recorded for any single year. This was marginally higher than the 14.73 lakh applications received in 1981. Likewise, there was a substantial increase in the number of applications received for miscellaneous services which also touched an all-time high figure of 7.60 lakhs as compared to 6.22 lakhs in 1981, representing an increase of over 20%. Continuous efforts were made to increase output in 1982 and the Passport Offices issued 15.49 lakh passports and rendered miscellaneous passport services to 7.71 lakh applicants as the issuance of passport is a continuing exercise, with passport applications having to go through various stages of process. The Passport Office in Bombay received the maximum number of applications, followed by Madras, Cochin, Jullundur and Hyderabad. A statement showing the services rendered by each Passport Office in India is given at Appendix V.

At the commencement of 1982, the Passport Offices were faced with two main constraints in the issue of passports, shortage of passport booklets and insufficient staff. The shortage of passport booklets was met through an increase in production, which gradually rose from 3000 to 8000 booklets per day. Similarly, efforts were made through the Railways and postal authorities for timely supply of booklets to various Passport Offices. At times, passport booklets were also airfreighted to meet sudden and unforeseen requirements. Besides the India Security Press, Nasik, the Passport Offices at Bombay and Delhi served as Passport Booklet Banks to meet the unforeseen demands for Passport booklets in Passport Offices in India and Missions abroad. The shortage of staff was met through streamlining procedures and the Passport Offices were provided with adequate staff to cope with the increase in workload. During the year under review, 248 additional posts were created and distributed among various offices. Furthermore, Passport Clearance Cells were established in Passport Offices at Bombay, Cochin, Delhi, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Madras and Calcutta with a view to assisting in the clearance of arrears in those offices, where they get periodically accumulated

owing to the fluctuating nature of receipt of passport applications. These steps helped in the expeditious clearance of passport applications and the arrears at the end of 1982 stood at around 2.88 lakhs, which is the normal pendency.

With a view to improving the quality of passport services rendered, a number of steps were taken. A new passport booklet, smaller in size with a flexible rexin cover in keeping with international standards, was introduced with effect from 1 June. Another innovation was the introduction of the Passport Fee Stamp with effect from 1 July in about 800 to 1000 Post Offices all over India, by way of an additional facility to passport applicants for depositing passport fees. This is also expected to facilitate existing accounting procedures and lead to speedier issue of passports. During the year 1982, extension counters of the State Bank of India were opened in five Passport Offices : Jullundur, Chandigarh, Kozhikode, Lucknow and Jaipur. This facility now exists in eight Passport Offices including Bombay, Ahmedabad and Hyderabad.

Several steps were taken to minimise the delay and harassment caused to the public in obtaining passports. One was to reach passport applicants directly, who were acquainted with the procedures for the issue of passports by the Passport Offices, through local media. All Passport Offices are now required to display, prominently, information regarding the dates of passport applications being currently processed by them. Similarly, existing rules regarding recognition of travel agencies were streamlined with a view to making them more responsive to public requirements. Necessary steps have been taken to minimise forgeries on passports. Continuous efforts were also made to enhance coordination with State authorities.

During the year under review, a Passport Liaison Office was opened at Simla. It is proposed to open new Passport Offices at Trichy, Bareilly and Goa during 1983. Computerised methods in respect of storage/retrieval of information relating to passport work would also be gradually introduced.

In view of the keen interest taken by members of Parliament in passport work, a special session of the Parliamentary Consultative Committee attached to this Ministry was held on 28 April, exclusively devoted to passport work. The members of the Consultative Committee appreciated the various steps being taken by the Ministry to expeditiously issue passports and made further suggestions. Practically all the recommendations of the Consultative Committee have been implemented. Prior to the holding of this meeting, an All-India Passport Officers Conference was held from 14 to 16 April. A number of important recommendations were made at the Conference, which are being implemented.

With a view to removing inconvenience to Indian passengers going abroad, the Passport Offices continued to grant endorsements such as "Emigration Check Required" and "Emigration Clearance Not Required" depending upon the category of the applicants at the time of issue of the pasport Itself. Pasport offices were also authorised

to grant suspension endorsements in order to assist persons who are required to go abroad for short visits. Furthermore, Indian Missions abroad were authorised to grant "Emigration Clearance Not Required" endorsement on passports of those Indian nationals who are normally resident abroad, with a view to minimising harassment at immigrant check points whenever they return abroad after visiting India.

Government suspended the Landing Permit System for foreign tourists during the earlier part of November and December, keeping in view security considerations for the 9th Asian Games. The suspension of the Landing Permit System has been extended till end March 1983 in view of the Non-Aligned Summit to be held in New Delhi. The Missions have been provided with additional local staff on a temporary basis to assist them in expeditious issue of visas to foreign visitors who may wish to come to India during this period. However, the Immigration Check Points in India have been given authority to allow entry of persons of Indian origin visiting India on pressing grounds who are unable to obtain visas prior to their arrival.

During the period under review, Indian Missions/Posts abroad extended financial assistance to 22 Indian nationals and repatriated 519 persons who were in distress in foreign countries. The question of settlement of claims/death compensation was taken up with the concerned foreign authorities on behalf of the next of kin of the deceased. During the same period, 140 cases of death of foreign nationals in India were also handled by the Ministry.

The number of documents requiring attestation/authentication by the Ministry before submission to the Foreign Governments/Embassies continued to increase each year. The number of such documents rose to 1,32,034 from 1,10,008 in 1981.

Cases of 341 Indian nationals arrested in various countries were reported to the Government. All possible consular assistance was given to them and, where possible, their release and return to India were arranged by the Missions concerned.

During the period under review, efforts were made to streamline the working of Indian Consular Sections abroad. A detailed survey of their working was undertaken and fresh guidelines have been issued to Missions abroad, aimed at further improving consular assistance rendered by the Missions to Indian nationals abroad. Separate steps have also been initiated to meet the particular requirements of the Gulf area, where there has been a sudden increase in the number of Indian nationals.




Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao continued as the Minister of External Affairs. Shri A.A. Rahim took over as Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs from 3 September. Shri M. Rasgotra took over as Foreign Secretary from Shri R.D. Sathe in April 1982. Shri K. Natwar Singh, former Ambassador to Pakistan, took over as Secretary (Pak-Iraf/NAM/CHOGM) on 1 April 1982, against an ex-cadre post, and Shri K.S. Bajpai assumed charge as Secretary (East) in place of Shri Eric Gonsalves during July. At the level of Additional Secretaries, Shri J.R. Hiremath continued as Additional Secretary (AD) and Dr. J.S. Teja as Additional Secretary (UN&PPE).

The total strength of the IFS(A) and IFS(B) cadres both at Headquarters and abroad including locally recruited staff in Missions, was 5,170 out of which locally recruited staff were 1,430 and diplomatic officers 1,076. The total staff strength is given at Appendix-VI.

For projecting the image of India abroad in the external domain, safeguarding its national interests and ensuring the implementation of its national schemes and policies within the purview of the field of international politics, there are 134 Missions and Posts abroad manned by 629 officers, 1,337 non- diplomatic officials and 1,430 locally appointed staff.

A list detailing the number of officers who have qualified in various foreign languages is given at Appendix VII.

The recessionary trends combined with inflation evident in the world economy were reflected, as in the past in the administrative expenditure on account of increased service costs in all Indian Missions, and showed no signs of abating during the year. It was, therefore, essential to implement further administrative and financial reforms to make the Indian Missions' work more cost-effective. Schemes relating to the home leave fares and emergency passage facility and the transportation of baggage between stations of posting were streamlined. Action on the removal of transferable items of work from the Indian Embassy in Washington and Indian Consulates General in New York, Chicago and San Francisco, has been undertaken along the lines of work transferred from London, to effect economy, reduce duplication of work and make available manpower and posts for deployment in heavily over-worked Missions in areas such as the Gulf and West Asia which also happen to be India's priority-interest areas.

The Cadre Review for IFS(A) was completed and is awaiting finalisation by the Ministry of Finance and the Department of Personnel and Administrative Reforms.

Work on the Cadre Review of the IFS(B) Cadre is continuing. The latter can be finalised only after the former has been finally accepted, since the numerical strength of the supporting staff depends on the strength of officers finally fixed for this Ministry.

During the financial year 1982-83, the Foreign Service Inspectors conducted inspections of a large number of Missions including some in Latin America which had, because of their great distance, been neglected for quite some time.

The rationalisation of the Daily Allowance formula, which was under consideration of the Ministry for the last three years, has been finalised, and the revised scheme has been introduced with effect from 19 May 1982. Under the new scheme, a uniform rate of cash allowance has been prescribed for a country as against different rates fixed earlier for different cities within a country. All-inclusive rates of daily allowance outside India have been abolished. In addition, the Approved Panel of Hotels Scheme has also been brought into force which would enable the delegates/Government officials visiting foreign countries on official duty to stay in any of the approved hotels and claim the reimbursement of actual room charges in such hotels. This would eliminate the need for frequent revision of the prescribed hotel ceilings.

The Welfare Unit of the Ministry continued to look after the general welfare of all officials serving at Headquarters and in the Missions abroad. Grants-in-aid on an ad hoc basis for the provision of recreational facilities to officers and staff in Missions and Passport Offices was arranged in consultation with the Department of Personnel and Administrative Reforms. Financial aid under the Staff Benefit Fund was provided to bereaved families and help was extended in other deserving cases. Employment was provided to deserving dependents of deceased officials and suitable assistance was extended to the physically handicapped. Canteen facilities at South Block, Patiala House and the External Affairs Hostel were improved. Action on the property acquisition plan was taken to the extent of Rs. 12.00 crores during the current financial year. Further, a grant-in-aid for Rs. 84 lakhs has been accorded in principle to the Indian Society of International Law for the construction of their building on Bhagwandas Road. Suitable terms and conditions for the grant of this money have been evolved; Rs. 21 lakhs of this amount will be an outright grant by this Ministry to the I.S.I.L. and the remaining Rs. 63 lakhs will be a long-term loan. The total establishment expenditure of all Missions abroad has, due to the world's inflationary trends, risen to Rs. 53.45 crores. The expenditure at Headquarters is about Rs. 10.08 crores. Details are given in Appendices VIII and IX.

India's contribution to the various international organisations is of the order of Rs. 4.42 crores while technical and economic assistance extended to various Third World countries is of the order of Rs. 76.90 crores. A special cell continues to function to watch and monitor the progress of implementation of the reservation order in respect of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. During the current year, 15 officers have been appointed as direct recruits in the Indian Foreign Service(A) out of which

2 belong to the Scheduled Caste and one to a Scheduled Tribe. The details are given at Appendices X and XI.

A Conference Cell was set up in the Ministry of External Affairs in June, to look after the logistical arrangements to be made for organising international Conferences/Meetings hosted by Ministries/Departments of the Government of India, including this Ministry. The various Conferences/Meetings for which the Conference Cell made logistical arrangements during 1982-83 are given at Appendix XII.




During the year under review, there was a notable increase in the implementation of official language rules and progressive use of Hindi in official work, both at Headquarters and in Missions abroad. Several steps were taken to implement the suggestions made by the Parliamentary Committee on Official Language during its inspection visits at Headquarters and in the Missions, which included the fixing of check-points for the compliance of the official language rules, provision of Hindi typewriters to Regional Passport Offices, and action for the creation of posts of Hindi Officers and translators in the Missions and in the Regional Passport Offices. Particular efforts were made for the propagation of Hindi in Missions located in countries where there are large numbers of people of Indian origin.

During the year, the Official Language Committee, headed by the Additional Secretary (Administration), met regularly. At these meetings, besides reviewing the progressive use of Hindi in the Ministry, necessary instructions were issued for the implementation of the Official Language Rules. As a result, there was considerable improvement in regard to the issuance of Office Orders in bilingual form and correspondence in Hindi with the States in Regions 'A' and 'B'. The check-points fixed for the implementation of Official Language Rules are being further tightened.

The sub-committee of the Central Hindi Committee was reconstituted in the Ministry. The Minister of External Affairs, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, is the Chairman of this sub-committee and the Foreign Secretary, Shri M. Rasgotra, its ex-officio Secretary.

During the year under report, a Hindi workshop was organised for the benefit of IFS probationers at Headquarters. The officials of the Ministry were also sent for Hindi training at the various Hindi courses organised by the Official Language Department. Indian Missions abroad were once again requested to organise Hindi classes for the wards of their employees and the response has been quite encouraging.

The target of equipping all Indian Missions abroad with a Hindi typewriter each has nearly been achieved. The Ministry is considering the proposal for sending Hindi typists to the Missions. Apart from equipping the Missions with Hindi typewriters, Hindi typewriters have also been gifted through Indian Missions to voluntary organisations in London, Rangoon, Sri Lanka and Suva. At the Ministry's request, the

Ministry of Education and Culture have recently sanctioned a Hindi typewriter for the Government of Fiji.

Under the Ministry's scheme of equipping the libraries of the Indian Missions with standard Hindi books, an additional consignment of Hindi books of a total cost of Rs. 3 lakhs is being despatched. Besides, the Ministry of Education and Culture have also allocated over Rs. 2 lakhs for sending Hindi books to Indian Missions abroad.

Gifts of text books, dictionaries and reference books were made through Indian Missions to voluntary Hindi Organisations working for the propagation of Hindi in foreign countries. Over 700 copies each of the Gita and the Ramayana were sent to the Embassy of India, Rangoon, for the people of Burma. Additionally, another consignment of Hindi books worth Rs. 15,000/- is being despatched in the current financial year. Text books, dictionaries and books for children in Hindi, sent to Indian Missions in Trinidad, Kabul, Guyana, Suriname and Warsaw for Hindi students in these countries, were appreciated.

Applications have been invited for filling the vacant posts of Hindi Officers at Fiji, Mauritius and Trinidad, and active efforts are being made for the creation of the posts of Hindi Officers in certain other important Missions. Hindi lecturers have been appointed in Guyana and Suriname.

During the year under review, the Second International Hindi Conference was organised in Paramaribo, the Capital of Suriname. The Ambassador of India to Suriname was the chief guest at the Conference. The renowned Hindi journalist and writer, Shri Manohar Shyam Joshi, represented India as a special invitee.

Under the programme to bring out certain important publications of the External Publicity Division in Hindi, two booklets entitled 'Bharat-Ek Jhalak' and 'Ek Naye Bharat Ka Uday' were published at the time of the Prime Minister's visit to Mauritius. Efforts are afoot to publish some more booklets in Hindi.

The programme of Hindi Newspaper Exchange continued as in the previous years. The Ministry organised a reception in honour of the Deputy General Manager of the Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Shri Diwakar Prasad, which was attended by a large number of writers and journalists.

Apart from preparing the Hindi text of treaties and agreements concluded by this Ministry, the Hindi Section also vetted the Hindi texts of the treaties and agreements prepared by the other Ministries of the Government of India. OSD (Hindi) accompanied the official delegation to the USSR (to participate in the Indo- USSR Joint Commission's Meeting) for Preparing the Hindi text of the Protocol and the IndoSoviet Joint Declaration.

For implementing the Official Language Rules and for the progressive use of Hindi in official work in Passport Offices, a proposal is at an advanced stage of action for the creation of posts of Hindi officers and staff in some Regional Passport Offices. Instructions have been issued for constituting official language implementation committees in various Regional Passport Offices. The Regional Passport Offices at Jaipur and Madras were inspected and suggestions made to them for the implementation of the Official Language Rules.

The Third World Hindi Conference has been announced for the third week of March 1983, in Delhi. The Ministry and the Indian Missions abroad are extending their full cooperation to its organisers. A list of foreign scholars has been prepared and forwarded to the organisers and formal invitations have been extended to the participants. The Ministry is also participating in an exhibition being organised on this occasion, with special emphasis on Hindi in foreign countries.


APPENDIX I Treaties/Conventions/Agreements


concluded or renewed by India reaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India with other countries in 1982*

Sl.Title of Convention/Date of Date of Date on Remarks 
No.Treaty/Agreement  Signature ratification which 
                             accession/   entered 
                          acceptance   into force 
1         2    3      4        5       6 
Asian-Pacific Postal Union 
1. Asian-Pacific Postal 
   Convention. Done at 
   Yogyakarta (Indonesia) 
   on 27-3-1981        .           27-3-1981
Hague Convention against Unlawful 
Seizure of Aircraft. 
2. Convention for the 
   Suppression of Unlawful 
   Seizure of Aircraft. 
   Done at the Hague on 
   16-12-1970 . . . . . .           14-7-1971
  12-11-1982  13-12-1982 
Montreal Convention for Safety of 
Civil Aviation 
3. Convention for the 
   Suppression of Unlawful 
   Acts against the Safety 
   of Civil Aviation. Done 
   at Montreal on 
   23-9-1971  .   .                11-12-1972
  12-11-1982  13-12-1982 
Wetlands of International Importance 
as Waterfowl Habitat. 
4. Convention on Wetlands 
   of International 
   Importance Especilly as 
   as Waterfowl Habitat. 
   Done at Ramsar (Iran) 
   on 2-2-1971  29-9-1981          29-1-1982 
Principles Governing the Exploration 
and Use of Outer Space, including the 
Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. 
5. Treaty on Principles 
   Governing the Activities 
   of States in the 
   Exploration and Use of 
   Outer Space, including 
   the Moon and Other 
   Celestial Bodies. Opened 
   for signature at London, 
   Moscow and Washington on 
   27-1-1967 . . . . . .             3-3-1967
   18-1-1982   18-1-1982 
Registration of Objects Launched into 
Outer Space. 
6. Convention on Registration 
   of Objects Launched into 
   Outer Space adopted by the 
   General Assembly of the 
   United Nations on 
   12-11-1974 18-1-1982           18-1-1982 
*This list is not exhausitve. 
World Administrative Radio Conference, 
Geneva, 1979 I.T.U. 
7. Radio Regulation, Geneva, 
   1979 as contained in the 
   Final Acts of World 
   Administrative Radio 
   Conference, Geneva, 
   1979              .             6-12-1979
    8-1-1982    1-1-1982 
Saudi Fund for Development 
8. Loan Agreement No.2/134 
   between the Government of 
   the Republic of India and 
   the Saudi Fund for 
   Development regarding 
   Keel-Kare Hydro-Electric 
   Power Project                . 14-4-1980
United Nations Development Programme 
9. Agreement between India 
   and the United Nations 
   Development Programme 
   (UNDP) regrding Project 
   Water and Power Infor- 
   mation system                11-7-1980
10. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Extension of Laboratory 
    Facilities in CMP-DIL 
    for application of 
    advanced techniques in 
    Coal Mines Operations       28-11-1980 
11. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Appropriate Automation 
    Promotion Programme          18-12-1980
12. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding 
    Project No.IND/82/033/ 
    A/01/37-Computer Aided 
    Design Programme             18-12-1980 
13. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Behviour of Concrete 
    under High Triaxial 
    Stresses  17-7-1981          11-8-1982 
14. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Model Centre for 
    Occupational Health 
    Services in places of 
    Employment (BHEL 
    Tiruchi)   8-12-1981        14-5-1982 
15. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Development of Resins, 
    Moulding Compounds 
    Curing Agents etc. for 
    use in Composite 
    Industry   8-12-1981         4-5-1982 
16. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Development of 
    Microprocessor Based 
    Agro-Dairy Instruments       14-12-1981
17. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Development of Hosiery 
    and Knitwear Industry, 
    Ludhiana, Punjab-Phase 
    II  30-12-1981                6-4-1982 
18. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Advisory Services in 
    Ship-building and 
    Ship-repair   2-1-1982        12-2-1982 
19. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Investigations to 
    produce Sulphur and 
    Sulphuric Acid from 
    Amjhore Pyrite deposit.        4-1-1982
20. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Investigations to use 
    low grde Rock 
    Phosphates from 
    Mussoorie Deposit   4-1-1982  16-4-1982 
21. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Improvement of Testing 
    and Evaluation Facilities, 
    National Test House, 
    Calcutta-Phase II      18-1-1982   8-9-1982 
22. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Development of Port 
    Management Training    23-1-1982 18-3-1982 
23. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Design Development for 
    an Experimental Blast 
    Furnace                         2-2-1982
24. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Design Development of 
    Concurent Top and Bottom 
    Blowing in Converter 
    Steelmaking Opertion    2-2-1982 15-2-1982 
25. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Strengthening of 
    Industrial Design Services 
    at National Institute 
    of Design, Ahmedabad    3-2-1982  11-8-1982 
26. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Application of Alternative 
    Fuels for Internal 
    Combustion Engines, IIP, 
    Dehra Dun    11-2-1982        22-4-1982 
27. Agreement between India 
    and the United Development 
    Programme (UNDP) regarding 
    Project No.IND/81/010/ 
    A/01/12 Studies for 
    the Use of Saline Water 
    in the Command Areas of 
    Irrigation Project, 
    Haryana         18-1-1982    20-5-1982 
28. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Improved Training for 
    Agricultural Extension 
    Services        7-4-1982      9-6-1982 
29. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Evalution and Product- 
    cum-Process Development 
    Centre at Institute for 
    Designs of Electrical 
    Mesuring Instruments 
    (IDEMI), Bombay    7-6-1982    11-8-1982 
30. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Consultancy Services for 
    Revamping Vitamin C 
    Plant    10-6-1982        16-6-1982 
31. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Assistance in the 
    Manufacture of Dapsone.         10-6-1982  
32. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Advanced Training for 
    Department of Civil 
    Aviation Personnel             22-6-1982  
33. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Expansion and 
    Modernization of Tele- 
    communication Services, 
    Phase II                        1-7-1982
34. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Assistance in the setting 
    up of the Central 
    Institute of Hand Tools, 
    Jullundur     3-7-1982          14-7-1982 
35. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Plastics Materials and 
    Product Testing Programme 
    in India         27-8-1982       6-12-1982 
36. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Application of Research 
    Results in Easycare 
    Cotton Fabrics in the 
    Textile Industry    18-11-1982   30-11-1982 
37. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Assistance for the 
    Establishment of the 
    Wild-life Institute of 
    India       2-12-1982     17-12-1982 
38. Agreement between India 
    and the United Nations 
    Development Programme 
    (UNDP) regarding Project 
    Follow-up Support to 
    Advanced Level Telecom 
    Training Centre (ALTTC) 16-12-1982
39. Trade Agreement between 
    the Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Government of the 
    Republic of Argentina       28-7-1981
    21-11-1982    5-8-1982 
40. Protocol on Inland 
    Water Transit and 
    Trade between India and 
    Bangladesh                   1-8-1982
41. Memorandum of Understanding 
    between the Government 
    of the Republic of 
    India and the Government 
    of the People's Republic 
    of Bangladesh concerning 
    Ganga Waters   7-10-1982      7-10-1982 
42. Agreement between the 
    Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Government of the 
    People's Republic of 
    Bangladesh on the 
    Establishment of a 
    Joint Economic 
    Commission   7-10-1982   7-10-1982 
43. Agreement between the 
    Government of India and 
    the Government of 
    Denmark regarding an 
    Agricultural Extension 
    Project in Eleven 
    Districts of Karnataka   24-9-1982  24-9-1982 
44. Agreement between the 
    Government of India and 
    the Government of 
    Denmark on a Danish 
    Government Loan to 
    India   11-11-1982      11-11-1982 
45. Indo-French Convention 
    relating to Special 
    French Credits meant to 
    finance the development 
    of Indian Telecommuni- 
    cation Industry   29-7-1982  29-7-1982 
46. Agreement between the 
    Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Government of the 
    Federal Republic of 
    Germany concerning 
    Financial Cooperation    12-1-1982  12-1-1982 
47. Loan Agreement between 
    India and Kreditanstalt 
    Fur Wierderaufbau for 
    twenty million Deutsche 
    Mark (DM 20,000,000) 
    for Purchase of 
    Components of 210 MW- 
    Sets       10-2-1982        10-2-1982 
48. Loan Agreement between 
    India and Kreditanstalt 
    Fur Wiederaufbau for 
    fifteen million nine 
    hundred thousand 
    Deutsche Mark (DM 
    15,900,000) for Large 
    Capacity Hydraulic 
    Press/Tiruchy     9-3-1982     9-3-1982 
49. Financing Agreement 
    between India and 
    Kreditnstalt Fur 
    Wiederaufbau for two 
    million Deutsche Mark 
    (DM 2,000,000) for 
    Studies and Exports 
    Fund       30-4-1982     30-4-1982 
50. Agreement between the 
    Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Government of the 
    Federal Republic of 
    Germany concerning 
    Financial Cooperation 
    in 1982   7-5-1982        7-5-1982 
51. Trade Agreement between 
    the Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Government of the 
    Republic of Gautemala          23-4-1981
     27-7-1981    8-7-1982 
52. Memorandum of Understa- 
    nding between the 
    delegation of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Islamic Republic of 
    Iran    26-8-1982          26-8-1982 
53. Exchange of Notes 
    between the Government 
    of India and the 
    Government of Japan 
    regarding Japanese 
    Project Aid of Yen ten 
    billion four hundred 
    and eighty million 
    (Yen 10,480,000,000) 
    for the following 
    projects:-     13-1-1982      13-1-1982 
    (i) Telecommunication 
        Expansion Project 
        (II)-6.0 billion 
   (ii) Indian Railways 
        Development Project 
        2.68 billion Yen 
  (iii) Bombay Suburban 
        Project-1.8 billion 
54. Exchange of Notes 
    between the Government 
    of India and the 
    Government of Japan 
    concerning Japanese 
    Grant of Yen three 
    hundred million 
    (Yen 300,000,000) for 
    the execution of the 
    project for 
    manufacturing the 
    Japanese Encephalitis 
    Vaccine        6-2-1982    6-2-1982 
55. Exchange of Notes 
    between the Government 
    of India and the 
    Government of Japan 
    regarding Japanese 
    Grant of Yen one billion 
    five hundred million 
    (1,500,000,000) for the 
    execution of the Social 
    Enviornment Improvement 
    Project     6-2-1982       6-2-1982 
56. Exchange of Notes 
    between the Government 
    of India and the 
    Government of Japan 
    regarding Japanese Grant 
    of Yen one billion one 
    hundred and thirty four 
    million six hundred and 
    ninety six thousand 
    (Yen 1,134,696,000) for 
    Debt Relief   6-2-1982           6-2-1982 
57. Loan Agreement No.ID-P. 
    17 for Indian Railways 
    Development Project 
    between India and the 
    Overseas Economic 
    Coopertion Fund (OECF) 
    of Japan      14-5-1982         11-6-1982 
58. Loan Agreement No.ID-P. 
    18 for Bombay Suburban 
    Railways Modernisation 
    Project between India 
    and the Overseas 
    Economic Cooperation 
    Fund (OECF) of Japan   14-5-1982   11-6-1982 
59. Loan Agreement No.ID-P. 
    19 for Telecommunications 
    Project (V) between 
    India and the Overseas 
    Economic Cooperation 
    Fund (OECF) of Japan   14-5-1982  11-6-1982 
60. Exchange of Notes 
    between the Government 
    of India and the 
    Government of Japan 
    concerning loan of Yen 
    thirty three billion 
    (Yen 33,000,000,000) 
    for the following 
    projects :-     28-8-1982     28-8-1982 
    (i) Anpara 'B' Thermal 
        Power Station 
        million Yen 
   (ii) Oil and Natural Gas 
        Commission Offshore 
        Supply Vessel 
        million Yen 
  (iii) Calcutta Metro 
        Railways (Phase II) 
        million Yen 
   (iv) Tamil Nadu State 
        Micro Hydro Power 
        Stations Construc- 
        tion Project-2,000 
        million Yen 
61. Exchange of Notes 
    between the Government 
    of India and the 
    Government of Japan 
    regarding the Grant 
    of Yen Forty six million 
    (Yen 46,000,000) for the 
    purchse of Audio-Visual 
    and Photographic 
    Equipment from Japan     28-8-1982 
62. Cultural Agreement 
    between the Government 
    of the Republic of 
    India and the Government 
    of the Republic of 
    Kenya   24-2-1981   18-7-1981   9-11-1982 
63. Convention between the 
    Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Socialist People's 
    Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 
    for the Avoidance of 
    Double Taxation and the 
    Prevention of Fiscal 
    Evasion with respect to 
    Taxes on Income           2-3-1981 
   5-1-1982   29-5-1982 
64. Protocol between the 
    Government of the India 
    and the Government of 
    the Mongolian People's 
    Republic in the field of 
    Agricultural Research 
    and Education                  14-8-1982
65. Protocol on Consular 
    Access between the 
    Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Government of the 
    Islamic Republic of 
    Pakistan  2-11-1982       2-11-1982 
66. Agreement of Cultural 
    and Technical Co- 
    operation between the 
    Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Government of The 
    State of Qatar   4-6-1980   
    11-3-1981   18-4-1982 
67. Agreement between the 
    Government of India and 
    the Government of 
    Sweden concerning 
    Swedish support to 
    Social Foresty Project 
    in Tamil Nadu to an 
    amount not exceeding 
    one hundred and ninety 
    five million Swedish 
    (SEK 195,000,000)               11-2-1982 
68. Protocol of the 
    Negotiations between 
    the representatives of 
    the Ministry of 
    Petroleum, Chemicals 
    and Fertilizers of India 
    and the USSR Ministry 
    of the Oil Industry on 
    further development of 
    the India-Soviet 
    Cooperation in the 
    oil Industry    6-6-1982           6-6-1982 
69. Project Loan and Grant 
    Agreement between India 
    and the United States of 
    America acting through 
    the Agency for 
    International Develop- 
    ment (AID) for 
    Maharashtra Social 
    Forestry-Aid Loan No. 
    386-T-231. Aid project 
    No. 386-0478   31-8-1982       31-8-1982 
70. Project Loan and Grant 
    Agreement between India 
    and the United States 
    of America acting 
    through the Agency for 
    Development (AID) for 
    Maharashtra Irrigation 
    Technology and 
    Management-Aid Loan No. 
    386-T-232. Aid Project 
    No. 386-0481  31-8-1982        31-8-1982 
71. Second Amendment to the 
    Grant Agreement between 
    India and the United 
    States of America 
    acting through the 
    Agency for Internationl 
    Development (AID) for 
    Integrated Rural Health 
    and Population-Aid 
    Project No.386-0468              31-8-1982 
72. Grant Project Agreement 
    between India and the 
    United States of America 
    acting through the 
    Agency for International 
    Development (AID) for 
    two million four hundred 
    thousand US dollars 
    ($2,400,000) for 
    Development and 
    Management Training-Aid 
    Project No. 386-0487            30-9-1982 
73. Agreement between the 
    Government of the 
    Republic of India and 
    the Government of the 
    Socialist Republic of 
    Vietnam on Economic, 
    Scientific and Technical 
    Cooperation, and on 
    Setting up of a Joint 
    Economic, Scientific and 
    Technical Commission           18-12-1982 


APPENDIX II Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars
Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc. organized by Inter- Governmental Organizations (Such as and its specialised Agencies like WHO, ILO, ICAO, FAO,UNDP UNIDO, IMCO etc.)at whic h GOVERNMENT OF INDIA was represented in 1982-83.

SI.    Title of Conference etc.       Foreign Exchange 
No.    (with venue and date)          component of ex- 
                                      penditure in 
1                     2                     3 
1.  Second Conference of Ministers responsible        Expenditure is 
    for the application of Science & Technology       debitable to 
    to development in Asia and Pacific viz.           Cabinet Grant 
    CASTASIA-II Manila (from 3 to 6 March 1982).      of the Ministry 
                                                      of Home 
2.  First Regional consultation on the Agricultural 
    Machinery Industry in Africa held in Addis Ababa 
    from 5 to 9 April, 1982.  .   .  .  .  .  .       (Borne by DCTD) 
3.  Eleventh Session of the Coal Mines Committee of 
    ILO at Geneva from 20 to 29 April, 1982 . . . .          Nil 
4.  ILO/ARPLA Regional Seminar on Practices and 
    Procedures in formulating Labour Standards at 
    Bangkok from 26 to 30 April, 1982 . . . . . . .          Nil 
5.  Fourth Joint meeting for support to special 
    works Programme at Geneva from 27 to 29 April, 
    1982                                                     Nil 
6.  ICCROM Committee Meetings and delivery of 
    lectures to trainees from 30 April to 16 May, 
    at Rome . . . . . . . .                                   6,015.00 
7.  CIRDAP Workshop on Block Level Planning held at 
    Comilla from 4 to 10 May, 1982 . . . . . . . . . (Borne by CIRDAP) 
8.  17th Session of the Permanent Committee and 16th 
    Session of the Industrial Development Board (IDB) 
    of UNIDO held in Vienna from 10 to 28 May, 1982          19,293.12 
9.  Second Meeting of Coordinating Countries of the 
    Non-Aligned Movement in the Sphere of 
    Standardization, Meteorology and Quality Control 
    New Delhi, 19 to 21 May, 1982 . . . . . . . . .          Nil 
10. International Law Commission meeting held in 
    Geneva from 17 May to 30 June 1982 . . . . . . . . .     Nil 
11. 68th Session of the International Labour Conference   (Borne by 
    Convened by the Governing body of the International   Ministry of 
    Labour Office at ILO Geneva from 2-6-1982             Finance 
12. UNIDO Solidarity Meeting for Industrial Development 
    of Lesotho held at Maseru from 7 June, 1982              Nil 
13. Workshop of Latin-American Countries organized by   Expenditure 
    UNIDO, Mexico from 7 to 11 June, 1982               borne by UNIDO 
                                                        (Airport tax 
                                                        and con- 
                                                        Rs. 350/-) 
14. Meeting of the Licensing Executives Society (LES)        Nil 
    with Heads of Technology Transfer Registries 
    held in Vienna on 22 June, 1982 
15. Joint UNESCO and WIPO Meeting of the Committee of         7,000.00 
    Governmental Experts on the Intellectual property 
    aspects of Folklore protection, Geneva, from June 
    28 to 2 July, 1982. 
16. Working Group on the New International Economic          37,803.30 
    Order held in New York from 12 to 23 July, 1982 
17. UNIDO/ESCAP Expert Group Meeting on creation of   (Borne by Deptt. 
    an ESCAP Regional Network System on Mini-Small    of Power) 
    Hydro Power Generation held at Hangzhou, China 
    from 12 to 16 July, 1982. 
18. Fifteenth Session of the United Nations Commission             Nil 
    on International Trade Law held in New York from 
    26 July to 21 September, 1982. 
19. CIRDAP Technical Committee meeting held at Dhaka   Borne by CIRDAP 
    in July, 1982, for reviwing CIRDAP Programmes 
    for 1983-84. 
20. Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration      11,383.70 
    and peaceful Uses of Outer Space held in Vienna from 
    9 August to 21 September, 1982. 
21. ILO/DANDA - Asian Regional Seminar on the Role of              Nil 
    Govenment. Employers and Workers Organisations in 
    the Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled workers 
    of ILO at Bangkok from 16 to 28 August, 1982. 
22. Fifth Session of the Liaison Committee of Afro-   (Borne by AARRO) 
    Asian Rural Reconstruction Organisation (AARRO) 
    held at New Delhi on 24 August, 1982. 
23. INELSAT Assembly Meeting of Experts held in Rome               Nil 
    on 29 and 30 November, 1982. 
24. Seminar on Integrated Rural Development at       (Borne by CIRDAP) 
    Comilla in August, 1982. 
25. UNIDO Third Consultation on the Iron and      (Borne by the Deptt. 
    Steel Industry held in Caracas from 13 to      of Steel) 
    17 September, 1982. 
26. International Conference on Nuclear Power 
    Experience at Vienna from 13 to 17 September,1982.     1,02,887.05 
27. IAEA-26th General Confernce from 20 to 24 
    September, 1982 at Vienna, Austria 
28. Asian Regional Workshop on the Role and Potential              Nil 
    of Ergonemics for Improvement of Working Conditions 
    and Environment of ILO at Singapore from 13 to 16 
    September, 1982. 
29. Held at Asia Pacific Institute for Broadcasting             500.00 
    Development, Kuala Lumpur from 20 September to 
    9 October, 1982. 
30. 9th Session of the Chemical Industries Committee          1,660.00 
    of ILO at Geneva from 21 to 30 September, 1982. 
31. Management of Labour Intensive Project Training                Nil 
    Course of ILO at Jakarta from 13 to 26 September, 
32. APRLA/DSE Regional Training Course on Employment               Nil 
    services of ILO at Bangkok from 29 September to 
    15 October, 1982. 
33. Inter-Country Seminar on incentives for Family                 Nil 
    Welfare/Family Planning in Industrial Sector of 
    ILO at Puncak, Indonesia from 5 to 9 October 
34. UNIDO First Consultation on Industrial        (Borne by the Deptt. 
    Financing held at Madrid, Spain from 18 to    of Banking) 
    22 October, 1982. 
35. Planning Meeting for Exploratory study on Monitoring        375.00 
    and Evaluation of Literacy Programmes organised by 
    UNESCO Institute of Education, held at the UNESCO 
    Institute of Education, Hamburg (West Germany) from 
    11 to 15 October, 1982. 
36. Meeting of the Committee on Conservation and                   Nil 
    Restoration of International Council of 
    Archives, Brussels from 11  to 13            (Rs. 100/- on airport 
    October, 1982.                               tax) 
                                                 Attended the Con- 
                                                 ference in the per- 
                                                 sonal capacity. 
                                                 Hospitality was 
                                                 provided by Belgian 
                                                 Govt. and travel was 
                                                 paid by International 
                                                 Council of Archives. 
37. 13th International Conference of Labour                        Nil 
    Statisticians of ILO, Geneva, from 18 to 
    29 October, 1982. 
38. RBTC-Study of the Working of the Regional                      Nil 
    Office of ILO at Bangkok from 25 to 29 
    October, 1982. 
39. Seminar on 'The Silk Routes and Diamond                        Nil 
    Path Esoteric Buddhist Art on the Trade 
    Routes of the Trans-Himalayan Region' 
    held at Los Angeles and Berkeley and ICCROM 
    Council's meeting held at London for a 
    period of 24 days w.e.f. 28 October 1982. 
40. 221st Session of the Governing Body of ILO                1,860.00 
    and its coming meetings of ILO at Geneva 
    from 4 to 19 November, 1982. 
41. Meeting of Expert Group on International         Expenditure borne 
    Forum on Technical Advances for Development      to by UNIDO. 
    organized by UNIDO, Moscow from 29 November 
    3 December, 1982. 
42. 18th Session of the Permanent Committee in                   2,110 
    Vienna from 15 to 19 November, 1982. 
43. UNIDO First Consultation on the Training of    Borne by the Deptt. 
    Industrial Manpower held in Stuttgart (FRG)    of Science & Tech- 
    from 22 to 26 November, 1982                   nology. 
44. UNIDO Solidarity Meeting for Industrial        Details not yet 
    Development of Nepal held in Kathmandu from    available. 
    29 November to 3 December, 1982. 
45. Meeting of the WIPO Coordination Committee,               7,000.00 
    the Paris Union Executive Committee and the 
    Berne Union Executive Committee, from 22 to 
    26 November, 1982 at Geneva. 
46. ILO/DAN/IDA Sub-Regional Tripartite Symposium                  Nil 
    on Dispute settlement and Promotion of 
    Industrial Peace of ILO, Colombo, from 29 
    September to 3 December, 1982. 
47. The Hague Conference of Private International             3,152.00 
    Law held at the Hague from 6 to 15 December,    exclusive of hotel 
    1982.                                           accommodation. 
48. International Literacy Workshop on the                         Nil 
    Planning and Implementation of Literacy and 
    Post-literacy Strategies, Organized by IIEP/ 
    UNESCO, held at Madras from 14 to 21 December, 
49. 8th Session of the Committee on work on                     830.00 
    Plantation of ILO, Geneva, from 7 to 16 December, 
50. 24th Session of the Executive Committee of AARRO    Borne by AARRO 
    held at New Delhi from 20 to 22 December, 1982. 
51. Consultation on Improving Nutrition of Rural        Borne by FAO 
    Poor held at NIRD in collaboration with GAO 
    from 20 to 22 December, 1982. 
52. Meetings of CIRDAP Executive Committee and         Borne by CIRDAP 
    Governing Council held at Kuala Lumpur in 
    December, 1982. 
53. Diplomatic Conference on the Draft Convention    14,264.00 (Exclu- 
    drafting a Uniform Law on Agency of an           ding accommoda- 
    International Character in the sale and          tion). 
    Purchase of Goods held in Geneva from 31 
    January to 17 February, 1983. 

APPENDIX III Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars Organised by non- Governmental Organizations (Such as Asian Productivity Organization, International Cooperative Alliance, International Organization for Standardization, etc.) in which Indian experts participated in their personal capacity with Government assistance in 1982-83.

Sl.       Title of Conference etc.          Foreign Exchange Component 
No.       (with venue and date)                of Expenditure Rs. 
1. Meeting of National Bureau of Standards   Expanditure borne by IEEE 
   at Washington, USA from 21 to 22 
   February, 1982. 
2. Meeting of IEEE Board of Directors at          -Do- 
   Washington, USA from 23 February to 4 
   March, 1982. 
3. ISO Development Committee (DEVCO)             7,136.00 
   (Geneva, 10 to 11 May, 1982). 
4. ISO Development Committee (CERTICO)            -Do- 
   (Geneva, 13 to 14 May, 1982). 
5. Meeting of IEEE Board of Directors at     Expenditure borne by IEEE 
   Boston, USA from 17 to 23 May, 1982. 
6. Archival Reprography Committee of               Nil 
   International Council on Archives held 
   at The Hague from 26 to 29 May, 1982. 
7. General Meeting of International             17,181.00 
   Electrotechnical Commission (Rio de 
   Janeiro, from 31 May to 11 June, 1982). 
8. International Electrotechnical Commission       -Do- 
   Committee of Action Meeting (Rio de 
   Janeiro 3 and 11 June, 1982). 
9. Meeting of IEEE Board of Directors at     Expenditure borne by IEEE 
   San Francisco, USA from 14 to 20 July, 
10. ISO Council (Toronto from 8 to 10            35,342.00 
    September, 1982). 
11. ISO General Assembly (Toronto from 13         -Do- 
    to 17 September, 1982). 
12. (i) Planning and Development Meeting         790.00 
        of English-speaking African 
        Countries organised by German 
        Foundation for International 
        Development, held at West Berlin          -Do- 
        (FRG-West Germany) from 18 to 22 
        October, 1982. 
   (ii) Conference and General Assembly      Amount in Rs. not known. 
        Meeting of International Council     US $ 455 released of 
        of Adult Education, held at UNESCO   ICSSR Ford Fund on grant. 
        Office Paris (France) from 24 to 31 
        October, 1982. 
13. Meeting of IEEE Board of Directors at    Expenditure borne by IEEE 
    New Orleans, USA, from 17 to 22 
    November, 1982. 
14. ISO/TC 104 Freight Containers (Bombay,              Nil 
    from 6 to 10 December 1982) 
15. ISL/TC 45 Rubber Products (New Delhi,               Nil 
    from 11 to 21 December 1982) 
APPENDIX IV Miscellaneous major International Conferences
Miscellaneous major International Conferences etc. in 1982-83 at which Government of India was represented or in which Indian experts participated with Government of India's assistance in their personal capacity.

S.No. Title of Conference etc.  Foreign Exchange component 
  (with venue and date)      of expenditure in Rs. 
1. Expert Consultation on Socio-Economic      Nil 
   Indicators at Bangkok under auspices of 
   FAO from 19 to 24 April, 1982. 
2. CIRDAP Workshop on Block Level Planning  Expenses borne by CIRDAP 
   held at Comilla (Bangladesh) from 4 to 10 
   May, 1982. 
3. Institute of Electronics and Electrical 
   Engineers-Electro-Exhibition, Boston,      Rs. 9532.65 
   USA, from 24 to 26 May,1982. 
4. Second Convention of Asian-Indians in 
   North America, at Chicago (USA) from 28 
   to 31 May, 1982. 
5. ESCAP Meeting on Transport Infrastructure  Expenses borne by ESCAP 
   Development and Communication in Rural 
   and Isolated Communities at Bangkok from 
   1 to 4 June, 1982 (Thailand) 
6. FAO Regional Conference at Jakarta from    Rs. 3309.00 
   1 to 12 June, 1982. 
7. EUROCON-82 Conference at Copenhagen from   Rs. 9728.60 
   14 to 18 June, 1982. 
8. CIRDAP Technical Committee Meeting held    Expenses borne by CIRDAP 
   at Dhaka (Bangladesh) from 26 to 28 July, 
   1982 from reveiwing of CIRDAP Programme 
   for 1983-84. 
9. CIRDAP Seminar on Integrated Rural         Expenses borne by CIRDAP 
   Development held at Comilla (Bangladesh) 
   from 23 to 28 August, 1982. 
10. OCEANS'82 Conference at Washington (USA)  Rs. 49120.25 
    from 19 September to 12 October, 1982. 
11. International Symposium on problems of             Nil 
    Development of the under privileged 
    communities in the Third World Countries 
    at New Delhi from 2 to 8 October, 1982. 
12. Military Microwave Conference and         Rs. 29301.34 
    International Radar Conference in UK 
    from 17 to 27 October, 1982. 
13. ELECTRONICA-82 at Munich, (West Germany)  Rs. 31548.00 
    from 1 to 13 November, 1982. 
14. Meeting of the Working Group on Rural     Rs. 1362.50 
    Development under the programme of 
    Regional Cooperation in South Asian 
    Countries held at Colombo from 2 to 5 
    November, 1982. 
15. Meeting of the Working Group set up      Expenses borne by UNESCO, 
    jointly by UNESCO and WIPO held at Paris 
    from 6 to 10 December, 1982. 
16. Seminar on 'Promotion of Youth                     Nil 
    Activities : Concepts, Models and 
    Experiences in South and South-East 
    Asia' held at Pattaya (Thailand) 
    from 20 to 26 December, 1982. 
17. Consultation on Improving Nutrition of    Expenses borne by FAO 
    Rural Poor held at the National 
    Institute of Rural Development, Hyderabad 
    in collaboration with FAO from 20 to 22 
    December, 1982. 
APPENDIX V Statement showing number of Passport/Miscellaneous services

Statement showing number of Passport/Miscellaneous services applications received and number of Passports issued/Miscellaneous services rendered during the period January to December, 1982.

Sl.  Station             No. of       No. of     No. of       No. of 
No.                      Passport     Passports  applications Misc. 
                         applications issued     for Misc.    services 
                         received                services     rendered 
1. Ahmedabad  .  .  .  .  .  .   79,168    74,915    38,525     37,168 
2. Bangalore  .  .  .  .  .  .   63,177    64,559    12,682     12,765 
3. Bhopal  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   17,047    15,826     5,068      5,337 
4. Bhubaneswar.  .  .  .  .  .    6,756     6,299      8,76       8,83 
5. Bombay     .  .  .  .  .  . 2,79,868  2,71,211  2,79,729   2,97,102 
6. Calcutta   .  .  .  .  .  .   36,058    31,549    16,489     15,974 
7. Chandigarh .  .  .  .  .  .   88,785    86,286    19,964     19,264 
8. Cochin  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1,47,165  1,49,043  1,57,902   1,56,388 
9. Delhi   .  .  .  .  .  .  .   92,420    93,484    47,898     48,475 
10. Gauhati   .  .  .  .  .  .    2,295     2,237      5,39       5,31 
11. Hyderabad .  .  .  .  .  . 1,06,911  1,11,755    21,730     21,145 
12. Jaipur    .  .  .  .  .  .   70,744    78,018    11,154     10,967 
13. Jullundur .  .  .  .  .  . 1,08,575  1,17,006    21,011     20,595 
14. Kozhikode .  .  .  .  .  .   84,588    96,754    62,543     60,580 
15. Lucknow   .  .  .  .  .  .   82,927    77,761    13,321     14,602 
16. Madras .  .  .  .  .  .  . 2,35,519  2,38,730    46,983     45,602 
17. Patna  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   23,897    25,057     2,866      2,913 
18. Srinagar  .  .  .  .  .  .    8,624     8,641     1,254      1,254 
    TOTAL     .  .  .  .  .  .15,34,524 1,549,131  7,60,534   7,71,545 
APPENDIX VI Cadre Strength at Headquarters and 134 Missions and Posts
Cadre Strength at Headquarters and 134 Missions and Posts Abroad during 1982-83

Cadre/Post                           Total No.   Posts at     Posts at 
                                     of Posts    Head-        Missions 
                                                 quarters     abroad 
1                                           2           3            4 
Grade I        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    18           3          15 
Grade II       .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    20           3          17 
Grade III      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    80          16          64 
Grade IV       .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    80          16          64 
Sr. Scale      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   221          59         162 
Jr. Scale      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   104           9          95 
Training Reserve  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    50          50          .. 
(Jr. Scale)Leave Reserve     .  ..  .  .    19          19          .. 
Training Reserve  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    19          19          .. 
Deputation Reserve   .  .  .  .  .  .  .    20          20          .. 
Grade I        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   120          61          59 
Grade II/III   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   325         172         153 
Grade IV       .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   917         416         501 
Grade V & VI   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   690         493         197 
Grade II of Cypher   .  .  .  .  .  .  .   195          81         114 
Selection Grade of Stenographer's sub-Cadre 50          16          34 
Grade I of SSC    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    75          23          52 
Grade II of SSC   .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   539         209         330 
Grade III of SSC  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .   120          42          78 
Combined Research Cadre .  .  .  .  .  .    45          39           6 
  (including isolated Research Posts) 
Interpreter's Cadre  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    33           8          25 
                                         ------   --------       ----- 
                                         3,740       1,774       1,966 
                                         ------   --------       ----- 
TOTAL No. of Local Posts in Missions abroad                      1,430 
APPENDIX VII Foreign Language Chart
Foreign Language Chart
Sl.  Language                   Total No. of officers 
No.                              Passed/Knows the 
1. Arabic     .   .   .   .   .   65 
2. Burmese    .   .   .   .   .   .2 
3. Chinese    .   .   .   .   .   38 
4. Czech      .   .   .   .   .   .1 
5. Dutch      .   .   .   .   .    2 
6. French     .   .   .   .   .  140 
7. German     .   .   .   .   .   72 
8. Gorkhali   .   .   .   .   .   10 
9. Hungarian  .   .   .   .   .   .1 
10. Bahasa-Indonesia  .   .   .   14 
11. Italian   .   .   .   .   .   .8 
12. Japanese  .   .   .   .   .   25 
13. Kiswahili .   .   .   .   .   13 
14. Malay-Bahasa  .   .   .   .   .3 
15. Persian   .   .   .   .   .   27 
16. Polish    .   .   .   .   .   .3 
17. Portuguese    .   .   .   .   17 
18. Pushtu    .   .   .   .   .   .1 
19. Romanian  .   .   .   .   .   .1 
20. Russian   .   .   .   .   .   71 
21. Serbo-Croatian.   .   .   .   .6 
22. Spanish   .   .   .   .   .   61 
23. Swedish   .   .   .   .   .   .3 
24. Thai      .   .   .   .   .   .4 
25. Tibetan   .   .   .   .   .   .3 
26. Turkish   .   .   .   .   .   .3 
27. Vietnamese.   .   .   .   .   .3 
APPENDIX VIII Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry
Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry during the financial year 1982-83.

Revised Estimate 
                                          ( lakhs) 
Headquarters  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 9,08,22 
Missions/Posts abroad .   .   .   .   .   . 49,32,15 
Supply Wings, London & Washington .   .   .  2,12,92 
Other Items 
Contribution to UN, Commonwealth Secretariat and other  
 Institutions .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 4,39,80 
Central Passport & Emigration Organisation. 3,64,92 
Other Misc. Items .   .   .   .   .   .    36,85,05 
Aid to Bangladesh .   .   .   .   .   .   .1,65,91 
Aid to Bhutan .   .   .   .   .   .   .   48,41,45 
Aid to Nepal  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .22,22,00 
Aid to other developing countries under ITEC Programme
                                   .   .    4,61,05 
Social Security and Welfare   .   .   .   .   45,00 
                   TOTAL: .   .   .   .  182,78,47 


APPENDIX IX Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad

Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad during 1982 -83 The Expenditure during 1982-83 on the Headquarters of this Ministry is expected to be of the order of Rs. 9,08,22 lakhs, a sum of Rs.140.00 lakhs on publicity, Rs. 170.36 lakhs for travel expenses, Rs.326.86 lakhs for Establishment charges Rs. 2,49 lakhs for the Departmental Canteen and the sum of Rs. 248.51 for Misc. expenses. The expenditure on Missions and Posts abroad including Supply Wings, London and Washington is Rs. 5145.07 lakhs. Out of this Rs.706.08 lakhs for passage for transfers and local tours and Rs. 1223.40 lakhs for official and residential accommodation and Rs. 1136.11 lakhs for Misc. expenses. The annual average expenditure per mission comes to Rs. 39.27 lakhs. The expenditure mentioned above on Headquartersand Missions and Posts abroad including expenditure on external publicity programmes and activities works out to approximately 33.11% of the total expenditure of this Ministry.


APPENDIX X Statement showing the total number of employees

Statement showing the total number of employees (both permanent and temporary) in the Ministry of External Affairs under various groups and representation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes therein (Position as on 31-12-1982)

Group Total Scheduled Percentage Scheduled Percentage 
      number of Castes  of total   Tribes  of total 
                employees  employees    employees 
Group 'A'  .696    73      10.49%     32    4.60% 
Group 'B'. .1644   135       8.21%    15    0.91% 
Group 'C'. .770    81      10.52%     35    4.55% 
Group 'D'   495   136      27.47%      3    0.61% 
(excluding Sweepers). 
Group 'D' (Sweepers).   46    46       100% 

APPENDIX XI Statement showing the number of appointments

Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment and by promotion) made to various groups of posts and reserved vacancies filled by Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes during the year 1982

Group Total Number of vacancies Number of reserved Number of vacancies 
      number     reserved       candidates appoin- de-reserved due to 
      of vac-                   ted                non-availability of 
      ancies Scheduled Schedl-  Scheduled Schedul- reserved candidates 
      filled Castes    ed Tribes Castes   ed Tribes 
                                                   Scheduled Scheduled 
                                                     Castes    Tribes 
Group 'A'   21       6         3           7         2    --   -- 
Group 'B'   331     74        55          28         6    45   44 
Group 'C'   253     45        20           5         2     7    3 
Group 'D'    31      5         2           4         3     --  -- 


APPENDIX XII List of International Conferences/Meetings

List of International Conferences/Meetings hosted by the Ministries/Departments of the Government of India during 1982-83 for which logistical arrangements were made by the Conference Cell

Sl.   Title of Conference/Meeting                 Date 
1. Meeting of Experts Group on Multilateral 
   Financing facilities, hosted by Ministry 
   of External Affairs  .  .  .      1 to 3 July, 1982. 
2. UNI-TIES Conference, hosted by the 
   Department of Industrial Development      7 to 11
   December, 1982 
3. Working Group on Family and Fertility 
   Session for the International Conference 
   on Population-1984-Department of Family 
   Welfare  .  .  .  .  .  .  5 to 12 January, 1983. 
4. Techinical Consultation on Wood-Based 
   Panels, hosted by the Department of 
   Agriculture and Cooperation  13 to 17 January, 1983. 
5. Subramania Bharati Centenary Celebrations 
   held by the Department of Culture.         1 to 3
   February, 1983. 
6. Population Growth in South Region, hosted 
   by the Registrar-General of India.         2 to 8
   February, 1983. 
7. Seventh Non-Aligned Summit Conference, 
   hosted by the Ministry of External Affaris  7 to
   11 March, 1983. 

APPENDIX XIII Total Number of ITEC experts
Total Number of ITEC experts deputed to various foreign countries since the inception of the programme

Doctors .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .  .  67 
Nurses and other para medical staff  .   .   .   .   .  .  .  31 
Professors/teachers  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .  . 162 
Engineers/architects/geologists/mining and other experts.  . 225 
Financial experts/finance, audit & accounts officers .  .  .  30 
Economists/statisticians .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .  .  15 
Yoga/music teachers      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .  .   2 
Agricultural experts/animal husbandry experts.   .   .  .  .   8 
Small scale industry .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .  .  16 
Other misc. experts  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .  . 173 
             TOTAL   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .  .  . 729 
APPENDIX XIV No. of experts deputed to various foreign countries
No. of experts deputed to various foreign countries during 1982-83
Vietnam     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .     8 
Kampuchea   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 3 
Indonesia   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 4 
PDRY    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 8 
Zanzibar (Tanzania) .   .   .   .   .   .   . 1 
Mauritius   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .46 
Lesotho .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 1 
Guyana  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 2 
Fiji.   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 9 
Tonga   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .10 
Bahrain .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 2 
YAR     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 2 
Paraguay.   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 1 
Seychelles  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 1 
Ethiopia    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 1 
Somalia .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 2 
Senegal .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 1 
Sri Lanka   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 5 
Maldives.   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 8 
Afghanistan .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .31 
             TOTAL  .   .   .   .   .   .   146 

Seventh Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, New Delhi, 7-12 March, 1983 :

The Seventh Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non- Aligned Countries was held at New Delhi from 7 to 12 March 1983. It was preceded by a Preparatory Meeting at the level of Senior Officials, held on 1 and 2 March 1983 under the Chairmanship of the representative of Cuba and a Conference of Foreign Ministers of Non-Aligned Countries, held from 3 to 5 March 1983 under the Chairmanship of Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, Minister of External Affairs of India. The Indian delegation to the Summit Conference was headed by Shrimati Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister.

The Senior Officials made recommendations to the Conference of Foreign Ministers about agenda, the Bureau of Ministerial Conference, the composition of the Co-ordinating Bureau and the admission of new members to the Movement of the Non-Aligned Countries. The meeting of the Senior Officials also recommended that the Conference of Foreign Ministers work in plenary sessions and in two committees, a Political Committee and an Economic Committee, which would begin work ad referendum on 3 March 1983, and consider the question of the representation of Kampuchea in the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries.

The Conference of Foreign Ministers of Non-Aligned Countries adopted the proposed agenda of the Conference and decided that its Bureau would consist of India as Chairman, 22 Vice-Chairmen (8 from Africa, 8 from Asia, 4 from Latin America and 2 from Europe), Rapporteur-General (Benin), Chairman of the Political Committee (Yugoslavia), and Chairman of the Economic Committee (Nicaragua), with Cuba as Ex-officio member. In accordance with established practice, the Conference of Foreign Ministers recommended that the Bureau of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries should be the same as that of the Ministerial Conference. Mr. K. Natwar Singh of India was appointed Secretary-General of the Summit Conference.

On the question of representation of Kampuchea, Chairman Narasimha Rao referred to the report of the Chairman of the Co- ordinating Bureau which spoke of continuning divergence of opinion in the Movement on the issue, and stated that in the circumstances it was not possible to arrive at a consensus on the seating of either Democratic Kampuchea or the People's Republic of Kampuchea. On the basis of informal consultations held with the parties concerned and other interested delegations, he proposed that the Ministerial Conference should recommend to the


Heads of State Government that (i) the Co-ordinating Bureau, acting in the capacity of an ad-hoc committee, be charged to examine the question further, taking into account suggestions made during the debate, and to make a recommendation thereon to the Meeting of Foreign Ministers to be held in 1985; (ii) they take note of the report of the Conference which will include Chairman's summing up as he has just made it; and (iii) no further consideration be given to the question at the Seventh Summit. It was his understanding, on the basis of the assurances received from the parties concerned that the question of representation of Kampuchea in the Movement would hereafter be considered only as provided in (i) above.

Other recommendations of the Conference of Foreign Ministers concerned with the admission of Bahamas, Barbados, Columbia and Vanuatu as full members to the Movement, participation of Antigua and Barbuda as an Observer and the invitation to the Dominican Republic as a Guest, and about continuing further consultations on the composition of the Co-ordinating Bureau.

The Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, attended by 99 members, 16 Observers and 26 Guests, was declared open on 7 March 1983 by President Fidel Castro Ruz of Cuba, Shrimati Indira Gandhi Prime Minister of India, delivered the inaugural address which was widely acclaimed as a significant contribution to the deliberations and the successful outcome of the Conference. It was unanimously adopted as a Conference Document. In her keynote address, the Prime Minister emphasised the continuing relevance of the principles and objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement in contemporary international politics. Shrimati Gandhi reiterated the deep and abiding commitment of member states to the principles of non- alignment directed towards the consolidation of peace, justice and progress in the world, the attainment of disarmament and the establishment of the New International Economic Order based on justice and equity. The Prime Minister called for the convening of an international conference on money and finance for development, which will devise methods to mobilize finance for investments in critical areas. She emphasized the inter- relationship between peace, independence, disarmament and development and made a strong plea for unity, harmony and collective selfreliance amongst non-aligned countries.

Shrimati Indira Gandhi was elected Chairperson of the Conference on the proposal of the President of Cuba, which was supported by several representatives speaking on behalf of the Asian, African and Latin American countries and the national liberation movements. The Summit Conference then proceeded, with Shrimati Indira Gandhi in the chair, to adopt the recommendations of the Conference of Foreign Ministers on the composition of the Bureau of the Summit Conference, the admission of new members and participation by observers and guests and the agenda. President Fidel Castro Ruz, Chairman of the Sixth

Conference, presented a report on developments in the Movement and in the international scene since the Havana Summit of 1979. As many as 79 Heads of State Government or leaders of delegations made statements in the general debate, while the statements of seven countries, who waived their right to speak, were circulated. The conference also heard statements from six observers. The Secretary-General of the United Nations was invited to address the Conference.

The main documents adopted by the Conference of the Heads of State or Government were Political Declaration, Economic Declaration, Action Programme for Economic Cooperation, Declaration on Collective Self-reliance among NonAligned and other developing countries, and New Delhi Message.

Political Declaration :

In the Political Declaration, the Heads of State or Government of NonAligned Countries focussed attention on the struggle for peace and development. The Declaration underlined the need for urgent practical measures to prevent nuclear annihilation and curb the armaments race. It also emphasised the need for observing the principle of peaceful settlement by the Non-aligned countries amongst themselves.

The Heads of State or Government renewing their commitment to the principles and objectives of the Movement of Non-Aligned countries, recalled that the Movement, which has been conceived in the context of the struggle against colonialism and the growing polarisation of international relations resulting from military blocs, military alliances and the cold war, has consistently struggled for the all-round emancipation of the peoples of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and other parts of the world. The struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, apartheid and all forms of foreign intervention, interference, aggression, occupation, domination or hegemony, and total detachment from power blocs and alliances and their confrontations, remained fundamental elements in the policy of non-alignment. The non-aligned countries renewed their pledge to strive unceasingly to eliminate these policies in international behaviour and to build a new pattern of international relations in which the inalienable rights of peoples under alien and colonial domination to self-determination and independence and the right to equality of all states, big or small, are fully secured. The very essence of the Movement, the Declaration stated, involves keeping away from power blocs aligned against one another, promotion of their dissolution and rejection of narrow, outmoded doctrines of deterrence, balance of power and spheres of influence which give rise to tensions and polarisiation, division and conflict among nations.

The Political Declaration laid full emphasis on disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament, considering it as an issue of human survival. Pending the achievement of nuclear disarmament, the Heads of State or Government demanded an immediate prohibition of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons by all nuclear weapon States and called for a freeze on the development, production,

stock-piling and deployment of nuclear weapons and the speedy finalization of a comprehensive treaty banning the testing of nuclear weapons. The Summit Conference also expressed deep disappointment at the failure of the Second Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly devoted to disarmament to achieve meaningful results and re-affirmed that the principles and priorities contained in the Final Document of the First Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly devoted to disarmament retained all their validity and that the objectives and measures contained therein still represented a goal to be achieved.

On the Indian Ocean issue, the Summit Conference of Non- Aligned countries re-affirmed the determination of Non-Aligned States towards the attainment of the objectives embodied in the 1971 U.N. Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. The Heads of State/Government were convinced that any manifestation of great power military presence, foreign bases, military installations and logistical supply facilities, nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in the Indian Ocean constitute a flagrant violation of that Declaration. The Conference also expressed full support for Mauritian sovereignty over the Chagos archipelago including Diego Garcia and declared that the establishment and strengthening of the military base at Diego Garcia has endangered the sovereignty, territorial integrity and peaceful development of Mauritius and other states.

The Political Declaration reiterated the support of the Non- Aligned Movement for the heroic peoples of Palestine, Namibia and South Africa and all the victims of the aggressive policies and actions of Israel and South Africa. It condemned all forms of racism including zionism and apartheid and the policies of countries which support them. The Summit Conference re-affirmed its support to the Palestinian people for the liberation of their homeland and the recovery of their inalienable national rights and urged the withdrawal of Israel from Jerusalem, occupied Palestine, Arab territories and from Lebanon. The Heads of State or Government welcomed the steps taken to seek negotiated political solutions to conflicts in Central America and in other parts of the world.

Reviewing the situation in South-East Asia, the Heads of State or Government expressed grave concern over the continuing conflicts and tensions in the region, particularly as many of the States are members of the Movement of NonAligned Countries. They reaffirmed, their support for the principles of non-interference in the affairs of sovereign States and the inadmissibility of the use of force against sovereign States. They warned that there was a real danger of the tensions in and around Kampuchea escalating over a wider area. They were convinced of the urgent need to de- escalate these tensions through a comprehensive political solution which would provide for the withdrawal of all foreign forces, thus ensuring full respect for the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of all States in the region, including Kampuchea. They reaffirmed the right of the people of Kampuchea to determine their own destiny free from foreign interference, subversion and coercion and expressed the hope that through

a process of negotiations and mutual understinding a climated conducive to the exercise of that right would be created.

The Heads of State or Government noted with great concern the situation in South-West Asia and agreed that it carries dangerous consquences for the peace and stability of the region. Viewing the situation in the Afghanistan with particular concern, they reiterated the urgent call made at the New Delhi Ministerial Conference held in February 1981 for a political settlement on the basis of the withdrwal of foreign troops and full respect for the indepences, sovereignty territorial integrity and non-alinged status of Afghnaistan and strict observance of the principle of non-intervention and non-interference. They also reaffirmed the right of the Afghan refuggees to return to their homes in safety and honour and called for a speedy solution to this vast humanitarian problem. To this end, they urged all concerned to work towards such a settlement which would ensure that the Afghan people would enable the Afghan refugees to return to their homes. They expressed their appreciation for sincer efforts made in the search for a political settlement of the situation in Afghanistan and extended their support to the constructive steps taken in this regard by the United Nations Secretary-General.

On Korea, the Heads of State or Government re affirmed their support for the Korean people's desire to reunify their homeland peacefully, free of all foreign interfernce.

The Heads of States of Government expressed their concern over the intensification of tension in Europe, and the dangers of growing stockpiling of weapons in the Continent which further aggraveted bloc conferontations and endangered international peace and security. They reaffirmed the close inter-connection between the security problems of Europe and the Mediterrnean and in this context called for a meeting of the Non-aligned Mediterranean Members in order to concert views and devise initiative for cooperation and strengthening security in the Mediterranean region. The Conference also reiterated its full solidarity and support for the people and Government of the Republic of Cyprus and reaffirmed its respect for that country's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, unity and non-alignement.

The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction the determination of the people of Latin American to pursue a non- aligned policy and to struggle against colonialism, neo- colonialism and all forms of domination, hegemony and interference in the internal affairs of states. The Conference considered the right of any state to freely choose its own political, social and cultural system as of paramount importance, in the context of the contiunig tension in Central America, the Caribbean and the South Atlantic. The Heads of State or Government also recalled the decsions adopoted by previous Conference to the effect that the establishment of foreign military bases against the will of the countries

in which they are installed, constituted a violation of their national sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity and pointed out dangres represented by the existnce of military bases and the conduct of military manoeuvers directed against the countries of the region. The Heads of State or Government also expressed their concern for the continuing colonialist policies and the increasing economic pressures, threats and aggressions in the Caribbean region and supported the efforts to declare Central American and the Caribbean a Zone of Peace. The Conference reiterated its supports to Afgentina to secure the restitution of Malvinas Islands to its sovereignty through negotiations and urged that the negoatiations between the Governments of Argentina and the United Kingdom be reopend with the participation and good offices of the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

On the question of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the Heads of State or Government reiterated that full and unrestricted access to nuclear technology for peaceful purpose, under non-discriminatory conditons, is an inalieable right of every state and observed that non-proliferation should not be made a pretext for preventing states from exerciseing their full right to acquire and develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes geared to economic and social development, in accordance with their priorities, interests and needs.

The Heads of State or Government expressed concern about the disputes and conflicts among non-aligned countries which were not only causing serious human and material loss to the economies of the countries concerned and posing threat to the peace and progress of their peoples, but also affecting the conhesion and solidarity of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries.

The Heads of State or Government also noted with satisfaction the growing role of the non-aligned countries in the United Nations and the progress made in promoting cooperation among non- aligned countries in the field of information and mass media.

The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their firm adherence to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and fully recongnised the need to support and strenghten the World Organisation in order to make it an effective instrument for the fulfilment of its central role in maintenance of international peace and security, in developing and strengthening cooperation among nations, in establishing equatble economic relations between states and in promoting fundamental rights and freedoms in the world. The Conference urged Heads of States or Government of the members States of the UN to undertake, during the 38th regular Session of the General Assembly, a Collective appraisal with a view to finding speedy and just solutions to some of the major problems of the world and called on the international community to observer 1985 as the year of the United Nations.

In conclusion, the Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries expressed their determination to strengthen the unity and cohesion of the Movement and to enhance its capacity for action in support of peace and cooperation. They expressed concern over conflicts between Members and urged peaceful resoulution of differnces. They demanded that, in the interest of world harmony and peace, other powers also respect the independence of the Movement and the intergrity of its Members.

Economic Declaration :

In the comprehensive Economic Declaration, the New Delhi Message, a Declaration on "collective action for global prosperity", and a Declaration on "collective self-reliance among developing countries", the Seventh Non-Aligned Summit re- emphasized the need for establishing the New International Economic Order; called for Global Negotiations to be launched through a Conference within the UN systemed in early 1984; proposed the convening of an International Conferece on Money and Finance for Development with universal participation for comprehensive restructiuring of the international monetary and financial system; stressed that immediate measures were necessary to stimulate the economies of developing countries with mechanism readily available through a Programme of Immediate Measures in critical areas such as food, energy, financial flows, trade and raw materials and provided a political impetus to strengthening and intensifyg co-operation among developing countries.

The Decelaration set 1985 as the target year when Official Development Assistance (ODA) should reach a level of 0.7 per cent of the GNP of the developed countries. It advocated a comprehensive multi-lateral framework for restructring the debt burden of developing countries and the conversion of all outstanding bilateral ODA loans into grants for the Least- Developed Countries (LDCs).

The Economic Declaration urged rasing the quota of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to 125 billion SDRs and, inter alia, called for an immediated review of IMF conditionality and liberalisation of its compenstary financing facility in the light of the decline in commodity prices. The Economic Declaration also advocated a substantial expansion of the World Bank's current lending programme and further augmentation of its capital resources through an additional capital increase in the Seventh International Development Association replenishment. Immediate measures in the areas of Trade and Commodities implementation at UNCTAD and other relevant meetings of the UN organisations.

The Declaration also expressed concern about the inadequate implementation of the UN Charter on Economic Rights and Duties and called upon developed countries which had not accepted it so far to abide by it. Likewise, the effective implementation of the International Development Strategy for the 3rd UN

Development Decade has been stressed. It appealed to all countries to participate in the forthcoming UNCTAD-VI in a constructive manner so that meaningful reasults could be achieved in all areas of concern to the international community.

The Declaration regretted that control over the current international monetary and financial system continued to be the preserve of a few dominant developed countries and stressed the need to create a new equitable and universal international monetary system which would put an end to the dominace of certain reserve currencies, guarantee developing countries a role in decisionmaking while ensuring monetary and financial discipline in the developed countries and preferential treatment for developing countries.

On trade and raw materials, the Declaration demanded substantial increased market access in developed countries for exports from developing countries. The developed countries should refrain from imposing new restrictions on trade in commodities including agricultural commodities and manufactured and semi- finished products originating from the developing countries. They should also eliminate forthwith, restrictive measures incompatible with their international commitments and draw up a programme for the elimination of protectionist measures including subsidies on uncompetive products which adverserly affect the trade prospects of the developing countries.

The Declaration called for structural adjustment measures in the policies of the developed countries with a view to increasing imports from developing countries and the strengthening of the relevant mechanism in UNCTAD for consultation and coordination on trade and adjustment policies so as to ensure inter alia the transparency of national actions and multilateral surveillance.

On energy, the Declaration advocated a net expansion in World Bank lending in the energy sector, the early establishment of an appropirate multilateral financing facility for the developing countries within the existing international institutions such as an Energy Affilate of the World Bank and the transfer of energy- related technology by the developed to the developing countries on terms suited to their needs.

As regards food and agriculture, the Declaration called for the expansion and enlargement of the food financing facility of IMF to cover other essential food items; increase in the targets of the international emergency food reserve from 500,000 to 750,000 to tonnes and of the food aid convention from 10 to 13 million tonnes and the setting up of a food security system inter alia through a system of developing country-owned food reserves. On science and technology, it urged the industrialised countries as well as developing country-owned food reserves. On science and technology, it urged the industrialised countries as well as developing countries to contribute to the United Nations financing system for science and technology for development.

A code of conduct for transfer of technology should be finalised early. Developing countries themselves should cooperate in science and technology and the non-aligned centre for science and technology in New Delhi should be set up early.

On industrialisation, the Summit urged the developed countries to augment their financial flows to developing countries for their industrialisation on favourable terms. UNIDC should be converted into a specialised agency. The resources of the UN development system like the UNDP should be augmented.

The Heads of State/Government re-affirmed the inalienable right of all countries to exercise full sovereignty and control over their natural resources and economic activities. It also urged the developing countries to abide by the UN convention on the Law of the Sea.

The Declaration made a special reference to Antarctica and said that not only this area should be used for peaceful purposes but also exploitation of its resources should be for all mankind. It also noted that a code of conduct for the operation of the trans-national corporations was essential.

The Economic Declaration stressed the need to foster human resources development and programme for women; protection of the environment and the termination of the arms race in outer space. It stressed the right of all countries for denying supplies for the nuclear programme of developing countries. The Economic Declaration also called for special measures to assist the LDCs, the land-locked countries, island developing countries and the most seriously affected countries. It also stressed the need for greater South-South cooperation.

The Declaration laid considerable stress on economic cooperation among developing countries. The Heads of State or Government decided to consult one another informally from time to time to intensify South-South cooperation. With regard to institutional infrastructure for future cooperation among developing countries, they recommended early completion of major projects like setting up of the Centre for Information on Transnational Corporations in Havana and the Centre for Science and Technology in New Delhi.

Action Programme for Economic Cooperation

An Action Programme for Economic Cooperation adopted by the Seventh Non-algined Conference emphasised the need for the full implementation of the decisions of the fifth and sixth summit conference on monetary and financial cooperation and stressed, in particular, the need to organise a meeting of representatives of central banks and finance ministries in order to promote


financial cooperation among the non-aligned and other developing countries. It called upon member countries to ensure greater awarness of the investment opportunities and to study ways and means of promoting investment flows between themselves by maintaining a favourable economic environment in conformity with their national legislations, policies and economic systems. It called upon member states to coordinate their efforts at the United Nations Conference to promote International cooperation in the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purpose, in accordance with UN General Assembly resolution 32/50. It emphasised the important role of public enterprises in the industrialisation and overall development of developing countries. It stressed the need for maintaining unity and solidarity of the non-aligned contries in international negotiations in order to strengthen their bargaining position vis-a-vis the developed countries. The Conference recommended that the proposals regarding the creation of any other fund under the Action Programme should be considered in the light of the failure so far to put into effect the Fund for Economic and Social Development. It urged non-aligned and other developing countries to expedite the consideration of the proposal for establishing "Project Development Mechanism for Techno-Economic Corporation" with a view to its finalization by the Group of 77. It recommended the implementation of measures aimed at collective self-reliance in the field of food and agriculture and urged continued consultations and examination of the proposals amongst member states regarding food security issues. It also decided to urgently convene a meeting of experts in irrigation to promote technical cooperation in the design, construction and management of large, medium and small-scale project as well as to consider the possibilities of establishing joint ventures for the production of a complete range of irrigation equipment. The Action Programme for Economic Cooperation also covered various other aspects, including the availability of raw materials, trade, transport, industry, scientific and technological development, fisheries, health, employment, tourism and transnational corporations, sports, telecommunications, housing, education and culture.

The Declaration calls for an effective coordination and harmonisation of the programme of action of the movement of Non- aligned countries and those of the Group of 77, providing for appropriate modalities to enable the same.

Declaration on Collective Self-reliance

The Declaration on Collective Self-reliance adopted at the Seventh Non-aligned Summit recognised the imperative need to promote self-reliant development of the economics of member states and retierated the role of collective self-reliance in harmonising the diversity of interests and achieving unfied position and in enhancing the negotiating strength and countervailing


power of the developing countries in their efforts to establish a New International Economic order. It pledged to impart fresh impetus to collective self-reliance based on the principles of equality, justice, mutual benefit and full respect for each other's independence and sovereignty. To that end, the Declaration urged increasing reliance on indigenous resources, capital, skills, technologies, capacities and strategies of development and the mobilisation of all necessary resources in support of sub-aligned and other developing countries for strenthening indigenous capacities and for mutual benefit as well as providing financial, technical and other neccessary help to each other. The Declaration pleaded for according preferential treatment to each other in trade, technology, supply of commodities, raw materials, investments and provision of financial and technical support and effective mechanism for giving ECDC programme and projects a concrete shape; harmonization of ECDC programme in national policies and programmes and emphasized collective support to each nation's sovereignty over its natural resources and collective solidarity in the face of external pressure.

New Delhi Message

The New Delhi Message described peace and peaceful co- existence, independence, disarmament and development as "the central issues of our time". It expressed deep concern about the tensions and confrontations between the great powers and their distrurbing effects on Non-algined countries. It affirmed the Non-aligned countries determination to resist economic and political pressures that might be exerted by any great power against small and vulnerable states. It appealed to the great powers to give up mistrust, engage in sincere forward-looking negotiations in a spirit of shared good faith to reach agreement on various disarmament measures and to find a way out of the deepening economic crisis that was threatening all. Drawing attention to the ever-increasing rate at which the arms race was consuming the scarece material and human resources of the world, destroying the ecological balance and wasting much of the finest scientific talent in sterile and destructive pursuit, the New Delhi Message urged that these elements be used instead to re- vitalise and re-structure the world economy and that the resources released by measures of disarmament should be diverted to promote the development of developing countries. It called for an immediate halt to the drift towards nuclear conflict and described 1983 "a crucial year for nuclear disarmament". The New Delhi Message pointed out that instead of enlightened multilateralism, many rich nations were turning in the midst of the world economic crisis to the catastrophic bilaterlism of the 1920s and 1930s and still refuse to recognise that the economic revival of the North was simply not possible without the economic survival of the south. Solutions to these problems must necessarily be global. Underlining the urgent


necessity of a thorough-going re-structuring of the existing international economic order, that had proved inadequate, the Message urged a process of global negotiations. This had to be launched without delay, overcoming all hurdles. It urged the undertaking of immediate measures in areas of critical importance to developing countries such as financial flows, trade and commodities, energy and food and agricultural. It also demanded immediate attention to the tragic situation of many developing countries which were unable to meet their debt obligations and proposed the immediate convening of an international conference on money and finance for development. The New Delhi Message urged the withdrawal of Israel from Jerusalem, occupied Palestine and Arab territories and from Lebanon and supported the independence of Namibia. It re-affirmed the Non-aligned countries solidarity with the African people and their noblecause-the struggle against apartheid. It affirmed the commitment of the Non-algined States to press these and other critical issues at the 38th Session of the United Nations General Assembly and urged the Heads of State or Government of all countries of the world to join the effort there.

Iran-Iraq Conflict

As no consensus could be reached on the two issues of Iran- Iraq conflict and the venue of the next Summit, the Conference decided that Shrimati Indira Gandhi, in her capacity as the Chairman, should make an appeal to the two countries on behalf of the entire Non-Aligned community. In her statement, Shrimati Indira Gandhi expressed profound regret at the 30-month old Iran- Iraq conflict and made an appeal to both the countries to bring an immediate end to the war and to come to an honourable, just and enduring peace through negotiations and peaceful means. The overwhelming view expressed by many Heads of State was that the Non-Aligned Movement should exert every effort to bring about a speedy and peaceful termination of this tragic conflict. India has, therefore, pledged to continue consultations and take all possible and appropriate measures towards this objective.

Venue for 8th Summit

As regards the venue of the next Non-Aligned Summit, it was stated that although an overwhelming majority of the member countries had expressed their opinion favouring Iraq as venue of the next Summit, a final decision in the matter would be taken by a meeting of the Foreign Ministers to be held not later than 1985.

Composition of the Co-ordinating Bureau

On the composition of the Co-ordinating Bureau, the Conference decided that it should comprise all those members who had communicated a formal request to serve on the Bureau.

-13> Resolution of Thanks :

The Conference also adopted a resolution expressing the gratitude of the Seventh Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries to the Government and people of India as well as to Shrimati Indira Gandhi for their warm and friendly welcome and commended the Government of India for the excellent facilities which were made available, at short notice, to the participants in the Conference and the efficiency of the Organisation and quality of the services placed at the disposal of the Conference. The resolution emphasized its high appreciation for the contribution of India, the land of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, and a founding member of the Movement, in promoting the role of non-alignment in strengthening peace, equitable international relations, co-operation and friendship among nations; and affirmed its optimism and confidence that the Conference will strengthen the unity and solidarity of the Movement, thus enhancing the important and dynamic role that the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries is destined to play in the solution of major international problems.

Closing Address:

At the closing session of the Conference, Prime Minister Shrimati Indira Gandhi delivered her closing address. In that address, the Prime Minister stated that the Seventh Non-Aligned Summit of Heads of State or Government considered in depth many problems which beset the world and resulted in certain accords. Shrimati Gandhi reiterated the call for a New International Economic Order and reaffirmed solidarity with liberation movement and opposition to all forms of interference and intervention. The Non-Aligned Movement, she declared, was not a mere or casual collection of individual states but a vital historical process. It represented a comingling of many historical, spiritual and cultural streams. The Non-Aligned Movement, she asserted, was a major Movement attempting basic changes. It was a Movement which challenged the doctrine and practice of racism and advocated the right of economic equality. The Movement did not set its sights on short-term and limited benefits, but on broader principles to transform the political and economic organisation of the world. The solution of the two dominating issues of the day, viz. disarmament and development required persistent efforts. The Prime Minister appealed to the member states of the Non-Aligned Movement to extend their cooperation so that India could shoulder her responsibility as the Chairman of the Movement for the next three years.

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