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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1987-88

Annual Reports 1987-88


I. India's Neighbours 1-10
II. South-East Asia 11-14
III. East Asia 15-21
IV. West Asia and North Africa 22-26
V. Africa (South of the Sahara) 27-31
VI. Europe 32-40
VII. The Americas 41-45
VIII. United Nations and International Conferences 46-67
IX. Foreign Economic Relations 68-79
X. Policy Planning and Research 80-82
XI. External Publicity 83-86
XII. Cultural Relations 87-94
XIII. Indians Overseas 95-96
XIV. Protocol 97
XV. Passport and Consular Services 98-101
XVI. Administration and Organisation 102-105
XVII. Foreign Service Training Institute 106-107
XVIII. Use of Hindi in Official Work 108-109
  APPENDICES 111-149

The continuity and consistency of purpose that characterises Indian Foreign Policy was once again confirmed during this the Fortieth Anniversary Year of Independence. India continued to strive for global peace, disarmament and development through nonalignment and friendship with all countries, particularl y neighbours. The enlargement of human freedom, unflinching opposition to racialism and colonialism and the creation of equitable conditions conducive to the peaceful and harmonious development of nations continued to guide its conduct.

In the crusade for nuclear and general disarmament, India along with the other five nations of the Six nation Initiative welcomed the INF Treaty bet - ween the Soviet Union and USA as a historic first step. Their Declaration in St o- ckholm on 22 January appreciated resumption of the dialogue and called for verification and compliance with agreements in this field. The Declaration call ed for immediate suspension of all nuclear testing pending a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. While congratulating General Secretary Gorbachev and President Reagan, the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi stressed that the goal must still remain the destruction of all nuclear arsenals as a prelude to general and complete disarmament. Throughout the year India continued to play a prominent role in the UN in furthering this cause. Importance was given to the prohibitio n of chemical weapons and a number of resolutions sponsored by India on nuclear disarmament were adopted by large majorities. Our concern was also registered against the militarisation of outer space.

Minister of State Shri K. Natwar Sin gh was elected President of the, General Conference on Disarmament and Develop- ment under the aegis of the UN held in New York in August/September 1987. The Final Document constituted a step towards turning swords into ploughshares.

India sought, through international fora and through concerted action by like-minded countries, to end the anachronistic system of apartheid. At the Vancouver meeting of the Commonwealth Heads of Government, India played a major role in rallying opinion in favour of the continuation of mandatory sanctions against racist South Africa. India is a member of the Eight-member Committee of Foreign Ministers formed at the Vancouver Summit to monitor the implementation of a programme of action on Southern Africa concerned (iii) (iv) with sanctions against South Africa, the rendering of assistance by the inte rnational community to the Frontline States and other issues.

As Chairman of the Africa Fund, India was pleased to announce that commitments had already reached a quarter billion US dollars within the year and projects are being identified to help the Frontline States withstand the political and economic onslaught of the Pretoria regime.

Nearer home, the degree of cooperation among the countries of South Asia in agreed areas has grown. India handed over the Chairmanship of SAARC to Nepal at the Third SAARC Summit in Kathmandu in November. Of the nearly 100 activities organised by SAARC, India hosted 45. The Third Summit meeting took important decisions which will have a bearing on the future course of SAARC. A Regional Convention was signed on the Suppres- sion of Terrorism which is awaiting ratification. An agreement establishing a Food Security Reserve was reached which would enable member states to draw on food stocks in an emergency. Other important decisions were, to commission a study on environment, to promote means of enhancing people-to-people con- tacts in SAARC countries and to undertake studies on various aspects of plan-ning.

It was agreed to establish a meteorological centre and an agricultural information centre in India and Bangladesh respectively. India announced a contribution of Rs. 17.5 million for SAARC activities for 1988-89.

The Agreement to establish peace and normalcy in Sri Lanka signed in Colombo on 29th July 1987, provided a framework for satisfying the legitimate aspirations of the Sri Lankan Tamils within a united Sri Lanka. The hope of durable peace and stability in Sri Lanka now rests upon the full implementation of this historic accord. One of the Tamil groups, LTTE has, however, still been unwilling to make the transition from militancy and restore the democratic process. By resorting to large-scale killings, the LTTE attempted to prevent th e return of normalcy and mounted attacks on the Indian Peace Keeping Force deployed in terms of the Agreement to supervise the cease-fire and ensure the safety and security of all communities in the North and East. This compelled the IPKF to start operations in early October to disarm the LTTE.

The IPKF established effective control of Jaffna by the end of that month. Simultaneousl y a major effort was mounted to provide relief to and rehabilitate those affected by the fighting. Similar measures have been taken in other parts of the Norther n and Eastern provinces. The restoration of peace and normalcy in Sri Lanka through the full and faithful implementation of the Agreement remains a cardina l objective of the Government of India.

India continued its quest for better relations with Pakistan.There was a meeting between the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, and President Zia in New

(v)Delhi in February 1987, and between the Prime Ministers of India and Pakist an in Kathmandu in November. Talks were held at Secretary level on matters pertain- ing to maintaining tranquillity of the Indo-Pakistan border, preventing traffic king in drugs and promoting economic cooperation and trade. Inspite of India's genuine efforts to improve ties, Pakistan's response left much to be desired.

The encouragement given by it to the Punjab terrorists, the use of its nuclear faci lity for weapons production, its overarming with highly sophisticated weapons in- cluding AWACS, unwarranted statements on Kashmir, and offensive military actions in the Siachen area are some of the more glaring examples of this nega- tive attitude, which cannot but jeopardise the process of normalisation outline d during President Zia's visit to Delhi on Dec 17, 1985. India sought to strengthen bilateral relations with Bangladesh. One significant step was the visit of Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, Minister for Human Resource Development to Bangladesh as the Special Emissary of the Prime Minister of India in August. The problem of the Chakma refugees in India was raised but no agreement has been reached regarding their repatriation to Bangladesh.

The traditional ties of friendship and cooperation between India and Nepal were nourished through increasing contacts at various levels. A highlight was the Prime Minister's visit to Nepal in November for the SAARC Summit.

There were also several exchange of visits at Ministerial and official levels. India continued to render assistance to Nepal in its socioeconomic development.

The meeting between the Prime Minister of India and His Majesty the King of Bhutan during the SAARC meeting in Kathmandu provided an oppor- tunity to further foster the close ties existing between the two countries. Ind ia continued to help Bhutan in the industrial, economic, technical and educational fields. India announced a relief assistance of Rs. 20 lakhs to the Government of the Maldives to recover the loss, and to repair the damage, particularly to the international airport at Male, caused by a tidal wave. Discussions were als o held on ways to expand trade and industrial collaboration.

The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi and Shrimati Sonia Gandhi paid a visit to Burma in December at the invitation of the Burmese Prime Minister. The meeting between the Prime Minister and the Burmese leaders on matters of mutual interest and benefit were marked by cordiality and is expected to raise

(vi) substantially the level of cooperation. During the visit of the Burmese Fore ign Minister to India in September, Instruments of Ratification of-the Maritime Boundary Agreement of 1986 were exchanged.

India has naturally taken active interest in developments with regard to Afghanistan. The Soviet offer of withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan within a limited time-frame and the steps taken by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan to seek national reconciliation have brought about a quali - tative change. in the situation. India maintained contacts with the various Afg han elements, including those opposed to the Government, with a view to promoting the objective of a peaceful, nonaligned and independent Afghanistan, free from external interference or intervention.

Hopes of a negotiated settlement of the eight-year old Iran-Iraq war follow - ing the passage of UN Security Council Resolution 598 have not been realised. India's relations with Iran and Iraq, however, remain warm and cordial despite the continuing conflict. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha led a Parliamentary delegation to both countries in October and there were significant economic and commercial exchanges with each. India's good offices continue to be avail-able to both the antagonists to bring about a negotiated settlement. However, the escalation of foreign naval presences in the Gulf has further exacerbated a n already dangerous situation. India has consistently opposed the increase of naval presences of outside powers in the Indian Ocean area and was disappointed over the postponement of the proposed UN International Conference on the Indian Ocean till 1990.

As pointed out by the Minister of State, Shri K. Natwar Singh, during the forty-second Session of the UN General Assembly, the heightened military presence of outside powers in the Indian Ocean is in confli ct with the UN Declaration in 1971 on making the Indian Ocean a Zone of Peace. India's traditionally close relations with the Arab countries continued to grow on a basis of mutual interest. Support for the UN proposed Inter- national Conference on the Middle East confirmed India's commitment to the Palestinian cause. The visit of Chairman Arafat to India and India's participa- tion in the Algiers Session of the Palestine National Council reflected the conti- nuing close relations between India and the PLO. There were meaningful ex- changes with Jordan, Syria and Egypt. India maintained very good relations with the countries of the Maghreb region and, at the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of Alg e- rian Independence in July, was represented by a high-level delegation. With the opening of the Embassy of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in Delhi, India's Ambassador to Algeria was concurrently accredited to the SADR. With Libya and Tunisia, possibilities of further cooperation in the industrial and economic fields were explored, More Indian doctors, engineers and (vii) other personnel were recruited by Libya. Trade and the presence of large numbers of Indian workers constituted the main links between India and the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council. It Was a measure of the value of Indian Labour that, inspite of recessionary tendencies in the Gulf, India was a ble to maintain her share in the Gulf labour market. There has also been a growing desire of these countries to invest in India.

Relations with African countries continued to grow apace during the year. The visits of the Angolan President, the Foreign Ministers of Uganda and of Ethiopia, the Mauritian Minister of Health, the Nigerian Minister of Agri- culture and Industries, and the Education Minister of Scychelles all served to enhance these ties. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari, and the Minister for Human Resource Development Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, visited Mauritius on the occasion of the Presidential inauguration. India, alon g with the other member states of the AFRICA Fund, sought to create an awareness about the Fund and solicited active support for it. A special presentation on AFRICA Fund was made at the meeting of the Association of West European Parliamentarians for Action against Apartheid at Strasbourgh in May.

Indian Parliamentarians had visited a number of countries in this connection. A Special Envoy of the Prime Minister of India visited some countries to mobilise resources for the Africa Fund. At a meeting of senior officials of the Fund Com - mittee held in Delhi in August, a number of donors and UN agencies were present. India's cordial relations with the countries of South East Asia and the Pacific area also continued to grow and was characterised by the exchange of useful visits. Indian Ministers visited Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines. Within the framework of good political relations, important discussions were held in the field of business and economic cooperation. A Memorandum of Understanding between the Federation of Chambers of Com- merce and Industries of Singapore and the Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and an agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation with Indonesia, were some of the highlights of India's econo- mic cooperation with the ASEAN Grouping. Indian trade exhibitions were held in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

So far as the three Indo-China states were concerned, efforts were directed towards finding a negotiated political settlement in Kampuchea with the cooperation of all the opposing parties. The main thrust in this direction was to reduce the gap in the perceptions between the ASEAN and the Indo- China states and to foster a dialogue between the Kampuchean factions. A significant breakthrough in the impasse was the opening of the dialogue between 344 EA/88--2
(viii) Prince Sihanouk and Prime Minister Hun Sen of Kampuchea. The visit of the Minister of State Shri K. Natwar Singh, to the ASEAN countries in April 1987, and to Indo-China in June-July 1987, helped pave the way for a serious attempt at a negotiated settlement. India's cooperation with the two important countries of the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand, continued to grow, especially in the wake of the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi's visit to these countries in Oct ober 1986. With Australia, there was a Joint Business Council meeting in March 1987, a senior officials' meeting in April and a visit by the Secretary in the Australian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, in September. A Memoran- dum of Understanding on Space Research was signed. The Joint Trade Com- mittee between India and New Zealand had its first meeting in New Delhi in June.

The President of Vanuatu, Ati George Sokomanu, paid a goodwill visit in December which served to strengthen the already friendly ties with this non- aligned country in the South Pacific. India's traditional relations with Fiji, a country in the South Pacific with a large number of ethnic Indians, suffered a set-back following the milita ry coup there in May 1987. India was constrained to express its deep concern over the overthrow of a democratically elected Government and to condemn racial discrimination against ethnic Indians by the military regime. Besides, I ndia has taken the position that any future viable constitutional arrangement in Fij i should be equitable and acceptable to all communities. As in the past, India conveyed to the Chinese Government its desire to renew and revitalise its relations with the People's Republic of China.

The transit visits of Shri K. C. Pant, the then Minister for Steel and Mines to Beijing in April 1987, and that of Shri N. D. Tiwari, the then Minister for External Affairs in May, helped create a better atmosphere to carry forward the process of dialogue especially on the Sino-Indian boundary issue. it was against this background that the Eighth Round of official-level Sino-Indian tal ks were held in New Delhi in November 1987. The talks were serious and positive.

Both sides felt that the border problem which had bedevilled mutual relations had to be sorted out with patience. During the year, there were important ex- changes between India and China in the fields of culture, science and technolo- gy. A Sino-Indian trade protocol which was signed covering the period 1 January 1987 to 31 March 1988, envisages a trade exchange of US $ 150 to 200 million,
(ix) With Japan, there was an upswing in relations in the economic, com- mercial, scientific and cultural fields. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi tran- sited through Tokyo in October 1987. The transit visit of the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari to Japan and the visits of the Japanese For eign Minister, Mr. Kuranari, and of Prince Hiro, the son of the Crown Prince during 1987, helped bring the two countries closer. There were increased contacts and exchanges at the level of businessmen between the two countries.

Japan ranked as India's third largest trading partner and the highest donor of Official Development Assistance (ODA). In the cultural field a Japan Month was held in the metropolitan cities of India-an exposition of Japan's cultural life. A Festival of India is scheduled to be held in Japan from April 1988.

Enhanced economic cooperation provided the underpinning to India's improving relations with the Republic of Korea. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari, paid an official visit when, besides his counterpar t, he called on the President and the Prime Minister. There were significant ex- changes in the economic, scientific and cultural fields between the two countri es.

India-Republic of Korea trade talks and a meeting of the Economic Cooperation Committee were held in New Delhi. With the DPRK, the momentum of political exchanges was sustained. Shri K. C. Pant, the then Minister for Steel and Mines, led a delegation to the DPRK, as Special Envoy of the Prime Minister to attend the Seventy-fifth Birth- day celebrations of President Kim Il Sung. This delegation included Shri Eduard o Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, and Members of Parlia ment. The DPRK Vice-President had, in February 1987, visited India for consul- tations for the Extraordinary Ministerial Conference of Non-aligned Countries.

India participated in the film festival of Non-aligned countries held in Pyongy ang in October 1987. The Prime Minister of DPRK paid an official visit to India in February 1988. With Mongolia, the main highlight of relations was the visits of the Governor of West Bengal, Prof. Nurul Hasan, and of a Mongolian Parliamentary delegation to each other's countries. A cultural exchange programme for 1987--89 was signed.

India's relations with Western Europe at the level of the European Community and at the bilateral level with individual countries continued on an even keel. On the political plane, there was a broad similarity of views on the need to reach negotiated settlement of international problems. The EEC being the largest trading bloc in the world, India continued to pursue vigorously her
(x) cooperation with the Community. The European Community is already a signi- ficant trading partner of India. However, India has been having a deficit in th e balance of trade with Western Europe and steps have been initiated to rectify the imbalance.

India had made demarches to Western European countries regarding anti-Indian activities being carried out from their soil and the response from
(x) cooperation with the Community. The European Community is already a signi- ficant trading partner of India. However, India has been having a deficit in th e balance of trade with Western Europe and steps have been initiated to rectify the imbalance. India had made demarches to Western European countries regarding anti-Indian activities being carried out from their soil and the response from meetings of India's Joint Commissions with many of the East European countries were held, the decisions of which gave a yet greater content to India's relatio ns with these countries.

Indo-Yugoslav relations continued to be warm and cordial. There was close cooperation relating to developments in the nonaligned world. Efforts are on to increase technology transfer between the two countries and for industrial cooperation in third countries. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi paid a working visit to Washington in October, after the Vancouver Summit. He had wide-ranging discussions with President Reagan, senior US officials and important members of the US Cong- ress. Areas of future bilateral cooperation were identified which covered a wid e spectrum of fields and activities. The Minister of State, Shri K.

Natwar Singh, had visited the USA in April 1987. The US decision to sell a supercomputer to India was a measure of the confidence that had been built up between the two countries. However, the US decision to waive its non-proliferation laws in favour of Pakistan despite the evidence of that country's clandestine weapon s- oriented nuclear programme was a cause for grave concern. This has made more ominous the scale and sophistication of US military assistance to Pakistan .

Indo-Canadian relations maintained a steady pace during the period under review. There were significant exchange of visits between the two mem- bers of the Commonwealth. The two Prime Ministers met during the Vancouver Summit in October. Issues of bilateral and international significance were dis- cussed. The Extradition Treaty signed by the two countries in February 1987, in New Delhi, will have a salutary effect in combating extremism and terrorism aimed against India.
(xii) As in the past, India's relations with the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean were marked by warmth and cordiality. There were exchange of visits and the signing of bilateral agreements. From India, Shri N. D. Tiwar i, the then Minister for External Affairs, visited Trinidad and Tobago in March 1987. The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, pa id an official visit to Cuba and met President Castro, the Vice-President and the Foreign Minister. From Latin America, the Uruguayan Foreign Minister and a Colombian Parliamentary delegation were among the more important visitors.

India continued her support to the peace initiative of the Contadora Group and in all international fora reiterated the call for a peaceful resoluti
of the crisis in Central America through dialogue and without outside inter- ference. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi congratulated Mr. Arias Sanchez, the President of Costa Rica, on being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his contribution to the Central American Peace efforts.

India sustained her efforts to create consensus within the Non-Aligned Movement on major international issues and worked closely, with the other nonaligned countries. She also emphasised the need for the Movement to play an increasingly active role on global economic issues,particularly those con- cerning the developing countries. She participated in the Extraordinary Ministe rial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-aligned Countries on Latin, America and the Caribbean in Georgetown in Match 1987 and the Ministerial Meeting of the NAM Committee of Nine on Palestine at Harare in April 1987, both at the level of the Minister for External Affairs. India expressed her sol i- darity with and support for the Contadora process by participating in a delega-tion of the NAM Committee on Central America, to Managua and Caracas in August.

India continued to play a significant role in fostering greater coopera- tion among the less developed countries themselves and in presenting common positions on international economic issues in the UN and other organisations. She was an active participant in the Extraordinary Ministerial Conference on South-South Cooperation in Pyongyang in June. This meeting reviewed the implementation of the existing programmes and ways to further such coopera-tion. At the forty-second Session of the UN General Assembly, the developing nonaligned countries took a common stand on important issues like external debt. While consensus of the General Assembly on this issue could not be achieved it was possible to secure consensus on the important issue of Environ- ment which was facilitated by the efforts of the Indian delegation.
(xiii) In a climate in which the major developed countries paid less heed to serious international negotiations in the UN on international economic problems , particularly on an issue like debt relief, India's main effort was to sustain t he fundamental positions already achieved while working for progress in new areas.

As in the past, India actively supported all initiatives for enhancing cooperat ion among the developing countries and participated in the Sixth Ministerial Meet- ing of the Group of 77 in Havana in April 1987. The financial crisis facing the UN engaged India's serious attention. India, along with other nonaligned countries played an active role in getting a resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly which requested the President of the General Assembly to keep under consideration the possibility of recon- vening the forty-second Session of the Assembly in 1988 to discuss the financia l situation facing the UN.

An appreciation of India's active and positive role in the UN was reflected in her election to several UN bodies and international organisations. Among the more important ones were the Economic and Social Council, the Committee for Progress and Coordination, the Commission on Human Settle- ments and the Executive Board of UNICEF. India's commitment to foster cooperation among the developing countries was reflected, inter alia, in the enhanced bilateral exchange program - mes with the developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation programme (ITEC). The monetary value of this assistance now stands at over Rs. 12 crores, starting from a mode st outlay of Rs. 4.61 crores in 1964. India's economic and technical assistance, for instance, to the Indo-China states was channelled through ITEC. In Afghanistan, the ITEC programme covered fields such as public health, small- scale industry and education. with the Overseas Indians and extended assistance to them in consultation with the host country, in overcoming some of their problems. Facilities for Non - Resident Indians (NRIs) to invest in India were widely disseminated by Indian Missions abroad. The Ministry of External Affairs also joined in sponsoring a Seminar to deal with the particular problems of NRIs in the Gulf Region at which a number of their suggestions have been brought to the notice of con- cerned Union and State Government Departments for implementation.
(xiv) The External Publicity Division of the Ministry stepped up its projection of information on India; various aspects of the country's foreign policy and th e significant advances made in the fields of Indian agriculture, industry and sci ence and technology. A particular form was provided by the continuing celebrations of the Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independence. The Division also sought to project the correct situation in sensitive areas like the Punjab and Sri Lan ka. This was done through regular briefings of representatives of Indian and foreig n press and television media and the despatch of literature through Indian Missio ns abroad. Several foreign and Indian mediamen were taken to Jaffna to witness the relief supplies given by India to Sri Lanka. This was repeated later to wit - ness the surrender of arms by militant Tamil organisations.

Indian Missions abroad engaged actively in the Fortieth Anniversary celebrations during the year in close cooperation with the Indian communities and friendship societies and with the encouragement of host Governments. There has been a positive response worldwide both in respect of these celebra- tions and in preparation for marking the Jawaharlal Nehru Centenary in 1988-89. Dec 17, 1985
India's neighbours

During the year 1997-88 India sought to further develop relations of friend- ship, cooperation and mutual understanding with its neighbours in South Asia. A major step in this direction was the India-Sri Lanka Agreement signed by the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi and President Jayewardene in Colombo on Jul 29, 1987. Although the Agreement has far-reaching benefits for all the parties involved, the LTTE proved unwilling to make the transition from mili- tancy to democratic means and set out to try and wreck the Agreement. This left the Indian Peace Keeping Force with no choice but to move against the LTTE to disarm them. But the Agreement has already resulted in substantial gains. Th e Provincial Councils Act and the necessary constitutional amendments have been passed to create the Provincial Councils and devolve substantial powers to them

. Over 3000 Tamil detenus have been released and nearly 10,000 Sri Lankan refugees have returned to Sri Lanka from India. Efforts are now underway to organise Provincial Council elections so that the aspirations of the Tamils can find democratic expression. The Agreement thus meets the concerns of all the parties. It preserves Sri Lanka's unity and integrity; recognises the historical habitation of the Ta mils of Sri Lanka; provides for Tamil also as an official language of that island an d secures for the Tamils, equal citizenship of that country. It safeguards India' s strategic interests. It is an example of how two Non-aligned countries can solv e major and complex problems bilaterally, without the involvement of outside Powers.

The Government of India continued its efforts to maintain regular contact with the Bangladesh Government and to strengthen friendly relations with Bangla - desh. The Minister for Human Resource Development, Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao visited Dhaka on 17 August 1987 as the Prime Minister's Special Emissary and held extensive discussions with President Ershad on matters of mutual inter est.

344 EA/88--3 PG1

During this visit, the importance of Bangladesh taking urgent action to take back the more than 49,000 Chakma refugees who had entered India from Bangladesh after April 1986 was stressed. Unfortunately, despite the matter having been raised with Bangladesh repeatedly, the problem continues unresolved and the refugees are still in India unwilling to return without credible guarantees fro m the Bangladesh Government about their safety. On the question of the sharing of common river waters, the term of the Joint Committee of Experts engaged in studying the subject was extended twice, first in May 1987 and then again in November 1987.

India and Nepal continued to nurture their traditional and friendly rela- tions. The Prime Minister visited Kathmandu in November 1987 for the SAARC Summit and had wide-ranging and fruitful discussions with His Majesty the King of Nepal. The King expressed great satisfaction at the growing under- standing between Nepal and India. While transiting through Delhi, Prince Gyanendra called on the Prime Minister in May 1987. After the External Affairs Minister's visit to Kathmandu in January 1987 and the Nepalese Foreign Minister's visit to Delhi in June 1987 the tradition o f frequent political consultations was further consolidated with the Nepalese Foreign Minister transiting through Delhi twice in December 1987, in the course of which, he called on the Prime Minister and had substantive discussions with the Minister of State for External Affairs. The Nepalese Minister reiterated appreciation for India's crucial assistance in Nepal's overall socioeconomic development, and Nepal's commitment to further our multifaceted relationship.

A fresh fillip to the promotion of people-to-people relations and cooperatio n among parliamentarians was given by the visit of an Indian Parliamentary dele- gation to Nepal led by the Minister of State for Home Affairs (May-June 1987), and a seventeen member Parliamentary delegation beaded by the Chairman of the Rashtriya Panchayat to India (November 1987). The Nepalese delegation called on the President, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the Lo k Sabha anti the Minister for Parliamentary Affairs. Satisfaction was expressed over the fact that our age-old historical and cultural ties have now been trans - lated into a unique form of relationship where borders are free and trade barri ers are minimal. The intensive Indo-Nepal economic collaboration received an added dimen- sion with the signing of the Agreement on the setting up of the Indo-Nepal Join t Commission in June 1987. This was a major breakthrough, since the Agreement
covered virtually all aspects of our bilateral economic activity and brought all inter-governmental bodies into the framework of the Joint Commission, thereby enabling the effective monitoring and coordination of benefits accrued in diffe rent sectors. A number of meetings covering fresh ground were held in the wake of this Agreement, including the Committee on Inundation (May 1987), the Inter- Governmental Committee on Trade, Transit and Unauthorised Trade (September 1987), the Karnali Committee (October 1987) and the Secretary level Water Resources Committee (December 1987). It was also decided that the first meetingof the Joint Commission would be convened in Kathmandu in the near future. India's role as a leading partner in Nepal's socioeconomic development con- tinued. Ongoing projects included the construction of a Museum Library-cum- Documentation Centre at the Institute of Forestry in Hetauda, a Rural Electrifi - cation Project to electrify 76 Nepalese villages and the construction of 214 km s.of the Western Sector of the East-West Highway adjoining the Indo-Nepal border.

With the completion of the construction of the Out-patient Department of the Bir Hospital with Indian aid and the sophisticated equipment provided by India, this hospital has become a premier institution in the field of health care in Nepal. New projects taken up included the setting up of a small-scale industria l estate at Rajbiraj and Indo-Nepal telecommunications links through INSAT-IB. The traditionally close and friendly relations between India and Bhutan were further strengthened during the year. The SAARC Summit in Kathmandu (2 to 4 November 1987) offered an opportunity for discussions on subjects of mutual interest at the highest level between His Majesty the King of Bhutan and the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. The discussions were marked by a close identity of views and understanding of matters of mutual interest, reflec ting the relationship of trust and cooperation that prevails between the two countri es. In the economic field cooperation flourished. The most prestigious and by far the largest project in Bhutan to-date is presently under execution with Ind ian technical and financial cooperation. The 336 MW Chukha Hydro-Electric Pro- ject costing approximately Rs. 244 crores had its first two turbines successful ly commissioned in 1986. The third and fourth units are expected to be operational shortly. As per the 1974 Chukha Agreement, the Government of India is committed to the purchase of power surplus to Bhutan's internal requirements , Accordingly, parts of West Bengal and Assam have been receiving power from the 2 X 83 MW Units already commissioned and the Royal Government of Bhutan has earned over Rs. 33.68 crores by selling power to India till the end of January 1988.
Discussions are underway to extend substantial financial assistance to Bhutan for the implementation of Dungsum (Nanglam) Cement Project in Eastern Bhutan. The 1500-tonne per day cement plant is estimated to cost over Rs. 130 crores and the surplus cement production is to be purchased by India to meet the demands in the North Eastern region. Discussions are also continuing on a proposal to set up a 45 MW Hydro-Electric Project at Kurichu at an estimated cost of over Rs. 100 crores. Economic cooperation continues during Bhutan's Sixth Plan (1987-92).

Several mutually beneficial projects are either in an advanced stage of imple-mention or are shortly to begin operations. The Khaling Mini Hydel Project (0.6 MW; Rs. 1.9 crores) was inaugurated by the Indian Ambassador to Bhutan in March 1988. It has already started supplying power. The Gyetsa Mini Hydel Project (1.5 MW; Rs. 3.84 crores) is expected to be completed by April 1988; the Chukha Transmission Line Project (Rs. 18 crores) by mid-1988 and the River Training Works at Dhoti Khola and Paro (Rs. 1.28 crores) by mid-1988. The Taktichu Super Group Drop Project (Rs. 3.7 crores) and the Paro Airfield Extension Project (over Rs. 6 crores) are expected to sta rt in early 1988. The Broadcasting Station Project (Rs. 5.9 crores) is expected to be completed by March 1989; the Bongaingaon-Gaylegphug Transmission Line Project (Rs. 8.55 crores) by December 1989 and the Thimpu-Paro Sub-Trans- mission and Distribution Systems Project (Rs. 11.5 crores) by 1990.

Apart from the above, India provided experts and specialists to Bhutan in various fields of forestry, industry, telecommunications, hydel-survey and education etc. In education, India continues to offer opportunities for secondary as well as higher education, for specialised training in various fields such as defence , police, customs, medicine and engineering etc. Apart from the Government of India scholarships to about 40 Bhutanese students, a large number of scholar- ships were also provided under the Colombo Plan. Fruitful efforts were made to strengthen bilateral cultural relations, Dele- gations from the Bhutan-Indian Friendship Associations (BIFA), schools etc.

visited India during the year. Assistance was also provided by way of presenta-tion of books and teaching aids etc. and ad hoc subsidies were also provided fo r the repair of dzongs and monasteries. India continued to supply, at Bhutan's request, certain essential commodi- ties such as wheat, rice, sugar, coal, explosives, steel and edible oils at con trolled price.
tion of books and teaching aids etc. and ad hoc subsidies were also provided fo r the repair of dzongs and monasteries. India continued to supply, at Bhutan's request, certain essential commodi- ties such as wheat, rice, sugar, coal, explosives, steel and edible oils at con trolled price.
The Burmese Foreign Minister U Ye Goung led a delegation to India from 12 to 17 September 1987. During the visit, Instruments of Ratification of the Maritime Boundary Agreement, signed in Rangoon on 23 December 1986, were exchanged. With this, the Indo-Burma Agreement on the Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary has come into force.

The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi and Shrimati Sonia Gandhi paid a visit to Burma or 15 and 16 December 1987 at the invitation of the Burmese Prime Minister, U Maung Maung Kha. During the visit, our Prime Minister had extensive meetings with U Ne Win, Chairman of the Burma Socialist Programme Party, President U San Yu and also had a round of official talks with the Burmese Prime Minister.

The talks centered around ways and means of expan- sion and further consolidation of the existing friendly relations between the t wo countries. A number of decisions were taken to give a fillip to bilateral relat ions between India and Burma. The visit and meetings were marked by great cordiality and understanding. During the visit, the Prime Minister visited the 2,500 year old Shwedagon Pagoda and the tomb of Bahadur Shah Zafar. The Prime Minister also returned to the people of Burma the palm leaf manuscripts containing the despatches of the 19th century Burmese hero, General Mahabandoola, which were brought by the British and kept in the Victoria Memorial, Calcutta for the last 100 years.

India has maintained a continuous dialogue with Pakistan in order to improve relations with that country. This is in keeping with our commitment to develop cordial, cooperative and good-neighbourly relations with Pakistan in accordance with the letter and spirit of the Simla Agreement. Apart from the PM-Zia Meeting (New Delhi, 21 February 1987) and the PM-Junejo Meeting (Kathmandu, 4 November 1987), a number of impor- tant bilateral meetings were held during the year. Pursuant to the first round of talks (New Delhi, 30 January to 4 February 1987), Shri A. S. Gonsalves, Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs, held talks in Islamabad from 27 February to 4 March 1987 with the Pakistan Foreign Secretary, Abdul Sattar on the defusion of border tension. The meeting resulted in an agreement on de-escalation along the border.

As had been decided at the Home Secretary level talks in December 1986, committees to evolve fresh Border Ground Rules and to deal with drug trafficking and smuggling also met. Inspite of Pakistan's unwillingness to move towards nondiscriminatory trade relations with India,
the meetings of Sub-Commissions I and II of the Indo-Pak Joint Commission, dealing with economic cooperation and trade, were convened in August 1987, followed in December 1987 by talks at the Planning Secretary and Commerce Secretary level. Talks were also held in April 1987 to discuss other issues such as the problems arising from the detention of fishermen and fishing vessel s by India and Pakistan and the Tulbul Navigation Project.

Our sincere sentiments for good relations have not been reciprocated by Pakistan, as is evident from a series of negative actions taken by it which hav e initiated the atmosphere, adversely affecting our relations. These include its weapons-oriented nuclear policy, its quest for sophisticated weapons like AWACS far beyond its genuine defence requirements, its involvement with extremist activities directed against India, its orchestrated and concerted efforts to in ter- nationalize the Kashmir issue, its resorting to offensive military action in th e Siachen area, its unwillingness to have non-discriminatory trade relations with India and its reluctance to increase people-to-people contacts.

India took a careful note of developments concerning the Afghan situation. During the year, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) initiated the policy of national reconciliation under which it offered to share power with the Afghan opposition both within and outside the country. Both the Soviet Union and Afghanistan offered withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan in a period of 12 months or less provided this was accompanied by cessation of external interference. India, as a country in the region, is deeply affected by the situation in Afghanistan. Accordingly, we have initiated contacts with various Afghan opposition elements and the countries involved in the Afghan situation in order to help contribute towards a political solution. Our efforts are continuing. We are in favour of a non-aligned, independent and stable Afghanistan.

India's bilateral relations with Afghanistan developed satisfactorily durin g the year. President Najibullah made brief halts in New Delhi in December 1987 while transiting through India en route to Vietnam and Kampuchea and back. This opportunity was utilised for an exchange of views on matters of bilateral and regional importance. Earlier, Foreign Minister Wakil had paid a visit to Delhi in February 1987. The then External Affairs Minister, Shri N.D. Tiwari also visited Kabul in May 1987 for attending the Eighth Session of the Indo-Afghan Joint Commission on Economic, Technical and Trade matters.
India's ITEC programme in Afghanistan which is directed at benefit ing the common man in areas such as public health, small-scale industry, education, etc. was continued during the year under review. A major tidal wave hit the Maldives in April 1987 causing extensive damage to property, especially to the International Airport at Male. In res- ponse to a message from President Gayoom to our Prime Minister requesting relief assistance and help in surveying the damage to the Airport, the Prime Minister announced an assistance of Rs. 20 lakhs. Under this, 15 tonnes of bleaching powder and 48,000 doses of cholera vaccine were rushed to the Maldives. A team from the International Airports Authority of India also visited the Maldives from 18 to 20 April 1987 and their report has been banded over to the Government of Maldives.

Relations with the Maldives continued to be close and cordial. In February 1987, the Maldivian Trade Minister, Mr. Ilyas Ibrahim visited India along with a three-member delegation to discuss ways and means of expanding trade and industrial collaboration with India.

The Government remains firmly committed to the removal of the military presence of extra-regional powers from the Indian Ocean and is concerned about developments in the region which led to a build-up of foreign military forces. The Government was therefore disappointed at the further postponement upto 1990, of the deadline for convening an International Conference on the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace under the aegis of the UN. SAARC experienced considerable expansion in its activities during 1987- 88 alongside progress in the Integrated Programme of Action in the eleven areas of cooperation (Agriculture, Prevention of Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse, Health, Meteorology, Postal Services, Rural Development, Science and Technology, Sports, Arts and Culture, Telecommunications, Transport and Women in Development).

India handed over the Chairmanship to Nepal at the Third SAARC Summit in Kathmandu in November 1987, at the end of a term during which almost 100 activities had been organised. Of these, India had hosted 45. The Summit provided the occasion for a review of SAARC activities during 1987. The following highlights of the Summit give an indica- tion of the work done in these areas during the year :
1. SAARC Food Security Reserve (SFSR) Following extensive discussions at the official level (initially under FAO auspices), the Council of Ministers which met in New Delhi in June 1987 decided in principle to establish a SAARC Food Security Reserve, by which member countries could draw on food stocks in the event of an emergency.

The Agreement establishing the SFSR was signed at the Third SAARC Summit. The Agreement is a landmark in regional cooperation. This is the first time that countries of the region have decided to pool their resources to help one another in an emergency.
2. Environmental Matters At India's initiative, a seminar on disaster relief management was held in 1987 to consider the most fruitful ways of cooperating in this area. At the Third SAARC Summit, the leaders decided to commission a study on the causes and consequences of natural disasters and the protection and preservation of the environment in the context of recurrent national disasters in the region. The Secretary-General has been entrusted with the task of having the study conducted.
3.Terrorism The Dhaka Summit had decided that SAARC should examine the prob- lem of terrorism as it affected the region, with a view to cooperating in combating this scourge. Following preliminary work at two meet- ings in Dhaka in 1986, a Group of Experts met in New Delhi in March 1987 and succeeded in identifying offences which are to be regarded as terroristic, and which, for purposes of extradition, are not to be regarded as political. There was also agreement on action re- quired at the national, bilateral and regional levels such as accession to existing international conventions, harmonisation of domestic legislation, and exchange of information and expertise.

The Council of Ministers decided to concretise these efforts with the drafting of a Regional Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, which was signed at the Third SAARC Summit.
4. Expansion of Activities for People-to-People Contact Five new ideas approved by the Heads of State or Government at the Bangalore Summit, to promote people-to-people contact in SAARC
countries, were translated into full-fledged schemes. One of them, the SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange (SAVE) was launched on 2 Novem- ber 1987, to coincide with the opening of the Third SAARC Summit. Under this scheme, a television and a radio programme from each of the member countries, by rotation, will be broadcast throughout the region on the 1st and 15th of each month respectively. Organised tourism, with facilities for limited convertibility of national currencies, is to be launched by 1 July 1988. The scheme for SAARC Chairs Fellowships/Scholarships is to begin from the academic year 1988.

India is to host a meeting of the Documentation Experts Committee in March 1988 in connection with the establishment of the SAARC Documentation Centre. Arrangements are also being made for the launching of the SAARC Youth Volunteers Programme.
5. Planning A second meeting of SAARC Planners took place in Islamabad in October 1987 in pursuance of a decision of the Bangalore Summit (the first meeting had been held in New Delhi in 1983). The meeting of Plan- ners is now to take place annually. Based on the recommendations of the group, studies are to be initiated in the following areas--analysis of trade regimes vis-a-vis industrial protection policies of member countries, quantification of the benefits of intra-regional trade expan- sion and establishment of a mechanism for financing short duration trade imbalances, joint ventures and national systems of industrial promotion and regulation.

A data bank on socioeconomic indicators of member countries is to be established according to a format to be devised by the Documentation Expert Committee at its first meeting.

As a follow-up to another recommendation of the Planners' meeting, India is to host a meeting of experts in the field of developing energy mode!- ling techniques. SAARC adopted uniform guidelines for the sharing of institutional costs of regional institutions, and for other administrative and budgetary procedures in this connection, at a meeting held in Kathmandu in May 1987. Regional institutions are to be established in association with national institutions, as far as possible, to save on capital expenditure, the guiding parameters for their establishment being economy and efficiency.
Member: countries have agreed to establish a SAARC Meteorological Research Centre and a SAARC Agricultural Information Centre in India and Bangladesh respectively. The possibility of setting up regional institution in a few other areas is also being considered.

Administrative and financial decisions regarding the SAARC Secretariat enabled it to become fully functional during the year. India contributed a terracotta mural from Rajasthan to the SAARC Secretariat for the Conference Hall. The third session of the Council of Ministers took place as scheduled in New Delhi in June 1987 and was preceded by the eighth session of the Standing Committee and the third session of the Programming Committee. All the three bodies met again in Kathmandu prior to the Third Summit. India has announced a contribution of Rs. 17.5 million towards SAARC.

activities for the year 1988-89. India looks forward to further progress in the growth of regional cooperation as envisaged by the SAARC Charter.
Jul 29, 1987
South-East Asia

India's friendly relations with the countries in the South-East Asian region continue to progress smoothly. The mutual desire to further develop and diversify bilateral cooperation, which found particular expression during the visit of the Prime Minister of India to some of the countries in the region in October 1986 has been further manifested in the form of increased high-level exchanges and broadened interaction in economic, commercial and other areas.

The Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh, visited Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore during March 1987 and the Philippines during April 1987 and had a useful exchange of views on various matters of bilateral interst and regional issues.

Mr. Daim Zainuddin, Minister of Finance, and Dr. Lin Keng Yark, Minister of Primary Industries of Malaysia, visited India from 28 November to Dec 04, 1987, and had discussions with Shri N. D. Tiwari, Minister of Finance and Commerce, on possibilities of stepping up the India-Malaysia trade and reducing the trade imbalance which continues to be in Malaysia's favour.

A delegation from the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) visited Malaysia in April 1987 and later in July 1987 for the first meeting of the India-Malaysia Joint Business Cooperation Committee. An exclusive Indian Trade Exhibition was organised in Kuala Lumpur from 14 to 23 January 1988.

The Minister of State for Commerce, Shri P. R. Das Munshi, visited Singapore to inaugurate the Indian Trade Exhibition which was organised by the Trade Fair Authority of India from 6 to 12 April 1987. A trade delegation from the Singapore Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, visited
India during April-May 1987 and signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).

An agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation with the Republic of Indonesia was signed in Jakarta on 7 August 1987. A delegation of experts from Indonesia visited India during December 1987 to discuss possible areas of cooperation in the field of science and technology. An Agreement on Scientific and Technological Cooperation with the Republic of Phillippines was signed on 8 April 1987 in Manila during the visit of tie Minister of State or External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh. India's relations with the three Indo-China states remain extremely cordial.

India's efforts have been directed towards finding a peaceful, negotiated, poli tical settlement in Kampuchea, involving all the concerned parties. The visit of Shri K. Natwar Singh, the Minister of State for External Affairs, to the ASEAN and the Indo-China states in April-May and June-July 1987 respectively, created a better understanding between the ASEAN and the Indo-China states, and fostered a dialogue between the Kampuchean factions. India has supported and helped to foster the dialogue between Prince Sihanouk and Prime Minister Hun Sen of the People's Republic of Kampuchea. It has been seen as a break- through in the nine-year impasse and although interrupted, has started a proces s towards a possible settlement.

India's economic and technical assistance to the Indo-China region con- tinued to be channelled through the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme. Training in fields such as science and technology, management, agriculture, fisheries, cinematography, forestry, space studies, atomic energy, animal husbandry, classical dance and music, etc. under the ITEC and other programmes were provided to the nominees from the Indo- China countries. Indian experts were also deputed to these countries.

Credits, commodity loans and grant assistance were made available to Vietnam. The various decisions of the Second Indo-Vietnamese Joint Commis- sion (November 1985), were implemented during the year under review. Science and Technology delegations have been exchanged and a working programme has been finalised. The Indo-Vietnamese Treaty for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy has been ratified and the programme for
cooperation has been finalised. An Indian telecommunication delegation visit ed Vietnam and identified areas of cooperation. Two research centres, one in anima l husbandry and forage, and the other in rice under the ITEC programme, are functioning smoothly.

In Kampuchea, the Archaeological Survey of India commenced work on Phase II of the Angkor Vat Restoration. The project is financed under the ITEC programme. The Kampuchean authorities have appreciated India's assistance. The hospital at Svey Rieng is also being renovated with Indian assistance, and Indian doctors are being deputed to run the hospital. In collaboration with the Kampuchean Government, India is processing the establishment of a rice seed farm. Pumps for drought relief are being supplied to Kampuchea.

The Government of India gifted 55 pumps to Laos. India has been participating in the Interim Mekong Projects with Laos as the target country. Relief medicines and cloth are being supplied. India has pledged to establish one small-scale unit in Laos. The friendly bilateral relations with the countries of the South Pacific, ex cept for the regrettable exception of Fiji, continued throughout the year under revi ew.

The Prime Minister's visits to Australia and New Zealand in October 1986 had given the necessary impetus to the strengthening of bilateral relations with th ese countries. Follow-up to the visit to Australia continued in the form of a meeti ng of the Joint Business Council in March 1987, a senior officials' meeting in April 1987, and a visit by the Secretary in the Australian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade in September 1987. The last two meetings in particular aimed at reviewing, monitoring and directing bilateral relations. India and Australia signed, during the year under review, a Memorandum of Understanding on Space research. Progress was also made on the conclusion of another Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in meteorology.

Business delegations were exchanged to step up trade and economic interaction. The India-New Zealand Joint Trade Committee had its first meeting in June, 1987 in New Delhi.
The President of Vanuatu, Ati George Sokomanu, paid a goodwill, visit to India from 13 to 16 December 1987.

Fiji was the only country in the South Pacific with which India's relations suffered a set-back following a coup there on 14 May 1987. In the wake of the coup, a systematic campaign was launched to deprive the Indian community in Fiji of its guaranteed constitutional rights. The discrimination was being made solely on the basis of the racial origin of the community. Moves were also afoot to change the existing Constitution which had given the Indians a modicum of fair treatment and parity. India expressed its deep concern at the overthrow of the democratically elected popular government in Fiji.

India also condemned the racial overtone of the actions of the military regime in Fij i at international forums like the United Nations General Assembly and the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting. India suspended bilateral trade and economic cooperation with Fiji and India's High Commissioner to Fiji was recalled for consultations. India has taken the position that any future constitutional arrangements in Fiji, to be viable and effective, would have to be fair and acceptable to all the communities there.

India offered cyclone relief worth Rs. 5 lakhs each to Fiji and Vanuatu.
Dec 04, 1987
East Asia


During the year under review, the Government's desire to renew and revitalise relations with China and to build a climate of mutual trust between India and China, was conveyed to the Chinese Government. Our Government's intention to continue to make sincere efforts to reach a satisfactory and mutua lly acceptable settlement of the boundary question was also emphasized. It was stressed that good relations between India and China are important, not just for both countries, but for Asia and for world peace. The transit visit of the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwa ri to beijing in May 1987, was a further indication of the Government's desire to defuse tension on the border with China. There was a better understanding of each other's positions as a result of the visit. It was stressed that a new beg inning should be made to dispel any misunderstanding and suspicions of the past. The Eighth Round of Official-Level Talks between India and China was held in New Delhi from 15 to Nov 17, 1987.

The talks were held in a positive, and constructive atmosphere. The Government's desire to reach a satisfactory boundary settlement, to maintain peace and tranquillity on the bor der and to make progress in other spheres of bilateral relations was conveyed to the Chinese delegation. It was recognised that the border question is one which is deeply embedded in the psyche of both peoples and that it will have to be tackled with patience and care.

The year under review witnessed a number of exchanges between the two countries under the annual Cultural Exchange and Science and Technology Exchange Programmes. A four-member delegation of scholars in Religion and Philosophy visited China in May 1987. A Radio and Television delegation from India visited China in April-May 1987. An Exhibition of Chinese Oil Paintings was held in New Delhi in June 1987. Under the Scholarship Ex- change Scheme, which forms a part of the Cultural Exchange Programme between India and China, 9 students from each country are studying in the other currently.

In the field of science and technology, an Indian delegation visited China in April 1987, to study the computer industry. Chinese delegations also visited India to study the large-scale Construction Programme of Housing, the Design and Construction of High Earth Rock Dams, Plasma Physics and Laser Techno-logy
and Instrumentation. Outside the Science and Technology Exchange Programme, there was an exchange of scientists from the Indian National Science Academy (INSA) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Exchanges between the Indian Council for Social Science Research (ICSSR) and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) were also pursued.

The Chinese Minister for Mineral Resources and Geology, Mr. Zhu Xun visited India from 9 to 20 January 1988 at the invitation of the Minister of Steel and Mines, Shri M. L. Fotedar. Both sides expressed their desire to explore the possibilities of mutually beneficial cooperation in the mineral sec tor and briefed each other on the experiences gained in both countries in the field of mineral exploration and development. The delegation also visited organi- sations dealing with geological surveys, exploration, public sector production enterprises for ferrous and non-ferrous minerals and metals with a view to gaining knowledge of India's progress and development in the mineral sector. A Trade Protocol covering the period from 1 January 1987 to 31 March 1988, was signed between the two countries in Beijing in May 1987. The Protocol envisages a total trade turnover of US $ 150 to 200 million in this period. The President of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, Mr. Jia Shi, also visited India during March 1987, at the invitation of the Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).

A five-member Chinese delegation led by Mr. Lin Huaxuan, Secretary- General of the International Liaison Department of the Communist Party of China, attended the Asian Relations Commemorative Conference in New Delhi, in October 1987.

Shri K. C. Pant, the then Minister for Steel and Mines, transited through Beijing in April 1987, on his return from Pyongyang, where he had attended the Seventy-fifth Birth Anniversary Celebrations of the President of the Demo- cratic People's Republic of Korea, Kim Il Sung.
With Japan, the trend of cooperative and friendly relations which had received a new impetus since the visit of our Prime Minister to Japan in 1985,continued with greater exchanges in the economic, commercial, cultural, scienti fic and technology fields between the two countries.

The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi met Prime Minister Nakasone of Japan in October 1987 when he transited through Tokyo on his way to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Vancouver, Canada. Besides bilateral matters, international matters of mutual interest were also discussed . The Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. T. Kuranari paid an official visit to India in August 1987. Discussions on various bilateral matters were he ld between Shri K. Natwar Singh, Minister of State for External Affairs and Mr.

Kuranari. Mr. Kuranari also called on the President, the Prime Minister and the Finance Minister. The bilateral discussions comprehensively covered the areas of mutual interest and reflected the mutual recognition of the important roles of both countries in the Asian and global context. Other important visito rs from Japan included Prince Hiro, the son of the Crown Prince and Princess of Japan in March 1987 and Mr. Y. Sakurauchi, former Foreign Minister and the President of the India-Japan Association in August 1987. Several members of Parliament and State legislatures also visited Japan during the year.

The Mayor of Hiroshima participated in the Asian Relations Commemorative Con- ference in New Delhi in October 1987.

From Japan there was an increase in the visit of official delegations as also delegations from various private companies. There was also an increase in tourist traffic. Japan in March 1987 and Mr. Y. Sakurauchi, former Foreign Minister and the President of the India-Japan Association in August 1987. Several members of Parliament and State legislatures also visited Japan during the year. The Mayor of Hiroshima participated in the Asian Relations Commemorative Con- ference in New Delhi in October 1987.

From Japan there was an increase in the visit of official delegations as also delegations from various private companies. There was also an increase in tourist traffic. Japan became the largest donor to India of the Official Development Assis- tance (ODA) on a bilateral basis in 1987. An ODA loan of Yen 68.447 billion was announced in August 1987 marking an increase of about 41% over the ODA loan of Yen 48.443 billion in the previous year. In October 1987, Japan announced an additional loan of Yen 29.5 billion for drought relief assistance. India-Japan trade continued to reflect Japan's position as India's third largest trading partner though the trade volume remained low in the context of Japan's global trade. Indian exports showed a slight upward trend and effort s to enhance our exports in the face of the 7% increase in the value of the Yen were made. Exports of manufactured items like ready-made garments, gems and jewellery, chemicals and leather products registered a steady increase. The 344 EA/88--5
India-Japan bilateral trade talks were held in New Delhi in November 1987 and the possibilities of increasing and diversifying Indian exports were furthe r discussed. The Twentieth Joint Meeting of the India-Japan Business Coopera- tion Committee took place in Tokyo in December 1987 and measures to promote trade, investment, joint ventures and other collaborations between the Indian and Japanese companies were further discussed. A Japanese Investment Survey Mission including representatives of various Japanese companies visited India in January 1988 to evaluate the current economic policies in India and the inve st- ment environment. Several Indian delegations, both official and non-official ha ve visited Japan to discuss enhanced economic, commercial and related coopera- tion.

During the year under review, specific proposals for cooperation and interaction in the field of science and technology were exchanged and efforts to implement the decisions of. the Joint Committee under the Agreement on Cooperation in the field of science and technology were continued.

The Japan Month was held in the metropolitan cities of India in October- November 1987. The Month included a variety of cultural items and was the largest ever exposition of Japan's culture in India. The Month was held in pursuit of a decistheir meeting in November 1985 to enhance cultural exchanges. The Festival of India in Japan is scheduled to be inaugurated in April 1988.

Preparations for this Festival continued during the year under review to ensure that a variety of cultural items are presented during the six-month long festival in Japan next year.

The Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independence was celebrated in Tokyo. An Indian Naval ship INS Ganga paid a goodwill visit to Japan coinciding with these celebrations. Japan also invited Indian youth as part of several ongoing exchange programmes. A Japanese Maritime Safety Agency ship Chikuzen visited Madras in November 1987.

An Indian agricultural scientist, Dr. G. S. Khush was awarded the Japan Prize, alongwith two other scientists, for his research on rice strains and their contribution to agricultural development in Asia.
India's relations with both the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) continued to reflect improvements in our political dialogue and greater avenues for economic cooperation. Shri N. D. Tiwari, the then Minister for External Affairs paid an official visit to the Republic of Korea in May 1987. Besides holding talks on mattersof bilateral and international concern with the Foreign Minister of the ROK, Shri Tiwari also called on the ROK President and Prime Minister. Mr. Kyong Shik Kang, Chairman of the Office of Policy Coordination of the Ruling Demo-cratic Justice Party, visited India in April 1987 as a Special Envoy of the ROK President. He paid a courtesy call on the Vice-President and the Prime Minister and also held discussions with the Minister for External Affairs. During his visit he invited a delegation of Indian economic experts to the ROK. The Prime Minister deputed Dr. Y. K. Alagh, Member, Planning Commission and Secretary, Industrial Development to visit the ROK in September 1987 to study the econo- mic development of the country.

On the economic side, efforts were made to enhance the economic content of our bilateral relationship with the ROK. India-ROK bilateral trade talks were held in September 1987 and the need to enhance our trade Was mutually recognised. The ROK side agreed to send a buying Mission to India at an early date to identify new products of trade interest and to enhance availability of information on Indian products. The India-ROK Economic Cooperation Committee also met in New Delhi in September and provided a forum for exchange of views between the private sectors. A six-member Parliamentary delegation from the Republic of Korea paid a visit to India in April 1987. During the visit they called on the Vice-Presid ent, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the then Minister for External Affairs and other dignitaries.

A five-member Science and Technology delegation from India led by the Secretary, Department of Science and Technology visited the ROK in April 1987 to further discuss cooperation and collaboration in various identified areas. The Chief Justice, Shri R. S. Pathak visited Seoul for the Thirteenth Conference on the Law of the World. Justice Nagendra Singh had also visited Seoul during the year.

The Cultural Exchange Programme for the year 1987-88 was discussed and agreed upon during the visit of an Indian delegation to Seoul in April 1987.
Various other Indian delegations for international conferences- also visited the Republic of Korea during the year. A team from the National Defence College of the ROK visited India in October 1987 following the visit of an Indian team last year.

The momentum of high-level political exchanges was maintained with the DPRK during the year. Shri K. C. Pant, the then Minister for Steel and Mines led a delegation as Special Envoy of the Prime Minister to the Seventy-fifth Bi rth- day Celebrations of President Kim Il Sung. The delegation included Shri Eduardo Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Bhuvnesh Chatur- vedi and Shri M. C. Bhandare, Members of Parliament.

The Indian delegation met with President Kim Il Sung. The DPRK Vice Premier and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Kim Yong Nam visited India in February 1987, for consultations for the Extraordinary Ministerial Conference of Non-aligned Countries on South- South, Cooperation which was held in Pyongyang in June 1987. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari visited Pyongyang for the Con- ference and also held bilateral discussions on various subjects of mutual concern with President Kim Il Sung.

The DPRK Prime Minister attended a public rally on the occasion of the Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independence in Pyongyang, on which occasion a Festival of Indian Films was also held.
The Cultural Exchange Programme was signed between India and the DPRK in March 1987 at New Delhi for the year 1987-88. India participated in the first film festival of Non-aligned countries held in Pyongyang in October 1987.

Mr. Li Gun Mo, the Prime Minister of the Administration Council of the DPRK visited India from 18 to 21 February 1988. This was the first ever visit by a North Korean Prime Minister and was preceded by an economic delegation.
The visit emphasised the friendly relations between our two Non-aligned countri es and efforts to enhance bilateral economic relations were also made.

An Indian delegation led by Prof. Nurul Hasan, Governor of West Bengal, visited Mongolia on the occasion of the Mongolian National Day in July 1987. Besides holding discussions with the Mongolian Foreign Minister, Prof. Hasan also called on Mr. Batmunkh, the Head of State of Mongolia. In April 1987, a three-member Mongolian Parliamentary delegation led by Mr. B. Altangeral,
the then Chairman of the Great People's Khural, visited India and was received by the Vice-President, the Prime Minister and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Both these visits were greatly appreciated by the Mongolian leadership and serv ed to maintain the momentum of exchanges between our two countries.

A Cultural Exchange Programme for 1987-89 was signed in August 1987 between India and the Mongolian People's Republic. The Health Protocol was also renewed for a further period of three years. A documentary film on Mongoli a, which was jointly produced by India and Mongolia with Indian assistance under the ITEC Programme, was successfully completed and the film was presented to the Government of Mongolia in November 1987. Efforts to further enhance cultural, scientific, agricultural and health exchanges were maintained during the year under review.
Nov 17, 1987
West Asia And North Africa

India's relations in the political, economic and cultural fields with the countries of the West Asia and North Africa region were further consolidated and diversified during the year under review. India persisted with its policy of firm and unequivocal support for the Palestinian cause. It has lent active support in all relevant international for a such as the UN and NAM to efforts for a comprehensive, just and equitable settlementof the Palestinian problem including the proposal for a UN sponsored Inter- national Conference on the Middle East. The visit of Mr. Yasser Arafat, Chair- man of the PLO, in August 1987 underscored the strong ties between India and the Palestinian people. Shri B. Shankaranand, the then Minister for Water Resources, had earlier represented India at the Algiers session of the Palestin e National Council in April 1987. A close political dialogue was maintained with Jordan and efforts to enhance bilateral economic cooperation continued. The Indo-Jordanian Committee on Trade and Commerce met in New Delhi in March 1987 to give a further boost to bilateral trade and commercial relations.

Our relations with Syria also continued to strengthen. The Minister of State for Agriculture visited Syria in May 1987 to discuss possibilities of increased bilateral interaction in the field of agriculture. The Syrian Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Diaullah Al Fattal visited India in January 1988 for con- sultations. Discussions were held on bilateral relations as well as regional an d international issues of common interest.

The growing warmth in Judo-Egyptian relations continued during the year with renewed interest in bilateral cooperation in various fields. Regular high- level exchanges on various matters of regional and bilateral interest also took place. An Egyptian Parliamentary delegation visited India in October 1987. Our Minister of State for Health led a delegation to Cairo on a study tour in June 1987. A number of proposals for cooperation in science and technology, agriculture, energy, industry and trade with Egypt are under active considerati on.

Our relations with the three States in the Horn of Africa viz. Djibouti, Sudan and Somalia continued to remain steady. In the Maghreb region we continued with our close cooperation and con- sultations with Algeria, India was represented by a high-level delegation led b y Shrimati Mohsina Kidwai, Minister for Urban Development, at the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of Algerian Independence in July 1987. Shri B. Shankaranand, the then Minister for Water Resources, visited Algeria in April 1987 to discuss pos si- bilities of Indo-Algerian cooperation in the field of hydraulics. Further, duri ng the official visit of Dr. Ahmed Taleb Ibrahimi, Foreign Minister of Algeria in January 1988, wide-ranging discussions were held on bilateral relations and int er- national issues of mutual interest. With Tunisia too, there were encouraging prospects of development of cooperation in the industrial and economic fields.

Relations with Libya continued to be good and efforts to solve the problem of outstanding payments to Indian companies continued. An ever-increasing number of Indian doctors, engineers and other personnel were recruited for services in various sectors of the Libyan economy. Following the opening of the Embassy of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic in Delhi, our Ambassador to Algeria has been concurrently accredited to the SADR. Relief items worth several lakhs were despatched to the Saharawi Red Cross Society during the year.

Relations between India and the six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, namely, Saudi. Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait Bahrain, Qatar and Oman continued to be cordial during the year under review, These relations are chara c- terised by in important economic dimension. Bilateral trade with the Gulf countries continued to increase during the year. The presence of over 7 lakh Indian workers whose services are valued constitutes a major link between India and these countries. Despite recessionary tendencies owing to the fall in off p rices it was possible, through our efforts, to maintain India's share in the Gulf lab our market. Indian Missions which now have full-fledged officers looking after labo ur

work continued to provide necessary consular assistance to Indian, emigrant s in these countries. During the year, these countries have shown greater interest in investing in India. The Indo-OAPEC Seminar held in New Delhi in February 1987 and the Gulf Organisation for Industrial Consultancy (GOIC) Seminar held in Doha in May 1987 provided investors from the Gulf countries a better understanding about investment opportunities in India. The process of persuading the Gulf countries about the advantages of investing in India is continuing.

A Special Envoy of the Amir of Kuwait visited New Delhi in June 1987 with a message from the Amir for our Prime Minister relating to escalation of the conflict in the Gulf. A direct telephone link between the UAE and India has been established with the inauguration of the tele-link by the Minister of Communications.

Relations with Iran have continued to grow. There were several exchanges of visits between the two countries during the year. In February 1987 the Fourt h session of the Indo-Iran Joint Commission was held in New Delhi. In October an Indian Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha visited Iran. In December the Iranian Minister of Heavy Industries visited India for discussions on new areas of industrial cooperation. The Fifth session of the Indo-Iran Joint Commission is due to be held in Tehran in the near future.

Relations with Iraq have been warm and cordial. An Indian Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha visited Baghdad in October 1987. An Iraqi Parliamentary delegation is due to visit in April 1988. India participated in the Annual Baghdad International Trade Fair. A deferred pay- ment arrangement with Iraq to settle outstanding payments due to Indian com- panies has been working satisfactorily.

The Iran-Iraq war which has entered its eighth year continues with little apparent prospect of a negotiated settlement. While the UN Security Council

Resolution 598 has been broadly supported its implementation is fraught with difficulty. The already tense situation in the region was seriously aggravated during 1987 by the escalation of foreign naval presence in the Gulf. India has expressed concern over this enhancement of tension in a region neighbouring our country. India has been in touch with both Iraq and Iran on the war. The Principal Adviser to the Iranian President visited India and met the Prime Minister in January 1987 to brief him on the Iranian position on the war. In February 1987 the Iranian Foreign Minister who was in Delhi in connection with the Joint Commission meeting also put across Iran's perspective on the war. There were further exchanges of views between the two sides during Secretary (West)'s visit to Tehran in August 1987 and the Iranian Foreign Minister Velayati's visit to New Delhi in November 1987.

Relations with the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) and the People's Demo- cratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY) were consolidated during 1987. H. E. Dr. Yassin Saeed Noman, Politburo Member and Prime Minister of the PDRY, made a halt in India en route to Beijing from 11 to Mar 12, 1987. He had a fruitful exchange of views with our Prime Minister on bilateral, regional and international matters.

A gift consignment of medicines worth Rs. 7.5 lakhs was given to the PDRY in early 1987. India was represented in the YAR at the Silver Jubilee Celebrations of the 'Twenty-sixth September Revolution" by Shri Bhagwat Jha Azad, M.P.

The first Indo-YAR Joint Commission meeting will be held in the near future. Industrial, technical, agricultural, commercial and medical cooperation are some of the major areas to be discussed at the meeting. This meeting would facilitate a wider participation of Indian companies in the YAR's development.

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The second meeting of the Indo-Qatar Joint Committee meeting was held in Doha in January 1988. The fifth meeting of the Indo-UAE Joint Commission and the eleventh meeting of the Indo-Iraq Joint Commission are scheduled to be held in the near future.

Mar 12, 1987
Africa (South Of The Sahara)

With the countries of Africa (South of the Sahara), India's relations conti- nued to grow satisfactorily. Significant efforts were made to strengthen India' s links with the Frontline States and Liberation Movements in South Africa. India continued to play a major role in the struggle waged in Southern Africa for dis - mantlement of the abhorrent system of apartheid and the abolition of the last vestige of colonialism in that part of the world.

Shri Anand Sharma, MP, the then President of the Indian Youth Congress, attended the International Conference on "Repression and the Law in Apartheid in South Africa" in Harare from 24 to Sep 27, 1987. In June 1987, in New Delhi, an African Festival was organised and Africa Day was celebrated. At the Meeting of the Commonwealth Heads of Government, held in Van- couver in October 1987, India succeeded in frustrating attempts at diluting man - datory comprehensive sanctions against the Pretoria regime. A consensus for CHAPTER V At the Meeting of the Commonwealth Heads of Government, held in Van- couver in October 1987, India succeeded in frustrating attempts at diluting man - datory comprehensive sanctions against the Pretoria regime. A consensus for continuing the sanctions remained solid.

India participated in the "Solidarity Conference" organised by the African National Congress (ANC) in Tanzania from 1 to 4 December 1987 to celebrate its Seventy-fifth Anniversary. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of State for Commerce, Shri P. R. Das Munshi. The Ministry of External Affairs provided interpreters and supplied stationery for use during the conference.

The AFRICA Fund, established at the Eighth Conference of the Heads of State Government of Non-aligned countries, has had an active year Following the

Summit meeting of the AFRICA Fund Committee, held in New Delhi on 24 and 25 January 1987, the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi had written to all the Heads of State/Government forwarding a copy of the appeal and Plan of Action and calling upon all nations to contribute generously to the AFRICA Fund. As part of the efforts at mobilising resources for the AFRICA Fund, Shri N. Krishnan, Special Envoy of the Prime Minister undertook fund raising missions to selected countries accompanied by the Ambassador of Zambia to Sweden as the representative of the Vice-Chairman of the Fund. The first missio n in March 1987 took them to Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Italy and Belgium. In April 1987, they, visited Kuwait and in May 1987 the UAE, Bahrain and Canada. Detailed presentations were made on the AFRICA Fund, emphasis- ing the role of the Fund as a catalyst for promoting additional flow of assista nce to the Frontline States as well as liberation movements. During these visits sy m- pathy and support for the objectives of the Fund were expressed. Most donors are already heavily involved in developmental projects in the Southern Africa region bilaterally, through the Southern African Development Coordination Con ference (SADCC) and or through the UN and other multilateral agencies.

Discussions were also held with the UN agencies, the Secretary-General of the Commonwealth and the European Economic Community (EEC). The Sec- retary-General of the UN gave full personal endorsement and promised support of the UN system to the AFRICA Fund. Meetings were held with the Inter- national Labour Organisation (ILO), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) as well as an inter-agency meeting chaired by the Director General for Development and International Economic Cooperation. As a result of these efforts, there is scope for considerable Cooperation and, coordination between the UN agencies and the AFRICA Fund. The UNDP have agreed to consider pro- viding technical assistance for specific projects. The IFAD has earmarked funds
for technical assistance to an Indian-funded project in Mozambique. Shri Krishnan and Ambassador Kazinga also called on the Secretary-General of the Commonwealth, as a result of which, the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation (CFTC) have made available many project profiles and agreed to collaborate constructively through the provision of technical assista nce for the AFRICA Fund projects.

Useful meetings were held with the European Economic Commission opening up possibilities of coordination between the activities of the EEC and the AFRICA Fund.

On the whole, the response to the AFRICA Fund has been encouraging and contributions and pledges during the course of the year under review have reached US $ 242 million as on 1 December 1987. The governments of a number of States comprising the AFRICA Fund Committee including their leaders have been active in creating, Awareness about the Fund and soliciting support for it. Several other projects were taken up pu b- licising the objectives of the Fund and for mobilising international public opi nion against apartheid. A special brochure on, the subject of the AFRICA Fund was widely distributed through the India Missions abroad to government leaders and officials, voluntary organizations, academic and other institutions as well as emi- nent persons in different walks of life. Special persons and groups active agai nst apartheid were identified in various countries and contact established with the m with a view to spread the message of the AFRICA Fund. The message of the AFRICA Fund was further spread through seminars, conferences and meetings. A special, presentation on AFRICA Fund was made at the meeting of the Asso- ciation of West European Parliamentarians for Action against Apartheid held at Strassburg in May 1987. Two delegations of Indian Parliamentarians visited a number of countries in connection with the convening by the Parliamentarians Action for Removal of Apartheid (PARA) (India Chapter) of a global prepara- tory meeting in Delhi in August 1987 to prepare for an eventual world confer- ence of Parliamentarians against apartheid.

A meeting of the senior officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee was held in Delhi from 4 to 7 August 1987 to review the progress of the AFRICA Fund. The subcommittee meeting was held on 6 August 1987 under the chairmanship of Zambia at which all the Frontline States and liberation movements as well as donor countries were present. The meeting enabled donor and recipient countries to meet for the first time and take full advantage of the opportunity to intera ct with each other and establish informal contacts. The Frontline States were able to present updated list of their priority requirements. A number of donors and UN agencies made brief references and, amongst others, India was able to announce the list of projects which it intended to take up for implementation from its contributions to the AFRICA Fund.

At the Summit meeting held in January 1987, the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi had announced India's contribution of Rs. 50 crores to the AFRICA Fund. Thereafter an exercise was mounted to identify the specific projects that India could take up for implementation keeping in view India's capability, ex- perience and requirements of the Frontline States and liberation movements. At
the August 1987 meeting of the senior officials, India was able to give a list

of projects that it intends to take up. The value of the projects identified so far is approximately Rs. 35 crores. Transport vehicles valued at approximately Rs. 4 crores were supplied initially to Tanzania and more are to follow soon. Essential goods, including medicines and transport vehicles valued at Rs. 1.5 crores were sent to the African National Congress (ANC). Transport vehicles, medicines and other items are being supplied to South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) valued at Rs. 1.5 crores. Orders for supply of 100 railway wagons to Zambia have been placed with the Projects and Equipment Corporation of India Limited (PEC). Other projects relating to Mozambique, Botswana, etc. are under active consideration. Agreements were reached with the Governments of Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique laying down the terms and conditions under which Indian projects were being implemented under the AFRICA Fund.

Within India there has been considerable interest generated in the AFRICA Fund. Public response would have been greater but for the unfortunate situation created within the country on account of the unprecedented drought. Even so contributions from the public totalling Rs. 30 lakhs have been received. A Soci ety named Africa Fund has been established with the Prime Minister as the President and registered with the Registrar of Societies, Delhi. A Government Body of Senior Officials has been set up for supervising the activities of the Society. Medicines valued at Rs. 25 lakhs were donated to Mozambique by the Society.

The second meeting of the senior officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee was held in Brazzaville, Congo, from 14 to 16 January 1988. The Chairman's Report on the activities of the Fund since the first meeting of senior official s in August 1987, was presented by India. The Committee noted with satisfaction the progress achieved so far, and the fact that the pledges announced by over forty countries are approaching US $ one quarter billion. The dynamic role played by our Prime Minister and India was acclaimed. Bilateral relations with the countries of Africa continued to grow. A number of high-level visits were, exchanged.

The Mauritian Minister of Health visited India in May 1987 and held discussions with the then Minister of Health. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari, visited Mauritius for the Indo-Mauritian Joint Com-mission meeting in July 1987. The Minister for Human Resource Development led the Indian delegation, which included the Minister of State for Education a nd Culture, for participation in Mauritius' Festival International de la Mer.

The Nigerian Ministers of Agriculture and Industries visited India. A Cultural Exchange Programme between India and Nigeria was signed in August 1987. The Angolan President, Jose dos, Santos paid an official visit to India in April 1987 and held wide-ranging discussions with our Prime Minister. An agreement in the field of economic and technical cooperation was signed during the visit. The Foreign Minister of Uganda visited India in August 1987 and hold talks with the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleir o, to identify new areas of cooperation between the two countries.

A Cultural Exchange Programme with Ethiopia was signed in October 1987 during the visit of the Vice Minister of Culture of Ethiopia to India. During t he Ethiopian Foreign Minister's visit to India in November 1987 bilateral relation s were reviewed. A Cultural Agreement was signed with Seychelles in December 1987 during the visit of the Minister of Education of Seychelles to India.

Sep 27, 1987 1987



Western Europe as a political and economic grouping constitutes an import- ant factor in world affairs. Despite the inequities of size and economic potential these countries have attempted to carve out for themselves, a role larger than they would be in a position to play were they to seek it as individ ual nations. Together they constitute an affluent and sophisticated market. With ju stabout 81/2% of the world's population they account for about 50% of the world GDP and 40% of international trade. The Twelve-Nation European Economic Community is perhaps the largest trading bloc in the world and is a Significant trading partner of India.

India's relations with the countries of Western Europe continue to be cordial and friendly. There was a broad similarity of views based on a belief in politi cal and negotiated settlements for resolving international problems and reducing tensions, even if there were difference's on specific issues. With Western Euro pe increasingly seeking to play a more independent role and craft a more distinct political personality, while remaining within the western alliances system, the ir policy positions on questions of East-West and North-South relations are not dissimilar to those of India. For India, Western Europe continued to remain important as a major trad- ing partner, as a source of economic assistance and for technology transfer. In addition, there is the need for political cooperation for curbing terrorism and extremist activity designed to harm India's security interests. For the West European countries India was seen as a growing economy, supported by policies of liberalisation and political stability, providing enormous opportunities for in- vestments and a market for goods and services. The highly export dependant economics of Western Europe, which are constantly in search for new markets

considered India as one of the most important areas in Asia. India has incre asingly come to be recognised as the most important country in the South Asian region and potentially one of the most promising political and economic systems in Asi a.

The twelve members of the European Community continue to be our major trading partners and cooperation with the community was pursued vigorously in the fields of industrial cooperation, in science and technology and in investme nt. Countries of the region, and more specifically the Scandinavian countries, exte nd- ed economic assistance for projects in the fields of social welfare, health and rural development. In an otherwise positive area of economic and commercial interaction the only cause for concern was the deficit in the balance of trade which continued to show an increase. While the overall exports to Western Europe increased in volume, the range of products remained limited. The reasons for this are the favourable investment climate in India, the liberalisation in the import of cap ital goods and our enhanced requirements for the import of new technology. A contri- butory factor has also been the protective trade policies of the European Com- munity. Our concerns have been expressed clearly in bilateral discussions with representatives of individual countries as well as to the European Community and specific measures have been sought to be adopted to remedy the imbalances. Meetings of the Joint Economic and Trade Committees were held with Sweden and France during 1987. The expansion of Indian exports, commodity and quantum-wise increase in investment, joint collaborations, transfer of tech - nology and counter trade arrangements were the focus of discussions.

In order to curb anti-Indian activities carried out in and from countries in Western Europe, we have closely monitored those activities and sought the co- operation of individual governments. Most governments in Western Europe have been responsive to our concerns and have, in specific cases, cooperated activel y in curtailing these activities. Our specific concerns have been expressed to the British authorities and their cooperation requested in curbing anti-Indian activities in and from the U K. Some limited progress in this regard has been achieved. Negotiations with the
344 EA/88--7

UK have been in course since 1986 for the edification of effective legal arr ange- ments. International issues and bilateral relations were discussed with a number of countries in the West European region during 1987. There were several exchanges of delegations and visits of Ministers and Prime Ministers. The Prime Minister of Norway visited India in July 1987 to discuss bilateral and international issues . He attended the Conference of the World Commission on Environment and Development. During the visit a Memorandum of Understanding on Economic, Industrial and Technological Cooperation was signed. Our Prime Minister met the Dutch Prime Minister during a transit visit to the Netherlands in October 1987.

During the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi's visit to Sweden for the Six Nation Initiative in January 1988, discussions were held with his Swedish counterpart on international issues and matters of mutual bilateral interest. The Italian Prime Minister, Mr. Giovanni Goria, paid an official visit to India in January 1988, the first ever official visit by an Italian Prime Minist er. During discussions at the levels of the two Prime Ministers and delegations, vi ews were exchanged on international issues and matters of mutual bilateral interest . Three important agreements were signed : a Memorandum of Understanding providing for Italian credit of US $ 250 million in the Energy sector, a Memo- randum of Understanding on Development Project for Maintenance Centre at the Regional Engineering College, Srinagar, and a Memorandum of Understand- ing on Grant Portion of Farakka Super Thermal Power Station.

The Indian Industry Minister, Shri J. Vengala Rao and Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, Minister for Human Resource Development, visited Sweden. The Ministers of State for Foreign Affairs of Italy and France visited India ap art from the Minister-President of North Rhine Westphalia (FRG) and other Ministers from the Federal Republic of Germany.A Parliamentary delegation led by our Speaker, Dr. Balram Jakhar visited Spain. In addition, there were numerous visits from industrial and business groups, academicians, journalists and artists. Two major manifestations of Indian culture were held in Sweden and Switzerland.


India's traditionally warm and friendly relations with the USSR and the other socialist countries of Eastern Europe continued to grow and strengthen. Exchange of visit at the highest level contributed in a large measure to this process; simultaneously the decisions of the meetings of India's Joint Com- missions with many of the countries, to increase substantially bilateral trade turnover, accelerate technology transfer, increase scientific cooperation, gave a yet greater substance to India's relations with these countries. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi's visit to the USSR in July 1987 and the visit by the Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, Mr. N. I. Ryzhkov to India in November 1987 continued the process of dialogue between the two countries at- the highest level. During his visit, the Prime Minister, Shri Raj iv Gandhi inaugurated the year-long Festival of India in the USSR. He also had meetings with the Soviet General Secretary, Mr. M. S. Gorbachev and the Soviet Prime Minister, Mr. N. I. Ryzhkov. These discussions were continued during the Soviet Premier's visit to India in connection with the inauguration of the Festival of the USSR in India. The discussions revealed an identity or a close similarity of views between the two countries on bilateral, regional and intern a- tional issues. During the Prime Minister's visit to the USSR, a Long Term Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology between India and the USSR upto the year 2000 A.D. was signed by him and General Secretary, Mr. M. S. Gorbachev. Wider in its scope than any previous agreement of cooperation in science and technology between the two countries in the past, this programme would bring the two countries together in cooperating in frontier areas of tech - nology, fundamental science and futuristic areas in science and technology. During the visit of Prime Minister Ryzhkov the status of wide-ranging Indo- Soviet economic and industrial collaboration was reviewed at length and ways and means discussed to further enrich and diversify this mutually fruitful coop e- ration. The Prime Ministers of India and the USSR signed an Economic and Technical Cooperation Agreement, under which the Soviets have agreed to extend a credit of Roubles 770 million (Rs. 1,150 crores) for cooperation in the estab - lishment of the Karnal Oil Refinery and its associate works as also a Thermal Power Station of 630 MW capacity. Agreements were also signed at ministerial levels for Development of New Forms of Economic Cooperation, Cooperation in Tourism as also Protocols for cooperation in the field of higher education a nd training of students and highly qualified specialists and the equivalence of ce rti- ficates, degrees and diplomas awarded by Universities and other educational and
scientific organizations and institutions in the two countries.

The visit by Mr. A. P. Dobrynin, Secretary of the CC of the CPSU to India in May 1987 afforded another opportunity for contacts between the two countries at a senior level. During his stay in India, Mr. Dobrynin also visited Kashmir.

The Festivals of India and the USSR in each other's countries have been planned on an immense and unprecedented scale in both countries. These will not only be an important landmark in the cultural life of the two countries, bu t would open up new avenues of understanding and cooperation in diverse fields and strengthen the friendship between our two peoples. The two countries also celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relation s between the two countries, in April 1987.

India opened its second Consulate-General in the USSR in Tashkent in July 1987. This would be of use not only to the Indian citizens travelling to, or at present studying or working in the Soviet Central Asia, but also in expandin g the historical relationship between Central Asia and India. The Indo-Soviet Consular Convention, signed in November 1986, was ratified in Moscow in June 1987. The Indo-Soviet Cultural Exchange Programme for 1987-88 was also signed in Moscow in September 1987. The eleventh session of India-USSR Inter-Governmental Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was held in Moscow on 5 and 6 June 1987, with the Indian delegation led by the then Minister of External Affairs., Shri N. D. Tiwari, who apart from having meetings with his Soviet counterpart, Co-Chairman of the Commission, Deputy Prime, Minister, Mr. V. M. Kamentsev to review the various ongoing projects of Indo-Soviet economic, scientific and technical cooperation and overseeing the working of the Inter- Governmental Commission, called on General Secretary, Mikhail S. Gorbachev and the Soviet Foreign Minister, Eduard Schevardnadze for exchange of views on bilateral and international issues of mutual interest and concern.

The Inter-Governmental Commission made an in-depth assessment of the various programmes and plans of Indo-Soviet cooperation in the sectors of power oil industry, coal, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, machine building, agri- culture, water resources, communications, science and technology, computers and electronics, etc. and considered the ways and means of further enriching and diversifying this relationship especially in the context of the goal set by the leadership of the two countries to raise the level of bilateral trade to 2.5 ti mes of its level in 1986 by 1992. In this context, the two countries have set the T rade Plan target of Its. 5,000 crores for 1988 which is 25% more than the estimated Indo-Soviet trade turnover of Rs. 4,000 crores in 1987.

Cooperation with Hungary was intensified with the holding of a Special The Indian side was led by Shri J. Vengala Rao, Union Minister for Industry. The Protocol underlined the resolve of the two countries to double the current level of bilateral trade by 1992 and to identify non-traditional high value-add ed items for bilateral trade. A beginning in the latter has been made by the ship- ment of the first consignment of 500 Maruti cars to Hungary. The Hungarian Minister of Transport, Mr. Lajos Urban visited India in May 1987 for dis- cussions on possible cooperation in this field between the two countries. The Hungarian Deputy Foreign Minister, Dr. Jozsef Benyi visited India in July 1987. The Indo-Hungarian Cultural Exchange Programme for 1988-90 was signed in October 1987.

Indo-GDR economic relations have shown satisfactory progress during the year under review. The Seventh Session of the Indo-GDR Joint Commission was held in September 1987, in Berlin, the delegation being led by the Union Minister for Industry, Shri J. Vengala Rao. It was decided to double Indo-GDR bilateral trade from its present level, over the next three years. The Joint Co m- mission also decided to increase cooperation between the two countries in the fields of Science and Technology and to increase technology transfer. This is e x- pected to give a major push to the growth of Indo-GDR bilateral economic rela- tions. The GDR Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Posts and Telecom- munications, Mr. Rudolph Schulze visited India in May 1987, when an Agree- ment on Cooperation in the Posts and Telecommunications field was signed with the GDR. The GDR Deputy Foreign Minister, Mr. Winter visited India in December 1987, during which an exchange of views on bilateral and interna- tional matters took place. Relations between India and Yugoslavia continued to develop and grow. in the political field the two countries have warm and friendly ties marked by a close similarity of views, as well as close cooperation relating to development s in the non-aligned world. The Yugoslav Federal Secretary for Information, Mr. Svetozar Durutovic visited India in April 1987 and had an exchange of views with his Indian counterpart, the then Minister of State for Information and Bro ad- casting, Shri Ajit Kumar Panja and separately met the External Affairs Minister .

The follow-up action on the meeting of the Indo-Yugoslav Joint Committee has contributed to growing bilateral trade; efforts are on to increase technology transfer and explore possibilities for industrial cooperation in third countrie s.

Indo-Romanian trade and economic cooperation relations were reviewed at the trade talks held in New Delhi from 25 to Sep 27, 1987. The Indo- Romanian Trade Plan for 1988 concluded at these talks envisages a trade turn- over of Rs. 740 crores which represents a growth of 80% over the targeted turn- over for 1987. Session of the Indo-Hungarian Joint Commission in Budapest in October 1987.

Relations with Bulgaria were marked by continuing warmth and friendship. Indian participation in the Plovdiv Fair in May 1987 was appreciated. India participated in the International Festival of Red Cross and Health Films in Bulgaria and the Hindi film Paar received an award. Cultural exchanges conti- nued at a satisfactory pace with many artistic troupes visiting Sofia.

The Joint Sub-Commission for Science and Technology with Bulgaria met in New Delhi in November 1987 to review ongoing cooperation. New avenues were identified for further useful collaboration in the future. Mr. Petar Diulguerev, President of the Central Council of the Bulgarian Trade Unions and Alternate Member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party visited India from 14 to 19 December 1987. He called on the Vice-President of India.

Indo-Czechoslovak relations received further impetus by the visit of the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari from 30 March to 1 April 1987 to Prague at the invitation of the Czechoslovak Foreign Minister. The Minister for External Affairs had meetings with all the top leaders, including President Gustav Husak and Prime Minister Strougal. He also discussed economic cooperation with the Foreign Trade Minister, Mr. Urban. Both sides reiterated their keen desire to further improve Indo-Czechoslovak relations, especially in the economic, commercial and scientific fields.

The Twelfth Session of the Indo-Czechoslovak Joint Committee for Economic, Trade and Technical Cooperation was held in Prague from 21 to 24 May 1987.
The Indian delegation was led by the then Commerce Minister, Shri P. Shiv- shanker. Besides meeting his counterpart, he also had fruitful talks with Mr. Rohlicek, Deputy Prime Minister incharge of Economic Relations. The Joint Committee discussed and identified concrete ways and means of expanding and diversifying economic cooperation including industrial collaboration through

joint ventures and third country projects. It was decided to double the volum e of bilateral trade turnover by 1990. The Annual Trade Plan for 1988 was finalised in New Delhi in November in accordance with the results of the Joint Committee.

Indo-Czechoslovak Cultural Cooperation continued satisfactorily. A festival of Indian films was inaugurated by the Minister for External Affairs during his visit in April 1987. A reciprocal festival of Czechoslovak films was held in Delhi in May 1987. Both the festivals aroused great public interest. The Indo- Czechoslovak Cultural Exchange Programme was renewed for 1987-89 in June 1987. An exhibition of Indian handicrafts entitled, Magical India, was held at the Naprtsek Museum in Czechoslovakia from 2 September to 7 October 1987 and attracted immense public interest.

Mr. Alois Indra, Chairman of the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly, led a Parliamentary delegation on a visit to India from 25 to 27 November 1987. It marked the continuing tradition of regular parliamentary exchanges between the two countries. Mr. Indra called on the President and the Prime Minister of Indi a.

The Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare, Kumari Saroj Khaparde visited Czechoslovakia from 4 to 7 January 1988. An Agreement on Cooperation in Health and Medical Sciences was signed between the two countries on this occasion.

The Czechoslovak Defence Minister visited India from 2 to 5 December 1987, and had discussions with his counterpart.

The visit of the then External Affairs Minister, Shri N.D. Tiwari to Poland from 2 to 5 April 1987, at the invitation of Foreign Minister, Mi. Marian Orzechowski provided a fillip to Indo-Polish relations. During the visit, the External Affairs Minister had meetings with the President, General Jaruzelski a nd the Prime Minister, Zbignew Messner besides two sessions of discussions with hi s counterpart. These meetings provided a useful occasion for reviewing the satis- factory growth of Indo-Polish relations as well as for an exchange of views on major bilateral and international issues. President Jaruzelski expressed his de ter- initiation to consolidate and further strengthen friendship with India in accor dance with the understanding reached with the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, duri ng General Jaruzelski's last visit to India in February 1985, The External Affairs

Minister assured him that India was also resolved to expand and diversify it s relations with Poland. At the invitation of the Polish Minister of Metallurgy and Machine Industry, the then Minister of State for Mines, Shrimati Ramdulari Sinha visited Poland from 2 to 6 June 1987. Some new areas of mutually beneficial cooperation were identified. The Indo-Polish Joint Commission meeting was held in Warsaw in October 1987. The Indian delegation was led by the Energy Minister, Shri Vasant Sathe. He had meetings with all the top leaders of the Government who reaffirm- ed their interest in promoting Indo-Polish cooperation in all fields. The Joint Commission decided to make all efforts to double the volume of Indo-Polish Trade by 1990. The Polish Secretary of State for Foreign Economic Cooperation and Foreign Trade Minister, Mr. Wojcik visited India from 12 to 15 November 1987 to attend the inauguration of the International Trade Fair in New Delhi. He had fruitful discussions with the business community regarding production collabo- ration and joint ventures. He met the then Minister of State for External Affai rs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro and apprised him of the implementation of the second stage of economic reforms in Poland.

Sep 27, 1987
The Americas

THE AMERICAS NORTH AMERICA India has consistently sought a fruitful and cordial relationship with the USA. The historical tradition of intellectual interaction and people-to-people contacts and shared faith in democratic values provide a positive backdrop to the efforts to improve overall relations. The ongoing political dialogue at all levels is an important element in this process.

A highwater mark in 1987, was the Prime Minister's working visit to Washington on Oct 20, 1987 while returning from the Commonwealth Summit in Vancouver. The Prime Minister had wide-ranging discussions with President Reagan and his senior colleagues, and with key members of the US Congress. One of the main objectives of the visit was to revitalise the relatio nship with a new agenda for the next few years; and to this end a package of new initiatives for bilateral cooperation were identified. Areas for greater mutual interaction that were identified were : science and technology, trade and inves t- ment, technology transfer, narcotics control, agricultural education, parliamen tary exchanges and collaboration in defence related technology. The Ronald Reagan- Indira Gandhi Science and Technology Initiative was extended for another three years beyond 1988.

The Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh also visite d USA in April 1987. Cooperation in different areas between India and the USA is an incremental development arising from efforts by both sides to establish a surer foundation for 344 EA/88--8

the relationship. Reflecting the increased confidence in bilateral ties was t he US readiness to licence the sale of a supercomputer to India. The two Governments also agreed to consult regularly to ensure that the US supercom- puter export reflected the rapid pace of advancing technology and India's need for upgraded capability. Notwithstanding the progress in Indo-US relations, some differences remain on regional and international issues. Primary among these differences is the respective approach of the two countries to the non-peaceful dimensions of Pakistan's nuclear programme. The danger of nuclear weapons proliferation transcends the sub-regional dimension ; it is an international responsibility t o address the problem of horizontal and vertical proliferation. India is disappoi nted that the USA has chosen to waive its own non-proliferation laws in favour of Pakistan, During his visit to the USA, the Prime Minister of India reaffirmed that India had no intention of producing nuclear weapons unless constrained to do so.
A good relationship between the two sovereign democracies is built on mutual interest, trust and confidence and a recognition of each other's paramou nt national interests. It is in this perspective that the relationship could rise above well known differences and become more responsive to the needs and expectations of the Indian and American people.

India and Canada have traditionally enjoyed good relations with each other. Both are members of the Commonwealth and relations have been marked by an exchange of visits and views at the highest level. The Prime Ministers of the two countries met again during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Canada in October 1987 where they discussed issues of bilateral and international concern. Indo-Canadian bilateral cooperation remained brisk and active in 1987. Canada participated as a partner country at the Eighth India Engineering Trade Fair. The Indo-Canadian Working Group on Coal met in New Delhi in April 1987. The Minister of State for Industrial Development, Shri Arunachalam, visited Canada in June 1987 for bilateral consultations. A five-member Canadian Parliamentary delegation visited India in March-April 1987. During their stay, they visited several parts of the country including Amritsar.

India and Canada continued to coop rate on combating the menace of extremism and terrorism directed against India. The Extradition Treaty signed in February 1987 would go a long way in tackling this problem. CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN India's relations with the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean continued to grow during the period under review. Exchanges of visits, signing of bilateral agreements, cooperation in international issues as well as in the sphere of bilateral interests, and India's support for peace in the region cont ri- buted towards strengthening our traditionally cordial and friendly ties with th e countries of the region.

A significant event was the visit in March 1987 by the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari, to Trinidad & Tobago and Guyana. A bilateral Cultural Agreement was signed during the visit for promoting intensiv e cooperation between India and Trinidad & Tobago. The Minister for External Affairs called on President Hoyte of Guyana during his visit for the Foreign Ministers' Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) on Latin America and the Caribbean at Georgetown.
The Foreign Minister of Uruguay, Mr. Enrique V. Iglesias, paid an official Visit to India in March 1987. He held discussions on various international and bilateral issues. India continued to express concern over the Central American crisis and extended its unstinted support to the Peace initiative of the Contadora Group and its Support Group. On various occasions in the fora of the UN and the Non-Aligned Movement, India reiterated its position that the crisis should be resolved peacefully through dialogue amongst the countries of the region withou t outside interference or introduction of big-power rivalries. India has welcomed the signing of the Accord in Guatemala City in August 1987 by the Presidents of the Republics: of Costa Rica, El-Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua on the procedure to establish a firm and durable peace in Central America and expressed the hope that the process of negotiations and dialogue

would result in a just and lasting settlement, based on the respect for the r ight to self-determination of each country of the region and ensuring the security, sovereignty and, independence of all States of the region, free of external int er- vention or threat of such intervention. A thirteen-member Colombian Parliamentary delegation led by Dr. Jorge Cristo Saiun, Vice-President of the Colombian Senate, visited India in May 1987 .

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, during an official visit to Cuba from 2 to 5 December 1987 met with President Castro, Vice-President Rodriguez and the Foreign Minister, Malmierca. He handed over a letter from the Indian Prime Minister to the Cuban President. India once again co-sponsored a resolution in the UN General Assembly calling upon Argentina and the UK, to hold negotiations with a view to resolve their dispute over Falklands Malvinas. The resolution was adopted by 114 votes to 5 with 36 abstentions. The Chief of Staff of the Guyanese Defence Forces, Major-General Norman Mclean, who was in India as Assistant Manager of the West Indies Cricket Team
that toured India in November-December 1987, held discussions with the Chief of Army Staff and other officials and visited some of India's military training institutions.

The Commonwealth of Dominica has opened a resident Mission in New Delhi with Her Excellency Mrs. Gilda Thebaud Mansour as its first High Commissioner to India. A two-member technical delegation from Nicaragua visited India in October 1987 to identify areas for technology transfer and setting up of joint ventures . The delegation evinced keen interest in India's cooperation and assistance in

various sectors, including jute cultivation, coconut processing and the setti ng up of in artificial limbs-fitting centre in Nicaragua.

India and Venezuela signed a bilateral Agreement on Science and Techno- logy in April 1987. Bolivia has designated its Charge d'Affaires (CDA) at Kuala Lumpur, Mr. Llano, as its first CDA to India, resident in Kuala Lumpur. India gifted medicines to Ecuador for relief to the victims of a severe earthquake which struck the country causing extensive destruction in March 1987.

In November 1987, Suriname held general elections to its fiftyone-seat National Assembly under its new Constitution which was approved by referendum in September 1987. The "Front for Democracy and Development"--an alliance oil the country's three main political parties won a resounding victory with 41 seats. The then Minister of State for Mines, Smt. Ramdulari Sinha, led a good- will delegation from India in January 1988 to attend the inauguration of the President of Suriname. The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, sent congratulations to Costa Rica's President, Oscar Arias on the award to him of the Nobel Peace Prize for his contribution to the Central American Peace efforts. A Ramayana Ballet Troupe of the Sriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra, New Delhi, visited Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago and Suriname in October-November 1987 giving tremendously successful performances. The performances, attended by Heads of State and other high dignitaries of these countries, besides a cros s section of the population, evoked keen interest amongst the people in Indian ar t and culture.

Oct 20, 1987
United Nations And International Conferences


India continued to play an active and constructive role in the United Nations, as well as in major international conferences organised by the United Nations and its specialised agencies during 1987. The Prime Minister's address at the UN General Assembly session on Oct 19, 1987 on Environment and Development reflected the high importance which India attaches to the UN and its work. The Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh, who led the Indian delegation to the forty-second session of the UN General Assembly, summarised the Indian position on the principal issues on the UN agenda in his speech to the UN General Assembly on 29 September 1987, The improved atmosphere between the Super Powers benefited to some extent, the deliberations of the forty-second session.

India played a major role in the UN Conference on Disarmament and Development which was held in New York in August-September 1987. Shri K. Natwar Singh, Minister of State for External Affairs, was unanimously elected Chairman of the Conference. The success of the Conference was mainly due to Indian initiative and efforts, which were largely instrumental in the adoption of the final consensus document. India's keen interest and active participation in the activities of the Commo n- wealth and the Non-Aligned Movement were generally acclaimed. Political Issues India's position on Afghanistan was reiterated during the debate in the forty-second session of the UN General Assembly. India's Ambassador to the United Nations, quoting the Prime Minister said : "We agree on the need for an early political settlement in Afghanistan and support the efforts of the UN

Secretary-General. I believe that a just solution must ensure a sovereign, in de- pendent and non-aligned Afghanistan. Foreign intervention and interference must cease. The Afghan refugees must be allowed to return to their homes in honour, dignity and security. We would welcome any earnest effort in this direction." During the session, India was closely involved in consultations aimed at obtaining a consensus on a resolution on Afghanistan which would have been acceptable to all the parties concerned. Though India would have liked to see these efforts come to a satisfactory conclusion, a consensus could not be achieved.

India welcomed the efforts of the UN Secretary-General and his personal representative Mr. Diego Cordovez. The UN Secretary-General, in his report, had referred to the need for "innovative diplomatic approaches" to resolve the Afghan issue. The text of the draft resolution that was presented to the General Assembly, was similar to the ones presented in earlier years and did not adequately reflect, in India's view, the dynamic situation prevailing at th e time regarding the solution of the Afghan question. India therefore abstained on the resolution. The resolution was adopted by a recorded vote of 123 in favour, 19 against and 11 abstentions.

As in earlier years, the question of Kampuchea came up for discussion in the Plenary Session of the UN General Assembly as well as in the Credentials Committee. In the Credentials Committee, some countries expressed reserva- tions on the credentials of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea.

The substantive resolution was adopted by a recorded vote of 117 in favour, 21 against and 16 abstentions. India abstained on the resolution since it was one-sided and inflexible and did not take into account the considerable movemen t towards a solution to the problem brought about through diplomatic exchanges. Proposals made over the past months towards a solution and the views reflected in the debate on this issue in the UN General Assembly were also not taken into account in the resolution. The forty-second session of the UN General Assembly adopted 8 resolu- tions in regard to the situation in West Asia-4 on the Question of Palestine an d 4 relating to the Situation in the Middle East. During the debate on the situat ion in the Middle East, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduar do

Faleiro, reaffirmed India's firm support to the Palestinian people in their f ight for their right to self-determination and a homeland of their own. The Minister also told the General Assembly that the situation was continuously evolving and that new perspectives were developing on the international scene and that in this context peace and security was vital to all States in the Middle East.

India joined other nations in condemning, in the Security Council on 16 December 1987, the "iron fist" policy of Israel in the occupied territories whi ch had resulted in the death and wounding of many Palestinian men, women and children. India characterised the popular uprising in occupied territories as a reflection of the will of an entire people for an independent homeland.

India hosted an Asian Regional Seminar and Non-Governmental Organiza- tion (NGO) Symposium on the Question of Palestine in New Delhi from 8 to 12 June 1987. The meetings were held in cooperation with the UN Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People. The conflict between Iran and Iraq was the major issue before the UN Security Council in 1987. After extensive discussions, the Security Council adopted resolution 598 which demands that, as a first step towards a negotiated settlement, Iran and Iraq observe an immediate ceasefire, discontinue all milit ary action on land, at sea and in the air and withdraw all forces to the internatio nally recognised boundaries without delay. The resolution also requests the Secretary - General to explore, in consultation with Iran and Iraq, the question of entrust ing to an impartial body the task of enquiring into responsibility for the conflict .

The resolution also decided that the Security Council would meet again as necessary to consider further steps to ensure compliance with this resolution. Following the adoption of the resolution on 20 July 1987, the Secretary-General has been involved in wide-ranging consultations with Iran and Iraq and members of the Security Council with the objective of securing implementation of Securi ty Council resolution 598.

Despite significant efforts made by all concerned, negotiations between countries party to the Antarctic Treaty and non-members of the Treaty failed to produce a consensus resolution on the Question of Antarctica. Two resolu- tions were subsequently introduced in the First Committee. The first called for the exclusion of the racist apartheid regime of South Africa from participa tion in the meetings of the consultative parties at the earliest possible date. The

second resolution, dealing- with the substantive, aspects of the question of Antarctica and the Antarctic Treaty System, inter alia, called upon the Antarct ic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCPs) to invite the Secretary General of his representative to all meetings of the treaty parties including their consultati ve meetings and minerals regime negotiations; and called, upon the ATCPs to impose a moratorium on the negotiations to establish a minerals regime until such time as all members of the international community can participate fully in such negotiations.

India voted in favour of the first resolution along with other Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties. India did not participate in the voting on the second resolution. The fourteenth meeting of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties was held in Rio de Janeiro in October 1987. Italy and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) were admitted in ATCPs. Meanwhile discussions on the ongoing minerals negotiations took place in Montevideo, Uruguay, in May 1987, and in Auckland, New Zealand, in November 1987. The situation in Southern Africa, the vulnerability of the Frontline States to South African aggression and the policies of apartheid of the Pretoria regim e continue to be a focal point of international concern and indignation. The raci st regime has resorted to increasing repression and violence and has now imposed draccnian press and media censorship. As a member of the Special Committee against Apartheid, India continued to voice its concern in the UN General Assembly at those developments and reiterated its call for the imposition of co m- prehensive and mandatory sanctions under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, as the only peaceful means to effect a change whereby South Africa can have a non-racial democratic society. India was also a member of the Special Committee on the implementation of the United Nations resolutions on collabo- ration with South Africa, the task force on women and children under apartheid and the task force on political prisoners. India participated actively in vario us meetings held in different parts of the world. It co-sponsored seven resolution s in the General Assembly on the policies of apartheid of the Government of South Africa, each of which was adopted by very large majorities. The Security Council met on two occasions to discuss the situation in Namibia and adopted Resolution 601 requesting the Secretary-General to proceed with the United Nations plan to facilitate Namibian independence. It also met to discuss South Africa's aggression against Angola and, in Resolution 602, 344 EA/88--9

set a deadline of 10 December 1987 for withdrawal of South African forces from its territory. At the specific request of the concerned States and the Afr ican, group, India participated in these meetings and reaffirmed-its call for the Com plete isolation of the Pretoria regime internationally as the means to terminate its policies of aggression, colonialism and apartheid. India's Permanent Represen- tative was re-elected Vice-President of the United Nations Council for Namibia.

The Council held a special session at the level of Ministers from member states in New York on 2 October 1987. Reference was made at the meeting to it having been held on Gandhi Jayanti. The Council also convened an Extra- ordinary Plenary Meeting in Luanda, Angola, in May 1987, which gave members the opportunity to see-camps where refugees from the Namibian occupied terri- tory were being looked after by the Angolan Government. India's role as Chairman of the AFRICA Fund was reflected in appreciative references by delegations at various United Nations forums. Specific references to the Fund were included in the principal resolutions on apartheid, Namibia, decolonisation and the Organization of African Unity (OAU). A process of high-level consultation between the Fund and the Council for Namibia was initiated with the visit to New Delhi, in May 1987, of a delegation led by the Council President which called on India's Prime Minister and had detailed discussions in the Ministry of External Affairs.

India maintained its traditional position on the question of decolonisation, stressing the criticality of the United Nations and of the negotiation process in this regard. Principal resolutions on decolonisation, on the particular questio ns of Western Sahara and the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and on scholarships and educational assistance to students from colonial territories, continued to be c o- sponsored by India. In its statements, India made clear its belief that the fut ure of a colonial territory belongs to all its people and as such must be. freely determined by them. in his statement before the Plenary Session of the forty-second UN General Assembly, the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh, said : "The heightened military presence of outside powers (in the Indian Ocean) is in conflict with the Declaration of 1971 on the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. It demonstrates vividly that the main objective behind the 1971 Declaration is as valid today as it was when the Declaration was made. What is more, it shows the futility of efforts to dilute the thrust of the primacy i n the objective of the Declaration,! which is to tackle the external threat in the

Indian Ocean. It is in this context that we believe that for, the proposed international conference on the Indian Ocean to achieve meaningful results, it, would be necessary to ensure that all big powers with military presence i n the Indian Ocean participate." The consensus resolution, adopted by the UN General Assembly, calls for the convening of the Conference on the Indian Ocean at Colombo at an early date but not later than 1990. The. resolution also requests the Ad Hoc Committe e to hold three preparatory sessions in 1988, each of a duration of one week, one session of which could be held in Colombo in accordance with a decision to be taken by the Committee at its first session in 1988. The resolution was adopted both in the First Committee and in the Plenary Session without vote.

India's application for registration and allocation of a mine-site of 150,00 0 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean was unanimously accepted by the Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) for the International Seabed Authority and for the International. Tribunal of the Law of the Sea at its resumed fifth session in July-August 1987 held in New York. India thus achieved the unique distinction of becoming the first registered Pioneer Investor under Resolution II of the Final Act of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea signed in 1982. The decision of the PREPCOM gives India the right to explore and develop the resources of the deep seabed which contain rich deposits of polymetallic nodules, which include important minerals like manganese, nickel, copper and cobalt.

India's achievement was welcomed by the Commonwealth Summit held in Vancouver, Canada, in October 1987, by the Non-Aligned Movement at its Ministerial meeting in New York in October 1987, as well as. by the UN General Assembly, which in a resolution on the Law of the Sea adopted at its forty-second Session termed the decision to register India's application for a mine-site a "historic" one. Disarmament Issues During 1987, India played a leading role in the three main multilateral disarmament fora, namely, the conference on Disarmament, the UN Disarma- ment Commission and the First Committee of the UN General Assembly. This

was in keeping with the consistent Indian belief that in the nuclear age, di sarma- ment is necessary not just for the maintenance of peace but for the very surviv al of mankind, India continued to emphasise the validity of the multilateral approach by reiterating that the search for unilateral security through nuclear deterrence must be replaced by a search for global security through nuclear disarmament. In the Conference on Disarmament, the sole multilateral negotiating body, India maintained a position of principle and played a leading role in the group of neutral and non-aligned countries by calling for commencement of negotia- tions on critical issues of prevention of nuclear war, cessation of nuclear arm s race and nuclear disarmament and a comprehensive Nuclear Weapons Test Ban Treaty. In the negotiations for a convention on Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, India took the stand that nothing in the Convention should be used to hamper the development of chemical industry and international cooperation in this field for peaceful purposes.

In the UN Disarmament Commission, the deliberative body dealing with disarmament issues, India continued to stress the importance of retaining the priorities attributed to nuclear disarmament and other weapons of mass destruc- tion. India also chaired the Working Group dealing with the development of guidelines on nuclear disarmament. In the first committee of the UN General Assembly, the Indian resolu- tions on Convention on non-use of nuclear weapons and nuclear freeze were adopted by large majorities, as in the previous years. India played an importan t role in the adoption, without a vote, of a resolution on the Third Special Sess ion of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament (SSDD-III). This session will be held from 31 May to 25 June 1988. It is to be preceded by a meeting of the Non-aligned Foreign Ministers. The First Committee adopted 63 resolu- tions and India supported the vast majority of these. At the first Preparatory Committee Meeting for SSDD-III, the only new item on the agenda relating to the technological imperative of the arms race was added on the initiative of India. The Special Political Committee of the UN General Assembly considered the report of the Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in November 1987. On 3 November 1987, Austria introduced the draft, resolu- tion entitled "International Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space"

on behalf of the Working Group. The resolution was adopted without a vote both in the Committee and in the General Assembly, As usual, India voiced its serious concern over the militarisation of outer space and made a strong plea for keeping space free from the arms race. No decision could be reached on the issue of new items for the agenda. India reiterated its strong plea for peacefu l uses of nuclear energy. India participated in the events connected with the Int er- national Year of Peace. Eight Indian organisations and the city of New Delhi were awarded "Messenger of Peace" certificate.

The UN Conference on Disarmament and Development was held in New York from 24 August to 11 September 1987. India was elected President of the Conference by acclamation. Earlier, India had been elected Chairman of the forty-four member Preparatory Committee for the Conference. The success of the Conference was in no small measure due to the efforts of the Indian delegation to the Preparatory Committee as well as the delegation to the main Conference. Although the USA did not attend the Conference, the Western allies of the US attended and displayed a positive attitude towards the relationship between Dis - armament and Development. The Conference, where the relationship between Disarmament and Development was discussed for the first time at a political level inter-governmentally, was a historic one and was able to adopt the Final Document by consensus.

In 1987-88, the leaders of the Six Nation Initiative continued their efforts to bring about the first steps towards complete nuclear disarmament. To mark the Third Anniversary of the First Appeal issued by the Six leaders, another joint statement was released in May 1987. The statement takes into account developments in 1987, the major development being the Soviet offer of an agreement on the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) in Europe. Follow- ing the "agreement in principle" reached between the Super Powers on the INF in September 1987, the Six Nations, in a joint statement issued on 7 October 1987, welcomed this development, calling it "a historic first step in the direc tion of our common goal, namely, total nuclear disarmament".

Just before the Summit meeting between President Reagan and the Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev, the Six Nations sent a message on 7 December 1987, wishing the two leaders success in their efforts to achieve nuclear disarmament. The message further expressed the hope that the Summit

meeting would yield a spirit in which more far-reaching disarmament agreemen ts can be quickly elaborated and concluded.

The Six leaders met for their third Summit in Stockholm from 21 to 22 January 1988 and issued the Stockholm Declaration. The Declaration notes that when the Initiative was launched, more than three years ago, prospects for disarmament looked grim. Since then, the Six have welcomed the resumption of the dialogue between the Soviet Union and the United States. The signing in Washington on 8 December 1987, of the INF Treaty is a historic first step, and no time should be lost before more far-reaching nuclear disarmament agreements are achieved. The Declaration reiterates the call for a Comprehensive Test Ball Treaty (CTBT) and pending that, an immediate suspension of all nuclear testing, and the call for preventing an arms race in space. Recognizing the importance of verification of compliance with disarmament agreements, the Declaration notes the need for the establishment of an integrated multilateral verification system within the United Nations.

The Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in his address at the Summit, congra- tulated General Secretary Gorbachev and President Reagan on their vision and on the sensitivity they had shown to the need to dismantle and destroy the nucl ear weapon system. Further, he described the INF Treaty as a historic beginning and said that "there can be no relapsing into the complacency of coexisting with the instruments of our own destruction." The goal must remain the dismantling of all nuclear arsenals as the precursor to general and complete disarmament. Therefore, the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi continue, the INF Treaty should constitute the commencement of a time-bound process of nuclear disarmament.

Economic Issues The overall climate before the start of the forty-second session of the UN General Assembly was perhaps somewhat better than that before the forty-first
session as a result of the positive outcome of the seventh session of the UN Co n- ference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD-VII) which adopted its Final Act as a consensus document. Further, the modest recovery in the industrialized countries, had been sustained in the, period under review, thus slightly improv ing the world economic situation. The developing countries, however, continued to face serious economic problems. Though there was greater recognition of the need

for sustained, and increased economic growth as a means of overcoming international economic problems, this common understanding did not result in any meaningful progress in concrete areas. Except for the consensus outcome of UNCTAD-VII, the overall standstill in international economic negotiations in the UN fora continued in 1987. The industrialized countries, particularly the United States, have been following a strategy whereby the role of the UN is confined to acting as a forum for genera l exchange of views rather than for serious negotiations on concrete issues. Such negotiations are increasingly being restricted to the domain of specialised for a, such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, where developed countries enjoy greater weightage in decision-making. The major industrialized countries also show. a tendency to consult and reach agreements on far-reaching issues among themselves without fully involving the wider international community, especiall y the developing countries. In this difficult negotiating climate, India's effort s were aimed at preventing any erosion of fundamental positions of the developing countries while simultaneously continuing to work for progress in new areas.

The Indian delegation played a constructive role in negotiations leading to the Declarations adopted at the Ministerial Meetings of the Group of 77 and of the Non-aligned countries, both held immediately prior to the General Assembly Session in New York. At the forty-second Session of the General Assembly, negotiations in the field of international economic relations were dominated by the issue of external debt and related subjects, environmental matters and the critical economic situation in Africa. On environment and on the critical econo mic situation of Africa, the General Assembly was successful in reaching consensus positions. Regrettably, there was no such consensus on the issue of debt and th e Assembly had to resort to a vote. The Indian delegation played an active role i n facilitating consensus on the resolutions on environment. Protracted discussion s were necessary to take account of the concern of developing countries that in- creased international attention to environmental issues should not lead to the introduction of new conditionalities in development assistance given by the mul ti- lateral financial institutions and that increased financial and other resources should be made available to the developing countries to respond effectively to en- vironmental challenges. The conciliatory role played. by India in this matter w as greatly appreciated.

In some other important areas too, the UN General Assembly reached consensus positions mainly because the action sought was of a limited or proce- dural nature such as in the, field of science and technology, the substantial N ew

Programme of Action for the Least Developed, Countries, the Global Shelter Strategy to the Year 2000 and the Plan to Combat Desertification and Drought.

The Pledging Conference for the Operational Activities for Development for 1988 showed an increase in nominal terms in the pledges for the major funds and programmes of the United Nations. Partly, this was attributable to exchange rate variations. However, the UN Fund for Population Activities continued to face a difficult situation because of the withholding of contribution by the Un ited States. India's efforts for enhancing cooperation among the developing countries continued in various fora. India participated actively at the Sixth meeting of the Inter-Governmental Follow-up and Coordination Committee held in Havana in September 1987, which adopted the guidelines for the operation of the Perez Guerero Trust Fund and conducted a sectoral review of the Caracas Programme of Action for cooperation among developing countries. The Indian delegation also participated actively in the Sixth Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77 held in Havana in April 1987 in preparation for the Seventh Session of the Unit ed Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD-VII).

Administrative and Budgetary Matters Though the severity of the financial crisis of the UN, which had dominated the discussions in the UN General Assembly during its. 1986 session abated some - what in the period under review, the financial difficulties of the organisation and its cash flow problems are far from over. However, after a gap of several years, the Fifth Committee of the UN General Assembly was successful in avoiding any negative vote from the major contributors on the budget for 1988-89 for which a figure of US $ 1.769 billion was approved. The USA, Japan and Australia, which in the recent past had voted against the budget, abstained; the European Economic Community (EEC) countries changed their vote from negative to that in favour. Israel was the only country to cast a neg ative vote. The greater support to the organisation's budget can be seen in the light of the new budget process mandated by the UN General Assembly during its 1986 session, which had called for the broadest possible agreement in decision- making and which had put a cap on overall expenditure.

The Fifth Committee of the UN General Assembly adopted by consensus a non-aligned resolution on the current financial crisis facing the Organization.

India played an active part together with other Non-aligned countries. The resolution requests the President of the General Assembly, in consultation with the Secretary-General, to keep under consideration the possibility of re-conven ing the forty-second session of the General Assembly at an appropriate time in 1988 to discuss the financial situation of the organization. It requests the Secreta ry- General to inform all member states on the magnitude of the current financial crisis, to seek their views on the financial situation of the organization and to prepare a report for the consideration of the General Assembly.

India supported an initiative taken by a number of developing countries to correct the present geographical imbalance in the composition of the Com- mittee for Programme and Coordination, an Inter-Governmental Committee which recommends priorities among UN programmes. This body has been given new responsibilities in recommending an overall level of the budget and in monitori ng the implementation of the General Assembly resolution 41/123 on the review of the Efficiency of the Administrative and Financial Functioning of the United Nations. The membership of the Committee was increased from, 21 at present to 34, with 7 seats for Asian States, 9 for African States, 7 for Latin America n States, 7 for West European and other States and 4 for East European States. In the elections held for the new seats this year, India,Bangladesh, Pakistan and Bahrain were declared elected with India getting the largest number of votes.

The Fifth Committee also decided this year to incorporate the population figure of member states as an additional factor, with a 5% weightage, for the purpose of deciding the indicative range of recruitment of their nationals to t he UN Secretariat, subject to geographical distribution. While the need for inclus ion of the population factor was recognised by the General Assembly 25 years ago,
this factor had so far been applied region-wise. India was among the countries which pointed out that the composition of the UN Secretariat would continue to be inequitable unless the population of individual member states was given separate weightage.

Social and Humanitarian Issues India continued to take an active interest in social and humanitarian issues considered in the UN General Assembly, the Commission for Human Rights and other related Human Rights fora in the United Nations.

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Indian representatives at the forty-third Session of the Commission on, Human Rights, held in Geneva in February-March 1987, and the thirty-nineth Session of the Sub-Commission for the Prevention of Discrimination and Protec- tion of Minorities, held in Geneva in August 1987, made statements and moved resolutions on the most serious human rights situations in the world arising fr om apartheid in Southern Africa, the continued colonisation of Namibia and the occupation by Isreal of Arab territories, including Palestine. India also conti nued its positive contribution to the ongoing standard-setting exercise of drafting conventions relating to the rights of the child and rights of migrant workers, as also the ongoing discussions on the practical measures to implement the Dec- laration on the Right to Development adopted in the forty-first Session of the UN General Assembly.

The situation of Tamils in Sri Lanka came up for discussion during the forty-third Session of the Commission on Human Rights. In March 1984, the Commission had appealed to the parties concerned in Sri Lanka to take, inter alia, necessary measures to strengthen and maintain peace and restore harmony and had expressed the hope that they would succeed in achieving a satisfactory solution to the problem. As the situation had since deteriorated further, the Commission, by consensus, adopted for the first time a resolution on Sri Lanka calling upon all parties and groups to renounce the use of force and acts of violence and to pursue a negotiated political solution. During deliberations in the Commission, India had stressed that only a negotiated political settlement could resolve the problem in Sri Lanka and that India was prepared to continue its good offices for this purpose. She recalled that India and Sri Lanka were friendly countries with many common values and aspirations and with a common stake in peace, stability, progress and development and that India stood for a peaceful solution of the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka where the aspirations of all communities were met within the integrity and unity of Sri Lanka.

On 16 March 1987, India presented its 8th and 9th periodic reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in accordance with its reporting obligations under the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Members of the Committee were briefed on the steps taken by India to combat apartheid, racism and racial discriminati on both at the national and international levels. Members of the Committee congra- tulated the Government of India for the instructive and comprehensive report an d expressed satisfaction at the results achieved.

In the forty-second Session of the UN General Assembly, India continued to play an important role in the deliberations of the Third Committee, which adopt -

ed 72 resolutions out of which 52 resolutions were adopted without vote and 20 by recorded votes. India co-sponsored, among others, resolutions relating to th e future work of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, the United Nations Working Group on Migrant Workers, resolutions calling for humanitarian assistance to Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia, and a procedural resolution welcoming the appointment of the Special Rapporteur to investigate "Mercenarism". India also co-sponsored a resolution on "Right to Development".

A traditional resolution initiated by India on "National institutions for the p ro- motion and protection of human rights" attracted far more co-sponsors this year and was adopted by consensus in the General Assembly.

Elections to UN Bodies and other International Organizations India's role in the United Nations was reflected in the results of elections to important bodies. India was elected to the Economic and Social Council and to the Committee for Programme and Coordination, securing in both cases the highest number of votes among candidates from the Asian Group. Earlier in the year, India was also elected to the Commission on Human

Settlements, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, the Executive Board of UNICEF and the Com- mittee on Transnational Corporations. India's Permanent Representative to the UN was elected Chairman of the Commission on Transnational Corporations. India also successfully contested elections to the following international bodies : the Council of the International Maritime Organisation, the Programme and Budget Committee of the United Nations Industrial Development Organiza- tion (UNIDO), and the Council of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the UN. India's nominee for the post of Executive Director of the Internatio nal Centre for Public Enterprises, an inter-governmental organization based in Yugo - slavia, also successfully contested the election for the post.

Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement Even after handing over the Chairmanship of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) to Zimbabwe in September 1986, the Indian role and activity in the Movement has remained at a high pitch. India worked closely with the other member countries to create consensus within the Movement on major inter- national issues. India also emphasised that the Movement should play an in-

creasingly active role on global economic issues, particularly those concern - ing the developing countries. India actively participated in various meetings or- ganised during the period under review.

The Extraordinary Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-aligned countries on Latin America and Caribbean issues was held in Georgetown, Guyana, from 9 to 13 March 1987. India was among the two Asian countries who attended at the level of the Minister for External Affairs. India 's presence was highly appreciated and remarked upon as symbolic of the importance that India attaches to this region. The Ministerial Meeting of the NAM Committee of Nine on Palestine was held at Harare on 14 and 15 April 1987. The Indian delegation was led by the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari. The meeting was addresse d by Mr. Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). It adopted a declaration focussing on the conven - ing of an International Peace Conference on the Middle East.

India was also an active participant at the Extraordinary Ministerial Con- ference on South-South Cooperation held at Pyongyang, the Democratic People's

Republic of Korea (DPRK), from 9 to 13 June 1987. The meeting undertook an overall review of the present status of South-South Cooperation and consider ed appropriate measures to speed-up implementation of existing action program- mes of the Non-aligned and other developing countries and future approaches and policies aimed at increasing cooperation. India also participated in a delegation of the NAM Committee on Central America which went to Managua and Caracas from 20 to 23 August 1987, to ex press the solidarity and the support of the Movement for the Contradora pro- cess and the regional peace initiative symbolised by the Guatemala Accord. The delegation was led by the Zimbabwean Foreign Minister.

The meeting of the Ministers' and the Heads of delegation of the Non- aligned countries to the forty-second session of the United Nations General Assembly was held at New York from 5 to 7 October 1987. The meeting adopted a communique with a view to facilitate the coordination of positions and action s of the members of the Movement during the General Assembly.

The NAM Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation of which India is a member, met at Pyongyang in June 1987 and subsequently at New York in October 1987. Its mandate, inter alia, is to strengthen and broaden the position of the Non-aligned and other developing countries in regard to multilateral economic cooperation. An important development during the year under review was the obtaining of the 30 required signatures for the operationalisation of the NAM Centre for Science and Technology of the Non-aligned and other developing countries in New Delhi.

Commonwealth Summit Conference at Vancouver India continued to play an active role in the Commonwealth of Nations. The Vancouver Summit, in which the Prime Minister of India participated, undertook a comprehensive review of the international political and economic situation. The Summit demonstrated the Commonwealth's determination for a continued thrust and momentum in the campaign against apartheid. It adopted a broad framework for the programme of action on Southern Africa which includes, inter alia, continued efforts for universalisation of sanction against South Africa, moni- toring and evaluation of sanctions on a continuous basis, commissioning of an expert study on Southern Africa's relationship with the international financial systems, call to the international community to provide material assistance to the Frontline and neighbouring States and, in particular, the setting up of a speci al Fund to provide technical assistance to Mozambique, efforts for promoting real

internal dialogue and increasing Commonwealth contacts with South Africans of differing view points and high priority to counteracting South African propa- ganda and censorship. An eight-member Foreign Ministers' Committee, which includes India as a member, was set up to ensure continuing momentum and follow-up on the programme of action on South Africa.

The other major positive results of the Summit were, the Commonwealth's disapproval of the events in Fiji based on racial overtones and acknowledgement

that Fiji's membership of the Commonwealth lapsed with the emergence of a republic; acclamation of the Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement as an act of the highest statesmanship which would ensure regional peace and stability; a declaration on world trade which expressed concern on global protectionist barriers and under-

scored the need to give special consideration to the interests of the develo ping countries ; and progress in Commonwealth functional cooperation, in particular, the decision to establish a Commonwealth University and College net-work in the field of Distance Education.

International Law : Development and Activities During the year under review, India was successful in concluding an Extra- dition Treaty with Canada which was signed in February 1987 in New Delhi and subsequently ratified. The Indo-Canadian Treaty is a unique and most recent extradition treaty which India has signed and ratified, Many of its provisions were formulated with a view to combating problems relating to terrorism and it also provides for a framework for promoting expeditious extradition between the two countries. A significant feature of the treaty relates to identificatio n of certain grave offences like offences against civil aviation, hijacking, hostage - taking, kidnapping, damage to property or disruption of public facilities ail offences relating to fire-arms, weapons, explosives or dangerous substances, wh ich shall be regarded as terroristic and not as political for purposes of extraditi on.

Another significant feature of the Extradition Treaty with Canada is that, breaking away from the previous tradition of listing extraditable offences, it adopts a 'no list' method whereby any conduct constituting an offence punishabl e by the laws of both the contracting States by a term of imprisonment for a peri od of more than one year is designated as an extraditable offence.

Yet another significant feature of the Treaty is that even if the request for extradition may be refused by the requested State, the person whose extra- dition is sought may be tried for the extradition offence in its own Courts. However, in deciding whether or not to refuse a request for extradition, the re - quested State shall consider which contracting State has felt or will feel the effects or consequences of the offence more gravely or immediately.

During the year under review, yet another landmark in combating terrorism at a regional level was taken when the seven SAARC countries signed a Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism at the Third SAARC Summit held in Kathmandu, Nepal, on 4 November 1987. The SAARC Convention is conceived as an umbrella Convention which incorporates in Article I the same list of seri ous offences as are contained in the Indo-Canadian Treaty to identify them as

terroristic offences which for purposes of extradition shall not be treate d as political. The SAARC Convention also provides that any processing of the reques t of extradition between any two parties shall be in accordance with the laws and regulations of the requested State. It also specifies that the requested State shall have absolute discretion to refuse extradition for reasons specified in Article VII of the Convention.

The SAARC Convention signed in Kathmandu on 4 November 1987, is subject to ratification by all the States before it comes into effect. India, l ike the other member states of SAARC, is examining its laws with a view to giving full effect to the provisions of the SAARC Convention before it could ratify the same. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) held its twentieth session in Vienna from 20 July to 14 August 1987. At this session, the Commission adopted a Draft Convention on International Bills of Exchange and International Promissory Notes and a Legal Guide on Drawing up International Contracts for Construction of Industrial Works. India played an active part in the negotiations and drafting of the Draft Convention and the Legal Guide.

The Draft Convention comprises 91 articles and is designed to overcome difficulties arising from the present disparities between major legal systems o f the world by establishing universally acceptable legal rules for new bills of excha nge and promissory notes which trading parties and banks could use in their credit of financing transactions. It proposes a self-contained system of negotiable in stru- ments and attempts to minimise departures from the contents of existing princip al systems-civil law and common law. When the systems differ, a choice or com- promise between the divergent rules has been made on the basis of current commercial practice and needs. The new convention would allow international bills of exchange and promissory notes to be denominated as payable in monetary uints of account such as Special Drawing Rights (SDRs).

It would also allow those instruments to have floating interest rates, varying according to market conditions thus permitting them to qualify as negotiable instruments. The Legal Guide is designed to assist persons involved in the drafting and negotiations of industrial works. It reviews the full range of issues arising i n connection with the construction of industrial works from the initial stages of
a project to its completion and suggests ways in which those issues might be dealt with in the contract. The discussions in the Legal Guide and the solution s

recommended therein are intended to achieve a balance between the interests of the parties to the contract and to enable the parties, especially developing countries, to formulate equitable contractual provisions.

Although the UNCITRAL had recommended that the Draft Convention be adopted through a resolution by the General Assembly, the Sixth Committee decided to refer the Draft Convention for examination by a Working Group of Experts. At its twentysixth session held at New York from 16 March to 3 April 1987, the Legal Sub-Committee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space continued its discussion on draft principles relating to the use of nucle ar power sources in outer space and matters relating to the definition and delimit a- tion of outer space and the character and utilisation of the geostationary orbi t.

Welcoming the draft principles on the use of nuclear power sources in the working paper submitted by Canada, India expressed the hope that a consensus would emerge regarding their adoption. According to these draft principles, States launching space objects with nuclear power sources on board would bear international responsibility for their activities, and would be internationally liable to pay compensation for damage caused by those space objects.

During the discussions on definition and delimitation of outer space, India stressed that it was a necessary step to achieve a clear distinction between the legal regime of airspace, with its inherent features of State sovereignty, terr itorial integrity and security, and that of the outer space regime in which outer space treaties applied.

Regarding the use of the geostationary orbit, India reiterated its view that, being a limited natural resource, this orbit should be used for the benefit of all mankind and that all countries should have equal and equitable access to it as opposed to the currently prevailing first-come-first-served system. India also stressed the urgent need to develop criteria and arrangements for the rational and equitable use of the geostationary orbit and the radio frequency spectrum based on the genuine needs of all countries, present and future.

The General Assembly in 1986, vide Resolution 41164, asked the Legal Sub-Committee to recommend the choice of a new item for inclusion on its

agenda. The Group of 77 reiterated its request for a new item on "Legal aspe cts related to the access of States to the benefits derived from the exploration ad d utilisation of outer space". In all, five proposals were made, but the Sub-Com- mittee could not reach agreement on any one of them.

At its thirty-nineth Session held in Geneva from 4 May to 17 July 1987, the International Law Commission dealt with the Draft Code of Offences against Peace and Security of Mankind, non-navigable uses of international rivers, inte r- national liability for injurious activities not prohibited by international law , the second part of the topic of the relations between States and international orga - nisations and the programme and working methods of the ILC.

On the basis of the fifth Report submitted to it, the Commission was able to refer certain draft Articles to the Drafting Committee. The Drafting Com- mittee was able to finalise some Articles and postponing others due to lack of time. During this Session, the question of establishing an International Criminal Cou rt with an optional jurisdiction was discussed with some members including the Indian member expressing doubts about the desirability and acceptability of establishing such a Court.

On the question of non-navigable uses of international rivers, the Com- mission discussed the Third Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur on certain procedural questions dealing with the duty to cooperate, notification, ex- change of data and information in the case of projects likely to cause serious, adverse or appreciable harm to the co-riparian State and settlement of disputes .

The view was expressed by some members, including the Indian members, that the duty to cooperate should not be construed in vacuum and should be treated as having reciprocal obligations and that the duty to notify, exchange data and in - formation should be subject to the more fundamental principle of sovereignty of a State over its natural resources and the duty to avoid legal harm to the, co- riparian State and that the principle of settlement of disputes should be subje ct to the State's right to have free choice of means.

The question of liability was discussed on the basis of the Third Report submitted by the Special Rapporteur which proposed that the State of Origin of

an accident should owe liability for all the damages or consequences arising ou t of it provided it has the knowledge or the means to know that the activity in question is carried out within its territory or in areas within its control and that it created an appreciable risk causing trans-boundary injury. This concept of liability received criticism from different perspectives. The Indian member hel d 344 EA/88--11

the view that in the case of the operation of multi-national corporations wi thin a State, particularly developing countries which had no means to control the acti - vities of such corporations or compel them to share all relevant information, t he liability should be placed more at the door-step of the multi-national corporat ions itself. The subject of the relations between States and international organisat ions dealt with an outline submitted by the Special Rapporteur on the privileges and immunities of the organisation, of officials, and of experts and special missio ns for, or persons having official business with the organisation. The Drafting Committee during the course of this Session dealt with the draft Articles on the Draft Code and non-navigational uses of international wat er courses.

The Commission also discussed the rationalisation of its working methods including the need to develop target based programmes for the entire five years so that work could be completed on several of the pending topics before it. The item on International Terrorism was subject to lengthy and intricate debate in the Sixth Committee (Legal) of the UN General Assembly because of the Syrian proposal for convening a conference to define international terroris m and to distinguish it from the struggle of peoples for national liberation. The re were prolonged negotiations among the West Europeans, the East Europeans and the Non-aligned relating to the draft resolution on the item. As a result, a si ngle draft resolution was prepared reflecting the viewpoints of the three groups aft er giving due weight to the Syrian proposal. It was adopted by the Sixth Committee by a vote of 128 in favour, 1 against and one abstention.

The draft resolution is considered to be a victory for the Non-aligned coun-

tries in that A recognizes that the effectiveness of the struggle against terro rism could be enhanced by establishing a generally agreed definition of internationa l terrorism. It urges all States to fulfil their obligations under international law and take effective and resolute measures for the speedy and final elimination o f international terrorism. Taking into account the proposals made during the fort y- second session of the General Assembly to hold an international conference on international terrorism, the resolution requests the Secretary-General to seek the views of member states on international terrorism in all its aspects and on way s and means of combating it, including, inter alia, the convening, under the aus- pices of the United Nations, of an international conference to deal with inter- national terrorism.

The subject of non-use of force was under consideration of the General Assembly of the United Nations since 1976. The General Assembly in 1978, constituted a Special Committee on Enhancing the Effectiveness of the Principle s of Non-Use of Force in International Relations. The Special Committee was charged with the task of preparing the draft of a treaty on the subject, as req uested by the USSR. Since then opinions were highly divided in the Special Com-

mittee as to whether it is advisable for the Special Committee to engage in the task of drafting a treaty on the subject. In 1986-87, the preponderant opinion in the Special Committee was in favour of preparing a declaration on the subject a nd not a treaty. After extensive consideration, a draft of a declaration was prepa red by the Special Committee and submitted to the United Nations General Assembly.

On 18 November 1987, the declaration was adopted by the General Assembly without a vote. The declaration states that every State had a duty to refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of another State. It further st ates that no consideration of whatever nature could be invoked to warrant such a threat or use of force and that States must fulfil their obligation under internationa l law to refrain from organising, instigating, assisting or participating in paramili tary, terrorist or subversive acts, including acts of mercenaries.

During 1987, India concluded 74 treaties and agreements of which a list is given at Appendix III. Of particular importance is the Indo-Burmese Maritime Boundary Agreement which was signed in Rangoon on 23 December 1986 and which came into force with effect from 14 September 1987, upon exchange of Instruments of Ratification in New Delhi.

Foreign Economic Relations




World Economic Situation

The world economy is on the verge of recession with only a modest expan- sion in recent years. The slow growth path is evident from the rates of growth of output which declined somewhat from 3% in 1985 to 2.8% in 1986. Trade continued at 4% growth in 1986; commodity prices declined further; new lend- ing, to developing countries has contracted and debt service has

become even mo re difficult. Recent figures indicate that the total debt of developing countries reached US $ 1.1 trillion by the end of 1986. The continuing stagnation of capital flows to developing countries resulted in a net transfer of resources of around US $ 30 billion in the fiscal year 198 6,from South to North. Official Development Assistance (ODA) remained below half the internationally agreed level of 0.7%.

Many developing countries experienced a decline in per capita income and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of developing countries as a group came down to 3.6% in 1986 from 4.2% in 1985. The Asian economies continued to out-perform the rest of the developing world with a GDP increase rate of almost 6% in the medium term, according to IMF reports. The fall in the oil prices and interest rates have offered some relief altho ugh the forecasts of a consequent recovery in overall global economic growth have not proved accurate. The real interest rates moreover stand at historically hig h levels.

The exchange rates, despite some stabilisation of the US dollar and inter- vention by the major industrialised countries, in the currency markets remained uncertain and unstable. Policy coordination among the large industrialised coun - tries has been strengthened although the focus seems to be more on exchange rat es stabilisation. while solutions are required on a wide variety of macro-economic policies together with surveillance in a process in which developing countries also have a say. The scope for more expansionary macro-economic policies in the developed market economies as a whole, led by the surplus countries, is now beyond reasonable doubt. Inflation has been surmounted and inadequate demand

is placing constraints on investment. The need for growth in surplus countries has been accepted. Japan has recently announced a major new programme of public expenditure. Other countries should follow suit or adjust their policies accordingly.

The Wall Street crash of October 1987 proved the consequences of conti- nuing large deficits in the budget and trade balance of the USA. The US appears to be moving now towards greater seriousness in reducing budget deficits. How- ever, unless measures are taken to stimulate growth and expansion in the South and not only in the surplus countries, the recessionary trends may continue. Protectionism has continued to increase despite repeated declarations of governments and the agreement to launch the new round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTNs). Recent months have witnessed a significant escalation of trade disputes and "gray area measures". The underlying causes included tech- nological change, subsidies to production, past exchange rates misalignment and most important, slow growth in global income and expenditure.

Growth in international trade in services has matched the growth of trade in goods with information based business services expanding more rapidly than traditional ones. Arresting the continuing slide in commodity prices is a task of considerable urgency and the pace of world economic recovery would play a crucial role in

nological change, subsidies to production, past exchange rates misalignment and most important, slow growth in global income and expenditure. Growth in international trade in services has matched the growth of trade in goods with information based business services expanding more rapidly than traditional ones.

Arresting the continuing slide in commodity prices is a task of considerable urgency and the pace of world economic recovery would play a crucial role in this regard. Similarly, arresting of protectionism would also require a faster growth. Substantive flows of financial resources for development from surplus countries to developing countries, has secured a broad consensus. Japan has

already announced a programme for recycling US $ 30 billion over 3 years, mainly to the indebted developing countries. A new wave of scientific and technological revolution in process in the global economy is fundamentally transforming the socioeconomic life of nations with very significant implications, potentials, challenges and opportunities fo r the South. Amazingly rapid advances ranging from superconductivity to the optical fibre, the micro-chip to the bio-chip and a host of related development s herald an era in which-these new science and technologies would be the principa l factors in growth, production and development.

Given also the key and emerging co-relationship between technology, trade and production, the growth and development process with orderly adjustment would necessitate enhanced international cooperation in this area. The inter-dependence between North and South is now widely recognised and them is evidence that this is on the increase. Developed and developing countries have, however, been transmitting slow growth to each other. The drop in exports to the South has been the main reason for the slowing down of growth in developed market economy countries and the further rise in unemploy- ment.

Both short and long term action and measures are required for stimulat- ing growth and development as well as addressing the structural and systemic issues and problems between developed and developing countries. The develop- ment process must, however, form an integral part of these endeavours.

Multilateral Economic Relations

The Seventh and Eighth NAM Summits at New Delhi and Harare had

proposed constructive and pragmatic approaches for the revival of growth and development through multilateral cooperation and for arresting the retreat from multilateralism for development. These also proposed, at the same time, longer term structural reforms towards the attainment of the New International Economic Order (NIEO). Reforms in the global and inter-related systems of money, finance, debt, trade, technology and development are, called for. Macro- economic policies of key industrialised countries need to be consistent and

coordinated with the objective of stimulating demand and providing growth impulses to the world economy. A wide measure of consensus now exists that coordination in promoting exchange rates stability must be accompanied by more fundamental shifts in macro-policies for these to be meaningful ; that the USA must reduce budget deficits and that the FRG and Japan, the surplus countries must expand demand.

Some moves in this direction were being made and the shocks of the Wall Street crash has led --- more serious moves on the part of the US for reduction of the budget deficit.

The Venice Summit of industrialised nations of May 1987, reiterated the commitment to continue and strengthen the process of promoting coordination of macro-economic policies of the key industrialised nations with enhanced surveillance as well as resolved to progress towards the target of 0.7% of GNP as ODA. Some welcome progress has been achieved in this regard especially in reducing exchange rate misalignment. More concrete actions in pursuit of these commitments are called for. The recent consensus at the IMF-World Banks meetings for a General Capital increase in the World Bank's resources Is also a welcome development as is the agreement on an enhanced International Development Association VIII (IDA-VIII). The IMF should improve "condi- tionality" to growth oriented criteria and provide for enhanced liquidity ; the World Bank's resource base should be strengthened and exchange rate stability ensured. The phenomenon of net reverse outflow of resources from South to North should be treated reversed. The Commonwealth Summit stressed the desirability of substantially increased net outflows from developed to developi ng countries for greater support to growth-oriented adjustment and development. The, overall objective of the developing countries as put forward at the Sevent h NAM Summit of New Delhi for a comprehensive reform of the global monetary and financial system through an International Conference on Money and Finance for Development remains valid. Despite considerable work in the IMF and the World Bank on possible reforms or improvements in the system by the G-24 and G-10, very little progress has been made in this direction.

The UNCTAD-VII Conference which was held in August 1987,

presented some positive elements in areas relating to resource transfers, commodities, trade and external debt. Effective follow-up is needed. In the resources area, on debt, there were detailed negotiations concerning the debt strategy and how the treatment of the debt crisis could be improved,

An agreement was reached on the strategy for the debt problem which was recognised to be a shared responsibility. This strategy had three elements which included for the first time the responsibility by major market economy countrie s to improve through suitable policies the international economic environment ; the second element was adjustment by the debtor country concerned which it was agreed, should be growth-oriented ; the third element was renewed and increased financial flows from the creditors. On financial flows, the ODA targets were reaffirmed and official creditors as well as banks were urged to increase financial flows. A call was made for meeting expeditiously by donors, their commitment for the IDA-VIII replenish- ment and for ensuring that IDA terms and conditions remain highly conces- sional.

On commodities, the most important development was the decision by the USSR to rectify the Common Fund. This led to renewed interest in the possi- bility of its being made operational and encouraged several other countries including Ivory Coast, Peru, the Ecuador to announce their ratification, or in- tention to do so, bringing it close to operationalization. In the international trade sector a mandate was given to the UNCTAD on elaborating proposals to strengthen the international trading system including the implicit notion of establishing an International Trading Organisation for which UNCTAD could itself provide the nucleus. The conference also called for reviewing and strengthening UNCTAD's mandate to carry out work on services in the context of the Uruguay Round of MTN and there was also a reaffirmation of "roll-back" and "stand-still" within the UNCTAD and an affirmation that the existing multilateral commitments would not be made conditional on new concessions in other sectors.

The new round of multilateral trade negotiations remains the single most important forum for the large part of the international community to strengthen and liberalize the global trading system with due regard to concerns and intere sts of the South and to improve the GATT machinery. The issue of services requires some detailed expert studies on definitional and statistical aspects t o

improve the database in the first instance. Services of interest to the third w orld need to be addressed and the developmental dimensions of this issue should be central to the discussion of services. Cross-linkages between goods and service s should be avoided consistent with the consensus reached at the UNCTAD-VII and the Uruguay Ministerial Compromise for separation of pods and services

in the new Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN)--the hitter outside the GAT T framework. Full respect for national legislations and socioeconomic priorities and objectives in any consideration of this issue, will be of essence. The issu e of technology transfer needs to be addressed in tandem with the new MTN, especially since many services are highly technology intensive and issues relat ing to intellectual property are being taken up. In the light of rapid developments in the services issues and their importan t implications for the South, we have suggested that the newly established South Commission examine the full implications of these developments for useful inputs to the positions of the developing countries, since services are a relat ively new areas where rapid changes are taking place.

The USA has proposed a GATT based intellectual property agreement, covering goods and services which would effectively amend the existing Paris Convention of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), seeking to extend their coverage and make norms more mandatory ; many developing countries have been critical as these go beyond the jurisdiction of the GATT. India has rejected these, calling for such issues to be dealt with in WIPO. The Commonwealth Summit of October 1987 adopted a declaration, on World Trade highlighting that special consideration be given to developing countries in the New Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN).

India has taken initiatives to facilitate the enhancement of the capacities of the South to adapt and develop new science and technologies through a NAM and G-77 Conference to meet in New Delhi in May 1988. It also took the initiative in the United Nations to commence a new process of international cooperation for sharing the fruits of these scientific and technological develo p- ments for the promotion of peace and a better quality of life, especially for Committee on Science and Technology which was held in August 1987, at our initiative, a Resolution was adopted by consensus seeking programmes, projects for shared development and cooperation in research, information and training technology forecasting and assessment in New and Emerging Science and Technology (NEST).

With a view to revitalising the strategies of the South in international economic cooperation and enriching its negotiating platform, the Eighth NAM 344 EA/88--12

developing countries. During the nineth Session of the UN Inter-Governmental Summit had approved the establishment of a Standing Ministerial Committee of NAM with a little over 25 members from Asia, Africa, Latin America and Europe. The Committee has held two meetings in 1987. South-South cooperation has evolved as a major objective of the Non- Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 (developing countries) for the attainment of collective self-reliance and economic independence and for enhancing the leverage of the South in the world economy and in international economic relations as an important part of efforts to establish the New International Economic Order (NIEO).

The key issues in the programmes of cooperation of the South are
(i) science and technology, especially new and high science and technologies an d Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries (TCDC),
(ii) Global System of Trade Preferences,
(iii) regional and inter-regional payments and clearing arrangements for financing trade,
(iv) galvanising of information, exchange arrangements-Multi Sectoral Information Network and expansion of Research and Information System (RIS). The setting up of an Independent Commission of the South for develop- ment issues can provide positive inputs on important economic issues. The Commission has commenced functioning with its Headquarters located in Geneva. Dr. Manmohan Singh, former Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, has been appointed Secretary-General. There are 28 members, all eminent personalities from developing countries, including Shrimati Devki Jain from India. It has received pledges for contributions totalling almost US $ 5 millio n from around 18 countries. India is the largest contributor having paid US $ 400,000 to the South Commission Fund.

The Commission has formally commenced functioning with a first meeting held recently from 2 to Oct 05, 1987. The next meeting of the Commission will take place in March 1988 in Kuala Lumpur. We have informally provided inputs to the Secretary-General that while development experiences of the South as well as future prospects be reviewed and assessed, the principal theme of the Commission may more usefully be facilitating the attainment of collective self-reliance of the South and provid ing suggestions for revitalising the North-South dialogue to enable an improved external environment for development. We have made several suggestions regarding the issues to be considered in the work programme.

Intensive efforts are underway within the Group of 77 to implement the Caracas Programme of Action in eight spheres of economic activities. One of the important initiatives taken under the ECDC, in which considerable progress

has been made, is the establishment of the Global System of Trade Preferences (GSTP) for which negotiations have already begun. Over 60 developing countries have so far signified their willingness to join the negotiations and arrive at expanding, creating and diversifying intra-South trade based on preferential arrangements. The negotiations would cover not only tariff but also non-tariff barriers and direct trade measures, i.e., long term contracts e tc.The proposal for a NAM Centre on Science and Technology was initiated around a decade ago (in 1975) for providing a firm foundation to NAM's efforts at collective self-reliance in this important area. India's offer to ho st the Centre was accepted in 1978. The NAM Coordinating Bureau also finalised and adopted the Statute of the Centre in 1985.

The Statute required a minimum of 30 signatures for its entry into force as well as ratification. To enable an early operationalisation of the Centre we launched a massive diplomatic campaign to lobby for obtaining the required signatures as well as simplifying procedure to enable its entry into force on a provisional basis. These efforts reached a successful outcome at the recent NAM Ministerial Conference on South-South Cooperation at Pyongyang which was held in June 1987. We are now in the process of inviting nominations to the Governing Council to enable its constitution and its first meeting in New Delhi daring 1988-89.

According to the Statute, the Centre will seek to promote collaboration among scientists and technologists from developing countries and will assist in establishing links between nations and technology. It is envisaged that the Centre will have a mobilising and catalytic role. Its main task would be to function as a clearing house of information on technological needs, capacities of the South, maintain a registry of scientific and technical experts and appoi nt panels of outstanding experts for preparing state-of-art reports on technologie s of direct relevance to developing countries. India will be hosting the first Inter-Governmental Consultative Conference of Experts on new and high technologies of interested Non-aligned and deve- loping countries at New Delhi in May 1988. Invitations have been sent to 25 developing Countries in August 1987 together with the agenda and theme paper of the Conference. A Technology Pool of the South for collective research,

development and application of science and technologies, information and dat a exchange and cooperative arrangements for training and consultancy ; a Pre- ferential Technology Arrangement for facilitating transfer and exchange of technologies within the South and an Inter-Governmental Consultative Group of new and high science and technologies to meet on a continuing basis, have been proposed by us. These have already secured a broad endorsement at the South-South conference of NAM Ministers at Pyongyang in June 1987.

At the nineth Session of the UN Inter-Governmental Committee for Science- and Technology (August, 1987), the international community adopted by consensus, our proposal that South-South cooperation be accorded priority in the programmes and projects of the UN Centre for Science and Technology and the UN Fund for Science and Technology.

NAM Ministers met at Pyongyang in June 1987, to review the entire gamut of issues and activities in the South-South cooperation. Among the more important features of the outcome of the conference was that the decision to, operationalise the NAM Centre on Science and Technology in New Delhi and the endorsement and welcoming of our initiative in new and high science and technologies. It also made significant recommendations in regard to regional and inter-regional payment and clearing arrangements for expanded trade ; and political support to important exercises such as the Global System of Trade Preferences (GSTP) and the Research and Information System (RIS). It reviewed the, progress in the implementation of the decision of the New Delhi Ministerial Meeting and the Harare Summit to rationalize and streamline the Action Programme for Economic Cooperation of NAM, compressing the 23 sectors of cooperation to 13, taking into account the

inter-relationships of is sues. Harmonisation and coordination of activities between G-77 and NAM were also furthered.

The annual review of the Caracas Programme of Action on South-South cooperation has recently been undertaken at Havana at the Inter-Governmental Follow-up and Coordination Committee-VI (IFCC-VI), meeting from 7 to 12 September 1987. The meeting conducted a sectoral review of the 8 spheres of economic cooperation in the Caracas Programme of Action, namely, trade,technology, food and agriculture, energy, raw materials, finance, industrialisation and tec h-

nical cooperation and made recommendations with a view to providing stimulus to the more worthwhile activities in South-South cooperation for concrete results.
Bilateral Cooperation through ITEC

India's commitment to promote cooperation, in the spirit of South-South cooperation, with the other developing countries of the world in Africa, Asia and Latin America, found expression in the bilateral scheme of assistance under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Programme operated by the Ministry of External Affairs. This bilateral programme of assistance supplements other multilateral schemes such as the Colombo Plan and the Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme. The ITEC Programme which was launched in 1964 with a modest outlay of Rs. 4.61 lakhs, has steadily expanded over the years to cover, presently, over 60 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, with a budgetary outlay of over Rs. 12 crores.

The salient features of the ITEC Programme are : providing technical training in India to the nominees of the developing, countries in various field s, deploying Indian Experts to developing countries to assist them in upgrading, the skills of their technicians and experts, undertaking feasibility and techno - economic studies, sponsoring visits of Indian experts/delegations to developing countries to provide consultancy services and of experts of developing countrie s to India to study our technical, economic and industrial projects and progress, organising workshops and special training programmes, execution of various projects and supply of equipment.

As in previous years, during 1987-88 also, 700 slots were earmarked for nominees of developing countries for training in Indian institutions. Nearly 15 0 Indian experts were placed in developing countries on short or long term assignments. Some of the ITEC activities during 1987-88 of which mention may be made, have been The Fourth Session of the Indo-Mauritian Joint Commission on Economic, Technical and Cultural Cooperation held in Mauritius from 20 to

22 July 1987. Under the Agreed Minutes, India agreed to provide to Mauritius techno-economic assistance of the value of Rs. 100 million. The important projects taken up for assistance during the year are the construction and equipping of the Jawaharlal Nehru Hospital and the equipping of the Subrahmaniya Bharati Eye Hospital.

Among the other significant socioeconomic and industrial infrastructure projects accepted for implementation under the ITEC Programme during the year are :
(a) Construction and equipping of the Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health--expansion Project--in Kabul ;
(b) Provision of medical equipment to the hospital in Kampuchea and the restoration and preservation of the Angkor Vat Temple in Kampuchea
(c) Supply of equipment for the Buffalo and Forage Research Centre and Rice Research Centre in Vietnam;
(d) Setting up of Pilot Weaving Centre and Water Development and Management Project in Ethiopia
(e) Setting up of an Electronic Design Centre Laboratory in Thailand, and
(f) Several other projects in a number of developing countries.

Some of the other notable ITEC activities during 1987-88 have been : (a) A three-member team of experts from the National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) was deputed to Aden (PDRY) to conduct feasi- bility studies for the setting up of an Industrial Estate-cum-Training Centre ;
(b) An expert in bio-gas technology Was deputed to Uganda to conduct a feasibility study on the setting up of bio-gas units there
(c) A two-member team of Indian Railways was deputed to Mozambique to participate in a workshop on Computerized Wagon Control
(d) A two-member NSIC team was deputed to the Philippines to advise them on the setting up of Small Scale Units ;


(e) A three-member team visited Vietnam to examine and review the functioning of the Buffalo and Forage Research Centre and the Rice Research Centre ;
(f) A three-member medical specialists team visited Aden (PDRY) for special treatment of patients there ;
(g) An expert in textile technology was deputed to Nicaragua to examine and advise the Nicaraguan authorities on the modernization of their textile mills. A two-member team of experts from Nicaragua visited India to study various industrial fields to identify projects for bilateral cooperation. The Ministry of External Affairs also assisted foreign Governments in recruiting Indian experts on a bilateral basis. It also made its contribution towards the promotion of Indian economic interests through its representation in bodies such as the Inter-Ministerial Joint Venture Committee, the EXIM Bank, the Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation (ECGC), the Federation of Indian Engineering Organisation (FIEO), the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT), the Project and Equipment Corporation (PEC), the Overseas Construction Council of India (OCCI), the Educational Consultants India Ltd. (EDCIL) and the Hospital Services Consultancy Corporation India Ltd. (HSCCIL).

Oct 05, 1987

Policy Planning And Research




The Policy Planning Division of the Ministry continued to function under the overall guidance of Foreign Secretary and the supervision of an Additional Secretary. During the year under review, the Policy Planning Division interacte d with other Divisions of the Ministry and the officials participated on a regula r basis in inter-Ministerial and inter-departmental meetings. The Policy Planning Division continued to maintain active contacts with the Area Study Centres of various Universities specializing in international af fairs. Among the Seminars and Symposia, which were partly financed by the Policy Planning Division, particular mention may be made of the following
(i) A conference on "Media and the Struggle against Apartheid" was or- ganized from 26 to May 27, 1987 by the NAMEDIA Foundation in New Delhi. It was attended by 90 distinguished journalists and media personalities from India and Africa. One of the main objectives of the Seminar was to create increased awareness about the struggle being waged against apartheid by the black majority of South Africa. In the concluding session, the Seminar was addressed by the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari. The participants issued by consensus a statement called the "New Delhi Media Statement Against Apartheid", at the conclusion of the Seminar.
(ii) A Seminar on "NRI's (Non-Resident Indians) in the Gulf' was organis- ed in Goa by the Economic Development Corporation of Goa from 6 to 7 June 1987 to discuss the problems regarding NRI investments in India.
(iii) An Anti-Apartheid Meeting was held in Goa on 8 June 1987, organis- ed by the Anti-Apartheid Committee of Goa. This was inaugurated by Shri Eduardo Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs.

An exhibition was also organised by the DAVP on the occasion. The meeting was also attended by the Ambassador of SWAPO and the Chief Representative of ANC in India.
(iv) A Seminar was organised in New Delhi by the Indian Centre for Studies on Indo-China, New Delhi, on the "Problems of Peace and Security in Asia : Perception of countries of Indo-China" in July 1987. The Seminar discussed the security problems facing the Indo-China region from various dimensions.
(v) A Seminar on "Africa : Today & Tomorrow" by the Centre for East African Studies, University of Bombay, was held from 5 to 7 October 1987 at Bombay. The Seminar dealt with the following themes : the role of External Powers and the Apartheid System; Struggle against Apartheid; Struggle for Freedom in Southern Africa-India's Contri- butions; etc. The Seminar was inaugurated by Shri Eduardo Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, at the Bombay Univer- sity.
(vi) A Young Afro-Asian Writers' Symposium was held from 22 to 26 October 1987 by the Afro-Asian Writers' Association in New Delhi. The Symposium, inter alia, discussed the role of young writers and scholars in highlighting the freedom struggle movement in the Afro- Asian countries. It specifically discussed the role of Indian writers in this context. The Conference was inaugurated by the Vice-President and the valedictory address was delivered by the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro.
(vii) A Seminar on "The Changing International Peace and Security Scenario," was organised on 27 November 1987 by the India Inter- national Centre, New Delhi. It was held on the occasion of the first anniversary of the signing of the New Delhi Declaration of 26 Novem- ber 1986 and focussed the attention on the international impact produced by it.

Besides providing the underpinning for Foreign Policy issues with back- ground notes from a historical perspective, the Historical Division also prepar ed a large number of research papers on topics of current international importance . In this endeavour, the Division maintained close liaison with various Divisions of the Ministry and other concerned Ministries and Departments of the Government of India. Such interaction and interchange helped enhance the quality of the wo rk (tone in the Historical Division which in turn helped make available, the resul t of such studies, to Indian Missions abroad as well as to other Governmental agencies. 344 EA/88--13

An important function of the Historical Division has been to examine the depiction of India's external boundaries appearing in maps published abroad and in India and to take remedial action in cases of incorrect depiction of boundar ies. The Division participated in all boundary talks with countries with which India is seeking negotiated settlement of boundary issues. To support the research efforts a well stocked Library exists which has over one hundred thousand books and documents in its collection. During 1987 alone, 2140 books, 490 maps, 700 pamphlets and 54 reels of microfilm were added. The Library subscribes to 563 periodicals (446 foreign and 117 Indian) besides 36 daily newspapers (23 foreign and 13 Indian). Back-files of The Hindu (Madras), Bangladesh Observer (Dhaka), Daily Review, Izvestia and Pravda (Moscow), Dawn (Karachi), Pakistan Times (Rawalpindi), Egyptian Gazette (Cairo) Guardian (Rangoon), International Herald Tribune (Hong Kong), Renmin Ribao and China Daily (Beijing), Sun (Colombo), Suna (Khartoum), Standard (Nairobi) and the Times (London) are being maintained.

The Library is equipped with a microcomputer, a microfilm reader printer and a plain paper photocopier. From April 1986 the Library has initiated a computerisation of Documenta- tion/Bibliographic Service. All new documents, books, periodicals, articles etc .

are being fed into an in-house microcomputer to create Database on Foreign Affairs. Using this Database, the Library provides Current Awareness Service and bibliographical services. In addition the Library regularly issues a monthl y Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin and an annotated monthly list of books added to the Library.

From June 1987, Loan Records of the Library are also being maintained on the Microcomputer. During 1987 action has been initiated on the creation of
following Databases

*Statements on Foreign Affairs by PM/EAM/MOS/FS

*Country Notes

*List of Indian Treaties/Agreements in force.

May 27, 1987

External Publicity




The year-long celebrations of the Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independ- ence starting Aug 15, 1987 helped to give a new impetus to the already conti- nuing efforts of the External Publicity (XP) Division to project the image of a modem and dynamic India and to promote widespread awareness of India's progress in diverse fields--economic, industrial, scientific and technological besides its rich cultural heritage and the resilience of its democratic institu tions. The foreign press in Delhi was briefed regularly about India's policy on various issues. Our Missions abroad also kept in regular touch with the foreign media to brief them about the current developments in India and to provide them with factual material on matters of current interest. To that end, the XP Divis ion provided information bulletins mainly by twice daily transmissions to 74 Missions/Posts abroad. Besides 49 Missions received bi-weekly press cables and 15 posts received regular information bulletins by diplomatic bags.

The XP Division continued to undertake the printing and publication of high quality Publicity literature on India depicting different facets of India' s national life in English, French, Spanish, German and Arabic. These publication s have been widely circulated by our Missions abroad and have been found to be extremely popular and useful.

For the year-long celebrations of the Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independence, the XP Division chalked out a comprehensive programme to make world-wide impact as follows :
(1) A package of 13 feature films was dubbed into various languages viz. English (5 sets), French (2 sets) and Spanish and Arabic (1 set each). These were sent to our Missions abroad for organising film festivals during the year-long celebrations.

(2) The XP Division acquired 3 sets of an exhibition consisting of high quality photographs showing progress made by India in different fields under the theme India-Tryst with Destiny for organising photo exhibitions by our Missions abroad. Each set has 45 panels, with a panel having more than one photograph and a write-up suitably ex- plaining the exhibition. The photographic exhibitions have already been organised by a number of Missions and such exhibitions are to be arranged during the rest of the Fortieth Anniversary year in a number of other Missions.
(3) A thirty-minute TV Documentary, A Nation on the March on the achievements of India during the last 40 years was supplied to all our Missions abroad. This was shown on National TV hook ups in over 40 countries.
(4) The XP Division assisted in the publication of supplements by leading newspapers abroad on the occasion of the Fortieth Independence Anniversary celebrations. Besides, some other leading newspapers, also brought out supplements or published special articles on the occasion.
(5) The XP Division distributed 30 feature articles, especially commis- sioned, to our Missions abroad for being used by the local media on the occasion of the Fortieth Anniversary of India's Independence cele- brations. 30,000 photographs were sent to our Missions abroad to supplement and illustrate these articles.
(6) 147 colour slides each were sent to about 100 Indian Missions for use during the year-long Independence Anniversary celebrations.
(7) Two elegant publications viz. India-A Democracy on the Move, and India-Four Decades of Democracy and Develoment have been brought out in English, Arabic, French, German and Spanish languages. Another high quality hard cover publication, India-Continuity in Change has been brought out in English. All these publications have been widely distributed by our Missions abroad. The XP Division helped to bring in sharp focus the ongoing ethnic problem in Sri Lanka. In June 1987 the XP Division took about 100 foreign

and Indian mediamen to accompany the relief supply to Jaffna in Sri Lanka. Later 35 foreign and Indian correspondents were taken in aircrafts which dropped relief supplies to the people in Jaffna. After the signing of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accor d in July 1987, the XP Division took over 80 foreign and Indian mediamen to observe the surrender of arms by the militant Tamil organisations. The coverage in the International Press on the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord and. the subsequent

developments was generally favourable. The XP Division continued to brief regularly the foreign and Indian mediamen on the day-to-day developments. A high quality booklet on the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord was produced in English, French, German and Arabic languages and distributed widely through our Missions abroad.

Apart from the regular publication of a fortnightly magazine, Indian and Foreign Review, its French counterpart Courrier de L' Inde and the monthly Foreign Affairs Record, the XP Division brought out about a score of elegant publications-some of a regular nature like the Prime Minister's statements on foreign policy, some others of a general nature and some relating to specific occasions to achieve optimum results. Since last year the External Publicity Division has been placing increasing emphasis on the circulation of audio-visual material by Indian Missions abroad. By now all Indian Missions have been authorised to equip themselves with tele- vision sets and video cassette recorders. The video libraries provided to our Missions abroad depicting India's agricultural, industrial, scientific and tech nolo- gical progress and different facets of our cultural heritage, apart from topics of contemporary interest, were updated and strengthened. In close cooperation with Doordarshan, the XP Division continued to regularly send a Television capsule entitled India Magazine every week to all our Missions abroad about develop- ments in India. These capsules were widely welcomed. These programmes were also lent out by our Missions abroad to individuals, cultural organisations and educational institutions for wider impact. These programmes have proved to be extremely useful in catering to the needs of the Indian community and to the people of Indian origin abroad. They are being used extensively by the Indian ethnic television stations in the USA and in Canada, and are being viewed not only by the Indian community but also by other foreign expatriates.

Keeping in view the increasing popularity of Indian films across the world, the XP Division acquired a number of high quality feature films which are in the process of being subtitled in French and Arabic. All these films have alrea dy been subtitled in English and have been sent to our Missions abroad for circula - tion and screening on the Missions' premises. The XP Division also provided our Missions with documentary films produced by the Films Division covering different aspects of India's national life.

The photo libraries of our Missions abroad containing photographic slides on different facets of developments in India were strengthened. The Missions ar e

also being regularly supplied with photographs of current developments in In dia. During the 9 months ending December 1987, about 50,000 news-photographs and 13,000 colour transparencies were sent to our Missions abroad. The XP Division continued to maintain close liaison with the media rep- resentatives from abroad, and with the resident foreign and Indian media rep- resentatives accredited to the Press Information Bureau and rendered them assistance in doing their work. During the year under review, the XP Division made complete logistical arrangements, with the help of our Missions abroad, for the media parties which accompanied the Prime Minister abroad on his visits to Moscow (2 to 4 July 1987), Sri Lanka (29 to 30 July 1987), Japan, Canada and USA (11 to 21 October 1987), Nepal (2 to 4 November 1987) and Burma (15 to 16 December 1987). On these occasions, press kits and audio-visual material were sent to ou r Missions abroad in the countries concerned for a pre-publicity build-up. Simi- larly, the XP Division made logistical arrangements including Press Conferences for visiting foreign dignitaries and the accompanying media parties.

The XP Division continued to subscribe to the feature news services of news agencies and commissioned special articles on the occasion of the Republic Day and the Independence Day for dissemination abroad. The publication of special supplements on India by foreign newspapers journals magazines were facilitated.

With the assistance of the Ministry of Home Affairs, the XP Division con- tinued to regularly brief our Missions abroad on the developments in the Punjab and to counter extremist propaganda against India. Our Missions abroad have adopted a multi-pronged approach, including keeping in close touch with the resident Indian communities to brief them regularly about the developments in India including the situation in the Punjab, with a view to isolate the hostile elements. Selected Missions abroad were also provided with information from the Punjab Government about the developments in the Punjab.

Aug 15, 1987

Cultural Relations




The activities of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations diversified furt her during the year 1987-88. Cultural delegations sponsored by the Council toured different regions of the world. The Council provided Indian audiences an oppor- tunity to witness some of the best performing groups from abroad. During the year the Council sponsored visits of over 31 cultural troupes and provided assistance to a large number of artistes to perform abroad. These in- cluded troupes which were sent to participate in various important festivals an d celebrations held by various countries. The Council arranged for over 24 eminent Indians to travel abroad to present various facets of India's culture before international audiences. These include d scholars, theatre experts, poets and other eminent personalities. The Council handled a number of foreign cultural troupes as part of various cultural events such as the Africa Festival and the Festival of USSR in India. A thirteen-member Chinese performing group visited India during January- February 1987 as part of their tour of South Asia.

The Council received over 25 distinguished personalities which included scholars, poets and academicians. Student delegations from Bhutan and Bangla- desh were also received. The Council organised several large scale cultural manifestations during the year such as the Africa Festival in India and India in Switzerland 1987. The latter was a major cultural presentation undertaken by the Council entirely on its own, and was inaugurated in Geneva- and Zurich by the then Vice-President

of India, Shri R. Venkataraman. The collaborators for the Festival from the Swiss side were Pro-Helvetia, an autonomous cultural institution funded by the Swiss Federal Government. The Festival which was organised in seven Cantons of Switzerland presented Indian culture in its multiple facets. Prominent artis tes who participated in this festival were musicians like Bismillah Khan, Imrat Kha n, Lakshmi Shanker, the Dagar Brothers and eminent dancers like Durgalal, Malavika Sarukai and Sanjukta Panigrahi. There were exhibitions of Indian architecture, photography and cartoons. The world premier in English of Peter Books' Mahabharata in Zurich was a part of the Festival. The Council was also entrusted with the performing arts component of the Festival of India in, the USSR Indian Manifestation in Sweden and International Ocean Festival in Mauritius. The Council also handled within India the leading performing troupes of the Festival of USSR in India. Brief details of these festivals are as under :

The total lumber of artistes selected by the Council for the Festival of Indi a in USSR was 1,502 including distinguished artistes like Pt. Ravi Shankar, M. S. Subbulakshmi and Bismillah Khan. The Festival was inaugurated in Moscow on Jul 03, 1987 by the Prime Minister of India and the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party. ICCR presented inaugural classical concerts in Moscow at the Kremlin Palace of Congresses from 4 to 10 July 1987 featuring, among others, Shrimati M. S. Subbulakshmi, Ustad Bismillah Khan, Ustad Imrat Khan, Shri Lalgudi Jayaraman, Shri Chitti Babu and Shrimati Parveen Sultana. The Classical concerts were also organised by the Council during the inaugural events at Leningrad and Tashkent.

Eminent artistes who participated in these concerts included Dr. Dorai- swamy Iyengar, Pt. Birju Maharaj, Pt. Ram Narayan, Pt. Hari Prasad Chaurasia and Shri Shiv Kumar Sharma. The artistes who participated in the inaugural events also visited 110 cities of the USSR to give per- formances. A special concert was organised in Moscow on 15 August 1987 on the occasion of the Fortieth Anniversary of the Independence of India. The Kalakshetra Dance Troupe and Ustad Amjad Ali Khan performed before a distinguished audience which included Dr. Shanker Dayal Sharma, the then Governor of Maharashtra.

The Indian Manifestation in Sweden was officially inaugurated on 21 August 1987 by Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, Minister for Human

Resource Development and the Prime Minister of Sweden. The Council handled the performing arts component of the Festival. The Council sent about 106 folk artistes to participate in the inaugural Mela for three days on 21, 22 and 23 August 1987 respectively. The inaugural events included concerts by Pt. Bhimsen Joshi and a Lai Haroba group of Manipur. Forty-two folk artistes participated in the Park Circuit tour after the inaugural Mela.

The Council coordinated the participation of 213 performing artistes in the International Ocean Festival in Mauritius. Classical artistes of inter- national fame who participated were, Padma Subramanyam, Guru Jaya and Banashree Rama Rao, Madhavi Mudgal and Savita Devi. Fourteen folk groups from various parts of India also participated. The ITDC organised a Food Festival and the Trade Fair Authority of India organised a Fashion Pageant. INS Vidyagiri of the Indian Navy was despatched to Mauritius for the festival.

The Africa Festival gave the people of India a glimpse of the vibrant richness of the culture of Africa. This festival was organised in India from 25 May to 7 June 1987 with the participation of 6 African countries. The countries represented at the Festival were Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mauritius, Nigeria and Senegal. The Festival of USSR in India was inaugurated on 19 November 1987. The Council was entrusted with the presentation of the leading performing troupes of the Soviet Festival including the Bolshoi Ballet and the Soviet Circus. The proceeds were donated to the PM's Relief Fund. These events included the following :

The inaugural concert of the Masters of Soviet Arts programme was held on 22 and 23 November 1987, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Mr. N. I. Ryzhkov. The Masters of Soviet Arts Prog- ramme in Bombay was held on 8 December 1987 at the NCPA Theatre.

The State Brass Orchestra group performed on 25 and 26 November 1987 at Talkatora Stadium. The group also performed in Karnal, Sonepat, Bombay, Bangalore and Calcutta.

Puppet shows by the group, Vinius Puppet Theatre Lele were organis- ed on 25, 26 and 27 November 1987 at Azad Bhavan with the 334 EA/88--14

collaboration of UNIMA India. The programme was also arranged in Hissar, Bhiwani, Karnal, Haridwar and Bombay. The world famous Bolshio Group performed Giselle and Love for Love at Siri Fort Auditorium with live orchestral accompaniment. The inaugural concert was held in the presence of the President of India, Shri R. Venkataraman. The Group also gave concerts in Bombay, Bangalore and Calcutta but with recorded music.

The Circus, Carnival of the World and Rhythms of the Planet (Soviet Circus) gave 38 shows in Delhi, 33 shows in Calcutta and 31 shows in Bombay. The State Folk Dance Company of Igor Moiseey performed on 29 and 30 November 1987 at the Talkatora Stadium. The Council awarded 30 scholarships to foreign students under its Cultural Scholarship Scheme for 1987-88. It also disbursed scholarships on behalf of other agencies of the Government of India, besides rendering assistance in the form of reception on arrival, location of accommodation and social get-together s. An Inter-Ministerial Standing Committee on Foreign Students has been set up with the Ministry of External Affairs as the nodal Ministry and the Council as its Secretariat. The Committee would function as a coordinating agency to oversee and monitor all arrangements in respect of foreign students.

During the period under review, the Council organised six study tours for foreign students to places like Kashmir, Ajanta, Ellora, Bombay, Goa, Alwar, Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Jaipur, Bangalore, Mysore and Hyderabad and combined sightseeing with visits to industrial establishments. Receptions were hosted for foreign students on the occasion of Indian Independence Day, Republic Day and Foreign Student's Day (11 November) at Headquarters and Regional Offices as well as in Missions abroad. The Council organised a meeting of the Foreign Students Advisors on 3 November 1987. The meeting discussed in particular the role of the FSA in the context Of various steps taken by the Government of India in 1987 to upgrade and streamline the facilities for foreign students.

The Council also organised Orientation Courses for foreign students, for IFS Probationers, for the staff recruited for Indian Cultural Centres abroad an d for the visiting Professors sent on deputation to foreign universities. The Council continued to publish six quarterly journals, namely, India Horizons, Africa Quarterly, Gagananchal, Thaqfaud Hindi, Recontre Avec I' Inde and Papeles de la India. The Council has undertaken publication of Vision of India (reprint), Readings from India (reprint), Buddhism and National Culture and International Symposium on India and World Literatures. An Editorial Board has been constituted to bring out the Maulana Azad Commemorative Volumes on the occasion of Maulana Azad's Centenary in 1988.

During the period under review the ICCR sponsored eight exhibitions abroad and received three from outside. An exhibition of contemporary paintings by well-known Indian artists was sent to the Frankfurt Book Fair and thereafter circulated to a number of cities in the GDR and Poland. An exhibition of Madhubani paintings, Indian Musical Instruments and Masks was sent to Italy and Switzerland.

Switzerland also received an exhibition each on contemporary Indian art and on Indian archi- tecture.

An exhibition of contemporary Indian Art by eminent Indian women artistes was sent to Algeria to participate in the Algerian Biennale and it won a number of awards. The Council participated in the First Art Biennale of Pakistan through an exhibition of paintings and sculpture at Lahore on 12 January 1988. Under the Indo-Mexican Cultural Exchange Programmes the Council organised an exhibition of 80 caricatures by a leading Mexican painter and muralist, Jose Clemente at Azad Bhawan Art Gallery in April 1987.

The Council sponsored the Young Afro-Asian Writers Symposium from 22 to 26 October 1987 through a special grant from the Ministry of External Affairs. The Council also organised a function on 16 December 1987 at Azad Bhavan to mark the International Solidarity Day with the People of Palestine.

The Council functions as the Secretariat for the Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education and Culture. The joint Media Committee of the Sub-Commission met on 1 and 2 February 1988 at Los Angeles. Thereafter, the Joint Committee on Cultural Heritage and Endeavours met at the same venue on 5 February 1988. Based on the recommendations of these two Committees, the Sub-Commission met in New Delhi from 1 to 2 March 1988 to finalise the work programme for the forthcoming year.

For promoting greater awareness and appreciation of Indian Cultural Heri- tage abroad, the Council has established Indian Cultural Centres in Suva (Fiji), Geogetown (Guyana) and Paramaribo (Suriname), Indian music and dance as well as Hindi are taught regularly at the Centres by the Indian teache rs posted by the Council. These Centres maintain libraries, reading rooms and organise lectures, symposia, exhibitions, essay competitions, staging of plays, screening of films, publication of news bulletins and develop contacts with a wide cross section of local citizens including students, teachers, scholars and cultural personalities. Formalisation of the courses taught at the Centres thro ugh affiliation to recognised Indian academic institutions universities is at an ad vanced stage.

The Council is taking steps to implement the decisions taken last year to open new Cultural Centres at Port Louis (Mauritius), Jakarta (Indonesia) and Port of Spain (Trinidad & Tobago). It has taken possession of the 7-acre plot of land allotted by the Government of Mauritius for construction of the Centre' s building. The foundation stone was laid by the Prime Minister of Mauritius on 22 July 1987. Shri Satish Gujral has been appointed as the Architect for the Centre and the construction work is expected to commence by April 1988. In Indonesia the Centre will be functional from February 1988. In respect of Trinidad procedural formalities are in progress.

The Council deputes Professors of Indology, Languages and allied subjects to foreign universities. The Council's Visiting Professors of Hindi are located in the University of Sofia (Bulgaria), the University of Warsaw (Poland), the J agiel- Ionian University, Cracow (Poland), the National Institute of Higher Educaton, Research, Science and Technology, Port of Spain (Trinidad), the Humboldt Uni- versity, Berlin (GDR) and the University of Bucharest (Romania). A Professor of Tamil is located in the University of Warsaw (Poland) while a Professor of Sanskrit and Indian Cultural History is based in Udayana University, Bali (Indonesia). The Council has also deputed a Professor of Vedanta Philosophy to Chiangmai University (Thailand).

Under the guidelines issued by the Central Cultural Committee of the Gov- ernment of India in 1971, foreign cultural centres and foreign libraries in pla ces other than those in which foreign Missions have diplomatic or

consular repre- sentation, are to be managed and supervised by the ICCR. In pursuance of this the management of British Libraries in various cities, of the House of Soviet Culture in Trivandrum and supervision of the Max Mueller Bhavans and of the Alliances Francaise in India have been undertaken by the Council. During the year, the Council administered the British Libraries located at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Patna, Pune, Ranchi and Trivandrum. The British Library at Ranchi celebrated its Silver Jubilee this year which was attended by the representatives of the ICCR and the British High Commission. The Council also administered the House of Soviet Culture, Trivandrum which conducted Russian Language classes, film shows, exhibitions, chess tournaments etc. The Council continued its supervision of the activities of the Max Mueller Bhavan and the Alliance Francaise.

The Council has sent books worth Rs. 4 lakhs for presentation through Indian Missions abroad. Object d'art reproductions of Indian paintings, handi- craft items etc. were also sent to the Missions from time to time. A bust of Shrimati Indira Gandhi was sent to the Indian High Commission, Mauritius for presentation to the Julien Village Council in Mauritius. The Council also des- patched several hundred sets of musical instruments on cost-sharing basis to th e Government of Mauritius. Essay competitions were organised by some of our Missions abroad for which the Council bad made available prizes in the form of books, musical records, cassettes, re-productions of paintings, art objects etc.

The ICCR Library continued to offer its specialized reference service to research scholars working on various aspects of Indian culture. The Centre for Africa was established within the framework of the ICCR to encourage greater interaction between India and the countries of Africa. The Centre has an Advisory Panel of twenty eminent persons under the chairman- ship of the Minister of State for External Affairs. The Centre organised the inaugural function of the newly formed Indo- African Society on 24 May 1987. It also coordinated the Africa Festival and the Ocean Festival in Mauritius. The Hindi Advisory Committee of the Ministry of External Affairs met in June 1987 and on 15 December 1987 to discuss matters relating to Hindi and

the Council's work. The computerisation of accounts in the Council has been undertaken. Payroll and Provident Fund accounts have already been computeris- ed. A meeting of the Departmental Promotion Committee (DPC) of the Council also took place during the year and cleared a large backlog of confirmations an d promotions. A cadre review of the Council has been undertaken. Recommenda- tions of the Fourth Pay Commission as applicable to the Council have been implemented.

Jul 03, 1987

Indians Overseas


Jan 01, 1987



Overseas Indians are increasingly being recognised as a potential bridge of understanding and cooperation between the country of their domicile and India. They, in turn, have evinced greater interest in developing their cultura l and economic ties with India to which the Government of India has responded positively with due regard for the mutual benefit of India and the host country . Therefore, while the Government of India has always held that persons of Indian origin should identify themselves with and integrate in the country of their domicile, it remains alive to their general interests and welfare and has encou rag- ed promotion of cultural contacts with them. As regards Indian nationals, the Government of India naturally holds itself responsible for their safety and wel fare and takes all necessary steps in this regard. Indian Missions abroad are the first point of contact for the Overseas Indians, and have been instructed to maintain close contact with the Indian Com - munity living in the country(ies) of their accreditation and to assist them to the extent possible in overcoming the problems they may face. Although the require- ment of registering on first arrival with our Missions exists not many Indian nationals do so. During the year, our Mission in Bahrain has undertaken a successful exercise of registering Indians living there despite the large numbe rs involved, which was welcomed by the Government of Bahrain. The term Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) covers Indian nationals residing abroad as well as persons of Indian origin at least one of whose grandparents was an Indian national and the wives of such persons, for matters pertaining to investment in India. With the liberalisation of rules and procedures relatin g to investment by NRIs, the Indian Missions abroad are called upon to respond to queries on a wide-range of subjects connected with investment. They also extend assistance to NRIs in this regard consistent with laws and regulations o f the countries of their accreditation. The Special Coordination Unit within the

Ministry keeps the Missions informed about the modifications in rules pertain - ing to investment by NRIs.

In this context the seminar on "Investment Opportunities in India for NRIs with particular reference to NRIs in the Gulf" which was organised by the Ministry of External Affairs in Panaji, Goa, from 6 to 7 June 1987 in collabo- ration with the Economic Development Corporation of Goa, Daman and Diu proved useful. The seminar was attended by prominent Gulf NRIs, representa- tives from Central Government and State Governments and financial institutions and was inaugurated by Shri Eduardo Faleiro, the then Minister of State in the Ministry of External Affairs. A number of practical recommendations made at the seminar were sent to the concerned Ministries Departments of the Govern- ment for follow-up action which is in progress.

The Special Coordination Unit of the Ministry has a nodal responsibility for dealing with problems relating to Overseas Indians that may arise from time to time and participates actively in inter-ministerial meetings dealing with NR I investment in India.






During 1987, Heads of the Foreign Missions of the following 25 countries left India on completion of their assignment : United Kingdom, Tunisia, Nigeria, Japan, Cuba, China, Burkina Faso (non-resident), the Netherlands, Ethiopia, Turkey, the Federal Republic of Germany, Lebanon, Bhutan, France, Sweden, Oman, Austria, the Republic of Korea, Sudan, Venezuela, Thailand, Uru- guay (non-resident), Rwanda (non-resident), the EEC, Czechoslo- vakia and Nepal.

During the year 1987, Heads of Missions of the following 26 countries Presented their credentials to the President of India : The Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, the UAE, Nicaragua, Brazil, Japan, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Tunisia, Turkey, China, Cuba, Iceland (non-resident), Sweden, the Netherlands, Nigeria, France, Venezuela, the Federal Republic of Germany, Bhutan, the Republic of Korea, Sudan, Oman, Niger (non-resident), Brunei Darussalam (non-resident), Mali (non-resident), Benin (non-resident) and Thailand.

The Commonwealth of Dominica opened its first resident Mission in New Delhi. The first resident High Commissioner, Her Excellency Mrs. Elizabeth Gilda Thebaud Mansour presented her credentials to the President on Nov 04, 198 7@.

India opened its first resident Mission in Botswana.
The list of foreign dignitaries who visited India during 1987 can be seen at Appendix XVIII.
344 EA/88--15


Passport And Consular Services




During the year under review, efforts to render prompt and efficient service to the public in passport offices continued. Passport issue procedures were further streamlined and simplified. Presently there are 20 Passport Offices spread all over the country. A statement showing the number of applications for fresh passport miscellaneous services received and the number of passports issued miscellaneous services rendered during the period 1 January to Dec 31, 1987 is given at Appendix VII. During 1987 the passport offices earned a total revenue of Rs. 10.64 crores. They incurred an expenditure of Rs. 4.05 crores. A detailed statement in this regard is given at Appendix VIII.

It was decided to open a new Passport Office at Panaji, Goa. The Passport Office started functioning from February 1988. The All India Passport Offices Conference was held from 14 to 16 January 1.988 at New Delhi. The question of issue of passport was discussed in all its facets and recommendations were made for the further simplification of existing procedure with a view to cutting down delays.

Inspection of Passport Offices proceeded apace. Emphasis was laid on the training of the personnel of the Central Passport Organisation in various subjects through appropriate training institutions like the Foreign Service Training Institute and the Institute of Secretariat at Tr aining and Management, New Delhi.

The Government decided to computerise Passport Offices in a phased manner with a view to improving their efficiency. In the first phase computers were installed in Passport Offices in Delhi, Bombay, Madras and Cochin. 12 other Passport Offices in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Lucknow, Patna, Srinagar and Panaji will be computerised in the second phase. The work of the Consular Passport and Visa (CPV) Division of the Ministry is also being computerised. Systems like the public grievances system and document system have been developed.

A Committee formed under the Chairmanship of Additional Secretary (Pol.) in the Ministry has suggested both short and long term measures for improving the quality of the passport booklet as also for the phased introducti on of machine readable passport. The recommendations are being implemented. Existing procedures have been streamlined with a view to identifying areas where passports could be issued on a priority basis. In order to curb malpractices, comprehensive guidelines have been formulated to deal with cases of lost and damaged passports.

During the year 1987, a total of 2480 cases of complaints regarding delay in issue of fresh passports or renewals were received by the

Complaints and Gri ev- ances Cell of PV Division. Out of those, 1621 complaints were settled by issuin g passports and rendering the desired services. 35 cases of Appeals against the order of impounding or refusal of passport facilities to Indian nationals by the passport offices were received. In 12 cas es, the Chief Passport Officer heard Appeals and passed orders allowing or rejectin g consideration. 45 cases of forgery of entries in the passports or visas were reported to th e Ministry Investigations are being made in all these cases of forgeries. 160 applications were received for issue of Certificates of Identity to stateless persons, most of them being Tibetan refugees. In most of the cases,

Certificates of Identity have been issued to the applicants. A few cases re- ceived recently are in the process of being disposed off. 107 requests were received in the Ministry from Indian Passport holders for grant of endorsement for South Africa. These cases were disposed of on merits in consultation with the Territorial Divisions in the Ministry. During the year under review, 876 applications from Travel Agents were received for recognition to deal with the Passport Offices in passport matters under the new criteria introduced with effect from September 1986. Out of these, 298 Travel Agencies were approved. The remaining applications are either in the process of consideration or have been rejected for non-fulfilment of the prescribed criteria.

Consular Matters
During 1987, a total of 785 cases of deportation came to the notice of the Ministry. Most of these were from the Gulf countries. Indian Missions Posts abroad repatriated 478 Indian nationals in distress in foreign countries besides extending financial assistance, wherever necessary. 447 cases of the deaths of Indian nationals abroad came to the notice of the Ministry and action was initiated to claim wage dues, death compensations for the heirs of the deceased through respective Indian Missions. 236 cases of death of foreign nationals were also handled. 90188 documents submitted by the public for production to foreign autho- rities were attested authenticated by the Consular Section. A Regional Consular Officers meeting was held in Washington on 9 and 10 June 1987. It was attended by the Consular Officers from Indian Missions in the USA and Canada. The Head of the Consular Passport and Visa Division of the Ministry as also the Head of the Foreigners Division of the Ministry of Home Affairs addressed this conference. Procedures relating to the expeditious disposal of passport and visa applications as also consular matters were discussed and clarifications given on various points raised by the Consular Officers.

During the period under review, a number of important changes have been brought about in visa matters. On reciprocal grounds visa fees were reviewed vis-a-vis 29 countries. Non-resident Indians proposing to set up industrial ventures in India would henceforth be granted long term multiple entry visas for two years by Indian Missions abroad. Foreigners of Indian origin who are above 65 years of age and wish to return to India to settle down permanently and their spouses without any age limitation would be granted one year long term visas by the Indian Missions abroad, under their own powers. The visa manual has been revised and is presently under print. Singapore and Ireland have introduced visa regimes for Indian nationals in 1987.

Administration And Organisation



Shri N. D. Tiwari relinquished charge as Minister for External Affairs on Jul 25, 1987 and took over as Minister of Finance and Commerce. The Ministry was placed under the charge of the Prime Minister. Shri K. Natwar Singh has remained as Minister of State in the Ministry. Shri Eduardo Faleiro relinquished charge as Minister of State for External Affairs on 14 February 1988 and took over as Minister of State for Banking and Economic Affairs.
Shri K. P. S. Menon has continued as Foreign Secretary. So has Shri
A. S. Gonsalves as Secretary (West). Shri A. B. Gokhale took over as Secretary (E & ER) on 9 March 1987. S Shri P. L. Sinai, M. Dubey and A. G. Asrani have continued as Addi- tional Secretaries. Shri A. K. Banerjee has continued as Additional Secretary and Financial Adviser. A new Mission at Gaborone in Botswana and a Consulate General in Tashkent, USSR, were opened during the year under review. The Ministry thus has 140 resident Missions/Posts abroad manned by officials from India. The total sanctioned strength of IFS and IFS(B) both at Headquarters and in Indian Missions abroad is 3651. This includes 28 officers of the Combine d Research Cadre and 30 officers of the Interpreter's Cadre. The Cadre-wise strength is given in Appendix IX. In addition, there are 1495 locally recruited staff in Indian Missions/Posts abroad.

The Committee of Secretaries had recommended restructuring of the Supply Wing of the Indian High Commission in London with a view to re- ducing the staff and; effecting economy. Their recommendations have since been implemented in consultation with the Ministry of Defence. A list showing the number of officers of this Ministry who have qualified in various foreign languages is given in Appendix XI. A record number of Missions were inspected during the year under review. The nineteen Missions/Posts inspected were Harare, Lusaka, Luanda, Baghdad, Kuwait, Beijing, Jakarta, Port Louis (Mauritius), Saint Denis (Reunion Island), Lilongwe, Gaborone, Cairo, Moscow, Stockholm, Helsinki, Ottawa, Vancouver, Toronto and Thimpu. The Ministry also conducted periodic reviews of the emoluments of home-based officials as well as locally recruited staff in a very large number of Missions.

As a means of streamlining administrative procedures and as a measure of economy, the Ministry has discontinued the practice of supply of crockery to representational officers other than Heads of Missions and Posts, and has replaced it with a lump sum grant. The Ministry have also rationalised Rules and Regulations regarding entitlements abroad of spouses who are also employees of the Government of India so that discriminatory position of sexes was eliminated.

This year has seen important improvements in telecommunication network of the Ministry of External Affairs. The staff strength of the Zonal Telex Cent res at New York, London, Bahrain, Moscow and Tokyo has been doubled to enable them to work round-the-clock in pace with the Telegraph Section at the Ministry of External Affairs. A Satellite Teleprinter link has been established with Kathmandu providing 24-hour communication in place of the old wireless station which was not working properly. A new facsimile service has been inaugurated. Approval in principle has been obtained for a project to set up 26 wireless stations in selected Indian Missions. The Headquarters Station and Wireless Transmitter Stations in five Missions abroad are proposed to be set up in the next phase. Improvements have also been effected in the functioning of the CCB.

The work on computerisation of the Ministry was taken up in earnest and adequate training imparted to officials for this purpose. Several Divisions of

the Ministry have been provided with computers to facilitate information sto rage and retrieval and to expedite the decision-making process. Funds available for office automation upgradation of facilities were also fully utilised in order t o modernise the working environment. The Ministry has strictly implemented guidelines regarding the purchase of bilingual electronic typewriters and has acquired considerable capacity in this regard. The Computer Cell with the help of the National Informatics Centre (NIC), Department of Electronics, has made considerable progress in the development of application software for headquarters. A Personnel Information System (PIS) has been developed for the Administration Division and substantial data entry completed. Similarly, on the Establishment side, systems have been developed to keep track of the Immovable Property Purchase and the Rentals paid in respect of hired property. The hardware and the application software which has been handed over to the Economic Division, is being put to daily use as a Decision Support System for the Indian Technical and Economic Coope- ration (ITEC) programme. On the Finance side also, four software packages have been developed and these are in daily use. Systems study on the Country Data Banks for use in the Territorial Divisions has been completed and applica- tion software is being developed. Data entry has been completed on an Indian Overseas Data Bank. For the Protocol Division, the gross design of a system to monitor the Duty Exemption Certificates has been prepared. A Cadre Review System for the IFS(B) prepared for the Cadre Cell of the Ministry

is at the trial run stage.

For the Ministry of External Affairs' Library, a database on Foreign Affairs and Diary of Events are operational whereas data entry is in progress on Countr y Briefs and Statements on Foreign Policy by the Prime Minister, the Minister for External Affairs and the Minister of State for External Affairs etc. as wel l as a system on Maps Information. Headquarters' accounts are being computerised on a regular basis from September 1987. Computers are operational at the Regional Passport Offices (RPOs) at Delhi, Madras, Bangalore and Cochin. Site-preparation is in progress at the RPOs at Bhopal, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Goa. Eight other RPOs are to be computerised in the near future. A Public Grievances Information System for the RPOs and a Passport Information System for the Passport Visa Division are functional whereas the Financial and Accounting Package for Passport

Offices is in the trial run stage. For the Indian Council for Cultural Rela tions (ICCR), systems have been developed for an Artist Data Bank, Cultural Festival Management System and a Social Welfare Accounting System. During the year under review, the NIC has provided about 10 PCs, 2 PC/ XTs and 8 PC/ATs to the Ministry of External Affairs and the ICCR for their computerisation programmes, besides the minis and other computers purchased for the RPOs from the Ministry's budget. The Ministry continued to pursue vigorously the policy of acquiring good properties abroad for residences as well as for offices. As in 1986-87, the Ministry is confident of fully utilising the available funds in acquiring valua ble real assets abroad despite the enhanced budget of Rs. 22 crores, in 1987-88. In addition to major renovations of important existing buildings in major capi- tals, the Ministry acquired Chanceries at Paris, Accra, Seoul and Budapest. Residences for Heads of Mission were acquired at Harare, Lima, Budapest and Kinshasa. Accommodations for other officials of the Missions were acquired in Kuala Lumpur, the Hague, Colombo and Lilongwe.

Construction projects for the Chanceries at Colombo and Nicosia as well as residence complexes at Nairobi were completed during the year, under review. The Chancery project at Islamabad is nearing completion. The Ministry has finalised the preparation for the construction projects at Lagos and Kuwait and actual construction is expected to begin in the last quarter of the financial y ear 1987-88. The project for the Chancery at Kuala Lumpur has been approved and preparation for the construction project, already approved, at Riyadh is moving ahead. The Conference Cell continued to play. a useful role in providing logistical support and managerial assistance to the Ministry of External Affairs and other Departments of the Government of India in organising various International Conferences. An illustrative list of Meetings and International Conferences whe re the Conference Cell played an active role is given at Appendix XVI. With the expertise developed in the Conference Cell in organising inter- national conferences, the Government of India has been able to save considera- ble expenditure, including foreign exchange, on such occasions.
334 EA/88--16


Foreign Service Training Institure (FSTI)


Jan 01, 1987


During the period under review, the FSTI initiated functional training programmes for the officials of the Ministry of External Affairs proceeding on transfer to Missions abroad, and started training programmes on computer appreciation. The FSTI also conducted courses for the IFS probationers and organized one Refresher Course for the Head of Missions. During 1987, the number of officials trained by the FSTI more than doubled from 122 (in 1986) to 289. The number of Courses increased from 17 (in 1986) to 23. The Courses are detailed in Appendix XVII.

The twentysix-week course for new recruits to the Indian Foreign Service consisted of modules on core subjects including (i) India's Foreign Trade, (ii) Foreign Policy and Extrenal Relations, (iii) National Security, (iv) Inter - national Law, (v) Indian Culture, (vi) External Publicity, (vii) Consular works , (viii) Administration & Accounts and (ix) Behavioural Sciences. It also include d an on-the-job training. The FSTI conducted ten Basic Professional Courses for about 200 Section Officers, Assistants, Upper Division Clerks and Lower Division Clerks, pro- ceeding on transfer to Indian Missions abroad covering modules on adminis- tration, accounts, consular and general areas. The Basic Professional Courses were further re-designed in segments to include Under Secretaries, Private Secretaries and Personal Assistants. Additional optional segments on areas such as commercial work, external publicity, office automation were introduced.

Courses on working level knowledge of computers for Directors, Deputy Secretaries and Under Secretaries were also initiated. Operational level traini ng programme on computers was initiated for Section Officers, Private Secretaries, Assistants and Personal Assistants.

One high-level Refresher Course for Heads of Indian Diplomatic Missions in Latin America was organised to provide conceptual and information update to the Heads of Missions. As a part of mid-career training programme, modules on India's Foreign Policy and National Security in the Nuclear Age were open to Deputy Secretaries and Under Secretaries.

Some of the modules meant for IFS Probationers were open to Defence Attaches proceeding on assignment to our Missions abroad. Courses on Indian Culture were open to spouses of the Ministry of External Affairs officers.

Use Of Hindi In Official Work


Jan 01, 1987



During the year under review, the Ministry continued making efforts for the progressive use of Hindi in official work, both at Headquarters and in Missions abroad. A Hindi Advisory Committee is functioning in the Ministry under the Chairmanship of the Minister of State for External Affairs. During the year the Committee met twice and reviewed the progress made in the use of Hindi in the Ministry. The Committee made various suggestions on which suitable follow-up action was taken. In addition, an Official Language Implementation Committee is also functioning in the Ministry under the Chairmanship of Additional Secretary (10).

Pursuant to the targets fixed in the Annual Programme for the year 1987-88 regarding the use of Hindi, issued by the Department of Official Language, the Ministry inspected its Passport Offices at Bombay, Chandigarh, Bangalore, Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Jaipur, Patna, Cochin and Kozhikode with a view to assessing the progress in the use of Hindi in these offices. Necessary instruct ions were issued to the concerned offices for compliance with Government orders regarding the Official Language. Besides, various sections in the Ministry itse lf were inspected with the same objective.

During the year, Hindi workshops were conducted in the Ministry with a view to encouraging officials to do their official work in Hindi. A 'Hindi Week ' was also organised for the same purpose. Besides this, a Hindi Essay Competi- tion was also organised.

The Ministry continued its efforts to propagate Hindi abroad. Several standardized sets of Hindi books on various facets of India as well as text-boo ks

Devanagari typing machines, Hindi Linguaphone cassettes and records, childre n's literature and Hindi charts were sent to various Indian Missions abroad for hel p- ing them to build standard Hindi libraries as well as for donation presentation to the deserving governmental and non-governmental institutions organisations engaged in propagation of Hindi abroad. There has been considerable progress in the Children's Hindi Teaching Scheme abroad. Seven more Missions began organising Hindi classes for children.

As in the previous years, OSD (Hindi) of the Ministry was sent to PMI, New York to assist the Indian delegation to the UN General Assembly.

Appendix-I Division-wise List of Countries/Organisations


Jan 01, 1987


Ministry of External Affairs-Division-wise List of Countries/Organisations

1. Angola 34. Seychelles
2. Benin 35. Sierra Leone
3. Botswana 36. South Africa
4. Burkina Faso 37. Swaziland
5. Burundi 38. Tanzania, United Republic of
6. Cameroon 39. Togo
7. Cape Verde 40. Uganda
8. Central African Republic 41. Zaire
9. Chad 42. Zambia
10. Comoros 43. Zimbabwe
11. Congo    
12. Cote d'Ivoire   AMS DIVISION
13. Equatorial Guinea 1. Canada
14. Ethiopia 2. United States of America
15. Gabon    
16. Gambia    
18. Guinea 1. Afghanistan,
19. Guinea-Bissau 2. Pakistan
20. Kenya    
21. Lesotho    
22. Liberia   BSM DIVISION
23. Madagascar 1. Bangladesh
24. Malawi 2. Burma
25. Mali 3. Indian Ocean
26. Mauritius 4. Maldives
27. Mozambique 5. Sri Lanka
28. Namibia    
29. Niger    
31. Rwanda 1. China, People's Republic of
32. Sao Tome and Principe 2. Hong Kong
33. Senegal 3. Japan
  334 EA/88--17


4. Korea, Democratic People's 24. Turkey
  Republic of 25. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
5. Korea, Republic of
6. Mongolia    
    1. Bahrain
1. Albania 2. Democratic Yemen
2. Bulgaria 3. Iran, Islamic Republic of
3. Czechoslovakia 4. Iraq
4. Garman Democratic Republic 5. Kuwait
5. Hungary 6. Oman
6. Poland 7. Qatar
7. Romania 8. Saudi Arabia
8. Union of Soviet Socialist Republic 9. United Arab Emirates
9. Yugoslavia 10. Yemen
1. Austria    
2. Belgium 1. Antigua and Barbuda
3. Cyprus 2. Argentina
4. Denmark 3. Bahamas
5. Finland 4. Barbados
6. France 5. Belize
7. Germany, Federal Republic of 6. Bolivia
8. Greece 7. Brazil
9. Holy See, The 8. Chile
10. Iceland 9. Colombia
11. Ireland 10. Costa Rica
12. Italy 11. Cuba
13. Liechtenstein 12. Dominica
14. Luxembourg 13. Dominican Republic
15. Malta 14. Ecuador
16. Monaco 15. El Salvador
17. Netherlands 16. Grenada
18. Norway 17. Guatemala
19. Portugal 18. Guyana
20. San Marino 19. Haiti
21. Spain 20. Honduras
22. Sweden 21. Jamaica
23. Switzerland 22. Mexico


23. Nicaragua 13. Philippines
24. Panama 14. Samoa
25. Paraguay 15. Singapore
26. Peru 16. Society Islands
27. Saint Christopher and Nevis 17. Solomon Islands
28. Saint Lucia 18. Thailand
29. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 19. Tonga
30. Suriname20. Tuvalu
31. Trinidad and Tobago 21. UN Trust Territories in South
32. Uruguay  Pacific
33. Venezuela 22. Vanuatu
    23. Vietnam
1. Bhutan    
2. Nepal 1. Algeria
    2. Djibouti
    4. Israel
1. Australia 5. Jordan
2. Brunei Darussalam 6. League of Arab States
3. Fiji 7. Lebanon
4. Indonesia 8. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
5. Kampuchea 9. Mauritania
6. Kiribati 10. Morocco
7. Lao People's Democratic Republic 11. Palestine Liberation Organization
8. Malaysia 12. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
9. Nauru 13. Somalia
10. Now Caledonia 14. Sudan
11. Now Zealand 15. Syrian Arab Republic
12. Papua Now Guinea 16. Tunisia


Appendix-II Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the NAM

Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) during April to December 1987
Sl.No. Name of Meeting/Conference Venue Date
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1. Eleventh Meeting of Coordinators of Non-aligned Countries in the field of Health. Harare 30 March to Apr 02, 1987
2. Ministerial Meeting of the NAM Committee of Nine on Palestine. Harare 14 and 15 April 1987
3. Nineth Meeting of the Inter-Governmental Council for the Coordination of Information and Communication of Non-aligned Countries. Harare 8 and 9 June 1987
4. Extraordinary Ministerial Conference of Non-aligned Countries on South-South Cooperation. Pyongyang 9 to 13 June 1987
5. Meeting of Information Ministers of Non-aligned and other Developing Countries. Harare 10 to 12 June 1987
6. Meeting of Senior Officials of AFRICA Fund Committee. New Delhi 4 to 7 August 1987
7. Seventh Meeting of the Coordinating Countries and the Third Meeting of Exparts of the Non-aligned and other Developing Countries on Standardisation,Measurement and Quality Control. Belgrade 7 to 13 September 1987
8. Meeting of Foreign Ministers and Heads of Delegations of Non-aligned Coun-tries to the Forty-second Session of the UN General Assembly. New York 5 to 7 October 1987


(1) (2) (3) (4)
9. Meeting of the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation. Now York 8 October 1987
10. Meeting of the NAM Committee of Nine on Palestine. Now York 9 October 1987
11. Third General Conference of Broadcasting Organisations of Non-aligned Countries. Limassol 14 to 16 December 1987


Appendix-III Treaties/Conventions/Agreements



Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India with other cou ntries in 1987*

St.No. Title of Convention/Treaty/Agreement Date of Date of Date of
    signature Ratification/ Entry into
    Accession force  
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
  European Economic Community
1. Financing Agreement between the Republic of India and the European Economic Community-Integrated Watershed Management in Revinous Areas (U. P.) mainly funded by the Supply of Fertilizers . Mar 24, 1987 24-3-1987; 
2. Financing Agreement between the Republic of India and the European Economic Community-Hydrological Computerised Modelling System (SHE)International Maritime Satellite Organisation(INMARSAT) 7-7-1987 7-7-1987;  
3. Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Maritime Satellite Organisation (INMARSAT)International Telecommunications Satellite Organisation (INTELSAT) 7-10-1987 6-11-1987  
4. Protocol on INTELSAT Privileges. Ex-emptions and Immunities Oil Pollution 14-10-1987 13-11-1987  
5. International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969 as Amended by the Protocol of 1976South African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) 1-5-1987 30-7-1987  
6. Memorandum of Understanding on Indo-SADCC Cooperation and Assistance in Industrial Programmes 7-10-1987 7-10-1987  
  * This list is not exhaustive.      


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
7. Space and Rescue Satellite System Agreement among the Department of Space,Government of India and the Department of National Defence of Canada, the Centre National 'D' Etndes Spatiales of France, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United states of America, the ministry of merchant marine of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics concerning the use of the COSPAS-SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite System and the operation of COSPAS-SARSAT Local User Terminal by India Space Research 23-11-1987 23-11-1987  
8. Memorandum of Understanding between Indian Space Research Organisation and commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation on Cooperation in Space Research and Applications United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 19-3-1987 19-3-1987  
9. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development programme regarding Project No. IND/87/003/A/01/37-Develop-ment of Amorphos Silicon Solar Cells 30-4-1987 30-4-1987  
10. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding project No. DP/IND/87/007/A/01/37-Development of Novel Shape Selective Zeolite Catalysts 30-4-1987 30-4-1987  
11. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regard-ing Project No. IND/87/008/A/01/01-Training in Public Administration 5-6-1987 5-6-1987  
12. Agreement between India and the United Nations Develoment Programme regarding Project No. IND/87/010/A/01/14-Approa-ches to Treatment and Prevention of Leprosy 18-8-1987 18-8-1987  
13. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regard-ing Project No. IND/86/040/D/01/01-Esta-blishment of Mineral Processing Labora-tory in India 26-8-1987 26-8-1987  


(1) (2) (3) 4) 5)
14. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regard-ing Project No. IND/86/002/A/01/01-Solar Energy Centre 31-8-1987 31-8-1987  
15. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/87/002/A/01/99-Satellite Data Analysis for Oceanographic Investigations 10-9-1987 10-9-1987  
16. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/87/017/A/01/02-Plant Improvement using Modern Biotechnology. 9-12-1987 9-12-1987  
17. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/87/009/A/01/99-Training of Personnel in Petroleum Technologies,Dehra Dun 24-12-1987 24-12-1987  
18. Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/87/018/A/01/99-Molecular Biology and Biotechnology applied to the study of Parasites BILATERAL Bangladesh 31-12-1987 31-12-1987  
19. Protocol on Inland Water Transit and Trade between India and Bangladesh Bhutan 4-10-1987 4-10-1987  
20. Agreement between the State Bank of India and the Royal Government of Bhutan Burma 22-6-1987 22-6-1987  
21. Agreement between the Republic of India and the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma on the Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Andaman Sea, in the Coco Channel and in the Bay of Bengal Canada 23-12-1987 14-9-1987 14-9-1987
22. Extradition Treaty betweenIndia and Canada 6-2-1987 10-2-1987 10-2-1987
23. Bilateral Air Agreement between Indiaand Canada 10-2-1987 10-2-1987  


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
24. Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of Canada for the Professional Development and Training Facility Project 9-3-1987 9-3-1987  
25. Amendment to the Loan Agreement between the President of India and the Govrenment of Canada for the Idukki Hydroelectric Project 5-5-1987 5-5-1987  
26. Amendment to the Loan Agreement between the President of India and the Government of Canada for the Andhra Pradesh Social Forestry Project 5-5-1987 5-5-1987  
27. Amendment to the Loan Agreement between the President of India and the Government of Canada for the Power Sector Line of Credit 5-5-1987 5-5-1987  
28. Amendment to the Loan Agreement between the President of India and the Government of Canada for the Oil and Gas Sector Line of Credit 5-5-1987 5-5-1987
29. Amendment to the Loan Agreement between the President of India and the Government of Canada for the Minerals Sector Line of Credit 5-5-1987 5-5-1987
30. Amendment to the Loan Agreement between the President of India and the Government of Canada for the Chamara Hydroelectric Project 5-5-1987 5-5-1987  
31. Memorandum of Understanding between the President of India and the Government of Canada relating to Oil and Gas Exploration and Development 16-10-1987 16-10-1987  
32. Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of India for the Oilseeds Development Project-Phase IICongo 16-10-1987 16-10-1987  
33. Agreement on Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the Govern-ment of the Republic of India and the Gover-nment of the People's Republic of Congo Czechoslovakia 11-5-1985 2-7-1987 2-7-1987


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
34. Agreement between the Government of India and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to taxes on Income Denmark 27-1-1986 13-3-1987 13-3-1987
35. Financing Agreement between the Govern-ment of India and the Government of Den-mark German Democratic Republic 22-12-1987 22-12-1987  
36. Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Radio between All India Radio, Ministry ofInformation and Broadcasting in the Gover-nment of the Republic of India, and the State Committee for Sound Broadcasting at the Council of Ministers of the German Demo-cratic Republic 21-1-1987   21-1-1987
37. Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Television between Doordarshan India,Ministry of Information and Broadcasting in the Government of the Republic of India and the State Television Committee at the Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic 29-1-1987   29-1-1987
38. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the German Democratic Republic on Cooper-ation in the field of Posts and Telecommuni-cations Germany, Federal Republic of 28-5-1987   28-5-1987
39. Agreed Minutes of the Negotiations on Development Cooperation between India and the Federal Republic of Germany . 9-4-1987  9-4-1987
40. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concern-ing Financial Cooperation Hungary 3-6-1987   3-6-1987
41. Convention between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Hungarian People's Republic for the Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income Indonesia 30-10-1986 7-1-1987 7-1-1987


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
42. Agreement between the Republic of India and the Republic of Indonesia for the Avoi-dance of Double Taxation and the Preven-tion of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income Japan 7-8-1987 19-12-1987 19-12-1987
43. Exchange of Notes between India and Japan regarding Japanese Grant Aid of Yen 600 million for 1986-87 for import of Fertilizer from Japan 30-3-1987   30-3-1937
44. Exchange of Notes between India and Japan regarding Japanese Cultural Grant Assistance of Yen thirty-eight million(supply of Sports Equipment to National Institute of Sports, 1986-87) 10-8-1987   10-8-1987
45. Exchange of Notes between India and Japan regarding Japanese Grant Assistance of one billion three hundred and forty-six million Yen (Equipment for Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute) 21-9-1987   21-9-1987
46. Exchange of Notes between India and Japan regarding OECF loan of sixty-eight billion, four hundred and seventy-seven million Yen Mauritius 21-9-1987   21-9-1987
47. Agreed Minutes of the Fourth Session of the Indo-Mauritius Joint Commission on Economic, Technical and Cultural Co-operation Mongolia 22-7-1987   22-7-1987
48. Programme of Cooperation between the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare for the Republic of India and the Ministry of Public Health of the Mongolian People's Republic in the field of Health and Medical Sciences for 1987-88 Nepal 21-8-1987   21-8-1987


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
49. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and His Majesty's Go-vernment of Nepal for setting up of an Industrial Estate at Rajbiraj 18-1-1987 18-1-1987  
50. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and His Majesty's Go-vernment of Nepal on the setting up of a Joint Commission(Provisionally) Netherlands 20-6-1987 20-6-1987  
51. Loan Agreement between the President of India and De Nederlands Investeringsbank Voor Ontwikkelingslanden N.V. for ninety-one million six hundred thousand guilders 2-6-1987 2-6-1987  
52. Agreement between the President of India and De Nederlands Investeringsbank Voor ontwikkelingslanden regarding a loan of one hundred and thirty-three million Neder-lands guilders 30-6-1987 30-6-1987  
53. Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of Telecommunications of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Transport and Public Works of the Kingdom of the Netherlands for Cooperation in the Field of Telecommunications Nicaragua 19-9-1987 19-9-1987  
54. Cultural Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua Norway 9-9-1986 4-8-1987 4-8-1987
55. Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Kingdom of Norway on Economic, Industrial and Technological Cooperation Romania 6-7-1987 6-7-1987  
56. Convention between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government or the Socialist Republic or Romania for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income Spain 10-3-1987 14-11-1987 14-11-1987
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
57. Air Transport Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of Spain provisionally) Sri Lanka 10-4-1987 10-4-1987
58. Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement to Establish Peace and Normalcy in Sri Lanka 29-7-1987 29-7-1987  
59. Credit Agreement between the Republic of India and the Government or the Demo-cratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Trinidad & Tobago 19-11-1987 19-11-1987  
60. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic or Trinidad & Tobago conce-rning Technical and Scientific Cooperation 30-7-1985 25-9-1987 25-9-1987
61. Cultural Cooperation Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of Trinidad & Tobago United Arab Emirates 13-3-1987 18-11-1987 18-11-1987
62. Exchange of Letters between India and the United Arab Emirates for Extension of the agreement establishing the Indo-U.A.E.Joint Commission United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 28-10-1987 28-10-1987  
63. Exchange of Notes between India and the United Kingdom regarding United Kingdom/India Coal Projects Grant, 1987 13-3-1987 13-3-1987  
64. Exchange of Notes between India and the United Kingdom regarding United King-dom/India Hindustan Zinc Aid Arrange-ment, 1987 13-3-1987 13-3-1987  
65. Exchange of Notes between India and the United Kingdom regarding United King-dom/India Nagarjunasagar Power Project Grant, 1987 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 16-9-1987 16-9-1987
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
66. Long Term Programme of Cooperation between the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of India and the State Agro-Industrial Committee of the Union of So-viet Socialist Republics in the Field of Agriculture upto 2000 A.D. . 12-2-1987 12-2-1987  
67. Protocol between the Ministry of Commu- nications of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Posts and Tele-Communications of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 14-2-1987 14-2-1987  
68. Programme of Cooperation in the field of Telecommunications between the Ministry of Communications of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Posts and Tele-communications of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 14-2-1987 14-2-1987  
69. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Cooperation in the field of Telecommuni-cations and Posts 9-4-1987 9-4-1987
70. Integrated Long-term Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology bet-ween the Republic of India and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 3-7-1987 3-7-1987  
71. Consular Convention between the Republic of India and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 27-11-1986 5-6-1987 4-7-1987
72. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the USSR on Economic and Technical Co-operation 24-11-1987 24-11-1987
73. Protocol between the Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of Education, Government of India, and the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specia-list Education of the Union of Soviet So-cialist Republics on Cooperation in the spheres of Higher Education and Training of students and highly qualified specialists for 1987-88 24-11-1987 24-11-1987  
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
74. Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Equivalence of Certificates, Degrees and Diplomas Awarded by Universities and other Educational and Scientific Organi-sations and Institutions in the Republic of India and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 24-11-1987 24-11-1987  
75. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the USSR on the Development of New Forms of Economic Cooperation 24-11-1987 24-11-1987  
76. Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the USSR on Cooperation in the field of Tourism United States of America 24-11-1987 24-11-1987  
77. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the United States of America on Educa-tional, Cultural and Scientific Cooperation 7-1-1987 7-1-1987  
78. Project Grant agreement between the President of India and the United States of America for Vaccine and Immunodiagnostic Development of the Indo-US Vaccine Action Programme 27-7-1987 27-7-1987  
79. Grant Agreement between the President of India and the United States of America for Private Voluntary Organisations for Health (PVOH) II-AID Project No. 386-0511 Vietnam 31-8-1987 31-8-1987  
80. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam for Co-operation for the Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes 25-3-1986 14-5-1987 14-5-1987


Appendix-IV Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars



Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc. organized by Inter-Gov ernmental Organizations at which Government of India was represented in 1987-88

Sl.No. Title of Conferences etc. Venue Date
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1. Preparatory Commission for International Sea-Bed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Kingston 30 March to Apr 16, 1987
2. 11th Session of ILO Building, Civil Engineer-ing and Public Works Committee Geneva 1 to 9 April 1987
10th Session of UN Commission on Human Settlements (UNCHS) Nairobi 6 to 16 April 1987
4. Annual Session of the Executive Council of the Universal Postal Union Berne 23 April to 15 May 1987
5. ILO Tripartite Preparatory Meeting on Em-ployment and Structural Adjustment Geneva 27 to 29 April 1987
6. Antarctic Mineral Regime Meeting Montevideo 11 to 20 May 1987
7. Preparatory Meeting of XIV Antarctic Treaty Consultative Party Rio-de-Janerio 4 to 8 May 1987
8. 40th World Health Assembly Geneva 4 to 16 May 1987
9. Tenth World Meteorological Congress Geneva 4 to 29 May 1987
10. 39th Session of International Law Commission Geneva 4 May to 24 July 1987
11. ILO Meeting of Experts on Harmful Sub-stances in work establishments. Geneva 5 to 13 May 1987
12. First Regular Session of Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) New York 5 to 29 May 1987
13. 236th Session of the ILO Governing Body Geneva 21 to 30 May 1987
14. 44th Session of the Board of International Centre for Advanced Technical and Voca-tional Training Turin 22 May 1987


(1) (2) (3) (4)
15. 23rd Session of the Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes of World Food Pro-gramme Rome 25 May to 4 June 1987
16. 34th Session of UNDP Governing Council New York 26 May to 19 June 1987
17. 39th Session of WMO Executive Council Geneva 1 to 5 June 1987
18. UNFPA Sponsored Global Meeting Egypt & Mexico 1 to 13 June 1987
19. 73rd Session of the International Labour Conference Geneva 3 to 24 June 1987
20. 13th Ministerial Session of the World Food Council Beijing 8 to 11 June 1987
21. ILO/ARTEP Workshop on Maximising Deve-lopment Benefits from Overseas Migration New Delhi 10 to 12 June 1987
22. 58th Session of IMO Council London 15 to 19 June 1987
23. 2nd Regular Session of the ECOSOC Geneva 23 June to 9 July 1987
24. 237th Session of the ILO Governing Body Geneva 25 and 26 June 1987
25. ILO Informational Network International Labour Migration Inter-Governmental Meeting Kathmandu 2 to 4 July 1987
26. 5th Session of the Preparatory Commission of the International Seabed Authority and of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea New York 26 July to 22 August 1987
27. Vth Session of the ESCAP Committee on Population Bangkok 17 to 21 August 1987
28. Annual Session of the Executive Council of the Asia Pacific Postal Union and Governing Board Meeting of the Asia Pacific Postal Tra-ining Centre Beijing 24 August to 1 September 1987
29. International Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and Development New York 24 August to 11 September 1987
30. 11th Conference of Asian and Pacific Labour Ministers Seoul 1 to 4 September 1987
31. 6th Session of WHO Regional Association-II Working Group on Meteorological Tele-communication Guangzhou(China) 7 to 11 September 1987


(1) (2) (3) (4)
32. Management Labour Intensive Project under TCDC Programmer Jakarta 7 to 19 Septembe 1987
33. Inter-Country Meeting on Social Security Protection of Migrant Workers Jakarta 15 to 17 September 1987
34. 42nd Session of UN General Assembly NewYork 15 September to December 1987
35. Governing Bodies of World Intellectual Pro-perty Organisation (WIPO) and Unions administered by WIPO Geneva 21 to 30 September 1987
36. 74th (Maritime) Session of the International Labour Conference Geneva 24 September to 9 October 1987
37. UNCTAD Asian Seminar on Restrictive Business Practices---ESCAP Bangkok 28 September to 2 oct 1987
38. ILO Workshop on Return Migration Ankara 29 September to 7 October 1987
39. ILO Workshop on Safety & Health Informa-tion Dissemination for selected Asian and Pacific countries Bangkok 13 to 16 October 1987
40. Commonwealth Summit Vancouver 13 to 17 October 1987
41. Annual Session of the Consultative Council for Postal Studies (CCPS) Berne 18 to 30 October 1987
42. ILO/ARTEP Technical Workshop for esta-blishing a Regional clearing House of Infor-mation on Improved Technology for Cottage Industries New Delhi 20 to 30 October 1987
43. 24th Session of the General Conference of UNESCO Paris 20 October to 21 November 1987
44. 14th Session on ESCAP Committee on Natu-ral Resources Bangkok 27 October to 2 November 1987
45. Fourteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians Geneva 28 October to 6 November 1987
46. Conference of the International Centre for Public Enterprises (ICPE) Ljubljana (Yugoslavia) 31 October to 6 November 1987


(1) (2) (3) (4)
47. ARTEP Consultants meeting on Trade and Employment amongst South Asian Countries New Delhi 2 and 3 November 1987
48. 45th Session of the Board of International Centre for Advanced Technical and Voca-tional Training Geneva 6 November 1987
49. 24th Session of the FAO Conference Rome 7 to 26 November 1987
50. 29th Session of the International Institute of Labour Studies Geneva 9 November 1987
51. 238th Session of the ILO Governing Body Geneva 9 to 20 November 1987
52. 15th Session of IMO Assembly London 9 to 20 November 1987
53. ILO High-Level Meeting on Employment and Structural Adjustment Geneva 23 to 25 November 1987
54. ILO Tripartite Meeting on Salaried Authors and Inventors Geneva 24 November to 2 December 1987
55. UN ESCAP Expert Group Consultative Meeting on Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) in Water Re-sources Development Bangkok 1 to 4 December 1987
56. Third ILO Tripartite Technical Meeting for the Clothing Industry Geneva 2 to 10 December 1987
57. WMO Second Regional Cyclone Storm Surge Workshop Calcutta 14 to 19 December 1987
58. ARTEP Regional Workshop on Maximising Development Benefits from Overseas Migration Bangkok 17 and 18 December 1987
59. Meeting of WMO Regional Association-it Working Group on Agricultural Meteorology New Delhi 11 to 15 January 1988


Appendix-V Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc


Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc. organized by Non-Gove rnmental Organizations in which Indian experts participated in their personal capacity w ith Government assistance, in 1987-88

Sl. No. Title of Conferences etc. Venue Date
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1. Meeting of ISO/TC-72/SC 1/SC 2 "Textile machinery and allied machinery and acces-sories" Beijing 7 to Apr 10, 1987
2. Meeting of Regional Liaison Officers of ISO (RLOs) Geneva 3 May 1987
3. ISO Development Committee (DEVCO) Workshop Geneva 4 May 1987
4. 22nd Meeting of ISO Council Committee on Development (DEVCO) Geneva 5 and 6 May 1987
5. Meeting of ISO/TC 147 "Water Quality" Vienna 6 to 15 May 1987
6. Meeting of ISO Council Committee on Con- formity Assessment (CASCO) Geneva 7 and 8 May 1987
7. Meeting of ISO/TC 46 and its sub-committee "Documentation" Moscow 18 to 22 May 1987
8. Meeting of ISO/TC 149/SCI/SC2 "Cycles" Montegrotto 18 to 22 May 1987
9. Meetings of IEC Council and Committee of Action. Prague 6 to 18 July 1987
10. 19th IUGG/IASPEI General Assembly Vancouver 9 to 22 August 1987
11. Fourth United Nations International NGO Meeting on Question of Palestine Geneva 7 to 9 September 1987
12. Meeting of ISO/TC 113 and its sub-commit-tees "Measurement of liquid flow in open channels" London 28 September to 9 October 1987


Appendix-VI Miscellaneous Major International Conferences



Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc. in 1987-88 at which Gov ernment of India was represented or in which Indian experts participated with Government of India's assistance in their personal capacity

Sl.No. Title of Conferences etc. Venue Date
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1. International Conference on Personal Computers'Perscomp 87'. Sofia 21 to Apr 24, 1987
2. 5th Meeting of SAARC Technical Committee on Meteorology Male 23 to 25 April 1987
3. SAARC Seminar on Meteorological Instrumentation - Karachi 27 to 30 April 1987
4. 6th International Meeting on Radiation Processing Ottawa 31 May to 5 June 1987
5. UN Asian, Regional Seminar/NGO Symposium on the Question of Palestine New Delhi 8 to 12 June 1987
6. 2nd International Conference on Hot Isostatic Pressing - Sweden 15 to 17 June 1987
7. 1987 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Antennas and Propagative Society, URSI International Symposium. Blacksburg 15 to 19 June 1987
8. 8th International Congress of Radiation Research Edinburgh 19 to 24 July 1987
9. 20th Session of UNCITRAL United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Vienna 21 to 26 July 1987
10. Law of the Sea's Institutes Annual Conference Hawaii(USA) Honolulu. 3 to 6 August 1987
11. 6th International Conference on Mathematical Modelling St. Louis 4 to 7 August 1987
12. 39th Session of Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities Geneva 10 August to 4 September 1987
13. SPIE's 31st Annual International Technical Symposium on Optical and Optoelectronics Science and Engineering Applied San Diego 16 to 21 August 1987




(1) (2) (3) (4)
14. International Conference on Combinatics, optimization and Statistics organised by Indian Management Development Institute Srinagar 17 to 21August1987
15. International Conference and Workshop on Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility Bangalore 2 to 11 September 1987
16. SWIFT International Banking Operations Seminar(SIBOS)87 Canada, USA 7 to 17 September 1987
17. 6th Meeting of SAARC Technical Committee on Meteorology Kathmandu 10 and 11 September 1987
18. International Symposium on 'New Technology organised Testing in Hydraulic Research' in Model by Central Board of Irrigation and Power, New Delhi Pune24 to 26 September 1987
19. International Conference on "Computer Communication for Developing Countries" organized by CMC Ltd. New Delhi 27 to 30 October 1987
20. International Textile Conference 1987 New Delhi 27 to 29 November 1987
21. International Conference on Thin Films at IIT Delhi   Delhi 17 to 11 December 1987
22. Working Group on World Level Classifications convened by UNSO/SOEC - Luxemburg 14 to 22 December 1987
23. International Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Concrete - Madras 16 to 19 December 1987
24. International Symposium on "Adoption of New Techniques far Power Distribution Systems" organised by Central Board of Irrigation and Power Calcutta 17 to 19 December 1987
25. SAARC Seminar on Agricultural Meteorology Kathmandu 21 to 24 December 1987




Appendix-VII Statement showing number of Passports
Jan 01, 1987


Statement showing number of Passports/Miscellaneous service's applications r eceived and number of Passports issued/Miscellaneous services rendered during the period Ja nuary to December 1987
Sl.No. Station No. of
applications received
No. of
No. of
for Misc. services
No. of
rendered received
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
1. Ahmedabad 70,186 69,296 34,852 34,217
2. Bangalore 44,015 42,308 23,703 23,553
3. Bareilly 53,626 43,688 19,030 19,033
4. Bhopal 15,786 14,278 7,745 8,049
5. Bhubaneshwar 3,333 2,963 1,550 1,388
6. Bombay 2,32,287 2,22,343 1,49,504 1,48,969
7. Calcutta 49,761 47,695 24,045 23,897
8. Chandigarh 62,551 61,025 29,258 28,756
9. Cochin 81,980 68,081 77,613 76,151
10. Delhi 85,569 78,500 51,903 47,548
11. Guwahati 3,764 3,631 1,185 1,138
12. Hyderabad 64,806 64,645 47,035 46,905
13. Jaipur 29,414 27,430 18,973 17,538
14. Jalandhar 57,249 35,445 49,005 44,883
15. Kozhikode 72,097 63,219 65,500 63,846
16. Lucknow 39,029 32,897 12,037 12,431
17. Madras 68,565 71,132 47,791 47,688
18. Patna 10,000 8,394 7,061 6,974
19. Srinagar 7,478 6,059 3,738 3,570
20. Tiruchirapalli 56,105 56,286 37,503 35,343
21. Panaji (Goa) 10,362 10,480 10,313 10,272

TOTAL 11,17,963 10,29,795 7,19,344 02,149






Appendix-VIII Statement showing revenue and expenditure
Jan 01, 1987


Statement showing revenue and expenditure in respect of Passport offices in Ind ia during the period January to December 1987
Sl.No. Station

Revenue earned
(in Rupees)

(in Rupees)

(1) (2)



1. Ahmedabad



2. Bangalore



3. Bareilly



4. Bhopal



5. Bhubaneshwar



6. Bombay



7. Calcutta

39,12 841.00


8. Chandigarh



9. Cochin



10. Delhi



11. Guwahati



12. Hyderabad



13. Jaipur



14. Jalandhar



15. Kozhikode



16. Lucknow



17. Madras



18. Patna



19. Srinagar



20. Tiruchirapalli



21. Panaji (Goa)


Not available as it is incurred
by State Government.








Appendix-IX Cadre strength at-Headquarters
Jan 01, 1987


Cadre strength at-Headquarters and 140 Missions/Posts abroad during 1987-88
Sl.No. Cadre/Post

Posts at Head-quarters

Posts at Missions abroad

Total Posts

(1) (2)





1. Grade I




2. Grade II




3. Grade III




4. Grade IV




5. Sr. Scale




6. Jr. Scale




7. Training Reserve (Prob.) Jr. Scale



8. Training Reserve for all Grades



9. Leave Reserve



10. Deputation Reserve




1. Grade I




2. Grade II/III




3. Grade IV




4. Grade V/VI




5. Grade II of Cypher Sub-Cadre




6. Selection Grade of Steno Cadre




7. Grade I of Steno Cadre




8. Grade II of Steno Cadre




9. Grade III of Steno Cadre





Combined Research Cadre





Interpreter's Cadre














Appendix-X Cadre strength of IFS


Jan 01, 1987


Cadre strength of IFS during 1987-88

Sl. No. Grades Total Posts
(1) (2) (3)
1. Grade I 21
2. Grade II 28
3. Grade III 99
4. Grade IV 80
5. Sr. Scale 256
6. Jr. Scale 47
7. Training Reserve (Prob.) Jr. Scale 25
8. Training Reserve for all Grades 10
9. Leave Reserve 19
10. Deputation Reserve 20
  TOTAL 605


Appendix-XI Foreign Language Chart


Jan 01, 1987


Foreign Language Chart

Sl.No. Language Know

Total No. of Officers Passed/the Language

(1) (2)


1. Arabic


2. Bahasa Indonesia


3. Burmese


4. Chinese


5. Dutch


6. French


7. German


8. Gorkhali


9. Hungarian


10. Italian


11. Japanese


12. Kiswahili


13. Malay


14. Persian


15. Polish


16. Portuguese


17. Russian


18. Serbo-Croatian


19. Sinhalese


20. Spanish


21. Swedish


22. Thai


23. Tibetan


24. Turkish


25. Vietnamese





Appendix-XII Revenue expenditure of the Ministry


Jan 01, 1987


Revenue expenditure of the Ministry during the Financial year 1987-88

Revised Estimates 1987-88 (Rs. in lakhs)
Headquarters 22,20.00
Mission/Posts Abroad 93,50.00
Supply Wing Washington/London 2,00.00
Other Items  
Contribution to UN, Commonwealth Secretariat, SAARC Secretariat
and other International Institutions 4,75.00
Central Passport Organisation 9,00.00
Special Diplomatic Expenditure 71,50.00
Grant-in-aid to ICCR and other organisations 4,89.00
Other Misc. Items 8,50.00
Aid to Bangladesh 2,66.00
Aid to Bhutan 63,00.00
Aid to Nepal 13,16.00
Aid to other Developing Countries(including Rs. 1200
lakhs to Sri Lanka and Rs. 350 lakhs to Maldives)
ITEC Programmes12,95.00
SAARC programmes1,25.00
Aid under AFRICA
Fund 16,66.00
TOTAL 3,73,01.00


Appendix-XIII Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts Abroad


Jan 01, 1987


Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts Abroad and Headquarters during 1987-8 8 The estimated expenditure on the Headquarters Organisation of the Ministry during the financial year 1987-88 is expected to be Rs. 2220.00 lakhs out of which Rs. 273 .00 lakhs will be on External Publicity; Rs. 222.00 lakhs on Travel Expenses; Rs. 587.00 lakhs on Salaries and Wages of Establishment; Rs. 7. 00 lakhs on Subsidy to Departmental Canteen; Rs. 565.00 lakhs on Rents and Maintenance and Rs. 566.00 lakhs on other items. The total estimated expenditure on Indian Missions abroad including Supply Wings (Washington & London) is expected to be Rs. 9550.00 lakhs. This amount comprise s Rs. 3675.00 lakhs, on Salaries, Wages, Allowances including Foreign Allowance; Rs. 1162.00 lakhs on Transfer and Home Leave Passages and Local Tours; Rs. 2302.00 lakhs on Rents, Rates & Taxes as well as on Maintenance and Repairs of accommodation owned/rent ed for Missions abroad and Rs. 2411.00 lakhs on other Miscellaneous Items.

Average expenditure per Mission Abroad is expected to be Rs. 67.25 lakhs. The expenditure mentioned above on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad including expenditure on Publicity works out to approximately 31.55% of the total estimat ed Revenue Expenditure of this Ministry. The remaining 68.45 % of the Revenue Estimates of the Ministry are being spent on various aid programmes to neighbouring and other developing countries, aid under the AFRICA Fund, contributions to United Nations and other Internatio nal Bodies, Passport Organisations, Hospitality and other Miscellaneous items.


Appendix-XIV Statement showing the total number of employees



Statement showing the total number of employees (both permanent and temporary ) in the Ministry of External Affairs under various groups and representation of Scheduled Cast es and Scheduled Tribes therein (Position as on Dec 31, 1987)

Group Total Scheduled % of Scheduled % of
  No. of Castes Total Tribes Total
  Employees   Employees   Employees
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Group 'A' 744 96 12.90% 38 5.10%
Group 'B' 1795 161 8.97% 25 1.39%
Group 'C' 882 104 11.79% 39 4.42%
Group 'D' (Excluding Sweepers) 468 110 23.5% 7 .5%
Group 'D' 28 14 50%    


Dec 31, 1987

Appendix-XV Statement showing the number of appointments
Jan 01, 1987


Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment and promotion) made in various Groups in the Ministry of External Affairs and reserved vacancies filled by Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes during the year 1987

Group No.of vacancies
dereserved due to
nonavailability of
reserved candidates
Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes
of Vacancies
filled for
reserved candidates

Number of
reserved for
Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribe

Number of
reserved candidates
Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
Group 'A' 038 07 04 04 1
Group 'B'


28 14 18 5 3
Group 'C' 037 07 02 07 7
Group 'D'
(excluding Sweepers)
040 04 01 04 1








Appendix-XVI International Conferences/Meetings

International Conferences/Meetings hosted by the Ministries Departments of the Government of India and other Organisations during 1987 for which logistical arrange- ments were male by the Conference Cell of the Ministry of External Affairs

Sl.No. Title of Conference/Meeting Date
(1) (2) (3)
1. AFRICA Fund Summit 19 to 20 JAN 1987
  d Summit 19 to @@1987012
2. Meeting of Experts from the SAARC Countries on Expanding and Strengthening Regional Cooperation 23 to 26 February 1987
3. Meeting of Group of Experts from SAARC Countries on Terrorism 15 to 18 March 1987
4. Meeting of Non-Governmental Organisations(NGOs)
on Palestine Liberation Organisation(PLO) question sponsored by the United Nations 8 to 12 June 1987
5. 3rd Session of the Council of Ministers from SAARC

Countries 14 to 19 June 1987
6. Meeting of Senior Officials of AFRICA
Fund Committee
4 to 7 August 1987
7. Global Steering Committee Meeting of Parliamentarians

Action for Removal of Apartheid 17 and 18 August 1987
8. SAARC Sub-Committee Meeting on Air Traffic Control

and Communication 16 to 18 September 1987
9. Ist Meeting of SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange

Committee 21 and 22 September 1987
10. Commemorative Conference on the 40th Anniversary of
 the Asian Relations Conference 2 to 5 October 1987
11. Second Meeting of the SAARC Audio-Visual Exchange

(SAVE) Committee 2 and 3 February 1988



Appendix-XVII Training Programmes organised by the Foreign Service

Training Programmes organised by the Foreign Service Training Institute (FST I) during 1987
Sl.No. Title of the Training Programme Date
(1) (2) (3)
1. First Basic Professional Course 5 to Jan 2,1987
  3 Ba c Professional Course 5 to @@1987012
2. Second Basic Professional Course 2 to 23 February 1987
3. India's Foreign Trade-Six-week Course organised at

Indian Institute of Foreign Trade 2 March to 13 April 1987
4. Third Basic Professional Course 2 to 27 March 1987
5. Fourth Basic Professional Course 1 to 30 April 1987
6. Fifth Basic Professional Course 4 to 28 May 1987
7. India's Foreign Policy
and External Relations
1 to 12 June 1987
8. 4th Refresher Course for
Heads of Diplomatic Missions
  (Americas) 12 to 20 June 1987
9. Consular and Passport Work 22 to 26 June 1987
10. National Security in the Nuclear Age 6 to 17 July 1987
11. Sixth Basic Professional Course 6 to 31 July 1987
12. Administration and Accounts 20 to 31 July 1987
13. International Law-Current Issues
of Importance to India
27 to 31 July 1987
14. Cultural Work 3 to 14 August 1987
15. Orientation for IFS Probationers of 1987 Batch 12 to 21 August 1987
16. External Publicity 17 to 21 August 1987
17. Computer Appreciation 17 to 21 August 1987
18. Seventh Basic Professional Course 24 Aug. to 25 Sep. 1987
19. Communications and Security 24 to 28 August 1987
20. Eighth Basic Professional Course 5 Oct. to 6 Nov. 1987
21. Ninth Basic Professional Course 16 Nov. to 18 Dec. 1987
22. First Course on Personal Computers 14 to 18 December 1987
23. Tenth Basic Professional Course 25 Dec. 1987 to 29 January 1988


No. of those who availed of programmes organised by FSTI during 1987

Heads of Indian Diplomatic Missions


Military Attaches


IFS Probationers (1985 batch)


IFS Probationers (1986 batch)




Deputy Secretaries


Under Secretaries




Section Officers










Foreign Service wives





Appendix-XVIII VVIP visits to India

VVIP visits to India during 1987-88

Sl. No. Heads of State/Government Date
(1) (2) (3)
1. H. E. Mr. Poul Schlueter
Prime Minister of Denmark and
11 to Jan 18, 1987
2. H.E. Dr. Alan Garcia Perez
President of Peru 23 to 29 January 1987
3. H.E. Dato' Seri
Dr. Mahathir Mohamad
Prime Minister of Malaysia 29 January to 1 February 1987
4. H.E. Mr. Mauno Koivisto
President of Finland
and Mrs. Koivisto
2 to 5 February 1987
5. H.E. General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq
President of Pakistan 21 to 23 February 1987
6. H.E. Mr. R.F.M. Lubbers
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
and Mrs. Lubbers

2 to 4 March 1987
7. H.E. Mr. Nicolae Ceausescu
President of Romania
and Mrs. Ceausescu
9 to 12 March 1987
8. H.E. Mr. Jose Eduardo Dos Santos
President of Angola 1 to 4 April 1987
9. H.E. Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland
Prime Minister of Norway 6 to 9 July 1987
10. H.E. Mr. Yasser Arafat
Chairman of the Palestine
Liberation Organisation

3 to 5 August 1987
11. H.E. Mr. J. R. Jayewardene
President of Sri Lanka
and Mrs. Jayewardene

5 to 7 November 1987
12. H.E. Mr. N. I. Ryzhkov 20 to 25 November 1987
Prime Minister of USSR
and Mrs. Ryzhkov

13. H.E. Ati George Sokomanu
President of Vanuatu
and Mrs. Sokomanu

13 to 16 December 1987
14. H.E. Mr. Giovanni Goria
Prime Minister of Italy and
Mrs. Eugenia Goria

8 to 10 January 1988
15. H.E. Mr. J. R. Jayewardene
President of Sri Lanka
and Mrs. Jayewardene

25 to 30 January 1988
16. H.E. Mr. Li Gun Mo 18 to 21 February 1988
Prime Minister of the
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
This does not include Heads of State/Government
who visited for the AFRICA Fund Summit.



(1) (2) (3)

1. H.E. Mr. Sahabzada Yaqub Khan

Foreign Minister of Pakistan 15 and 16 January 1987
2. H.E. Mr. Charles Joseph Clark

Foreign Minister of Canada 5 to 11 February 1987
3. H.E. Mr. Abdul Wakil

Foreign Minister of Afghanistan 7 to 11 February 1987
4. H.E. Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati

Foreign Minister of Iran 19 and 20 February 1987
5. Sir Satcam Boolell

Foreign Minister of Mauritius 19 Feb. to 2 March 1987
6. H.E. Mr. Kim Yong Nam

Foreign Minister of DPR Korea 26 to 28 February 1987
7. H.E. Mr. Jean Bernand Raimond

Foreign Minister of France 5 and 6 March 1987
8. H.E. Mr. Shailendra Kumar Upadhyay

Foreign Minister of Nepal 23 to 26 March 1987
9. H.E. Dr. Enrique V. Iglesias

Foreign Minister of Uruguay 26 and 27 March 1987
10. H.E. Mr. Shailendra Kumar Upadhyay

Foreign Minister of Nepal 20 and 21 June 1987
11. H.E. Mr. T. Kuranari

Foreign Minister of Japan 10 and 11 August 1987
12. H.E. Mr. Ibrahim Mukibi

Foreign Minister of Uganda 16 to 21 August 1987
13. H.E. U Ye Goung

Foreign Minister of Burma 12 to 17 September 1987
14. H.E. Mr. Berhanu Bayih

Foreign Minister of Ethiopia 26 to 29 November 1987
15. H.E. Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati

Foreign Minister of Iran 17 to 20 November 1987
16. H.E. Mr. Shailendra Kumar Upadhyay

Foreign Minister of Nepal 7 and 8 December 1987
17. H.E. Dr. Ahmad Taleb Ibrahimi

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Algeria Mrs. Ibrahimi 25 to 30 January 1988



(1) (2) (3)
1. H.E. Mrs. Lisbeth Palme
Wife of late Prime Minister of Sweden 25 January to 2 Feb. 1987
2. H.E. Sir Charles Gaetan Duval
Deputy Prime Minister of Mauritius 29 Jan. to 6 Feb. 1987
3. H.I.H. Prince Naruhito of Japan 19 to 25 Match 1987
4. H.R.H. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand 10 to 28 March 1987
5. H.E. Mr. V. M. Kamentsev
Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers 7 to 12 April 1987
6. H.E. Mr. Junius Nyerere
Former President of Tanzania 17 and 18 April 1987
7. H.E. Mr. Anatoly F. Dobrynin
Secretary, Central Committee of the Communist Party
of the Soviet Union 20 to 27 May 1987
8. H.E. Mrs. V. S. Shevtchenko
Vice-President of U.S.S.R. 13 to 26 August 1987
9. H.E. Dr. A. Ranganathan
Special Adviser to the President of Tanzania 18 Aug. to 3 Sep. 1987
10. H.E. Dr. S. S. Ramphal
Secretary-General of Commonwealth 3 to 5 September 1987
11. Mama C. T. Kadzamira
Official Hostess of Malawi 1 to 6 October 1987
12. H.E. Mr. Otto Stich
Vice-President of Switzerland 11 to 16 October 1987
13. Mr. Jonannes Rau
Minister-President of North Rhine Westphalia (FRG) 22 to 29 November 1987
14. H.E. Dr. S.S. Ramphal
Secretary-General of Commonwealth 6 to 11 December 1987
15. H.E. Mr. Piet Bukeman
Minister for Development Cooperation of the
Netherlands 10 to 19 January 1988
16. H.E. Mr. Diaullah Al Fattal
Vice Minister For Foreign Affairs of Syria 11 to 15 January 1988
17. H.E. Mr. U Khin Muang Gyi
Minister for Trade of Burma 23 Jan. to 8 Feb. 1988
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