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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1990-91

Introduction, (i)-(ix)
1 India's Neighbours, 1-13
2 South-East Asia and the Pacific, 14-20
3 East Asia, 21-26
4 West Asia and North Africa, 27-33
The Gulf Crisis, 30
5 Africa (South of the Sahara), 34-41
6 Europe, 42-47
Soviet Union, 42
Eastern Europe, 43
Western Europe, 45
7 The Americas, 48--54
North America, 48
Central and South America and the Caribbean, 52
8 United Nations and International Conferences, 55-74
Political Issues, 56
Disarmament Issues, 59
Economic Issues, 60
Administrative and Budgetary Matters, 65
Social and Humanitarian Issues, 66
Apartheid, 66
Decolonisation, 67
Narcotic Drugs Control, 67
Election to UN Bodies and other International Organizations, 67
Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement, 68
Commonwealth, 70
Conferences, 71
International Law: Development and Activities, 73
9 Foreign Economic Relations, 75-76
10 Policy Planning and Research, 77-78
11 External Publicity, 79-81
12 Indians Overseas, 82-83
13 Protocol, 84
14 Passport and Consular Services, 85--88
15 Administration and Organization, 89-90
16 Foreign Service Training Institute, 91-93
17 Use of Hindi in Official Work, 94-95
18 Cultural Relations, 96-102

DURING the year under review, momentous political, social and economic developments in different parts of the world brought about a radical transformation in international relations. The dramatic political changes in Eastern Europe and the march of Soviet Union towards market economy and political pluralism presaged a complete turnaround in international political alignments and rivalries. The Cold War came to an end and a new era of entente between major economic and political powers was ushered in.

The Gulf War was a massive aberration from the general trend of detente and cooperation in international affairs. Immediately after the occupation of Kuwait by Iraq, India issued a statement reiterating her firm position against the use of force in, relations between States and annexation of territory and calle d upon Iraq to withdraw her troops from Kuwait. India took a series of initiative s designed to seek a non-military solution to the Gulf crisis. Before the outbrea k of the war, India did all it could to prevent it. The two meetings of Non-align ed countries on this subject convened in Belgrade in September 1990 and January 1991, were both on India's initiative.

India adhered to all the 12 mandatory UN Security Council resolutions on sanctions against Iraq and took effective steps to implement them. India also maintained Ministerial and diplomatic contacts with Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other States in the region before, during and after the war in an attempt to safeguard our interests in the Gulf We adopted a principled position during the Gulf crisis, and have been playing a constructive role in the Security Council which has been constantly seized with this matter.

India was able successfully to undertake the gigantic task of evacuating i ts citizens from Iraq and Kuwait. After the first few days of disorder which led t o some suffering among our nationals as among those of all other countries, we carried out one of the most successful operations of organized evacuation ever undertaken in recent history. India completed, by the end of October 1990, the evacuation of over 150,000 Indians from Kuwait and Iraq, the bulk of them by ai r from Amman. This was appreciated and regarded as a model by leaders and senior officials of the local Governments and the international agencies associ ated with, the operation.

India continued to pursue the goals of peace, friendship and cooperation i n her relations with neighbours in South Asia. Improvement of India-Nepal relations received high priority, particularly in. the context of the severe st rains (i) that had surfaced after the lapse of the Indo-Nepal Treaties of Trade and Trans it in March 1989. The installation of a democratic Government in Nepal in April 1990 helped in the process. The signing of the joint Communique at the end of the visit of Prime Minister Bhattarai to Delhi and its prompt implementation resulted in the complete normalisation of relations between the two countries. This process was consolidated and additional measures for strengthening these relations were considered during the visit of the then External Affairs Ministe r, Shri I K Gujral to Kathmandu in August 1990. The visit of the former Prime Minister, Shri Chandra Shekhar to Nepal in February 1991--the first such visit in fourteen years--provided further momentum to the intensification of bilateral cooperation for mutual benefit.

India continued to nurture the traditionally close and friendly relations with Bhutan. The Bhutanese King visited India in November 1990, his third visit to India that year. India continued its contribution to ongoing and new develop- ment projects in Bhutan and promoting cooperation in other areas. Positive momentum was maintained in India's relations with Bang- ladesh. The then Bangladesh Foreign Minister visited New Delhi in May 1990 when the joint Economic Commission met after a gap of seven years. India has extended a Government-to-Government credit of Rs 30 crores to Bangladesh. A ruling by the Supreme Court of India on the leasing of the Tin Bigha territory to Bangladesh has paved the way for the full implementation of the Indo-Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement. Our trade and economic cooperation with Banglad- esh has also registered impressive gains in the past year. India welcomed the establishment of a democratically elected Government in Bangladesh. Foreign Secretary visited Dhaka as Prime Minister's Special Envoy in March 1991 and conveyed to the Prime Minister of Bangladesh India's keen desire to work closel y with her Government for further improving our relations.

India continued her endeavour to reduce tensions in her relations with Pakistan. A Confidence Building Package was proposed by India on May 28, 1990, which inter-alia, called upon Pakistan to stop its support to ter rorism, seize arms and terrorists, deny transit facilities to terrorists, and hand Over fugit ives from law. Pursuant to the proposal made by India, three rounds of Foreign Secretary level talks took place. Agreements were reached on several Confi- dence Building Measures. Weekly telephonic contact was introduced between Directors General of Military Operations of the two countries. A hot-line was established between the Prime Ministers of the two countries. Instruments of Ratification of the Agreement on Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installa - (ii) tion and Facilities were exchanged. Discussions were resumed on pending issues such as the boundary in the Sir Creek area. However, Pakistan's support to terrorism and subversion in the States of Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir continued unabated and stands in the way of the normalisation of our relationship. We are continuing our endeavour to persuade Pakistan to abandon her negative approach towards India and join us in establishing a good- neighbourly and tension-free relationship on the basis of the Simla Agreement. Soon after the de-induction of the Indian Peace Keeping Force from Sri Lan ka in March 1990, hostilities broke out again between the LTTE and the Sri Lankan forces, which have got caught up in an escalating spiral of violence. Govern- ment of India has remained concerned about this, and in particular the loss of innocent lives and the hardships and suffering caused to civilians. The continu - ing hostilities have also led to a fresh influx of refugees into Tamil Nadu numbering about 120,000. Government of India's objectives in Sri Lanka have been: to strive for the safety and security of the Tamils in Sri Lanka, which w ould also permit a return of the refugees in India; to foster the process of politic al solution through dialogue on the basis of Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement; and to restore Indo-Sri Lankan relations to traditional levels of cordiality and frien d- ship. It is against this background that the then External Affairs Minister, Sh ri V C Shukla visited Colombo from 28 to 31 January 1991. The visit enabled us to stress our concerns regarding the ethnic issue and our desire to expand bilater al relations in their widest sense.

The close and friendly relations between India and Maldives were further reinforced by high-level visits. President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom visited Delhi in March 1990 and again as Chief Guest for the Republic Day. The former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh visited Male from 22 to 24 June 1990 and later the former Prime Minister, Shri Chandra Shekhar from 21 to 23 November 1990 for the SAARC Summit. Indo-Maldivian cooperation now encompasses health and welfare, infrastructure projects, defence, manpower resources development, civi l aviation, communication and trade.

The first genuine elections held in Myanmar after almost twenty-eight year s resulted in an overwhelming verdict in favour of democratic forces. Despite thi s clear verdict, power has not been transferred to the elected representatives of her people. We hope this will be done soon so that normalcy can return in the country, facilitating the revival and strengthening of our bilateral relations with Myanmar and enabling her to play her rightful role in the comity of nations. (iii) India continued to work for a strong, stable, independent and non-aligned Afghanistan and to strengthen the traditional ties of friendship and cooperatio n with that country. The Foreign Minister of Afghanistan came to New Delhi in June 1990 for the meeting of the Indo-Afghan joint Commission. Thereafter, President Najibullah visited India on a State Visit in August 1990. New areas o f cooperation have been identified, bilateral relations have been further intensi fied and agreements signed on cooperation in agriculture, narcotics control and cultural exchanges. We have agreed upon a major expansion of our technical and economic cooperation with Afghanistan. India continued to take initiatives within SAARC for deepening and expand- ing regional cooperation among South Asian countries. India actively pursued adoption of measures for increasing people-to-people contacts; and increasing cooperation in trade, industry, money and finance. Studies exploring pos- sibilities of such cooperation have been undertaken in some of these areas. The former Prime Minister, Shri Chandra Shekhar, visited Maldives to participate in the 6th SAARC Summit in November 1990. At India's suggestion regional cooperation under SAARC was extended to the field of biotechnology and the proposal to create a Fund for the identification and development of regional projects to be financed by national banks of the member-countries was also accepted. Cooperation among the SAARC countries is essential for accelerating our economic development, for building individual and collective self-reliance and for enhancing our bargaining strength in multilateral negotiations. India remains committed to assuming responsibility for making SAARC an effective and full-fledged venture of regional cooperation, consistent with her size, resourc es and stage of development.

India's relations with China have steadily improved since the visit of the then Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi to that country in December 1988. The momentum of bilateral exchanges has increased. The high-level political dialo- gue has intensified. Successive Governments have stressed the factors of continuity and consensus in India's policy towards China. Better understanding and cooperation between India and China, the two largest countries of Asia, is not only in the mutual interest of the two countries but also can assist in the maintenance of peace and stability in our region and the world. The dialogue with China on the outstanding boundary question has continued with both sides having enhanced their understanding of each other's approach to a settlement of this question. The discussions during the second Meeting of the Joint Working Group on the boundary question, which met in New Delhi in August 1990 were held in an atmosphere of frankness and cordiality. We have stressed the (iv) adoption of a forward-looking approach so that a mutually acceptable solution that is in conformity with national interests and sentiments is arrived at. The Soviet Union has been undergoing fundamental changes over the past few years. India's priority has been to maintain the stability of our vital relationship with the Soviet Union in the light of new challenges imposed by perestroika and changing Indian and Soviet priorities. The warmth and cordialit y of Indo-Soviet relations were reaffirmed by the visit of the former Prime Minis ter, Shri V P Singh to Moscow in July 1990. The visit confirmed that India and the Soviet Union have a multi-dimensional, stable and time-tested relationship that enjoys the broad support of the peoples of both countries and should, therefore , be preserved and strengthened further.

The ongoing interaction between India and United States of America has generated a greater degree of understanding and sensitivity to each other's concerns and interests. India's effort has been to enlarge the existing areas o f cooperation with USA, encompassing the commercial, scientific, technical and cultural fields. India believes that building a mutually beneficial and mature relationship is a goal shared by both India and USA. A series of high-level vis its and exchange of views have brought about a better appreciation of India's standpoint on a wide range of issues, including on the situation in the Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir in the context of Pakistan's role in aggravating the situation.

There have been deep-rooted and profound changes in the European continent since traditional confrontation between the East and West blocs has given way to cooperation. The two Germanys are united and the free movement of peoples and in due course, of capital and labour, are shortly in th e offing. The base for a Common European Home has already been laid and the integration of the Common Market in 1992 will further contribute to transform- ing Europe into an important political and economic power. India has had close links with both halves of Europe through a wide network of economic and commercial contacts. We have welcomed these far-reaching changes, which no doubt will serve the cause of peace and stability and contribute to the development of the world economy. During the year under review, considerable progress has been made in bilateral relations with Western Europe through the exchange of several high- level visits. Notable among them have been those of our President, Shri R Venkataraman to UK, Portugal and Malta in March and April 1990 and of the President of Federal Republic of Germany to India. The then External Affairs (v) Minister, Shri I K Gujral also visited several European countries for discussio ns with his counterparts. Particularly important was our political dialogue with t he European Community's 'Troika' Foreign Ministers. The Community's progress towards an integrated European market by 1992 offers challenges and oppor- tunities for India. Several measures, including those designed to foster instit u- tional linkages with EC, were either taken or under consideration, to take advantage of the Single European Market for promoting our exports and economic cooperation with the European Community.

Momentous changes in the direction of democracy and political pluralism have swept the nations of the Eastern Europe. We have welcomed this movement towards democracy and more humane and liberal system of governan- ce. India has traditionally enjoyed very close and mutually beneficial politica l and economic relations with the countries of Eastern Europe. As with the rest of the world, we are on the threshold of a significant new phase in our politic al and economic relations with these countries. We are confident that as these countries follow a more open economic system and integrate with the main- stream of the world economy, new opportunities will open up for strengthening and widening India's existing cooperation with them. The Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia and the President of Romania visited India. The then External Affairs Minister, Shri I K Gujral, visited Yugoslavia in March 1990 for bilateral discussions and again in September 1990 in the context of consultations on the Gulf crisis. We attach very high importance to our relations with Japan, a country with which we have traditionally enjoyed friendly relations. in recent years, our interaction with Japan in the economic and technological fields has been strengthened and diversified. Japan has become a major economic partner and we deeply appreciate the positive, and constructive attitude she has shown in responding to our requirements.

The importance attached by India to the maintenance and expansion of close and friendly relations with all the countries of South East Asia is testified b y the high-level contacts and frequency of interactions with these countries. The ver y first bilateral visit by the former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh was to Malaysia. High-level exchange of visits also took place with several other ASEA N countries. The India-Vietnam joint Commission met under the co-chairmanship of the two Foreign Ministers in April 1990 during which an agreement was signed for the utilisation of the latest Government of India credit for railway s and telecommunications. The Ho Chi Minh Centenary celebrations in India, coordi- (vi) nated under the auspices of a National Committee chaired by the Prime Mini ster, concluded in January 1991 in Calcutta, where a big public function was organized with high-level Vietnamese participation. India continued her active and constructive role, through close contact both with ASEAN and the Indo- China states, in the process designed to find a political solution to the Cambo dian conflict. Developments in Fiji were of great concern to India. The Indian Mission in Suva had to be closed in May 1990. Institutionalisation of racial discriminatio n of Fiji was opposed by India and the promulgation of an undemocratic constitution was strongly condemned by us in August 1990.

There can be no durable or stable peace in West Asia without a comprehen- sive settlement of the Palestinian problem. India continued to extend full support to the just struggle of the Palestinian people. The then External Affai rs Minister, Shri I K Gujral participated in the meeting of the NAM Committee of Nine on Palestine, held in Tunis in March 1990. We have conveyed both through bilateral contacts and in multilateral fora our commitment to supportin g a settlement based on the Palestinian right to self-determination, the vacation of all Arab territories occupied since 1967 and the security of all the States in the region. Developments in sub-Saharan Africa have been rapid and overall, positive. The release of Dr Nelson Mandela and the subsequent steps taken by the South African Government for dismantling certain aspects of apartheid were welcomed by India. India fully supported the demand of the African National Congress to implement further measures leading to the irreversible elimination of apartheid in South Africa. Namibia's independence in March 1990 was of far- reaching importance in the context, of the struggle for a unitary, non-racist a nd democratic South Africa. Former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh participated in the Independence Day Celebrations in Windhoek. Dr Mandela's visit to India in October 1990 enabled India to pay homage to a living symbol of struggle against apartheid.

India was elected to the Security Council for a two-year term commencing 1 January 1991. India was, therefore, directly involved in the deliberations an d decisions of the Security Council on the Gulf conflict in 1991. India's positio n on each question reflected her principled opposition to the use of force as wel l as her concern that all actions of the Security Council should be in conformity with the UN Charter.

(vii) The UN Security Council has recently come to play an increasing role in resolving conflicts and dealing with situations leading to a breach of or threa t to international security. This is because, for the first time since the inception of the United Nations, the five permanent members of the UN Security Council are acting in concert. India welcomes the enhanced effectiveness of the United Nations. At the same time, India calls for wider application of the democratic principle in the decision-making procedures of the United Nations and specifi- cally in the Security Council. While the trend increasingly is to extend suppor t in ushering in pluralism and democracy in individual States, equality and democratic decision-making are absent in the functioning of international organizations--the UN Security Council in particular. These could have most disturbing implications for developing countries. The political preoccupation o f the industrialised countries with Eastern Europe and their disregard for develo p- ment issues on the international agenda have come in the way of the revival of the North-South dialogue There is also an increasing tendency to interfere in the internal affairs of developing countries on grounds of human rights and for the purpose of securing disarmament on a selective and discriminatory basis. India considers that the deepening of the debt crisis and the erosion of norms, rules and regulations of the international monetary, financial and tradi ng systems could have adverse repercussions on developing countries such as India. It was in this context that the summit level group on South-South cooperation, namely, the Group of 15 had been set up at India's initiative at t he time of the last Non-aligned Summit Conference at Belgrade. The first Summit level meeting of the Group of 15 was held in Kuala Lumpur in June 1990. The Indian delegation was led by the former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh. The Summit meeting, identified some concrete and specific projects for South-South cooperation And issued a statement giving the perception of the leaders of the G-15 on major international economic issues and outlining the common strategy to be adopted for resolving them.

India participated actively in a large number of multilateral meetings on global environmental issues. A Conference on Global Environmental Issues of twenty select developing countries was held in New Delhi in April 1990, with a view to evolving a developing country perspective on such issues. India also successfully promoted a series of amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer that were adopted at the London meeting of the States Parties in June 1990. India has been playing her due role in the preparatory process leading upto the UN Conference on Environment and Development scheduled in 1992. (viii) The transformation of East-West relations has changed the context but not the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement. Its position against the blocs having been vindicated, its future course of action would have to concentrate increasingly on the North-South divide, disarmament, environment and the democratisation of the multilateral system under the United Nations. India has continued to contribute positively to the ongoing exercise on reorienting the role of the Movement in the changing global environment through the develop- ment of a broad consensus on the rationale of non-alignment in the context of the current reality and the adjustments that are called for in its method of wo rk, modalities of functioning and agenda.


India's neighbours


DURING the year under review, India continued to pursue the goals of peace, friendship and cooperation in relations with its neighbours in South Asia, bilaterally and through fora like SAARC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. Relations between India and Nepal have traditionally been extremely close and cordial. Over the years India has been extending considerable economic and technical assistance to Nepal and, till recently, was one of its largest donors . However, strains surfaced in. Indo-Nepal relations over the past few years, especially after the lapse of the Indo-Nepal Treaties of Trade and Transit in M arch 1989, consequent on the non-fulfilment by Nepal of the commitments made when a new Trade. Treaty was negotiated aid initialled in October 1998. The Government of India accorded high priority to improving Indo-Nepal relations, and various initiatives were taken in this regard, which resulted in great mutual understanding of each other's interests and concerns and agreement on th e need for a comprehensive solution of all outstanding problems. In April 1990, the success of the mass movement for multi-party democracy in Nepal led to the installation of an interim Government headed by Prime Minister Krishna Prasad Bhattarai. India warmly welcomed these developments.

Prime Minister Bhattarai's visit to India in June 1990, ended with the sig ning by the two Prime Ministers of a joint Communique which restored status quo ante in bilateral relations to 1 April 1987, a period before the recent bilateral te nsions emerged. This was to be pending the finalisation of a comprehensive arrange-
ment covering all aspects of bilateral relations. India went beyond the status quo ante in extending certain extra relaxations in the tariff and entry regime of Nepalese exports to India that had considerable potential, if properly exploite d, to increase such exports. The Indian stand by credit facility for Nepal was increa sed from Rs 25 crores to Rs 35 crores. Nepal undertook, inter-alia to remove Indian nationals in Nepal from the ambit of the Work Permit Scheme and to assure India n teachers in Nepal the same conditions of employment as Nepalese nationals. Both sides undertook to My respect each other's security concerns, not to allow activities in the territory of the one prejudicial to the security of the other, and to have prior consultations, with a view to reaching mutual agreement on such defence related matters which, in the view of either country, could pose a threat to its security.

India and Nepal also decided to usher in a new era of bilateral cooperatio n, particularly in the spheres of industrial and human resource development, for harnessing of the waters of the common rivers for the benefit of the peoples of the two countries and for the protection and management of the environment. On the Indian side, the commitments under the Joint Communique were fulfilled ahead of the deadline of Jul 01, 1990. Most of the Nepalese commit- ments were also fulfilled, and it is expected that action will be completed soo n on the outstanding points. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri I K Gujral, visited Kathmandu in August 1990, and held discussions with Prime Minister Bhattarai and other Nepalese political leaders. Various possibilities of widening bilateral economi c cooperation were considered.

Prime Minister Bhattarai paid a transit visit to India in November 1990, a nd had detailed discussions with the Prime Minister, the Minister for External Aff airs and the Minister for Water Resources on issues of mutual concern. Various potentially far-reaching decisions on bilateral cooperation were taken, especia lly in the field of water resources development, one of the four key areas identified in the Joint Communique. These included undertaking of a comprehensive joint survey of the full hydel potential of Nepal and the working out of a phased programme for its development, setting up a bilateral joint Rivers Commission, a comprehensive survey of the potential of the whole Kosi river basin and India n
agreement in principle to purchase surplus power from the Nepalese hydel projects, subject to negotiation and agreement on prices. Early implementation of these decisions would substantially benefit the economies of both countries. A bilateral agreement was signed in December 1990 for the construction by India, on a turnkey and grant aid basis, of a Rs 3 crore new road cum rail brid ge at Raxaul, the most important border point for both bilateral and transit cargo movements to and from Nepal. The new bridge is expected to be ready by early 1993. In August 1990, the then Minister for External Affairs inaugurated the Rs 2 crore Mohana bridge in western Nepal, also constructed on a turnkey basis as a part of the Indian aid programme to Nepal.

Prime Minister's visit to Nepal from 13 to 15 February 1991 was the first such visit in 14 years and his first bilateral visit abroad. It included visits to J anakpur and Biratnagar in the Nepalese Terai besides Kathmandu. At all these three places, Prime Minister addressed civic receptions in his honour; for Janakpur a nd Biratnagar this was again a first. Besides the official talks, Prime Minister a lso met a wide spectrum of Nepalese political leaders. Many significant decisions were taken and work programmes finalised for intensifying bilateral economic cooperation for mutual benefit. A high level ta sk force will be set up to prepare such a comprehensive economic cooperation programme by June 1991, working under the overall guidance of the Indo-Nepal joint Commission. A series of key technical meetings covering the most important hydel projects like Kosi, Karnali and Pancheshwar will be held betwee n end February and mid-April 1991. The Indo-Nepal Sub Commission on Water Resources will meet again in April after a gap of over two years. Both sides wi ll consider taking up several potentially attractive medium sized hydel projects a nd will immediately start work on additional flood protection measures. Cooperatio n in health care will also be intensified--the Bir Hospital in Kathmandu will be expanded; and a medical college in Biratnagar considered. Intensive cooperation in the fields of railways and civil aviation will be pursued.

The traditionally close and friendly relations between India and Bhutan we re further strengthened during the year under review. His Majesty King Jigme Singye Wangchuck visited India thrice during 1990; in January, January/February
and November. He held discussions with the President, Shri R Venkataraman, the former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh, the Prime Minister, Shri Chandra Shekhar, and other senior Ministers of the Government of India. The discus- sions on bilateral and multilateral issues of mutual interest were marked by a close identity of views and great warmth and cordiality. From the Indian side, the then Minister for Commerce and Tourism visited Bhutan in March 1990, and the then Minister for Energy and Civil Aviation in August 1990. The Finance Minister also paid a brief visit in January 199 1. Foreign Secretary visited Bhutan in October 1990. The growing economic and technical cooperation between the two coun- tries was maintained and intensified. The highlight in this regard was the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding, during the King's visit to India in November 1990, in accordance with which India is to prepare the Detailed Project Reports for the Tala Hydroelectric Project (Chukha, Phase II) and the Wangchu Reservoir Scheme (Chukha, Phase III), for 1000 MW and. 600 MW respectively, and more ambitious than the very successful 336 MW Chukha Hydel Project.

A new Indo-Bhutan Trade and Commerce Agreement (1990-1995) was signed in Thimphu on 2 March 1990 during the then Commerce Minister's visit. It provided for the continuation of free trade between the two coun- tries, and also opened it to private Bhutanese traders, besides simplifying ent ry procedures and other similar facilities. A new Air Services Agreement between the two countries was finalised after prolonged negotiations and will be signed soon. The new runway and hangar building at Paro Airport, part of the airport upgradation project being executed by India, were inaugurated by the then Minister for Energy and Civil Aviation during his visit to Bhutan in August 1990. During the same visit, a new protocol was signed to equalize the rates at which India purchases firm and seasonal power from the Chukha Hydel Pro- ject. This involved a substantial rise in the Royal Government of Bhutan's revenue earnings from the CHP.

India continued to cooperate with Bhutan in various other fields such as telecommunications, livestock breeding, dairying, mini hydel projects, rural
development, health services, forestry, industrial estates, road building and maintenance and education. India continued to offer Bhutanese students opportunities for secondary as well as higher education and training in various fields such as medicine, engineering and the humanities, plus specialised training in work connected wit h police, customs and defence. About 50 Bhutanese students were availing of the Government of India scholarship, and an equal number of additional scholarships for studies in India were also extended to them under the Colombo Plan. Increasing attention was being paid to human resource development as a key area of bilateral cooperation. India continued to supply Bhutan, at the Royal Government of Bhutan's request, with essential commodities such as wheat, rice, sugar, coal, steel, ed ible oils etc at controlled prices under a special quota system.

There was a steady improvement in Indo-Bangladesh relations during the yea r under review. The visit of the Bangladesh Foreign Minister to India in May imparted a positive momentum to them and a meeting of the Indo-Bangladesh joint Economic Commission was held in May in New Delhi after a gap of seven years. India announced a Rs 30 crore Government to Government credit to Bangladesh. The meetings of the joint Rivers Commission were reactivated and detailed discussions were held for working out a comprehensive long term solution to the problem of sharing the waters of common rivers. During the SAARC Summit in Male in November, President Ershad and the Prime Minister, Shri Chandra Shekhar had a cordial meeting. Following two months of a sustained opposition agitation launched by the students and joined in by a wide cross section of Bangladesh society-President Ershad resigned on 6 December and handed over power to Mr Shahabuddin Ahmed, the Chief justice of the Bangladesh Supreme Court, who assumed office as the Acting President of Bangladesh. Elections for Parliament were held on 27 February 1991. The restoration of the democratic rights of the people of Bangladesh was a welcome development and India is looking forward to working closely with a democratically elected Government in Bangladesh. In July 1990, the military regime of Myanmar held elections in which the National League for Democracy (NLD) won an overwhelming mandate.
It was expected that the power would thereafter be transferred to the elec ted representatives of the people. However, this did not happen and, at the end of the year, Myanmar's military Government appeared determined to continue in office for an indefinite period of time. While maintaining the policy of strict non- interference in Myanmar's internal affairs, India expressed its support to the democratic aspirations of the people of Myanmar and hoped that the electoral verdict would be respected by the country's military leadership. The Government of India's objectives in Sri Lanka are: striving for the sa fety and security of the Tamils in Sri Lanka; fostering the process of political sol ution through dialogue as the only basis for the resolution of the ethnic issue; contributing to peace and normalcy in Sri Lanka; and to restore Indo-Sri Lankan relations to traditional levels of cordiality and friendship. The visit of the then External Affairs Minister to Colombo in January 1991 came in this perspective.

The Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement, to which the Government stands committed, led to the enactment of the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution, which for the first time provided a basis for the devolution of political power to the Tamils through the system of Provincial Councils and related legislation. Withdrawal of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in March 1990 brought to an end India's direct involvement in Sri Lanka and led to a new phase in Indo-Sri Lank an relations. The Government of India are extremely concerned at the outbreak of hostilities between LTTE and Sri Lankan armed forces which have led to civilian suffering and casualties. This has also led to an influx of refugees into Tamil Nadu which now stands at 122,972. These concerns have been conveyed by India to the Sri Lankan Government during the visit of the then Minister for External Affairs from 28 to 31 January 1991. During his visit, the then External Affairs Minister called on the Preside nt, the Prime Minister, the Speaker and other senior Cabinet Ministers of Sri Lanka and also met all shades of political and public opinion there. He also met representatives of all non-LTTE Tamil Groups and the President of the Ceylon Workers Congress representing largely the interests of persons of Indian origin , particularly those covered by the Srimavo-Shastri Agreement.
The Government of India believe that only a negotiated political settlement which takes into account the legitimate demands and aspirations of the Tamils c an bring lasting peace to the island. The political settlement must be finally arr ived at between the Government and the Tamils of Sri Lanka. India has advocated for the cessation of hostilities and a return to dialogue. These views were conveye d to Sri Lanka Government during the then External Affairs Minister's visit there . The visit also served to underline the desire for strengthening and consolidati ng bilateral ties. It was agreed to upgrade the present Joint Economic Commission to that of a joint Commission at Foreign Minister's level.

The close and friendly relations between India and Maldives were further strengthened by high level visits. President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom visited New Delhi in March 1990. It was followed by the former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh's visit to Male, the first after assuming office, from 22 to 24 June 19 90. Fresh impetus and content were given to the multi-faceted Indo-Maldivian cooperation which now encompasses health and welfare, infrastructure projects, defence, manpower resource development, civil aviation, communication and trade. Construction of the Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital with Indian assistance is underway. It was also decided to set up a vocational training cen tre at an estimated cost of Rs 5 crores. Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar had bilateral discussions with President Gayoom during his visit to Male from 21 to 23 November 1990 for the Fifth SAARC Summit. President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom again visited India from 25 to 27 January 1991 as the Chief Guest at the Republic Day 1991 celebrations. He was accompanied by a high level delegation including Maldivian Foreign Minister. At the delegation level talks held by President Gayoom with Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar the entire gamut of bilateral relations was discussed. New areas of cooperation were considered. It was decided to review the 1981 Bilateral Trade Agreement. President Gayoom and Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar also exchanged views on the Gulf crisis and expressed their deep sorrow and concern over the loss of lives and human suffering caused by the hostilities. They expressed the hope that escalation and intensification of the conflict will be prevented and that all efforts will be made for a peaceful solution in conformi ty with the UN Security Council Resolutions.


During the year under review, India continued her endeavours to develop tension free and good neighbourly relations with Pakistan on the basis of the Simla Agreement. The bilateral relationship had unfortunately come under severe strain on account of Pakistan's continued aid and abetment of terrorism directed against India in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. Ms was accompanied by inflammatory statements made by Pakistani leaders, in which efforts were also made to deliberately misrepresent the situation in Jammu and Kashmir. India conveyed in unequivocal terms to Pakistan that the latter's continued support to terrorism directed against India was not only in contravention of the Simla Agreement and of universally accepted norms of inter-State conduct, but also adversely affected any confidence-building in bilateral relationship. It also worked against the long term interest of peace and stability in the region. The then External Affairs Minister, Shri I K Gujral had a meeting with Pakistan's Foreign Minister, Sahabzada Yaqub Khan in New York on 25 April 1990. It was agreed in the meeting that tension should be reduced and confrontation avoided. The Directors General of Military Operations of India and Pakistan should remain in touch with each other and both sides should exercise restraint and keep channels of communication open.

In order to reduce tensions and allay fears of confrontation, India Pro- posed a package of Confidence Building Measures including both military and nonmilitary elements to Pakistan on 28 May 1990. Pursuant to this, three rounds of Foreign Secretary level talks were held between India and Pakistan. The discussions took place from 17 to 20 July (Islamabad), 9 to 12 August (New Delhi) and 18 to 20 December (Islamabad). It was pointed out to Pakistan that the root cause of the present tensions between the two countries was Pakistan's support to terrorist activities directed against India in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. For any meaningful and sustained improve- ment in India-Pakistan relations this support must stop. The Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan, Shri Chandra Shekhar and Mr Nawaz Sharif, had a fruitful and constructive exchange of views in the Mal- dives on 22 November 1990, on the occasion of the SAARC Summit. The two Prime Ministers decided that all differences should be resolved peacefully and through dialogue. Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar reiterated India's position on Pakistan's interference in her internal affairs. The two Prime Mini sters
agreed to remain in touch with each other. A 'hotline' has been established between the Prime Ministers of the two countries. The third round of Talks between the Foreign Secretaries was guided by th e directives of the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan, following their meetin g in the Maldives on 22 November 1990. During the talks, it was decided to exchange, in January 199 1, the Instruments of Ratification of the Agreement on Prohibiti on of Attack against Nuclear. Installations and Facilities which was signed on 31 December 1988 and subsequently ratified by both Governments. The Instruments of Ratification were exchanged on 27 January 1991 and the Agreement came into effect from that date. Decisions were also taken to hold the next meeting of th e Surveyors General of India and Pakistan for demarcation of land boundary in Sir Creek, and to resume thereafter the discussions on the Tulbal Navigation Projec t. Surveyors General of India and Pakistan met in New Delhi from 23 to 26 March 1991. The meeting held in a better understanding of each other's perception. As a means of reducing tension between the two countries, it was agreed that the Directors General of Military Operations of Pakistan and India would keep in telephonic touch with each other on a weekly basis. This has already been initiated. The meetings of the Sub Commissions of India-Pakistan joint Commissi on are to be resumed at an appropriate time. It was also agreed that the next meet ing of the Foreign Secretaries would be held in New Delhi at mutually convenient dates. This would be preceded by a meeting of the experts to finalise the pendi ng drafts of (i) the Agreement on Advance Notice of Military Exercises and Manoeuvres and (ii) the Agreement on Prevention of Air Space Violation by Military Aircraft.

There was some concern in India on account of recent reports regarding developments in Pakisan's weapons oriented and clandestine nuclear programme. Speaking in Parliament on 7 January 1991, the Prime Minister had expressed the hope that Pakistan would not indulge in any misadventure. Should it do so, Indi a has the capability to meet the challenge, in whatever form it may arise. The Government of India hoped that Pakistan would join India in its endeavour to normalise relations and to promote peace and stability in the regi on. The conflict in Afghanistan, unfortunately, continued during the year. Period i- cally, foreign backed rebels mounted attacks on the cities in Afghanistan, but without much success. Over the year, various peace proposals were initiated; discussions were also held between the USA and the USSR to find a political solution to the crisis.

India closely followed developments and maintained contacts with all those concerned with the situation in Afghanistan. India is for a political settlemen t of the problem arrived at by the Afghans themselves without external intervention and interference, and which takes into account the existing realities and legit imate interests of all concerned. India supports the preservation of Afghanistan's st atus as a sovereign, non-aligned and independent country. In the sphere of bilateral relations, there was a regular high level exchange of visits between India and Afghanistan. The Afghan President, Dr Najibullah visit ed India in August 1990. During this visit, agreements on Prevention of Traffickin g in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Cooperation between Agricultural Institutions, and Cultural Exchanges were signed. The 9th Session of the Indo- Afghan joint Commission was held on 12 and 13 June 1990. This meeting was co-chaired by the Foreign Ministers of India and Afghanistan. A comprehensive protocol envisaging cooperation in areas ranging from agriculture to commodity assistance and telecommunications was signed during the meeting. Foreign Minister of Afghanistan, Mr Abdul Wakil, during his official visit to India fro m 7 to 9 February 1991, met the President and the Prime Minister, and also had discussions with the then External Affairs Minister on bilateral, regional and international issues of mutual interest with special focus on the Gulf crisis. The then Minister for Commerce, Law and justice visited Afghanistan from 30 December 1990 to 1 January 1991.

With the finalisation of the dates and venue for the Fifth Summit, the pace o f SAARC activities registered an increase. This was especially true of the Techni cal Committees in the twelve agreed areas of cooperation. Most of these Committees had not been convened in the earlier part of 1990 due to there being indecision about their Chairpersons. With the finalisation of the Summit dates, it was als o decided that Chairpersonship would continue to vest with the countries who were already vested with a particular charge during the year 1989. Broadly, India's stance on SAARC matters during the year was characterised by the following principles:

(a) Emphasis was laid on the need to introduce tangible cooperation in SAARC by focussing attention on core economic sectors;

(b) A realistic approach was adopted in matters relating to the setting up of
Regional Centres etc. In almost all such cases India recommended that rather than setting up of such centres, which could drain the limited resources of SAARC countries, member countries should explore the possibility of establishing networking arrangements between relevant institutions in the SAARC regions; and

(c) AR efforts were made to keep SAARC initiatives anchored to the objective of achieving collective self-reliance within the region. Under the Integrated Programme of Action in the twelve agreed areas of cooperation, a total number of 86 SAARC activities/events were held in SAARC countries during the years 1989 and 1990 ie, during the period intervening between the Fourth and the Fifth Summits. Of these, 26 activities were organized in India. Three events/activities were held in January 1991. Of these, two were organized in India. The culmination of all such activities was the Fifth SAARC Summit held in the Maldives which took place in accordance with the following schedule:

(i) Eighth Meeting of the Programming Committee (13 and 14 November 1990);

(ii) Thirteenth Meeting of the Standing Committee of Foreign Secretaries (15 to 17 November 1990);

(iii) Eighth Meeting of the Council of Ministers (18 and 19 November 1990); aid

(iv) Fifth Meeting (Summit) of Heads of State/Government (21 to 23 November 1990). During the Summit meeting at Mate, a general emphasis was laid on the streamlining of SAARC programmes and activities. Ms guideline was diligently implemented by the Programming Committee at the time of formulating the SAARC Calendar of Activities for the year 1991. Many of the events recom- mended by the various Technical Committees were deleted by the Programming Committee either because there had not been adequate response from member countries or in favour of other activities which pertained to new themes/hi-tec h subjects etc. Generally speaking, the Technical Committees instead of spreading their field too wide, were asked to concentrate on fewer programmes of better
quality. The Presidents of Maldives and Bangladesh were asked to hold consultations with other member countries on the question of adopting a more business-like and functional approach in the SAARC meetings. The Fifth SAARC Summit took the following major decisions:

(i) A SAARC Convention on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances was signed in Male at the Foreign Secretaries level. The Convention is an important step in eliminating the scourge of Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse from the region;

(ii) It was decided to set up new Regional Centres for the SAARC region-(a) a Tuberculosis Centre at Kathmandu to reduce the fatal disease in the region; (b) a Nucleus Human Resource Development Centre in Pakistan for qualitative improvement in the human skills of the people of the region; and (c) a Documentation Centre in India for collection, publication and dissemination of information of technical and scientific nature, including the social science, published in or upon the SAARC region;

(iii) It was decided to launch the Special SAARC Travel Document which would entitle members of National Parliaments, Supreme Court Judges and Heads of National Academic Institutions, their spouses and depen- dent children, to visa-free travel within the region;

(iv) In order to focus attention and redress the grave problem of shelter it was decided to work together during 1991 which will be known as "SAARC Year of Shelter." During the year 1992, it was decided to concentrate through "SAARC Year of Environment," on problems facing the region on the vital issues of environmental degradation and its adverse impact on future generations. There are a large number of disabled and physically handicapped people in the region for whose welfare it was decided to work together during 1993, the "SAARC Year of the Handicapped;"

(v) It was decided to complete the Regional Study on Trade, Manufactures and Services through which a blueprint of regional economic coopera- tion will be charted, by the end of February 1991. This would mark the beginning of a new phase of economic cooperation in SAARC, which alone can make a difference to the daily lives of the people of
the region. It was decided to set up a Fund for Identification and Development of Regional Projects which will be financed through SAARC national development banks. This Fund, once established, will enable the starting up of joint ventures of economic cooperation in the region. Likewise, it was decided to set up joint ventures in the field of Cottage Industries and Handicrafts as these activities have extensive scope for employment generation of large number of unemployed youth;

(vi) It was decided that India will host the Second Ministerial Meeting in 1991, to review the outcome of Uruguay Round and to coordinate the positions of SAARC countries at international conferences including the UN Conference on Environment and Development to be held in 1992. This meeting will also address itself to the objectives of attaining individual and collective self-reliance in the region;

(vii) It was decided to extend scientific and technical cooperation further into the fields of Biotechnology for attaining long term food security o f the South Asian countries as well as for medicinal purposes; and

(WU) On the initiative of the Government of Sri Lanka, it was decided to promote tourism to the SAARC region from outside and to promote institutionalised cooperation among SAARC tourist industries. The Male Summit can be credited with substantial achievements. However, it hardly bears reiteration that only strong and clear political will can enable t he SAARC countries to move confidently in the new areas of cooperation identified by it. India is committed to South Asian cooperation under SAARC which she feels is essential for accelerating the economic development, for building indi - vidual and collective self-reliance and for enhancing the SAARC countries' bargaining strength in multilateral associations. Such cooperation has become a ll the more necessary in the context of the recent trends towards economic integration in the world, added to which the Gulf crisis may even have made cooperation vita or SAA countries' very survival. India, consistent with her size, resources and stage of development, is pledged to take on all the responsibilities necessary to make SAARC an effective and fullfledged instrumen t of regional cooperation.


South-East Asia and the Pacific

SOUTH-EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC THE importance that India attaches to maintaining and expanding close and friendly relations with the countries in South-East Asia and the South Pacific is testified by the high level contacts and frequency of interaction with these countries. Relations with Cambodia continued to be close and friendly. Prime Minister Hun Sen paid a working visit to India from 7 to Oct 11, 1990, and met the former Prime Minister, the then External Affairs Minister and other Ministers. Discussions were held on bilateral issues as well as on prospects for the resolution of the Cambodian conflicts. Prime Minister Hun Sen stressed the importance of India continuing to play a role in the Cambodian settlement, and participating in the UNTAC (United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia). India agreed to give Cambodia concessional credit and assistance worth Rs 3 crores, in addition to the ongoing assistance of Rs 2 crores for the Angkor Vat Restoration Project and Rs 1 crore for humanitarian assistance including the su pply of medicines and artificial limbs. India also agreed to explore the possibility of extending more food aid to Cambodia.

India continued to play an active and constructive role to achieve a peaceful negotiated settlement in Cambodia through frequent official interaction and consultations with leaders in concerned countries. Discussions on a Cambodian settlement continued in various fora including regional meetings, and meetings of the Five Permanent members of the UN Security Council (P-5). A framework for a settlement based on a major UN role in governing Cambodia in the interim period leading upto elections has been formulated. India was actively involved
in discussions on this proposal, and expressed her concern on a number of issue s, including the need for the settlement to be consistent with respect for Cambodi a's sovereignty. The importance of these concerns has been acknowledged. Senior officials of the Ministry attended meetings to discuss the P-5 proposa l, including the one held in Jakarta in September 1990. In her capacity as co- Chairman of the First Committee of the Paris international Conference, India participated in the November 1990 Jakarta meeting to draft the final agreement. Secretary (East), Shri L L Mehrotra visited Cambodia and Vietnam from 6 to 11 January 1991 and held detailed discussions with leaders of these countries. Bilateral issues were also discussed. India will continue to actively participa te in discussions at the forthcoming meeting of the Coordinating Committee of the Paris Conference, which is expected to take place in Paris in early 1991.

At the request of the Cambodian Government, a diplomatic officer visited Hanoi and Phnom Penh in early 1990, to give a detailed exposition on the Namibian elections. India also sent constitutional and election experts to advi se the Vietnamese and the State of Cambodia Governments. India's traditionally close relations with Vietnam were further strengthened by exchanges of high level visits with particular stress being laid on enhancing bilateral economic, scientific and technical cooperation. The then External Affairs Minister, Shri I K Gujral visited Vietnam in April 1990, in connection with the 4th meeting of the Indo-Vietnam joint Economic, Scientific and Technical Commission and held detailed discussions. The Buffalo and Forage Research Centre and Rice Research Institute set up in Vietnam under the ITEC programme were formally handed over by the Minister. During talks on regional and international issues, the Vietnamese leaders expressed their support for India' s stand on Kashmir, and criticised Pakistan's interference in India's internal af fairs. The then Minister for Commerce, Shri Arun Nehru visited Vietnam in September 1990, and signed a Trade Protocol, which is expected to substantially increase bilateral trade and economic cooperation. A Vietnam-India Chamber of Com- merce was formally set up in mid-1990. ONGC Videsh Ltd completed its seismic survey in off-shore areas under contract with Petro-Vietnam, and began drilling in mid-1990. The Vietnamese Chief of General Staff visited India in November and held talks on enhancing defence cooperation.

In response to a Vietnamese request for assistance, part of the food supplies sent for Indian nationals in Iraq was distributed to Vietnamese citizens there.
In the field of culture, a Vietnamese Puppet theatre group visited India unde r ICCR sponsorship. A number of initiatives were taken to appropriately commemorate the Birth Centenary of late President Ho Chi Minh on 19 May 1990. A National Committee chaired by the former Prime Minister was set up to coordinate the Centenary celebrations in India. These included the release of a commemorative stamp by the former Prime Minister on 17 May 1990 at the Parliament House Annexe, where an exhibition of photographs on Ho Chi Minh was held, and re- naming of Chirag Delhi Road as Ho Chi Minh Marg at a ceremony presided over by the then External Affairs Minister and the Lt Governor of Delhi on 19 May 1990. Publications of Ho Chi Minh's "Prison Diary" (poems) and a book on Ho Chi Minh by the former Vietnamese Prime Minister Pham Van Dong were brought out. The Chief Minister of West Bengal, Shri Jyoti Basu led a delegation to Vie tnam to participate in the Centenary celebrations there. A seminar on "Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam and International Peace" in which leading national and international scholars participated, and related cultural activities were held in Calcutta fr om 14 to 16 January 1991 to mark the culmination of the celebrations. General Vo Nguyen Giap, Vice Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Vietnam visited India from 11 to 20 January 1991 as the Chief Guest at the seminar. Prime Minister unveiled a bust of President Ho Chi Minh, presented by the Vietnamese Government and installed at a prominent location in Calcutta. A public meeting was organized where the Prime Minister, the then External Affairs Minister, Wes t Bengal Chief Minister and General Giap, among others spoke. Calcutta University conferred an Honorary Doctorate on General Giap at a special convocation. The Centenary celebrations also included an exhibition of photographs and momentos of Ho Chi Minh and a Vietnamese film festival. The celebrations and General Giap's visit received wide coverage in India and Vietnam and have been deeply appreciated by the Vietnamese authorities.

India's friendly relations and economic cooperation with Laos were main- tained. Lao trainees continued to visit India for training in diverse fields un der ITEC and other programmes. Deputation of Indian experts also continued. Additional Secretary (East) visited Laos in April 1990 and held talks on bilate ral and regional issues, including the Cambodian settlement. Dato Haji Abu Hassan Bin Haji Omar, Foreign Minister of Malaysia visited Indi a from 11 to 13 April 1990 as Special Envoy of his Prime Minister to invite India 's
Prime Minister to attend the First Summit Meeting on South-South Cooperation in Kuala Lumpur. The former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh visited Malaysia from 1 to 4 June to attend the Summit and followed it up with a bilateral visit. Ways for enhancing bilateral cooperation with Malaysia in various fields including com- merce and economic, tourism, civil aviation, banking, health education, solar energy etc were discussed. It was decided to upgrade the joint Committee to a joint Commission at the level of Foreign Ministers to enhance bilateral coopera - tion. Responding to urgent requests from Malaysia, it was decided to assign 150 additional seats in six private medical colleges for foreign students, includin g Malaysians. Subsequently, Malaysia was assisted in recruiting Indian medical teachers to meet the shortage in their institutions.

At India's request Malaysia agreed to increase the supply of crude oil by 500 0 BPD to meet her urgent requirement, consequent upon the Gulf situations. Foreign Secretary paid a visit to Kuala Lumpur from 3 to 6 January 1991 and had consultations with Malaysian authorities on bilateral, regional and interna tional issues of mutual concern. He also called on Prime Minister, Dr Mahathir. It was decided that the first meeting of the joint Commission at Foreign Minister's le vel would be held in Delhi. Mr Peter Sung, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and Trade Development of Singapore paid a private visit to India from 8 to 14 April 1990 as the Head of a high level trade delegation to have discussions with representatives of Indian Trade and Industry and Indian leaders on development and expansion of bilateral trade and investment between the two countries. The Singapore trade delegation comprised of 38 executives from 36 companies and visited Karnataka, Madras and Bombay besides Delhi.

Shri Arif Mohammed Khan, the then Minister for Energy and Civil Aviation, paid a visit to Indonesia in May and called on President Soeharto and other lea ders and exchanged views on matters of mutual concern. Mr Soeharto, who had kindly accepted an invitation to be India's Chief Guest during the Republic Day 1991 celebrations, cancelled the visit at the last moment due to developments in the Gulf region. India sent relief supplies of medicines worth Rs 5 lakhs to the Philippines a s a token of her concern for the victims of the earthquake that occurred there on 1 6 July 1990.
The Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines, Mr Raul S Manglapus visited Delhi from 1 to 4 August 1990. The Vice President of India released the Indian edition of Mr Manglapus' book "Will of the People" which deals with the origin of democracy in the East and democratic institutions in ancient India. A n economic! and technical cooperation agreement was signed during this visit. Although the second meeting of the Indo-Thai joint Commission scheduled to be held in New Delhi could not take place, bilateral economic and political relations continued to progress. Brunei's new High Commissioner resident in Kuala Lumpur and concurrently accredited to India, presented his credentials to the President on 24 November 1990.

Relations with Australia which were progressing well, received a temporary setback when in April Australia announced the sale of 50 mothballed but air- worthy Mirage III aircraft along with an unspecified number of engines and spar es to Pakistan worth approximately Australian $ 35 million. India conveyed her concern at the timing of the decision which would not send a message of restrai nt to Pakistan at a time when tensions between India and Pakistan were. high and pointed out that the Australian decision was contrary to their announced foreig n policy objective of reducing tension in the region. To emphasize her concern, India limited bilateral exchanges. Foreign Minister Evans came to India in Augu st in an attempt to assure the Government of India that the contract would be reviewed in the event of hostilities breaking out or becoming imminent. He also implied that the actual delivery would not take place till the end of 1990 or e arly 1991. Despite these assurances, shipments got underway in October. The official spokesman issued a strongly worded statement conveying India's concern . The traditionally friendly relations between India and New Zealand were maintained.

Developments in Fiji continued to cause concern. On 23 May 1990, the "interim Government" of Fiji asked India to close her Mission in Suva because o f allegedly "unfriendly and unwarranted acts." In accordance with international practice, India closed her Mission the next day and made arrangements to repatriate the India-based staff. Following the closure of the Mission in Suva, India's Missions in Canberra, Wellington and Sydney were authorised to maintain
contact with the Indian community in Fiji, as well as those who have migrated t o New Zealand and Australia since the two military coups. In August 1990, the illegal regime in Fiji promulgated a new Constitution subverting the 1970 Constitution which came into force at the time of independ- ence. The National Federation Party (NFP) and Fiji Labour Party (FLP) Coalition, which won the last free and fair elections in Fiji, condemned the ne w Constitution as racist, feudal and undemocratic. India strongly condemned the promulgation of the new Constitution. India continues to extend moral support to all democratic forces committed to maintain racial equality and social harmony in Fiji. A high level delegation of coalition leaders visited India in September 1990 and met the then External Aff airs Minister and other Ministers. The delegation participated in seminars and meeti ngs with intellectuals and academics, and also visited Patna and Lucknow. Following the abduction and torture of a senior academic of Indian origin by the Fijian Police in October, India issued a strong statement condemning the autocratic suppression of legitimate democratic dissent in Fiji. The ban on trade, economic and technical cooperation with Fiji continued. However, India has decided to continue to provide scholarships to Fijian students of Indian origin, and to increase the number of these scholarships. The cases would be processed through the Missions in Australia and New Zealand.

India has been lobbying with concerned Commonwealth countries against the present regime in Fiji, and has also taken up the issue in international fo ra including the United Nations General Assembly, Human Rights Sub Commission for Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, the Human Rights Commission and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). India also supported the efforts of the NFP-FLP Coalition to present its case at the South Pacific Forum Summit meeting in August 1990. The President of Nauru, Mr Bernard Dowiyogo, visited India between December 1990 and January 1991 to discuss their investment in the Paradeep
Phosphates Ltd plant in Orissa. Indo-Nauru Friendship Association, established in 1990, released a souvenir commemorating the President's visit. The High Commissioner of Papua New Guinea to India, resident in Malaysia, presented his credentials on 22 January 1991.
East Asia
DURING the year under review, there was further improvement in the dia- logue between India and China on matters of mutual interest. India's policy towards China, which aims at seeking a peaceful resolution of outstanding issue s in a fair and reasonable manner, was an important focus of Government's concerns. The factors of continuity and consensus of approach within the country to India's China policy were stressed in the political level dialogue, particularl y during the visits of the Deputy Prime Minister to China in May 1990 and the Chinese Foreign Minister, Mr Qian Qichen to India in March 1990. India's commitment to further consolidating and improving the atmosphere of under- standing established following the Prime Ministerial visit to China in December 1988, was emphasized. The high level political dialogue gathered further momentum with the visit of the then External Affairs Minister, Shri Vidya Chara n Shukla to China in February 1991.

The Chinese Premier, Mr Li Peng in a message of felicitation addressed to Shr i Chandra Shekhar upon his assumption of the office of Prime Minister in November 1990, expressed the hope that bilateral relations between the two countries wil l be continuously improved and developed on the basis of Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Shri Chandra Shekhar reciprocated these sentiments and underlined the Government of India's desire to provide greater momentum to the process of dialogue and understanding initiated between the two countries in recent times.

The dialogue and interaction with China was marked by cordiality and frankness. Efforts were made to intensify bilateral ties in various fields to
strengthen cooperation on multilateral issues of concern to India and China as two large developing countries representing two fifths of the world's population, a nd also to engage in a candid and comprehensive discussion on issues affecting the region. Both India and China resolved to cooperate in seeking a peaceful and early settlement of the conflict in the Gulf.

The fortieth anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and the People's Republic of China was observed in April 1990. Messages of greetings were exchanged between the two countries at the level of the President, the Prime Minister and the then External Affairs Minister. Art exhibitions and cultural troupes were also exchanged in commemoration of the event. The visit of the Chinese Foreign Minister, Mr Qian Qichen in March 1990 provided both sides with the opportunity to have a detailed exchange of views o n matters of bilateral, regional and international concern. Discussions held duri ng the visit vielded a better understanding of the perceptions of each country. Discussions during the visit of the then External Affairs Minister to China f rom 1 to Feb 06, 1991 took place in a positive and friendly atmosphere. This Was evident during the discussions held with the Chinese Foreign Minister, and duri ng meetings with Premier Li Peng and Vice Premier Wu Xueqian. There was an exchange of views on a wide range of bilateral, regional and international issu es.

The Chinese side assessed relations with India as having improved "markedly." Significant outcomes of this visit were the decision to restore Consulates Gene ral of the two countries in Shanghai and Bombay and to resume border trade. The Deputy Prime Minister and Agriculture Minister, Shri Devi Lal visited China in April. During his visit, Shri Devi Lal met the then Acting Premier, Mr Yao Yilin, and held intensive discussions on agricultural cooperation with the then Chinese Minister for Agriculture, Mr He Kang. India's continued commitment to seeking a negotiated settlement of the boundary question in consonance with national interests and national sentiments was conveyed to the Chinese Govern- ment. Key areas for future agricultural cooperation such as hybrid rice cultivation, integrated fish-paddy culture, plasticulture, cotton-seed producti on, dryland farming, dairy development. and exchange of various germplasms were
identified. A blueprint for such cooperation was then drawn up during the visit of the Chinese Vice Minister for Agriculture, Mr Wang Zhenliang to India in Octobe r. The second meeting of the Joint Working Group on the boundary question, followed by consultations at the Foreign Office level, took place in New. Delhi in end August 1990. The Chinese delegation was led by Vice Foreign Minister, Mr Qi Huaiyuan. The Indian delegation was led by the Foreign Secretary, Shri Muchkund Dubey. Discussions covered the principles and parameters which should govern an overall and comprehensive settlement of the boundary question. The meeting resulted in a clearer perception of views held by each side in rega rd to the approach to a negotiated settlement. The need for a practical and realis tic approach was stressed by the Indian side. Both sides expressed the hope that by working in a sincere and forward looking manner, it would be possible to arrive at a negotiated solution to the boundary question. During the visit of the then External Affairs Minister to China, it was resolved that next meeting of the jo int Working Group would take place not later than June 1991.

The second meeting of the Joint Working Group also resulted in agreement on a mechanism for maintaining peace and tranquillity in the border areas. This mechanism envisages the holding of periodic meetings between the border personnel of the two sides at specified locations in the eastern and western se ctors of the border. The first set of such meetings took place in November 1990. The mechanism is expected to strengthen confidence-building between border person- nel of the two sides.

High level visits during the year included the visit of Mr Li Guixian, Govern or of the People's Bank of China, to India in April for the ADB Board of Governors meeting, and the visit of Mr Li Xue, Vice Chairman of the State Environment Commission of China, to attend the meeting of Select Developing Countries on Environment and Development. Mr Li Xue's visit enabled the two sides to exchange views and discuss cooperation on the agenda of the London meeting on amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The Chinese Minister for Water Resources, Mr Yang Zhenhuai visited India in December 1990. A delegation of provincial leaders and Vice Governors sponsored by the Chinese State Council's Leading Group on Economic Development of Poor Areas also visited the country. The visit of Mr Deng Pufang, Chairman of the China Welfare Fund for the Handicapped between November and December, promoted bilateral cooperation in the field of welfare of the handicapped in India and China. Shri Soli Sorabj ee, the then Attorney General visited China in May. The Secretaries in the
Departments of Electronics, Petroleum and Coal, and Culture, also paid visits t o China. During the visit of Secretary (Culture), a new Cultural Exchange Programme for 1991 to 1993 was finalised, providing also for an expansion in th e number of scholarships offered to students of both countries. Cordial and friendly relations between India and Japan which received a new impetus in the mid-80s were further intensified during the year under review. Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu visited India between April and May 1990. Significantly, he chose India to begin his tour of South Asian nations and util ised the opportunity in his address to both the Houses of Parliament to expound the "New International Cooperation Initiative." President R Venkataraman represented India at the formal Enthronement Ceremony of Emperor Akihito in November 1990.

Bilateral interaction between the two countries continued in all spheres including the political, economic, scientific, technological and cultural field s. The then Industry Minister, Shri Ajit Singh and the then Commerce and Tourism Minister, Shri Arun Nehru visited Japan to explore the possibility of greater Japanese investment in India as also to explain India's industrial policy and t ourist and commercial potential respectively. They utilised the opportunity to interac t with a broad spectrum of Japanese community, particularly the business commun- ity in addition to meeting Ministerial counterparts.

Other areas where bilateral contacts and linkages were maintained are:

(i) The Indo-Japan Foreign Office Bilateral Consultative Talks in New Delhi in February 1991 afforded both sides an opportunity for productive and frank exchange of views on issues ranging from the current international situation, including the Gulf war, developments in Europe, East-West relations, regional matters particularly relations with India's neighbours, and most important, the bilateral relations;

(ii) The 19th meeting of the India-Japan joint Study Committee deliberated on several aspects of relationship and suggested the possibility of establishing an industrial model town in India with Japanese participa- tion;

(iii) The 8th official level trade talks focussing on both bilateral and multilateral issues particularly with reference to Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations; and

(iv) Two meetings of the Indo-Japan Working Group on Railways for furthering cooperation with Japan and for receiving technical assistance for the upgradation and improvement of India's railway system. India participated in several exhibitions/conferences held in Japan, in field s as diverse as Science and Technology and Horticulture, the most significant being:

(a) A Software India-90 Conference with participation by both Indian Government and leading Indian Software firms; and

(b) Successful participation at the six-month long Osaka Garden and Greenery Exposition which drew large crowds and won several awards. Japan continued to remain India's largest aid donor and pledged Yen 104,826 million as Official Development Assistance to India for fiscal year 1990 crossi ng for the first time the Yen 100 billion mark, at the Aid India Consortium meeting in Paris in June. On 23 January 1991 seven loan agreements totalling Yen 129.205 billion were signed in Tokyo, of which six were covered under ODA pledge for 1990 while the seventh for Yen 24.379 billion was for the Power System Improvement and Small Hydro Electric Project which formed part of the 1989 fiscal year ODA package.

Friendly relations with the Republic of Korea continued. A Special Envoy of President Roh Tae Woo, Ambassador Roh Jae Won, visited India with a special message to the Prime Minister and to explain his country's Nord-Politick. This visit was preceded by ROK Foreign Minister Choi Ho Joong's visit to India in March 1990. The visit envisaged greater growth in bilateral trade, economic relations and scientific and technological exchanges. The traditional Parliamentary contacts with the Republic of Korea continued with the visit of an 11 member Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of t he National Assembly, Mr Park Jyun Kyu to India from 6 to 11 January 1991 at the invitation of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha. The South Korean Parliamentarians met the Vice President and the Prime Minister. They also had fruitful exchanges with their Indian counterparts.
There was close interaction at both the official and non-official levels. In the economic and commercial fields, bilateral relations received a boost with the v isit of a 25 member South Korean delegation led by the Chairman of the Indo-Korean Economic Cooperation Committee for the 8th joint Conference in New Delhi. The Conference highlighted the fact that there was ample scope for intensifying future areas of cooperation and collaboration. With 1989 bilateral trade betwee n India and the Republic of Korea at US $ 930 million--comprising less than 1 per cent of the ROK's total trade turnover, there was room for both India and the Republic of Korea to improve the volume of trade both ways from areas as divers e as consumer goods, electronics, automobiles and footwear to other areas such as computer software, oil drilling and deep sea fishing.

With the far-reaching economic and political changes and re-alignments having taken place in the erstwhile Communist nations of Europe, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea turned increasingly to traditionally friendly countr ies like India which is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement. DPRK Vice Foreign Minister Cho Gyu 11 visited India for discussions on bilateral matters and matters of international and mutual interests. Contacts at other levels were maintained and bilateral relations remained cordial and steady. Former Presiden t Giani Zail Singh visited Pyongyang as a Guest of the Workers Party of Korea as also several Parliamentarians to attend the 45th anniversary of the founding of the Party. Contacts in the scientific, technological and cultural fields were also maintained.

India's age old and friendly relations with the Mongolian People's Republic were reaffirmed with modern linkages. Mongolia introduced major political changes and far-reaching economic reforms in 1990 when she opted for democracy. In view of the close relations with Mongolia, India sent an Observer to the first multi-party elections held in July 1990. Interaction and contacts at all levels and in the fields of science and technology, economic and commerce, and culture were intensified. Particularly significant was the visit of Dr J Batsuuri, Minister for National Development o f Mongolia who had detailed and extensive exchanges with, Ministerial counterpart s, academics and scientists to explore further areas of cooperation between the tw o countries. Other distinguished visitors included the Ministers of Law and Healt h, the former came to study the structure and functioning of India's legislature a nd parliamentary processes.

West Asia And North Africa

DURING the year under review, India's relations with the countries of the West Asia and North Africa region saw a further consolidation and diversifica- tion in all the important areas including political, economic and cultural. The Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip continued through the third year. President Yasser Arafat visited In dia in March 1990 to receive the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Under- standing. He briefed the Indian leaders on the situation prevailing in the occupied territories and various initiatives taken by him to promote positive climate for resumption. of the West Asian peace process. India assured him of her firm and unequivocal support for the Palestinian cause. During the visit, degree of Doctor of Science was also conferred on President Arafat by Jamia Mil ia Islamia. Three Special Envoys of Presided Arafat, Dr Suleman Daodi, Dr Salman Hirfi and Mr Jamal Sourani also visited India in June and October 1990 and Janu ary- February 1991 respectively. India espoused the Palestinian cause in all bilater al and multilateral fora. during the year and emphasized that a just and lasting solution to the Palestinian problem was possible only through the early conveni ng of an international peace conference under the UN auspices with the participati on of all the parties to the Arab-Israeli dispute including the Palestine Liberati on Organization as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. T he then Minister for External Affairs, Shri I K Gujral participated in the meeting of the NAM Committee of Nine on Palestine in Tunis in March 1990.

Close contacts and consultations were maintained with Egypt during this period. Visits from India to Egypt included that of the Deputy Chairperson of Rajya Sabha, Dr Najma Heptullah in January, of the then Minister for Energy and
Civil Aviation, Shri Arif Mohammed Khan as Special Envoy of the former Prime Minister in March 1990, and of the then Minister for Railways and Kashmir Affai rs, Shri George Fernandes in July 1990. From Egypt Mr Abdel Hamid Shafi, Special Envoy of the President of Egypt visited India in September 1990 and the Egyptia n Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Dr Boutros Ghali in November 1990. There were exchanges of other official and non-official delegations also. Relations with Syria developed further. Shri Muchkund Dubey as Secretary (ER) visited Damascus between March and April 1990 for Secretary leve l bilateral talks. S/Shri Inderjit and Charanjit Yadav, MPs visited Syria in June and November 1990 respectively. A protocol on cooperation in information and broadcasting was signed in Damascus in early March 1990, during the visit of a delegation from the Information and Broadcasting Ministry. The Chief of the Syrian Air Force, Major General Ali Malahifiji visited India in April 1990. Vis its of other official and non-official delegations also took place.

India's relations with Jordan witnessed further intensification during the ye ar. A Parliamentary delegation led by Shri Rabi Ray, Speaker of the Lok Sabha visit ed Jordan in March 1990. The Deputy Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha, Dr Najma Heptullah and the then Minister for Energy and Civil Aviation, Shri Arif Mohamm ed Khan visited Jordan in July and August 1990 respectively as Special Envoys of former Prime Minister. Shri I K Gujral, the then Minister for External Affairs visited Jordan in August 1990 and discussed issues which arose in the wake of t he Iraqi attack and occupation of Kuwait including the evacuation of Indians from Iraq and Kuwait which was mainly through Jordan. The then Minister for Surface Transport, Shri K P Unnikrishnan visited Jordan in September 1990 to supervise the evacuation arrangements. The Government of Jordan extended full cooperation and assistance and provided all required facilities without which India's efforts to evacuate such a large number of people in such a short time would have been severely handicapped. Apart from ad hoc relief supplies, the Government of India donated Rs 1 crore worth of medicines and foodstuffs for us e in the refugee camps in Jordan. A medical team was also sent to assist the Jordanian Government in providing medical assistance. From Jordan Mr Nabil Abdul Huda, Minister of Transport visited India in July 1990 for Indo-Jordanian Civil Aviation talks. Visits of other official level delegations were also exch anged.

Indo-Iranian relations are a factor of stability and peace in this region. During the year, bilateral cooperation continued to assume greater significance
against the back drop of the tensions and the potentials of conflict which had appeared in the region and in the rapidly changing international environment. Iran was currently addressing itself to the gigantic task of national reconst ruc- tion. India can be a cooperative partner in this Iranian endeavour. Foreign Ministers of both the countries had a fruitful exchange of views in April and September 1990 encompassing all issues of bilateral relations. Politi cal level exchanges continued and in October 1990, Mr Rajaei Khorasani, Chairman, Foreign Relations Committee of the Iranian Majlis visited India on 6 and , 199 10107 ti, . s Committee of the Iranian Majlis visited India on 6 and @@1991 Foreign Secretary visited Tehran for discussions with the Iranian Government. Both sides reiterated their firm commitment to enhance bilateral cooperation. Several proposals, aimed at intensifying exchanges in the political, economic a nd cultural spheres, were under consideration. The then External Affairs Minister visited Tehran from 25 to 26 January 1991 to pursue NAM initiative on Gulf cris is. Both sides agreed to continue their efforts for maintaining peace in the region and further development of bilateral relations. Subsequently, Deputy Minister for External Affairs and finance also visited Tehran from 22 to 26 February 1991 as part of NAM Foreign Ministers' Peace Mission.

India's traditionally friendly relations with the Lebanon and with Sudan and Djibouti in the horn of Africa were maintained. India also maintained close consultation and cooperation with the countries o f the Arab Maghreb. Shri Arif Mohammed Khan, the then Minister for Civil Aviation and Energy visited Algeria as Special Envoy of former Prime Minister i n March 1990. Mr S T Debagha, a Special Envoy of the President of Algeria visited India in January 1991 and delivered a message on the Gulf crisis to the Prime Minister. Deputy Minister for External Affairs, Shri Digvijay Singh also paid a visit to Algeria in January 1991 to discuss the Gulf crisis with the Algerian leaders . There were exchanges of other official and nonofficial delegations. Bilateral contacts with Tunisia were strengthened in political as well as economic fields . The then External Affairs Minister visited Tunis in March 1990 and held discuss ions with the Tunisian Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and other leaders. The then Minister for Home Affairs, Shri Mufti Mohammed Sayeed visited Tunis as Special Envoy of former Prime Minister in June 1990. Tunisian Minister of
National Economy, Mr Moncef Belaid visited India in February 1990 to attend the Indo-Tunisian joint Economic Committee meeting, held in New Delhi. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Tunisia Mr Habib Boulares visited India in Decem ber 1990 and held wide ranging discussions with the Indian leaders. A number of official and, business delegations exchanged visits during the year. The then Minister for Home Affairs, visited Morocco in June 1990 as Special Envoy of former Prime Minister. Indo-Morocco trade and economic relations also developed smoothly. India's relations with the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic remained friendly.

The Minister of Scientific Research of Libya, Mr Nouri Al Fittouri Al-Madani visited India in September 1990 to discuss ways to resolve the problem of outstanding payments to Indian companies and other issues hampering the growth of smooth bilateral relations. Earlier Dr Mohammed Ahmed Sharif visited India i n July as Special Envoy of Colonel Qathafi. Indian Embassy personnel in Mogadishu (Somalia) had to be evacuated in January 1991 due to outbreak of heavy fighting in the city. Almost all Indian citizens there also had to leave. They are expected to return as soon as the conditions allow.

India welcomed the merger of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) and the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) into a unified State called the "Republic of Yemen" which was achieved in a peaceful and democratic manner on 22 May 1990. India's relations with the countries in the Gulf region were further streng- thened by exchange of several visits and joint Commission meetings.

The Gulf Crisis
Iraq's invasion, military occupation and annexation of Kuwait in August 1990 was a matter of great concern for India. India reiterated in unambiguous terms its well known position against the use or threat of use of force to settle differences in inter-state relations and called for unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait so that the independence and sovereignty of Kuwait is
restored. India fully subscribed to and faithfully abided by all the resolution s of the UN Security Council in this regard, despite the cost to her economy resulti ng from the compliance with Security Council Resolution 661 imposing economic sanctions against Iraq. India which has for ages maintained close and cordial relations with both Kuwait and Iraq, exerted herself to the utmost to seek a non-military resolutio n to the Gulf crisis. The then External Affairs Minister visited Moscow, Washing- ton, Amman and Baghdad in August 1990. From Baghdad he went to Kuwait to meet with the Indian community there, estimated at 172,000. In September 1990, he visited Belgrade, Rome and The Hague for further consultations on the Gulf crisis.

A number of special envoys were sent and received in the context of search for a peaceful resolution to the Gulf crisis. Dr Najma Heptullah, Deputy Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha, visited Saudi Arabia in December 1990 as a Spec ial Envoy of Prime Minister where she met the Crown Prince. Subsequently she went to Taif and met the Crown Prince of Kuwait. There were two Special Envoys from Kuwait, Dr Rasheed Al-Ameeri (September 1990) and Dr Abdul Rehman Abdullah Al-Awadhi, Minister of State for Cabinet Affairs (February 1991). Dr Mohammed Sa'eed Al-Sahhaf, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs of Iraq visited India a s Special Envoy of President of Iraq in January 1991. Visits were also paid to India by M r Mohsin Al-Hamdani, Minister of State for Environment as a Special Envoy of Prim e Minister of Yemen, Mr ST Debagha, as Special Envoy of President of Algeria (January 1991), Mr jamal Sourani as Personal Envoy of President Yasser Arafat (January-February 1991) and Mr Mohamed Ibrahim Massoud, Minister of State as Special Envoy of King Fahd of Saudi Arabia in February 1991.

Even when the prospects for a peaceful resolution of the crisis appeared rather bleak, as the deadline set for Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait by UN Secur ity Council Resolution 678 approached, Prime Minister addressed a personal com- munication to the Presidents of the United States and the Soviet Union urging them to give peace one more chance. A similar communication was addressed to the President of Yugoslavia, Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Following the outbreak of hostilities on 17 January 1991, Prime Minister issued a statement suggesting a three point plan for restoration of peace. it envisaged:

(i) Appeal to President Saddam Hussein to announce the commencement
of immediate withdrawal by Iraq from Kuwait in keeping with the Security Council resolutions;

(ii) to be followed by a cessation of hostilities; and

(iii) resumption of efforts to find peaceful solution to the conflict, the modalities of which could be worked out by the Security Council. India has always believed that the Non-Aligned Movement has a significant contribution to make in resolving international crises such as the Gulf crisis. When the then External Affairs Minister visited Belgrade in September 1990, consultations took place between India, Algeria and Yugoslavia. Unfortunately, the efforts of the Non-Aligned Movement to seek a nonmilitary resolution of the crisis did not bear fruit. Even after the outbreak of hostilities, India persis ted in its efforts to mobilise the Non-Aligned Movement in seeking a peaceful resolution t o the crisis. In that context, the then External Affairs Minister visited Belgrad e and Tehran in January 1991. India took part in a 16-nation Non-Aligned Movement meeting in Belgrade (11 to 13 February 1991) held at the level of Foreign Ministers. As a follow up of that meeting, a small group of NAM Foreign Ministers were to visit Baghdad, Washington, Brussels, Riyadh and Taif.

The Deputy Minister for External Affairs, Shri Digvijay Singh, visited Algeri a, France, Zimbabwe and the UK between 23 January and 1 February for consulta- tions in the context of the Gulf crisis. As the Gulf war proceeded and it became clear that the aerial bombing was not confined to military targets, in a statement issued on 8 February 1991, Ind ia urged that internationally accepted methods of warfare be scrupulously adhered to and that every possible precaution should be taken to protect the civilian population against the devastation and risks of the military operations. The statement pointed out that even those countries which were taking part in the military operations had stated that the objective was to liberate Kuwait and no t to subdue Iraq or to dismantle its technological and physical infrastructure or to cripple its social and economic life. India also urged the Security Council to meet urgently to review the situation and to keep meeting on a regular basis fo r periodic review.

India was also concerned over the possible use of nuclear and chemical weapons in the Gulf war and urged all concerned to eschew the use of such weapons.
There were 172,000 Indian nationals in Kuwait and another 9000 in Iraq when Iraq invaded Kuwait. Within a space of two months and a half, over 150,000 Indian nationals were evacuated through air, land and sea from Kuwait and Iraq. The bulk of them were airlifted from Amman where they reached through the land route from Kuwait and Baghdad. On receiving reports of shortages of food in Kuwait and Iraq, India sent 9775 tonnes of essential food supplies and medicines with the approval of the UN Sanctions Committee through Indian ship M.V. Vishva Siddhi, which reached the Iraqi port of Um Qasr on 26 September 1990. Four thousand seven hundred seventy three tonnes of these food items were distributed among Indian nationals and others and the rest were off-loaded and stored in Iraq and Kuwait on the advice of the UN Sanctions Committee for distribution among nationals of other countries. The Gulf crisis has placed additional burden on India's economy, in terms of lost export opportunities, sudden stop in remittances, cost of repatriation and rehabilitation, higher prices of oil and the need to find alternative sources t o offset interruption in supplies from Iraq and Kuwait. India will have an additional foreign exchange burden during the year itself to the tune of US $ 4 billion di rectly due to these developments.

In the wake of the Gulf crisis, a Special Coordination Unit (SCU) was set up in the Ministry of External Affairs on 13 August 1990, to coordinate work relating to the welfare and repatriation of thousands of Indian nationals stranded in Kuwai t, to answer queries of the general public regarding the ongoing developments on a da y to day basis in Kuwait and, to the extent possible, to ascertain welfare of individuals and relatives of those making the enquiries. The SCU maintained constant contact with Indian Mission in Kuwait through radio link. Arrangements were also made for despatch of letters of the relatives to individuals in Kuwai t/ Baghdad through couriers/diplomatic bags and subsequent distribution of these letters through the Indian associations there. with effect from 25 August 1990. The same procedure was followed for the replies received from the individuals in Kuwait/Baghdad.

Africa (South Of The Sahara)
DURING the year under review, events in sub-Saharan Africa moved rapidly but generally in a positive direction. Following Dr Nelson Mandela's release, the South African Government dismantled certain aspects of the dis- criminatory system and entered into a welcome dialogue with the African Nationa l Congress. However, the basic features of the apartheid system remain in place. The resolution of civil strife in Angola and Mozambique through dialogue, with the active encouragement of the USA and the USSR, advanced, with talks in Europ e being held periodically, despite occasional setbacks.

Elsewhere in Africa, there was the delayed impact of democratisation in East Europe with reactions of single party systems in Africa varying from country to country but with growing certitude that the continent was in transition towards different degrees of political pluralism. This trend coincides with the liberat ion of Namibia and impending changes in South Africa.

As the continent entered into a more advanced political phase, the economics of most of the countries came under greater pressure from paucity of foreign exchange, growing imbalances of payments, depressed prices. of principal com- modities and greater indebtedness. There was a growing realisation, in several African countries, that India was a source of low cost, appropriate technology. Inhibiting factors against greater Indian cooperation at this crucial stage wer e the continuing nonpayment of blocked Indian dues by a number of African countries as well as India's own foreign exchange crunch. Most African countrie s stiff continued to press for Indian credit and favourable terms of trade. Howev er, a number of significant break throughs were made by Indian public and private sector companies, while the provision of training in diverse fields continued a pace.
The year 1990 was also significant in that a number of joint Commission meetings took place, which had been postponed for many years. These included the joint Commissions between India and Zambia, Zimbabwe and Kenya. India's relations with the countries of sub-Saharan Africa continued to impro ve further and diversify during the year. With the process of decolonisation virtually complete, emphasis in India's relations with Africa is shifting to ec onomic and technical cooperation. Special attempts were made to tide over the difficulties created by the problem of blocked funds.

India's relations with the countries of Southern Africa and the liberation movements fighting for a unitary, non-racist and democratic South Africa, remai ned very close. Following the former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh's visit to Namibia, as the head of a high level multi-party delegation on the occasion of the independence of that country on Mar 19, 1990, India announced a Rs 20 crore assistance package to the newly independent nation. Details were discussed with a visiting Namibian delegation headed by their Minister of Mines and Energy, Mr Andimba Toivo Ya Toivo, and would consist of Rs 10 crore government to government credit, Rs 5 crore under the AFRICA Fund and the remaining by way of technical assistance under the ITEC and similar programmes. Namibia closed down its New Delhi SWAPO, office at the end of November 1990 wit the promise that a High Commission will be opened early in 1991.

In South Africa the events moved rapidly following the lifting of ban on the African National Congress, Pan Africanist Congress and other anti-apartheid org ani- zations and the release of Dr Mandela. Mr Mewa Ramgobin, Vice President of the Natal Indian Congress and a Principal Trustee of the Phoenix Settlement Trust o f Mahatma Gandhi was in India from 29 April to 4 May 1990 to discuss the rehabilitation of the settlement to build it as a permanent symbol of Gandhian contribution to South African moral and political life.

Dr Mandela visited India from 15 to 19 October 1990. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, given unprecedented public welcome at New Delhi and Calcutta, honoured with a Doctorate by the Banaras Hindu University and was presented with US $ 5 million as cash contribution by India to the ANC for the rehabilita tion of political exiles.
Dr Mandela delivered the Nehru Memorial Lecture. India also announced a Rs 2 crore technical assistance package for the people of South Africa. The former Prime Minister presented a cheque of US $ 800,000 on behalf of the AFRICA Fund. It was a most successful visit which enabled India to pay tributes to a living symbol of the struggle against apartheid who expressed his gratitud e to the Government and people of India for their historic contributions to the caus e of the people of South Africa. The Indian joint Commissions with Zambia and Zimbabwe met within a span of 3 weeks from 24 to 29 October and from 10 to 12 October respectively. While the Zambian delegation was led by the Zambian Minister of Commerce and Industry, Mr R Chenge, the Zimbabwean was headed by their Minister of Finance, Economic Planning and Development, Dr T Masaya. The then Minister for External Affairs headed the Indian teams at both the meetings. Agreed Minutes were signed after both the meetings, enhancing the scope of bilateral cooperation and creating greater understanding between India and the two countries. Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for the year 1989 is to be awarded to President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe.

Relations with Angola continued to receive priority with a fruitful exchange of technical delegations. India followed with sympathy and understanding steps taken by the Angolan Government to introduce a multi-party system and a mixed economy, while at the same time, defending its national sovereignty. The then External Affairs Minister, Shri I K Gujral, chaired a meeting of the Heads of Mission in sub-Saharan countries in Nairobi from 9 to 11 July 1990 at which a high level review was conducted of India's relations with sub-Saharan Africa and ways and means to further enhance cooperation.

Following the Heads of Mission meeting in Nairobi, the then External Affairs Minister commenced a two day visit to Kenya on 13 July 1990. He called on President Arap T Moi and had extensive discussions with his counterpart. Shri Gujral also visited the Pan African Mills Ltd, a show piece joint venture proje ct, run by an Indian private company, producing newsprint. India continued to be host to a considerable number of Kenyan students. Steps are being taken to arrange equivalence for admissions to Indian Universities, as Kenya changes ove r to a new educational system.
With growing domestic stability in Uganda, Indo-Ugandan relations became more friendly and warm. A Ugandan Constitution Commission visited India from 21 May to 1 June 1990 to study the Indian Parliamentary procedures and Constitutional practices. The then Minister of State for External Affairs visit ed Uganda from 1 to 3 July as a Special Emissary of the former Prime Minister. He was received warmly by President Museveni and also had useful bilateral exchanges with a number of Ugandan Ministers. It was announced during this visit that Uganda would be sending a delegation, headed by its Finance Minister , to discuss rescheduling of Indian blocked funds in Uganda. Some progress in this regard was noticed in the latter part of the year.

Dr Bizimungu Casimir, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Coopera- tion of Rwanda visited India from 11 to 13 June. During the visit, Technical an d Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreements were signed. The Cultural Exchange Programme for 1990 to 1992 and the Agreed Minutes of the official level talks were also signed. The Minister called on the President, the former Prime Minister, and the then Ministers for Commerce and Industry. With the assistance of France and Belgium, India took precautionary steps to evacuate th e Indian community in Kigali, when civil conflict erupted in Rwanda in October 1990. However, the contingency did not arise.

Two important events during the year were the visit by Shri Arun Nehru, the then Minister for Commerce, to Senegal and Nigeria on 2 April and 9 and 10 Apri l respectively, and the visit of the then Minister of State for External Affairs to Benin, Cameroon and Guinea on 18 and 19, 21 and 22, and 24 May respectively. While in Senegal, Shri Arun Nehru held wide ranging discussions with the Ministers of Finance, International Cooperation, Culture and Commerce. He also announced that India was willing to buy more from Senegal provided the Senegalese also responded positively to the Indian request for balancing of tra de, which was largely in favour of Senegal. In Nigeria he handed over a letter from the former Prime Minister addressed to General Babangida, Vice President of Nigeria.

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Hari Kishore Singh was well received during his tour. In Benin, he called on the President and the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister mentioned the ushering in of democracy in Benin
and referred to India as a 'role model'. In Guinea, Shri Singh met the Minister s incharge of International Cooperation, Commerce, Agriculture etc and handed over the former Prime Minister's message to President Lansana Conte. The two countries agreed that there was need for enhancing commercial and economic contacts particularly in the field of transportation. In Cameroon, he called on President Paul Biya and discussed with him the ways of enhancing bilateral cooperation as well as regional and international issues. President Biya was al so invited to visit India, which he accepted, adding that he would do so accompani ed by a high level delegation of businessmen. The proposed State visit of President Diouf of Senegal in November, was called off because of political changes in India. The Ministry will take steps to revive the Visit at Mutually convenient dates.

The civil war in Liberia worsened in July and led to a mass exodus of people of Indian origin, who at the start of the trouble numbered nearly 10,000. However, about 600 were trapped in the city between the warring forces of Prince Johnson, Taylor and the entrenched President Samuel Doe. A Shipping Corporation of India vessel was diverted to the waters outside Monrovia. A special consular team was rushed to neighbouring Sierra Leone and the assistanc e of the USA sought to evacuate the trapped Indians. Between 14 and 29 August, 449 persons were lifted by US helicopters to Sierra Leone from where onward bookings were arranged by the Indian team. By the end of the year as a truce seemed possible in Liberia, the only Indians left were those remaining behind o f their own volition and numbering about 50.

Relations between India and the Indian Ocean island countries which are special due to the commonality of interests in the Indian Ocean area, registere d further improvement. Mr A Parsuraman, Mauritian Minister of Education, visited India from 6 to 11 June 1990 to discuss the modalities of the Ramayana Conference and the Third World Telugu Conference. Prior to this, the special relationship was under- scored by India responding positively to an urgent request from Mauritius on 11 April for power generation workers and engineers from India to temporarily run the power generators in Mauritius, following a protracted strike by Mauritian workers.

The then Minister of State for External Affairs visited Mauritius from 27 to 30 June and had discussions with the Mauritian leaders on bilateral and regional issues. Preparations are underway for the next meeting of the joint Commission to be held in Mauritius during the first half of 1991. President Rene of Seychelles visited India from 24 to 26 September and sought further economic assistance. A meeting of the Indo-Seychelles Joint Commission was also held. In the Agreed Minutes, steps were specified for further cooperation between the two countries. India also agreed to extend more training slots to Seychelles. The then Ministers for Commerce and Industry and the then Minister of State for Defence called on the President. President Rene called on the President and also had bilateral discussions with the former Prime Minister.

Madagascar became a new focus of attention, to develop bilateral relations. The then Minister of State for External Affairs visited Madagascar from 24 to 2 7 June and attended the 30th Anniversary of her independence and the 15th Anniversary of the Revolution of Madagascar. He called on, President Ratsiraka, the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister of Madagascar. He had discussions with the President on bilateral and regional issues. Later during the year a success ful Buyer-Seller meet was organized in Madagascar from 6 to 9 August which opened up new opportunities for Indian exporters.

The Action For Resisting Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid (AFRICA) Fund was constituted by the 8th Summit of the Heads of State/Government of the Movement of Non-Aligned countries in Harare in September 1986 and its mandate was renewed by the 9th Summit of the NAM in Belgrade in 1989. It was the political expression of the Movement's support and assistance to the Frontline African States to enforce sanctions against South Africa and to cope with any retaliatory economic actions by the racist regime. The Fund was set up to strengthen the economic and financial capability of the Frontline States to fig ht the Apartheid regime of Pretoria and to support the liberation movements in South Africa and Namibia in their unrelenting struggle against racist and colonialist oppression. It received considerable support not only from the members of the Non-Aligned Movement but also from non-member countries and. international organizations like United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Chil- dren's Fund, International Fund for Agricultural Developments (IFAD) and the Commonwealth Secretariat.
In terms of monetary support, the Fund has received pledges in cash and kind including project assistances equivalent to US $ 440 million from 58 countries an over the world. Contributions to the Fund were also received from individuals a s well as organizations in India. A society called AFRICA (Public Contributions: India) Fund was set up to manage these contributions in Indian rupees. The society has received so far contributions totalling Rs 2.56 crores. A project f or supplying consumer durables of urgent need to the ANC will be financed partly from the contributions by the Indian public.

At the commencement of the Fund, India had announced a contribution of Rs. 50 crores. Since this announcement in January 1987, a large number of proje cts have been financed from this contribution in the Frontline countries. Recent such projects include supply of agricultural implements to Botswana, TATA vehicles to Zimbabwe, software for Mozambican Railway Protection Force and consumer durables to Mozambique, small scale industries to Botswana, supply of jeeps to the Tanzanian and the Zambian News Agencies and emergency supply of medicines to Zambia. The implementation of several other projects is underway with implementing agencies such as STC, PEC, MECON, HSCC and NSIC. Contributions from other member and non-member countries of the Non- Aligned Movement have been in the form of projects, scholarships or cash assistance. The sixth Senior Officials Meeting held in May 1990 in Lusaka decided to distribute a part of the cash assistance pledged by the donors. Accordingly, US $ 70,000 were given to each Frontline state apart from US $ 800,000 each to Namibia and the ANC and US $ 200,000 to the PAC. The film on the AFRICA Fund was revised and updated for publicity to elicit contributions t o the Fund.

India is the Chairman of the AFRICA Fund Committee. The Special Envoy of the Prime Minister for Africa (SEPM), Shri J R Hiremath, chaired the seventh Meeting of Senior Officials which took place in Windhoek, Namibia from 11 to 14 December 1990. This was a crucial meeting as it was held after a series of eventful developments in Southern Africa such as the release of Dr Nelson Mandela, the independence of Namibia, the lifting of the ban on the ANC and the PAC, and President De Klerk's announcement on the process of dismantling of apartheid. The seventh Meeting of Senior Officials of the Fund took note of the se developments but concluded that further intensification of the activities of th e Fund was necessary tiff the irreversible process for dismantling of apartheid s ets in.
Shri J R Hiremath held useful discussions with the President of Namibia and other government dignitaries during his visit to Windhoek. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed for the implementation of four Indian aided projects v iz, a Vocational Training Centre, Technical Assistance in Water Resources Manage- ment, Technical Assistance in the Education Sector and Supply of Mobile Clinics together with medicines, under the AFRICA Fund. The seventh meeting also provided the opportunity to firm up a number of projects under India's contribution to the AFRICA Fund in Mozambique, Zimbabwe etc. At present, more than 90% of the contributions pledged to the Fund have been earmarked and committed against identified projects and programmes. More than 60% of the committed fund has already been utilised and benefits have reached the recipients.
Soviet Union
INDO-Soviet relations continued to be close, friendly and cordial. The visit of the former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh to the USSR in July 1990 provided an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive review of Indo-Soviet relations and to give an impetus for their further development to mutual benefit. It was decided to extend the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation and to befittingly celebrate in 1991 the 20th anniversary of the signing of thi s important document. The joint documents signed during the visit reaffirmed the desire of both countries to further develop the multi-faceted bilateral relatio ns in various fields. Other high level exchanges during the year were the visit of th e Chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet, Mr A I Lukyanov, who led a Soviet Parliamentary delegation to India from 4 to Apr 08, 1990; the then External Aff airs Minister, Shri I K Gujral's visit to the Soviet Union in August for consultatio ns with the Soviet side on the Gulf crisis; the visits of the then Ministers for Commer ce and Energy to the Soviet Union; and the visit of the Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister, Mr Igor Rogacher for regular bilateral consultations. He conveyed Sov iet Union's firm commitment to further strengthening the multi-faceted bilateral cooperation.

While Indo-Soviet economic cooperation continued to develop well during the first half of the year, some difficulties have of late appeared in India's bilateral trade and economic relations with the Soviet Union because of the disruptions i n the Soviet economy arising out of internal difficulties in that country. Trade in 1990 is expected to fall slightly short of the target. Nevertheless, the Indo-S oviet Trade Plan for 1991 signed in November 1990 envisages an increase in trade
turnover to Rs 9411 crores. The need for modifications and innovations in economic bilateral cooperation mechanism was recognised at a working meeting of the Indo-Soviet joint Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation in Moscow in July 1990. Cooperation in the fields of banking, insurance, industrial management and other services is also envisaged. Academi- cian Marchuk, the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences, visited India to t ake part in the third session of the joint Council of the Integrated Long Term Agreement in the field of science and technology. In keeping with the tradition of helping each other in times of need, India extended urgently needed relief assistance to the USSR consisting of 1 million tonnes of wheat on loan basis, and a gift of 20,000 tonnes of rice, as well as medicines, medical supplies, processed foods and other items.

Eastern Europe
The year under review saw consolidation of the processes of democratization, political pluralism and economic liberalisation in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In spite of the domestic preoccupations of these countries, and a reorientation of their foreign policy priorities, the traditionally close bil ateral ties between India and these countries were reaffirmed and renewed.

After a gap of many years, diplomatic relations with Albania were fully restored on 27 April 1990 with the accreditation of an Indian Ambassador to Tirana. Relations between India and Bulgaria were marked by continuing warmth and friendship. The Cultural Exchange Programme for 1990 to 1992 with Bulgaria was signed in Sofia in March 1990. During the year there was an active exchange of cultural troupes. Immediate humanitarian food assistance provided by India to the stranded Bulgarian nationals in Iraq was appreciated. Chairman of Bulgarian National Assembly visited India in January 1991 and called on the Vic e President and the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

The Czechoslovak Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, Mr Jiri Dienstbier paid an official visit to India from 30 October to 2 November 1990. This was the first high level exchange with the new leadership in Czechos-
lovakia, which constituted an important step in strengthening cooperative and friendly relations between India and Czechoslovakia. An Agreement, signed in Prague on 17 January 1991, extended the bilateral Rupee Trade and Payments arrangements for a period of two years, ie, upto December 1992. A Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shri Rabi Ray visited Hungary in June 1990, during the very first session of the newly electe d multi-party Parliament. These and other contacts at the political level testifi ed to the desire of both countries to further nurture the bonds of traditional friend ship between the two countries. Trade prospects continued to be good, while new opportunities and areas for economic cooperation were identified.

The steady momentum of cooperative interaction between India and Poland was maintained. India's friendly relations received a fresh impetus with the vi sit of a Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shri Rabi Ra y, to Poland in June 1990. Taking into account the changes in Poland, the two countries decided during the meeting of the Indo-Polish joint Commission in Warsaw in September 1990, headed on the Indian side by the then Energy Minister, Shri Arif Mohammed Khan, that trade with Poland would be conducted in convertible currency from January 1991. Accordingly, the Polish Minister of Foreign Economic Relations, Mr Marcin Swiecicki, visited India in November 1990 and signed a new Trade and Payments Agreement.

The positive trends in Indo-Romanian relations evident since December 1989 changes in Romania consolidated with increased bilateral contacts and exchanges . President R Venkataraman had a cordial and friendly meeting with President Ion Iliescu of Romania in Tokyo on 12 November 1990. Cultural exchanges have been revitalised, with increased exchanges of cultural troupes and scholars. A bilateral Air Services Commercial Agreement was initialled in December 1990. President Iliescu paid a transit visit to Delhi on 16 January 1991. He met Prim e Minister Chandra Shekhar and discussed bilateral and multilateral matters of mutual interest. The bilateral Rupee Trade and Payments Agreement was extended upto June 1991 through an exchange of letters on 7 January 1991 pending formal renewal of the Agreement.

Traditionally cordial Indo-Yugoslav relations were strengthened as a result o f an increased exchange of high level contacts. The then Minister for External
Affairs, Shri I K Gujral visited Yugoslavia in March 1990. He again visited Belgrade in September 1990 to participate in the meeting of the Foreign Ministe rs of Yugoslavia, Algeria and India within the NAM framework in the context of the Gulf crisis. The former Prime Minister, Shri V P Singh. met the Yugoslav President in Windhoek in March 1990 and again at Kuala Lumpur in June 1990 during the G-15 meeting.

Western Europe
During the year under review, the European continent has undergone a major transformation marking a turning point in its history. The Cold War has given way to detente and the Charter of Paris signed by the 34 CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe) countries has been hailed as the "magna carta" of new Europe. This was preceded by an agreement on the reduction of conventional weapons signed between NATO and Warsaw Pact countries which the participants called "a new era of democracy, peace and unity in Europe." India which has a wide network of political, economic, commercial, scientific, technological and cultural contacts with the countries in this region has welco med the process of reduction of tensions and hopes this would lead to peaceful and stable world order which will yield concrete benefits all over the globe. An important part of India's bilateral relations as well as assistance through multilateral organizations is channelled through India's contacts and negotiati ons with major countries in Europe. The year under review has seen considerable progress through exchanges of several high level visits both incoming and outgoing, President R Venkataraman visited the UK, Portugal and Malta in March and April 1990. The visit to the UK was the first by an Indian President after a gap of 14 years. It was marked by great warmth and goodwill, and useful high level discussions between the President and Queen Elizabeth, the former Prime Minister Thatcher, Deputy Prime Minister Howe and other leaders. The process of dialogue with the UK on bilateral cooperation and on strengthening measures to prevent terrorist activities directed against India showed, significant progress and discussions on cooperation in tracing, restrai nt and confiscation of the proceeds and instruments of crime and terrorist funds a re being pursued.
The President's State visit to Portugal was highly successful. It has led to strengthening of relations between the two countries in several fields. During the visit, Portugal also announced her decision in principle to return the gold ornaments which had been shifted to Portugal after the liberation of Goa in 196 1. The settlement of this problem has served to remove a major hurdle in improving India's bilateral ties with Portugal which are now characterised by warmth and friendliness.

The visit of the President to Malta--the first such visit by an Indian Presid ent to that country--provided an impetus for closer cooperation in areas of mutual interest. A decision to set up a resident mission in Malta was announced and ha s since been implemented. An Indian public sector company BHEL has also won a major contract for a power project in that country. Apart from the visits of the President, the then Minister for External Affair s, Shri I K Gujral, visited the Netherlands and Italy (September 1990), Belgium (March 1990) and Germany (June 1990). The then Minister of State for External Affairs visited Ireland and Cyprus. Close contacts with Parliamentarians of several West European countries were also maintained. Of particular note were the visits of the Lok Sabha Speaker and Indian Parliamentary delegations to the UK, Belgium and Strasbourg in response to invitations from the British and European Parliaments.

One of the landmarks of the year 1990 was the unification of the two Germanys on 3 October. India has warmly welcomed this event as a reflection of the will of the people of Germany and has expressed the hope that this would lead to reduction of tensions, and that United Germany will further contribute to peace and stability in the world. Germany retains its position as the largest foreign investor and trading partner of India in the EEC. The then External Affairs Minister's visit to Bonn on the eve of German unification was a valuabl e and well timed exercise. Bilateral cooperation is expected to be further expanded and strengthened in the coming year.

The annual Indo-EEC TROIKA meeting was held in Brussels in March 1990. This political dialogue to which India attaches great importance was timely and useful. Apart from matters of mutual interest, it was also decided to set up a new Business Forum comprising leading entrepreneurs and officials from India and th e Community. The Community's progress towards greater European integration pg46

and the establishment of a single market in 1992 poses challenges and oppor- tunities for India and it is hoped that through various institutional linkages, India would be able to take advantage of the single market for promoting her exports and economic cooperation with the EEC. The Indo-EEC joint Commission meeting held in May 1990 was led by the then Commerce Minister, Shri Arun Nehru. Tourism and Fisheries were identified as new areas for cooperation. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between India and EEC in October 1990 for cooperation in the fields of electronics and telecommunications. Preparations are going on smoothly in sectors such as standards, quality contro l etc as part of India's efforts for exploiting future single market of this regi on. India's relations with West Europe during the year have been marked with cordiality and mutual appreciation of each other's needs and potentialities. India's concerns, both internal and external, have been appreciated. India is looking forward to a period of continued expansion of her relations in a number of fields for common benefit.

The Americas


North America
THE year 1990 witnessed the continuing consolidation of Indo-US relations. There was a great degree of understanding, both on bilateral and international issues.

A large number of prominent US Senators and Congressmen visited India early during the year. Congressman Stephen Solarz, Chairman of the House Asian and Pacific Affairs Sub Committee on Foreign Relations, Senators Arlen Spector and Richard Shelby, and Under Secretary for Defence, Dr Henry Rowen were the important visitors. Exchange of views with the Government of India on a wide range of issues helped in conveying India's view to the US Congress and Administration. The Principal Secretary to the former Prime Minister, Shri B G Deshmukh headed a delegation to the USA to present India's viewpoint at Washington on a number of issues. The Special Envoy of the US President and Deputy National Security Advisor Robert Gates, US Assistant Secretary of State John Kelly, Spec ial Assistant to the President on National Security, and Senior Director for the Ne ar Eastern and South Asia Bureau (NESA) Richard Haass visited India to exchange views on the Indo-Pak situation. US Congressman Stephen Solarz re-visited India for the same purpose and Senator Alan Cranston was another important visitor who came to discuss the Indo-Pak situation.

The then External Affairs Minister, Shri I K Gujral met his counterpart, Secretary of State James Baker on several occasions, including the Special
Session of the United Nations General Assembly. There were other high level visits undertaken by the then Ministers for Railways and for Labour and Welfare. As a follow up of ongoing Foreign Secretary level bilateral discussions, the Foreign Secretary visited Washington and discussed a wide range of bilateral and international issues. The situation in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir figured prominently in these discussions especially in the context of Pakistan' s role in aggravating the situation.

Governor Celeste of Ohio also visited India at the invitation extended to him by Punjab, Haryana and Delhi Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The year also saw the appointment of a new Indian Ambassador to the United States, Dr Abid Hussain. The then Minister for External Affairs, Shri V C Shukla visited New York from 3 to 15 December to attend the closing Session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). The second round of the jointly sponsored IDSA-INSS Symposium on defence and strategic issues was held in Pune in December 1990. There was a wide ranging discussion on bilateral and multilateral issues by the particip- ants.

At the official level, meetings of the various Subgroups of the Indo-US Joint Commission were held. These included the Sub Commission on Educa- tion and Culture, Economic and Commercial Sub Commission and the Sub Commission on Agriculture. The Indo-US joint Business Conference also held its annual meeting in Washington. The USA remained India's largest trading partner and accounted for 18.5% of Indian exports and about 11.5% of her imports. On the other hand, India accounted for a mere 0.7% of US total imports and 0.8% of US total exports in 1989. Right from the year 1982, India has enjoyed a positive balance of trade with the USA and the trade surplus reached a level of US $ 906 million in 1989. Early indications of Indo-US trade figures for the year 1990 showed
a stabilisation of the two way turnover. The star performers of Indian exports over the years were diamonds, textiles, engineering products, carpets and floor coverings, leather and leather manufactures and chemicals. The USA is the largest investment partner of India and accounts for about 1/5th of the joint ventures approved by Government of India and 75% of these are in the manufacturing sector.

However, there were several problems which resulted in an adverse impact on Indian exports to the USA. Prominent among them are anti-dumping and countervailing duties by the USA and the stringent health and sanitary regulati ons of FDA which are affecting India's exports of Marine products, basmati rice, brassware etc. The US Government had cited India's policies on foreign investment insurance as barriers to trade but after subsequent negotiations, the US decided not to impose any sanction against India under the 301 legislation and postponed their decision till after December 1990, when the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Talks was scheduled to be completed. The US Government, under Special 301, also claimed that India's protection of Intellectual Property Rights was inadeq uate. The US Government indicated that Indian action and policies would continue to be watched and this matter may be reviewed after the Uruguay Round of Talks in December 1990. India however refused to negotiate under the threat of retaliation.

The Annual Review talks on the Indo-US Memorandum of Understanding were held in Washington. This led to the further streamlining of the implementation procedures, providing a fillip to the expanding area of high technology trade. Discussions continued on the sale of a second Super Computer to India. Modalities of enforcement of the Distribution licence Review System were discussed. A joint team of US Department of Commerce experts and Govern- ment of India officials conducted a security review in selected Indian Distribu tion licence holding companies.

The joint Working Group on Narcotics was set up and a cooperation agreement between India and the USA in this field was signed.
With the all-round improvement in bilateral ties, a limited cooperation in th e field of defence has commenced. At present, this is mainly focussed on the transfer of sophisticated technology and equipment for the Light Combat Air- craft Project. In recent years, the US Government has been earmarking small quantities of aid under its International Military Education and Training (IMET ) programme. US $ 299,000 was requested by US State Department from Congress Appropriations in the financial year 1990. These funds are utilised to finance visits and exchanges between Indian and US armed forces per- sonnel.

Lt General Claude M Kicklighter, Commanding General, US Army, Western Command visited India at the invitation of the Indian Chief of Army Staff. The Indian Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral J G Nadkarni visited US Naval Establishments in the USA, including the CINCPAC Headquarters in Hawaii in October 1990. United States Pacific Command, Commander-in-Chief Admiral Huntington Hardisty visited India to participate in a Indo-US Conference jointl y organized by the Delhi based Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA) and the Washington based Institute for National Strategic Studies at Kharag- vasla, Pune from 11 to Dec 13, 1990.

The Gulf crisis brought a new set of problems including the repatriation of 150,000 Indian workers to India. The then External Affairs Minister flew to Washington to meet Secretary of State James Baker and apprise him of this human aspect of the Gulf crisis. The US has expressed sympathy and under- standing in assessing the impact of the Gulf crisis on Indian economy. During the year under review, bilateral relations between India and Canada remained cordial.

Two Canadian Ministers visited India during 1990. Madame Monique Landry, Minister for External Relations and International Development, in her capacity as Governor ad-interim came to attend the Asian Development Bank meeting held in New Delhi. Madame Barbara McDougall, Canada's Minister for Employment and Immigration also paid a visit. Shri Ajit Singh, the then Industry Minister visited Canada to deliver the keynote address at a conference organized by the Shastri Indo-Canadian Insti- tute in Montreal and Concordia University.
During the year, Shri G N Mehra took up his assignment as the new Indian High Commissioner to Canada. Canada evinced interest in cooperating with India in the fields of power, defence, space, telecommunications, education and culture. In some fields, the preliminary formalities towards conclusion of a bilateral agreement were com- pleted during the year.

Canada has also shown interest in the Yamuna Nagar Thermal Power Project and Chamera-II Project. These projects are being considered by the Indian Government appropriately. India has had an adverse balance of trade (-189.80 Rs crores) with Canada. Total exports from India were of the value of 264.09 crores of rupees, and imports of 453.89 crores; of rupees, for 1989-90. Principal items of exports fr om India are RMG Cotton including accessories, leather and manufactured handmade carpets, gems and jewellery, cotton yam fabric made-ups, RMG manmade fibres, handicrafts etc. Principal items of import from Canada are sulphur and unroaste d iron parts, fertilisers, manufactured machinery, pulp and waste paper, other cr ude minerals, newsprint, metalliferous; ores and metal scraps, transport equipment etc.

There are no special problems between the two countries in regard to trade except that import of certain items like footwear and textiles into Canada are subject to quota restrictions.

Central and South America and the Caribbean

During the year under review, India has made sustained efforts to consolidate and strengthen bilateral and multilateral relations with Latin American nations by initiating high level contacts. India has also attempted to register its presen ce as a reliable trading partner and a possible source of equipment and technology. India was represented at the inaugurations of (i) the Presidents of Chile and Brazil in March 1990 by the then Minister for Surface Transport, (ii) the President of Nicaragua in April 1990 by the then Minister for Labour and Welfar e, and (iii) the Presidents of Peru and Colombia in July/August 1990 by the then Minister of State for External Affairs. The inauguration ceremonies provided
occasions for India's Ministers to confer individually with Presidents, Vice Presidents and other leaders from the region and convey India's willingness to intensify bilateral relations. Bilateral consultations in areas of mutual inter est were held during the then Commerce Minister's visit to Brazil (July 1990).

The then Minister of State for External Affairs represented India at the presentation of the Final Report of the South Commission at Caracas (August 1990). The then Minister for Information and Broadcasting and Parliamentary Affairs attended the third Conference of Information Ministers of Non-aligned countries in Havana (September 1990). He also called on President Castro. Indian army officers participated in the United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA). Visits by Parliamentary delegations were encouraged. A Parliamentary delegation led by the Lok Sabha Speaker paid a goodwill visit to Colombia in October 1990 before attending the IPU Conference in Uruguay. A ten member Parliamentary delegation from Argentina visited India from 19 to 27 November 1990. In consultation with the Ministry of Commerce and related agencies, concerted efforts were made to boost trade with the region, which absorbs less than one per cent of India's exports and accounts for 2.4 per cent of India's imports.

The first meeting of the Indo-Cuban joint Commission was held at the Foreign Ministers level in New Delhi in April 1990. Efforts were made to activate the Indo-Mexican joint Commission and the joint Committee for Trade with Argentina. Agreements for cooperation in the field of Science and Technology are being finalised with some countries in the region.

In an effort to strengthen relations with countries in the region as a whole, India has applied for Permanent Observer Status at the Organization of American States. This would provide an additional forum for interaction with the countri es of the region, 17 of whom are members of the Non-Aligned Movement. The
process of regular consultations with the Rio Group of Latin American countries was initiated in New York (2 October 1990) where the then External Affairs Minister, Shri I K Gujral met his counterparts from Colombia and Venezuela. The distinguished visitors from the region included the Minister for Planning and Reconstruction (March 1990) and the Minister for Industry, Enterprise and Tourism (July 1990) of Trinidad & Tobago; the Foreign Minister of Cuba (April 1990); the wife of the President of Suriname (May/June 1990); and the Chairman of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (December 1990).

India's gift to Nicaragua consisting of jeeps, three wheelers, bicycles, medi cal equipment, raw jute etc was appreciated by the Government of that country. India also provided to Trinidad & Tobago emergency medical relief and "Jaipur Feet." In Suriname, the democratically elected Government of President Ramasewak Shanker was overthrown by the military leader Lt Col Bouterse in a bloodless coup. He subsequently installed a provisional government and announced that fresh elections would be held in May 1991. The then External Affairs Minister made a statement in the Lok Sabha on 28 December 1990 giving the broad facts and expressing the hope that democracy would be restored soon in that country.

United Nations And International Conferences
1990 was a watershed year for the United Nations. Dramatic changes-- political, social and economic--in Eastern Europe and elsewhere, policy reorientations in many countries, growing superpower collaboration, the emerg- ence of a unified Germany, European integration, Japan's uninterrupted economic growth and the Gulf crisis and its aftermath--all these were reflected in varyi ng degrees within the UN and they made an impact upon its functioning. Besides political issues such as the Gulf crisis, the situation in the Middle East (West Asia) and Cambodia, UN centre-stage was held by subjects such as drug abuse control, environmental protection and human rights.

India's traditional attachment to the UN ideas continued to be reflected in i ts active role on all important issues coming up before the world body. The reputation and influence which India enjoys in the world body can be measured by the fact that she has been elected to the Security Council for the sixth tim e for a two year term (1991 and 1992). India took its seat in the Security Council wi th effect from Jan 01, 1991. The current term of India has begun at a critical tim e in the history of the United Nations. India's role in the Council will be guide d by its commitment to the UN Charter which has entrusted the primary responsibility for maintenance of international peace and security to the Secur ity Council. In the non-aligned forum as well, India continued to exercise decisive influence, particularly at a time when the Non-Aligned Movement as a whole, disconcerted by the attack by one of its members (Iraq) on another (Kuwait) needed to define its role in the light of radical changes in international rela tions.
India successfully countered attempts to internationalise the Kashmir issue made by Pakistan at various multilateral fora.
Political Issues
Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990, the Gulf crisis dominated the United Nations. The Security Council remained continuously seized of the matter, holding frequent and often urgent meetings. India's respo nse to the developments in the Gulf was consistent with her principled position against the use of force, and in favour of a peaceful negotiated settlement of disputes between the parties concerned. India called for unconditional with- drawal by Iraq from Kuwait and the restoration of the sovereignty and independ- ence of the latter. India remained in step with the international community in implementing the Security Council resolutions.

The Gulf crisis has had severe adverse consequences for India's economy and for the Indian community in Iraq and Kuwait. When the Indian community there was faced with food shortages, the matter was pursued with promptness and effectiveness in the United Nations and permission secured to send a shipload o f foodstuffs from India to Iraq. In accordance with the terms of the UN decision, the Indian Embassy in Baghdad with the help of the Indian Red Cross Society and the organizations of Indian community there, undertook the distribution of the foodstuffs, not only to the Indian community but also to several other third country nationals, including Filipinos, Sri Lankans, Vietnamese and Palestinian s. India's efficient handling of this matter and her willingness to share food wit h other foreign nationals were widely appreciated in the UN. Later, prompt permission of the Security Council was secured for the flights of the Indian Ai r Force aircraft between Bombay and Baghdad for the evacuation of the Indian community.

The adverse effects of the developments in the Gulf and economic sanctions against Iraq on India's economy were brought to the attention of the United Nations under Article 50 of the Charter of the United Nations, with request for urgent consultations with the Security Council in order to seek a solution of t hese problems. The Security Council recognised the need to assist India in coping with its special economic problems and appealed to all States, UN agencies, financial institutions etc to provide immediate assistance.
Even as the deadline set by Security Council Resolution 678 for withdrawal by Iraq from Kuwait (15 January 1991) was being crossed and outbreak of hostilitie s appeared imminent, Prime Minister addressed an urgent communication to Presidents of the United States, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia (the current Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement) emphasizing the imperative need to prevent the outbreak of hostilities. The Indian initiative was based on simulta ne- ous Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait and suspension of hostilities; during the peri od of suspension, it should be possible to agree upon "the modalities" of resolvin g the issues such as provision of a guarantee to Iraq of non-aggression, Iraq-Kuwait differences and the Palestine question.

The question of Palestine remained a major issue before the Security Council and the UN General Assembly (UNGA) at its 45th Session. several developments, including use of force by the Israeli authorities against the civilian Palestin ian population in the Occupied Territories, were cause of concern to the internatio nal community. In this context, India reiterated its steadfast support for the caus e of Palestine.

The five Permanent Members of the Security Council undertook an initiative to formulate a framework for an agreement for the settlement of Cambodia., They held broad consultations with concerned parties and interested States, including India. India also attended, in its capacity as a co-Chairman of the F irst Committee of the Paris International Conference on Cambodia (PICC), a meeting in Jakarta in November convened to initiate the elaboration of the framework agreement into a comprehensive draft agreement for subsequent adoption by the resumed PICC and eventually by the United Nations. India also continued a process of consultations with several parties and States, aimed at facilitating an early settlement of Cambodia on the basis of full respect for its sovereignty, the will of the Cambodian people, the non-return of the genocidal policies and practices of the past and the maintenance of its non-aligned status. The General Assembly again adopted a resolution on Afghanistan by consen- sus. India welcomed the spirit of compromise and maintained its support to find a political solution to the problem of Afghanistan through full implementation of the Geneva Agreements. India also held consultations with the parties con- cerned, as well as with the UN Secretary General, in connection with the ongoin g peace efforts.
India continued to support the 1971 Declaration on the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace and the early convening of a Conference for the implementation of the Declaration. India participated constructively in the meetings of the Ad Ho c Committee on the Indian Ocean working to attain these objectives. India continued to attach importance to the holding of such a Conference with the participation of all the major maritime users and major powers with military presence in the Indian Ocean.

As in the past, negotiations between Treaty parties and non-Treaty members failed to produce a consensus text for draft resolution on Antarctica. Consiste nt with its anti-apartheid policy, India voted in favour of a draft resolution cal ling for the exclusion of South Africa from all the meetings of the Treaty parties. India remains committed to broaden and universalise the Antarctic Treaty. it supports all proposals relating to the protection of the fragile Antarctic environment and related ecosystems and favours bringing the results of scientif ic research in Antarctica increasingly to the attention of developing countries fo r their benefit.

During the discussion on the Law of the Sea in the General Assembly Session, India supported the efforts of the signatories to the Convention on the Law of the Sea to explore possibilities to secure universal participation in the Conventio n. India also opposed any undermining of the universal character of the Convention . India maintained her traditional support, in the UN and other international fora, for efforts to resolve the long outstanding problem of Cyprus on the basi s of the latter's sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity and to promote peacef ul reunification of Korea. India welcomed the process of a peaceful settlement between Iran and Iraq and the peace process in Central America including the holding of elections in Nicaragua under the UN supervision. India responded positively to a UN request and contributed military observers in the UN peace keeping forces in Central America (ONUCA), besides maintaining her participatio n in other UN peace keeping operations in Iran and Iraq (UNIIMOG) and in Angola (UNAVEM).
Disarmament Issues
During the year under review, India played an active role in the three main multilateral disarmament fora, viz, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva, the UN Disarmament Commission (UNDC) and the First Committee of the UN General Assembly. The Indian approach to disarmament is best reflected in the 'Action Plan for a Nuclear Weapon-free and Non-violent World Order' that was tabled at the Third Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to Disarmament. India continued to emphasize the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons within a time bound framework and a movement away from the doctrine of nuclear deterrence.

A ban on nuclear weapon tests would be the most crucial step towards the above mentioned goal. India, therefore, highlighted the urgent need for commencing negotiations for a treaty to ban Nuclear Weapon Tests consistent with the preamble of the Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Hoping to work toward s this goal, India showed adequate flexibility to accept the establishment by the CD of an ad hoc Committee on a nuclear test ban. India was among the main supporters of the Partial Test Ban Treaty Amendment Conference held in New York from 7 to 18 January 1991. The aim of this Conference was to highlight the need for urgent action for a treaty on a nuclear weapons test ban. Indian experts took part in the work of the ad hoc Group of Scientific Experts towards the elaboration of a global seismic monitoring system for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

In the negotiations on a global convention on Chemical Weapons, India worked for a comprehensive convention which would rule out discriminatory and short term measures. India was also represented in the meeting with the chemical industry held in June 1990 at Geneva in the context of the chemical weapons negotiations. At the 45th Session of the UN General Assembly, India introduced two resolutions dealing with disarmament. The first, entitled "Scientific and Tech- nological Developments and their Impact on International Security" was in keepi ng with India's initiative in 1988 for ending the qualitative arms race. As a firs t step
in that direction, India suggested monitoring of Scientific and Technological developments by a panel of eminent experts under the UN auspices. The Indian resolution requested the Secretary General to submit a framework for technologi - cal assessment at the 47th Session of the UN General Assembly, with a view to ensuring that scientific and technological developments are used solely for peaceful purposes and for the common good of mankind. The Resolution gained widespread support with 133 countries voting in its favour.

The second resolution, entitled "Convention on the Prohibition of the use of Nuclear Weapons," focussed on the threat which nuclear war poses to the life on the planet and the urgent task of preventing such a war. The resolution contain s a draft convention which could form the basis for an agreement. It received wide support with 125 countries voting in its favour. A consensus document was submitted to the General Assembly during the year as the report of the UN Study on Verification undertaken in 1989 through a joint initiative by India as part of the Six Nation appeal. The recommendations of this study focussed, inter-alia. on strengthening the ON role in the field of verification of disarmament agreements.
Economic Issues
The year under review saw significant developments in the economic field. A number of important meetings took place, nearly all of which concluded with consensus agreements. The major events were: the Special Session of the General Assembly on International Economic Cooperation; meetings of the Economic and Social Council; the UN Conference on the Least Developed Countries; the meetings of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Whole on the International Development Strategy (IDS) for the fourth United Nations Develop- ment Decade; and the negotiations in the Second Committee of the 45th Session o f the General Assembly. Also, there were meetings at the UN of the Foreign Ministers of the Non-aligned countries and Grout) of 77 at the time of the 18th Special Session and the 45th Session of the General Assembly.

The 18th Special Session of the General Assembly on International Economic Cooperation, in particular on Revitalisation of Economic Growth and Development of Developing Countries was held from April to May 1990 in New York. Developing countries felt that the Special Session could help to bring the focu s
back on the central issues of poverty and development, in the context of the persisting stalemate in the North-South dialogue on economic issues. The Declaration, which was adopted by consensus, states that the most important challenge for the 1990s is the revitalisation of economic growth and social development in the developing countries which calls for sustained growth of the world economy and favourable external conditions.

An Indian-delegation led by the then Minister for External Affairs, Shri I K Gujral and consisting of eminent economists and diplomats played a crucial role in the formulation of the framework for international cooperation adopted by the Special Session.

At its Second Regular Session in July, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) focussed on some key issues: the world economy and the broad question of resource transfers and financial flows; the implementation of the Declaration adopted at the 18th Special Session of the General Assembly; the highlight of t he Session being the informal exchange of views on the evolution of East-West relations and its implications for the international monetary and financial sys tems including resource transfers to developing countries, and its impact on interna - tional trade.

Shri C R Gharekhan, India's Permanent Representative to the United Nations, was elected President of ECOSOC for the year. The President as wen as the rest of the Indian delegation played an important role in facilitating an exchange o f views on the needs of the developing countries in the new international situati on. The situation of the LDCs (Least Developed Countries) worsened despite the Substantial New Programme of Action adopted at the UN conference of LDCs held in 1981. A second conference was therefore convened in Paris in September 1990 from which the Paris Declaration and the Programme of Action (POA) for the LDCs for the 1990s emerged. The General Assembly endorsed both the Declaration and the POA. An Indian delegation led by India's Permanent Representative in Geneva attended the conference and helped in the formulation of the Paris Declaration.

The Chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Whole for the preparation of the IDS (International Development Strategy) for the Fourth United Nations
Developments Decade, Mr Gamani Correa, prepared an excellent document for the Committee, which became the basis for the final consensus draft for submission to the 45th Session of the General Assembly.

Among the ideas, concepts and recommendations contained in the IDS are: the interdependence of nations; the need to take steps to reverse the adverse trends of the 1980s; the importance of a surge in the pace of economic growth i n developing countries; the importance of the responsiveness of the development process to social needs; the need for an improvement of the international economic system of money, finance and trade; the need for stability in the worl d economy and for sound macro economic management nationally and internation- ally; and above all, the need for strengthening international development coope ra- tion. It stresses the new opportunities for reversing the trends of the 1980s provided by the relaxation of international tensions and consequently, possibil ities for application of larger resources to the fight against world poverty. This echoes the elements in the Declaration of the 18th Special Session which even speaks of exploring the feasibility of channelling some of the reductions in mi litary expenditures, through financial mechanisms for development.

Among the important resolutions on economic matters that were adopted at the 45th Session of the Genera) Assembly were resolutions on the Report of ECOSOC which included, inter-alia, the US sponsored resolution on Entrepreneur- ship, and a G-77 sponsored resolution initiated by India on the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade; Trade and Development; Food and Agricultural problems; Industrial Development of Developing Countries; and resolutions on the World Summit for Children, World Food Council and the United Nations Population Fund under Operational Activities. The UNGA also adopted a resolution welcoming Uruguay's offer to host UNCTAD VIII at Punta dal Este from 21 September to 8 October 1991.

The Indian delegation to the Second Committee emphasized, in the various negotiations that took place, the importance of addressing the developmental needs of developing countries in matters relating to commerce, development and economic cooperation. It was ensured that the resolutions adopted on economic issues adequately reflected the views of the developing countries. India participated actively in a large number of multilateral meetings on glo bal environmental issues held during the year. To sensitize important developing pg62

countries to India's concerns and with a view to evolving a developing country perspective on a whole range of such issues, the Government of India organized a Conference of Twenty select developing countries on Global Environmental Issues from 23 to 25 April 1990 at New Delhi. India successfully promoted a series of amendments to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the ozone layer and was able to ensure that its concerns were taken into account through the amendments to the protocol adopted by the Second Meeting of States parties to the Montreal Protocol held in London in end June 1990. India also actively participated in and projected its concerns and interests at the First Substanti ve Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 1992 UN Conference on Environ- ment and Development, the meetings to prepare for negotiations on conventions on climate change and bio-diversity, and in the consideration of environmental issues by the 45th UN General Assembly.

International preoccupations during 1990 centered around developments in the trading system, the consequences of the Gulf crisis and its impact on oil p rices as well as the transition and restructuring of countries in East Europe. As regards North-South cooperation, there were no major developments, despite a series of important conferences. In April 1990, at the Special Sessio n of the UN General Assembly, the developing countries were able to obtain important reaffirmation of the priority that the international community attaches to inte rna- tional cooperation for development. India played an active role in the negotiations which resulted in a consensus declaration. While the declaration embodies important principles for cooperation in the future, it is in the natur e of a conceptual document and does not embody specific commitments. This process was carried forward to some extent in the negotiations on the elaboration of an International Development Strategy for the 1990s.

Although all these meetings after protracted negotiations, resulted in consen - sus outcomes, it was found that the negotiating climate and the attitude to Nor th- South negotiations has changed considerably. The industrialised countries have on most occasions adopted an approach of focussing basically on domestic economic management in the developing countries, rather than on the interna- tional cooperation which had so far formed the sum and substance on the North- South dialogue. They also sought to bring in political overtones by emphasizing participatory governments, respect for human rights, and market orientation as basis of economic management. While these differences of perception were satisfactorily resolved in important meetings and conferences, some of the majo r
Concerns of developing countries in the area of international cooperation such as debt, financial flows, trade and commodity prices have not received the attenti on they deserve. While there was little tangible progress in economic negotiations, the international economic outlook remained uncertain. The developing countries in particular continued to face formidable difficulties. The debt crisis has conti nued to proliferate. No additional initiatives were taken during the past year to resolve the proliferation of the debt problem. In fact, there were no major developments in the international monetary and financial field. In the later ha lf of 1990, concerns began to increase about a possible recession in the world economy which would have an adverse impact on all parts and in particular upon the developing countries which have become even more vulnerable to such external shocks as well as the East European Countries which are in a process o f transition.

The consequences of the Gulf crisis sharpened these apprehensions. The Gulf crisis and the resultant increase in oil price has been particularly detrimenta l to the oil importing developing countries. For India the impact has been most severe because in addition to the impact of higher oil prices, the situation in the Gulf has led to disruption of exports, loss of remittances from Indian national s and huge expenses in repatriation of Indians.

Developments in the international trading environment continue to dominate attention. The Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations approached its final scheduled phase. The Uruguay Round was called in a background of increasingly unsettled conditions in world trade and mounting protectionism in the industrialised countries. As the negotiations progress, the developing countries found that the issues of greatest interest to them were not being giv en the importance they deserve. Doubts regarding a satisfactory outcome from the negotiations increased after the failure of the Brussels Ministerial Meeting to narrow differences amongst powerful trading entities, in particular the United States on the one hand and the European Community and Japan on the other regarding the question of agricultural trade and subsidies. A failure of the Uruguay Round could lead to further disillusionment with the multilateral syste m and an increasing resort to managed trade as well as unilateral measures. A fragmentation and regionalisation of the international trading system has already appeared on the horizon and could have adverse repurcussions on the
future world trade and prosperity which has to a large extent come to depend upon the free and open multilateral trading system. It was in the context of these and other fundamental developments taking place in the world economy that the initiative to form the Summit Level Group o n South-South Consultation and Cooperation (G-15) was taken at the Non-aligned Summit in Belgrade in September 1989. The Group is intended to provide a Forum for regular and indepth consultations amongst the leaders of an important group of developing countries. The first Summit meeting of the G-15 was held in Kuala Lumpur in June 1990. The G-15 Group has moved quickly towards institutionalising itself and in promoting South-South cooperation programmes. The Summit will now be held annually, the next scheduled in Caracas in June 1991. It has also been decided to set up a small permanent secretariat for the G-15. The Summit identified several specific projects for South-South cooperati on which have progressed satisfactorily in the short time since the Kuala Lumpur Summit.
Administrative and Budgetary Matters
The Indian delegation played an active role in the Fifth Committee and made efforts with other developing countries to encourage greater transparency and fairness in the determination of scale of assessments. Under a proposal put for ward by the Indian delegation, the member states would be able for the first time to send their representatives to the meetings of Committee on Contributions to explain their views on distribution of ad hoc relief against increases in the s cale of their assessment. Following India's efforts for the past three years, ad hoc re llef would now be distributed by the Committee on the basis of certain specified criteria instead of personal judgement and disposition of Committee members. On the initiative taken by the Indian delegation, there would be greater audit coverage of extra budgetary expenditures of the UN organizations and more transparency in recruitment of personnel against posts financed from the extra budgetary funds.

The Indian delegation also took initiative in making recommendation to broaden the participation of member states in the UN peace keeping operations and in removal of inconsistencies in practices relating to travel arrangements for representatives of member states to attend meetings of inter-governmental bodie s.
Social and Humanitarian Issues
India continued to play an active role in the consideration by the UN bodies such as the General Assembly, ECOSOC and the Commission on Human Rights, of social and humanitarian issues. India's stand on such issues was based on it s principled position on matters pertaining to human rights and social justice an d its deep and abiding commitment to the protection and promotion of human rights. At the 45th Session of the UN General Assembly, India played an important role in the deliberations of the Third Committee. India supported the adoption by the Third Committee and later by the General Assembly of the Convention on the Rights of the Migrant Workers and their Families. India also participated i n World Summit for Children held in New York on 30 September 1990. The Indian delegation participated actively in the 42nd Session of the UN Sub Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities held in Geneva from 6 to 13 August 1990 and the 47th Session of the UN Human Rights Commission also held in Geneva from 28 January to 8 March 1991.
The year under review witnessed many developments in South Africa, where a process of change was set in motion. The decision of the South African authorities to release Dr Nelson Mandela and some other political prisoners, to unban political organizations, to lift the state of emergency, to ease media restrictions, to repeal the separate Amenities Act, to end racial segrega tion in public facilities and to establish contacts with the ANC were welcomed as steps in the right direction. But much more needs to be done for the complete eradication of apartheid and establishment of non-racial democracy in South Africa, on the basis of one man, one vote. India remained fully committed to the struggle against apartheid and continued to actively espouse this cause in various international fora, includi ng the United Nations.
India is the rapporteur of the UN Special Committee against apartheid. India played an important role in drafting the cluster of Resolutions on Apartheid adopted by the UNGA by an overwhelming majority.
India continued to play an active role in the UN bodies relating to decolonisation. Namibia's independence on 21 March 1990 virtually marked the end of the colonial era. India played an important role at the United Nations towards the realization of this long awaited goal and actively participated in the United Nations Transit Assistance Group (UNTAG), the military component of which was headed by a retired Major General from India. India is now actively participating in the economic reconstruction of Namibia.
Narcotic Drugs Control
The 26th Session of the Sub Commission on Illicit Drug Trafficking and Related Matters in the Near and Middle East was held in Vienna on 24 and 25 January 1990. India was represented by Shri M M Bhatnagar, Director General, Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB), who was elected as the first Vice President of the Meeting. Shri M V N Rao, the former Chairman, Central Board of Excise and Customs, and the Secretary in the Ministry of Finance, attended two sessions of the International Narcotics Control Board in Vienna in May and October 19690. Shri Rao is a member of the INCB since 1990.
Election to UN Bodies and other International Organizations
On 1 November 1990, India was elected by the United Nations General Assembly to the Security Council for the years 1991 and 1992 along with Ecuador , Zimbabwe, Austria and Belgium. India won by 141 votes. India is taking its place in the Security Council after a gap of five years.
Shri R Srinivasan was elected Chairman of the Executive Board of the World Health Organization in May 1990. Shri M S Raman was elected Assistant Director General of Universal Postal Union in May 1990. Kumari Mira Seth, Secretary, Department of Women and Child Development, was elected First Vice Chairperson of the UNICEF Executive Board in June 1990.
Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement
The transformation in East-West relations has changed the context but not the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement. During the cold war period, the Non-aligned countries pursued three major objectives. First, they sought to protect their own independence of action by staying clear of the two power blocs' confrontation. Secondly, they sought to create an 'area of peace' between the opposing military alliances and thereby promote the maintenance of world peace. Thirdly, they promoted creation of an equitable world order. Now the power blocs have crumbled and a new collaborative relationship between the Super Powers has emerged. However, the relevance of the Non- Aligned Movement in the changed international political scene cannot be questioned. It continues to be relevant in the struggle against poverty, inequality and discriminatory practices in the political, economic and social fields.

India actively promoted and pursued the agenda drawn up at the Belgrade Summit and participated in the various activities of the Non-Aligned Movement during the year. These were:

(i) The meetings of the NAM Group of 18 on Namibia. Two observer missions went to Namibia before and during the elections. The Non- aligned countries' contribution to the deliberations in the Security Council on Namibia;

(ii) Meetings of the Consultative Group on Cambodia;

(iii) Meetings of the Committee of 9 for the Middle East and Palestine held in Tunisia and New York. The then Minister for External Affairs participated in the meeting in Tunisia; pg68

(iv) The Summit of the Group of 15 in Kuala Lumpur. The former Prime Minister attended the Summit;

(v) Ministerial Meeting in New York before the Special Session of the General Assembly on economic matters. The then External Affairs Minister attended;

(vi) A Ministerial Meeting of Algeria, India and Yugoslavia held in Belgrade with a view to finding a peaceful solution to the Gulf crisis. The initiative for the Meeting was taken by the then External Affairs Minist er who also attended it;

(vii) A Ministerial Meeting in New York prior to the 45th UNGA Session,

(viii) The Third Conference of the Ministers of Information of Non-aligned countries held in Havana. The then Minister for Information and Broadcasting attended it. The Conference drew up a programme of work for cooperation in the field of information; and

(ix) The Fourth Conference of the Ministers of Labour of Non-aligned countries held in Tunis. The member states of the Non-Aligned Movement held a number of meetings during the 45th UNGA to coordinate their positions on the various issues that came up in the Session. Indian delegates participated in these consultations an d, in most cases, provided valuable inputs.

The then External Affairs Minister got in touch with his Yugoslav counterpart in order to activate the Non-Aligned Movement in seeking an end to the hostilit ies and two of them met in Belgrade on 23 January. Following this meeting, a meeting at the level of Foreign Ministers of 15 countries (Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Yugoslavia, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Algeria, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Cuba, Venezuela, Argentina, Cyprus and India) and PLO representative was held in Belgrade on 12 February 1991. The Deputy Minister for External Affairs held discussions in Algiers, Harare, Paris and London on the Indian initiative. Both in Algiers and Harare there was support to India's initiative.
The Fifth meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa held in Abuja (Nigeria) from 15 to 17 May 1990 was attended by the Foreign Ministers of Australia, India, Canada, Guyana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Tanzania and Malaysia. India was represented by the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Hari Kishore Singh. Canada is the Chairman of the Committee. A review of the current situation in and prospects for Southern Africa and developments relating to sanctions dominated the agenda. The Committee adopted the "Abuja Commitment" concerning the situation in South Africa, which elaborated the firm commitment of the Commonwealth to continuation of sanctions, and Commonwealth's desire that democratisation must be based on the principle of universal 'adult suffrage' which would lead to the establishment of a non-racial, democratic and non-fragmented South Africa. In keeping with her commitment to the global struggle to abolish apartheid, India offered to host the next meeting of the Committee. The dates will be decided in consultation with the Chairman of the Committee.

The Commonwealth Summit at Kuala Lumpur, 1989 had set up a Summit Level Group to review the role of the Commonwealth in the 1990s and beyond. The group comprises Heads of Government of Malaysia (Chairman), Australia, Britain, Canada, Cyprus, India, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Trinidad & Tobago an d Zimbabwe. The main mandate of the Group related to the following issues:

(i) Possible future roles for the Commonwealth and review of the Commonwealth Secretariat;

(ii) Commonwealth assistance for promoting and strengthening democratic processes and institutions in member countries; and

(iii) Commonwealth membership India participated actively in the three meetings of the Working Group of Officials of the Appraisal Group. The First Meeting of the Group was held in London on 15 and 16 March 1990. The documents circulated at the Meeting
included a comprehensive paper prepared by the Commonwealth Secretariat, and written submissions by Malaysia, Canada and Britain. Seven priority areas were identified, including Southern Africa, environment, drugs and education. The Second Meeting of the Working Group was held in London between 29 and 31 August 1990. The agenda of the Second Meeting was based on a consolidated paper prepared by the Secretariat. The Group also examined the studies commissioned at the first meeting. Submissions were also made, inter- alia, by the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative and the Commonwealth Working Group on Sports. The Third Meeting was held in Kuala Lumpur on 1 and 2 December 1990 and adopted a Report on the role of the Commonwealth in the 1990's and beyond. It also approved a draft Declaration to be adopted by the CHOGM in Harare in October 1991.

The Meeting of the High Level Appraisal Group at the level of Heads of State will now be held in Harare on 15 October 1991. The Commonwealth Senior Officials' Meeting took place in Papua New Guinea from 26 to 28 November 1990 to prepare for the Heads of State/Government Meeting in Harare from 16 to 22 October 1991. India participated actively in the meeting, to draw up the agenda of CHOGM, Harare, and finalize a consensus on various aspects of the functioning of the Commonwealth.

An emergency meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on South Africa was held in London on 16 February 1991. The then External Affairs Minister participated in the meeting. The meeting reviewed the Common- wealth consensus on sanction, in the context of President De Klerk's address to the South African Parliament on 1 February 1991 endorsing the concept of a mult i- party conference on Constitutional negotiations. Notwithstanding welcome developments in South Africa, the Foreign Ministers noted that there had as yet been very little change on the ground and that there had been more promises tha n concrete action by the South African Government.
During the year under review, the Conference Cell continued to play its role of providing logistical support and managerial assistance for all the internati onal
conferences convened by the Ministry of External Affairs. It also provided such facilities to other Ministries of the Government of India. Many conferences, workshops and memorial lectures were successfully organized by the Division during the year. The following major international conferences were held during this period:

(i) Meeting of Select Developing Countries on Global Environ- mental Issues was held in New Delhi from 23 to 26 April 1990. The meeting was attended by more than 100 delegates from developing countries;

(ii) 23rd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Asian Development Bank was held in New Delhi from 2 to 5 May 1990. The meeting was attended by more than 4000 foreign delegates. The work of the Division was much appreciated by the visiting dignitaries of Asian Development Bank ant; the Ministry of Finance;

(iii) The Global Consultation on Safe Water and Sanitation for the 1990's was held in New Delhi from 10 to 14 September 1990. The Conference was attended by more than 2000 foreign delegates; and

(iv) The Division was the nodal point for all the logistical support for the National Reception Committee for Dr Nelson Mandela. The Division organized many meetings of the National Reception Committee and its Working Group, under the chairmanship of the former Prime Minister and the then External Affairs Minister. The finale was the organization of People's Reception for Dr Mandela at Indira Gandhi Stadium on 15 October 1990 which involved a very massive effort on the part of the Division. The Division also organized several SAARC Meetings in New Delhi and Bombay. The Division continued to share its experience and expertise with other Ministries. Its equipment was loaned to many Government agencies, free of cost. An illustrative list of the Conferences/Functions arranged by the Division is given in Appendix XIV.
International Law: Development and Activities
The United Nations General Assembly (Sixth Committee) at its 45th Session considered 13 agenda items during its deliberations from 21 September to 28 November 1990. The important among these related to the work of the International Law Commission (ILC), the United Nations Commission on Interna- tional Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the drafting of a Code of Crimes against the peace and security of mankind including the establishment of an International Crimina l Court, the peaceful settlement of disputes between the States and the UN Decade of International Law Regarding the work of the International Law Commission, th e Indian delegation noted the progress made by the Commission on finalizing draft articles on the non-navigational use of international rivers, the jurisdictiona l immunity of States and their property and on draft Code of Crimes against peace and security of mankind. It is expected that on the items of international rive rs and jurisdictional immunities, the Commission would be able to complete the fir st reading of a set of draft articles by the end of its next session to be held in 1991. On the observance of the UN Decade of International Law, India participated in a fruitful exchange of views held at the UN wherein the role of International L aw in the maintenance of International peace and security was discussed.

An Indian delegation participated in the 29th Session of the Legal Sub Committee of the UN Committee on Peaceful Use of Outer Space which was held in Geneva from 2 to 20 April 1990. The Sub Committee discussed the issues concerning the development of the draft principles on Nuclear Power Sources (NPS), Geo Stationary Orbit (GSO) and definition and delimitation of Outer Spac e and Outer Space benefits taking into account the needs of the developing countries. Consensus was reached on various principles dealing with the guidelines and standards for safe use in NPS in Space Objects. On other aspects , the discussions held have yet to achieve areas of agreement.

An Indian delegation participated in two sessions (March and October 1990) of the Standing Committee of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nucle ar Damage, 1963, which were held in Vienna under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). At the second session, the Standing Committee established a Drafting Committee to draft texts for the revision of the Vienna Convention which provides for Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage within certain financial limits. It is expected that further meetings would be held to achieve consensus on most of the issues before an international conference is convened to revise the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage.
India participated in the 29th Annual Session of Asian African Legal Consulta - tive Committee (AALCC) which was held in Beijing from 12 to 17 March 1990. As in the past, the AALCC provided a forum for the Legal Experts of the two continents to come together to exchange views on several contemporary legal problems. These included the status and treatment of refugees, law of the sea, definition of terrorism to distinguish it from liberation struggle, Geneva Conv en- tion on law of war and deportation of Palestinians, legal regime concerning transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal and extradition. Views were also exchanged on legal problems concerning international trade law being discussed in UNCITRAL and in other forums.

A meeting of legal experts was held in Colombo from 29 January to 1 February 1990 to draft the text of the SAARC Convention on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The convention set out the acts which the member states were required to declare as offences and to make them punishable as grav e offences under their domestic law. It required them to cooperate in the investigation, prosecution and prevention of drug offences and set out in detai l the measures of mutual legal assistance to be afforded to one another as well as matters regarding extradition of drug offences. The convention also provided that the plea that the offence was a political one could not be a ground for de nial of extradition of an alleged drug offender. The convention was signed on behalf of India and other SAARC member states on 23 November 1990 at the Fifth SAARC Summit at Male. It will enter into force upon ratification by the member states .

Foreign Economic Relations

the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme and Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme (SCAAP) administered by the Ministry of External Affairs, the Government of Ind ia continued to expand and intensify economic and technical cooperation with fellow developing countries bilaterally as well as through regional organizatio ns such as Southern African Development Cooperation Council (SADCC) and Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) during the year under review. Fresh assistance in the form of project aid, training, techno-economic survey s and deputation of Indian experts was made available to Afghanistan, Vietnam, Zimbabwe and Zambia during the year. A number of ongoing projects under the ITEC Programme, including feasibility reports and equipment supplies, were eith er completed or continued, particularly in respect of Mauritius, Vietnam, Cambodia , Ethiopia and Afghanistan.

Construction of a 300-bed Gynaecological and Obstetrics hospital, additional industrial sheds, cooperation in agriculture, cartography, meteorology and tour ism were the major new areas identified for project assistance and equipment supplying to Afghanistan. In addition, deputation of 35 experts and training of 50 nominees were agreed upon; In respect of Zambia also, India agreed to consider the setting up of a pilot agricultural tool making unit, apart from deputing up to 20 ITEC experts and training of 40 Zambian nominees in various fields. In Zimbabwe's case a protocol of cooperation in sericulture was signed and an agreement to depute 5 experts and earmark 10 training slots was reached. During the Indo-Vietnamese joint Commission Meeting, the then External Affairs Minister, Shri I K Gujral formally handed over to Vietnam the Rice Research and
Buffalo and Forage Research Centres set up with India's assistance and gave an assurance for assistance in setting up of a Scientific Laboratory and Training of 90 Vietnamese in India in various technical fields. The fifth phase of the Angkor Vat Restoration Project was approved in respect of Cambodia. About 369 nominees (including 86 from the previous year) from developing countries were trained under ITEC programme for a period ranging from six months to 1 1/2 years. Under SCAAP, 437 nominees from the developing countries were admitted in various technical courses. The training courses ranged from sm all scale industries to hotel management, computerisation, manpower, foreign trade, diplomacy, audit and legislature drafting. Non-civilian trainees numbered 330. Requests for ITEC experts from over 33 developing countries were enter- tained. About 80 new long term experts were selected for deputation and over 60 cases were under process.

Relief supplies were sent to Jordan, Ivory Coast, Trinidad & Tobago, the Philippines, Tanzania and Angola. Familiarisation cum study visits from Jordan, Afghanistan and Suriname were received. Commitment of India's continued assistance in economic and technical fields was reiterated at the TCDC Programming exercises in respect of Indonesia and Ghana, in July and October 1990 respectively. An Economic Coordination Unit (ECU) was set up during the year in order to monitor the major international developments, examine their likely impact and attempt to coordinate India's actions and responses. In the first phase, the EC U was mandated to deal with "Europe 1992," Indo-Japan economic relations, strategies and options, India's economic interests in East Europe, prospects an d responses, economic challenges in the context of ongoing changes in the USSR, t he oil scenario in the 1990s and matters relating to the transfer of hi-tech. ECU pursued its mandate in consultation with other concerned departments of the Government. It was also in touch with eminent economists, research institutes, apex economic organizations etc.
Policy Planning And Research
DURING the year under review, the Policy Planning Division interacted with other Divisions of the Ministry. It also participated in inter-Ministerial and inter-Departmental meetings, in particular, the joint Intelligence Committe e. The Division has initiated steps to enlarge the areas of contacts with the academic circles, the UGC and the affiliated Area Study Centres of various Universities. Methods to utilise the academic inputs are being evolved. The Division was associated with several non-governmental organizations in arranging various Conferences and Seminars on current international issues. Several of them were financed by the Division. The Historical Division being the Research Wing of the Ministry interacts wit h various Territorial Divisions in the preparation of Notes, Research Papers and Backgrounders on issues relating to international developments. The Division rendered all possible help to the Indian Missions abroad whenever any specific information or documents on international relations were required.

The Division coordinates with the concerned Territorial Divisions and deals with requests from Research Scholars for access to the records of the Governmen t of India relating to the restricted areas or the Closed Period as laid down in the Access Rules. The Division further scrutinises the excerpts of the Closed Perio d records submitted by the Research Scholars and accords final clearance after du e consultation with the concerned Territorial Divisions. The Division undertakes the task of examining the inaccurate depiction of India's international boundaries in all foreign publications, private as well a s
official, and maintains contacts with Missions abroad for taking up the matter with the publishers or the Government authorities for proper presentation and necessary corrective measures. The Division closely coordinates with the Survey of India and the Ministry of Defence on the question of supply of map sheets to various Government and semi- Government agencies for use in their official work. On India's boundary problems, the Division extended necessary assistance to the particular needs of the related Territorial Divisions. To support the research efforts, a well stocked Library is maintained with ov er one hundred thousand books and documents in its collection. During 1990 alone, 1900 books, 135 maps, 650 pamphlets and 54 reels of microfilm were added. The Library subscribes to 610 periodicals (489 foreign and 121 Indian), besides 41 daily newspapers (28 foreign and 13 Indian). Library is equipped with in-house computer system with seven terminals; a microfilm/fiche reader printer and a plain paper photocopier.

Documentation/Bibliographic Services as well as other library operations and services were computerised using an integrated software package developed in India. Information about books and selected periodical articles received in library since 1986 is available on-line through each terminal. All new docu- ments received in Library--books, maps, microforms, selected articles from peri od- icals etc--were fed into the in-house computer system to create database on Foreign Affairs. Using this database, the Library provides Current Awareness Service and Bibliographical Services. In addition, the Library regularly issued a monthly Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin and an annotated monthly list of books added to the library. Library users including Research Scholars can have access to on-line computer based information held in Library in different databases through Foreign Affair s Information Retrieval System (FAIRS). Photocopying and Computer Print-out facilities are also available to all Library users including Research Scholars.
External Publicity
EXTERNAL PUBLICITY THE External Publicity Division is charged with the task of projecting India's foreign policy and aspects of Indian life while countering adverse publicity overseas. To this end, this Division, during the year under review, w as actively engaged in the dissemination of daily information on developments in India to its Missions abroad; projecting the scientific, industrial and technol ogical developments in India through articles and documentaries and providing material to the Missions abroad to enable them to effectively advocate India's stand on issues of international import and developments within India itself The Division regularly briefed the foreign and Indian media about India's policies. Stress was laid on the coverage of important international events and developments in the region particularly the situation in the Gulf, and in neighbouring countries and India's policy towards them. The Missions in foreign countries were supplied with information on the communal situation in India; th e extremely successful Indian effort in evacuating its nationals following the Ir aqi troops entry into Kuwait; India's efforts to foster an environment of peace and development in the region; the Indian contribution to making the SAARC an effective instrument of regional development and the Government's policy to tackle the situation in Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab etc.

In order to acquaint the foreign media and Press with developments in India, the Press Relations Section of the Division organized interviews for the foreig n media with dignitaries such as the Indian Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers and others. The Press Relations Section also provided the necessary assistance to Indian journalists who were visiting other countries to cover foreign policy is sues; it coordinated the approval of documentary films made by foreign film companies
and also provided the necessary media coverage for all foreign delegations visiting India as well as for foreign visits of VVIPs from India including cove rage of the Fifth SAARC Summit held at Mate in November 1990. During the period from Apr 01, 1990 to 31 January 1991, one hundred eighty four documentaries were approved by the Press Relations Section of the Division. Foreign journalists from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Hungary, the Philippi - nes and Indonesia were provided hospitality. In addition, ten scholar journal- ists visited India during January 1991 on full hospitality granted by the Divis ion. Of the VVIPs visits to India, among others, the Press Relations Section was extensively involved in the coverage of the visits of Prime Minister of Japan between April and May 1990; Bangladesh Foreign Minister in May 1990; Prime Minister of Nepal in June 1990; Minister of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan in June 1990; Mrs Brundtland as Chairperson of World Commission on Environ- ment and Development in September 1990, Cambodian Prime Minister in October 1990; Dr Nelson Mandela in October 1990; King of Bhutan in November 1990; and the President of Nauru in December 1990.

The activities of the anti-nationalist elements overseas were closely moni- tored and efforts were made to counter adverse publicity in the foreign Press and media generated by organizations and individuals supporting the extremist and secessionist elements in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. Special briefings were held on the then External Affairs Minister's visit to Sri Lanka, China, Belgrade and Iran; Deputy Minister for External Affairs' visit to Algiers and Harare; Foreign Secretary's visit to Malaysia and Iran; Secretary(East)'s visit to Cambodia; as also visits of the Presidents of Maldives, Germany and Romania; and the Vice Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Vietnam to India in January 1991. In order to keep foreign audiences acquainted with the multi-faceted character of India, the Division undertook the production of quality documen- taries. During the year, subjects like Muslims in India, Christianity in India and Information on Technology in India were covered. A documentary 'Figures of Thought' portraying the life and work of three noted contemporary painters was completed. The documentary received excellent reviews in the national media and was assessed by the film critics as a highly creative work o f art. The film was also selected for the Panorama Section in the International Film Festival held in Madras in January 1991. Similarly, documentaries on
Bharatnatyam dance produced by the noted exponent of Bharatnatyam Leela Samson and on Odissi dance by Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra are in the pipeline. To coincide with the historic visit of Dr Mandela, the Division organized the production of a documentary on Dr Mandela's life which was telecast during his stay in India. The Division also arranged for the telecast of documentaries on India in other countries under the Cultural Exchange Programme on the occasions of Indian Independence and Republic Days. A Photo Exhibition on the late Vietnamese President Ho Chi Minh was organized in April 1990 to celebrate his birth centenary. The Division continue d to supply Missions abroad with feature films and documentaries on India for telecast by local television stations as well as screening by Missions to local audiences. Photographs of national leaders and personalities were sent to Missions to be utilised by the local media for their magazines and journals and for special supplements on India.

The Division continued to assist Indian Missions with material to be publishe d in 'house journals' in different languages which were locally distributed by th e Missions to provide uptodate information on developments of significance in Ind ia. In addition, the Division launched the Urdu and Arabic editions of its prestigi ous magazine 'India Perspectives,' The Division also brought out a book on 'Muslims in India' in English, Urdu and Arabic which was highly appreciated by recipients i n many countries and the Division received a number of demands for additional copies. The 'Muslims in India' is the first in a planned series of books on dif ferent communities in India aimed at projecting their contribution to the creation of a modem, secular India.

Indians Overseas

IT is estimated that there are about 12 million persons of Indian origin residing in different parts of the world. These include those who continue to retain Indian citizenship. It has been the consistent policy of the Government of India that persons of Indian origin who have taken foreign citizenship should identity themselves wit h and integrate in the country of their domicile. The Government naturally remains alive to the interests and general welfare of the Overseas Indians and encourages cultural contacts with them.

Indian citizens residing abroad are primarily the concern of the Government of India and the Government continues to exercise due care for their safety and welfare and takes all necessary steps in this regard. It was in keeping with th is obligation and keeping in view the wishes of the Indian community that the Government organized the evacuation of nearly 1.5 lakh Indians from Kuwait and Iraq following the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait on Aug 02, 1990, the work being coordinated by the Special Coordination Unit and the Overseas Indians Division. The Division has been created in the Ministry with a view to develop social, economic, and cultural contacts between India and the Overseas Indians. Mis- sions have been instructed to maintain close contacts with Overseas Indians and render all possible assistance. The Division disseminates information about matters of interest to Overseas Indians through Missions abroad. It also represents the Ministry in inter-ministerial deliberations involving NRI affair s. In addition, the Division is trying to develop a database on Overseas Indians.
As the nodal point for all matters pertaining to Overseas Indians, the Divisi on coordinated arrangements for assistance by the Government of India and the Stat e Government of Andhra Pradesh to the Mauritian National Organizing Committee in holding the Third World Telugu Conference. The conference was held in Port Louis, Mauritius, from 9 to 12 December 1990.



DURING the year under review, the Heads of Mission of the following 25 countries left India on completion of their tenure (up to Dec 14, 1990): Venezuela, Nicaragua, Chile, Italy, Sudan, Argentina, Romania, Guyana, Norway , Holy See, Mexico, Colombia, Liberia, Japan, Bulgaria, Canada, Spain, Lebanon, Australia, Pakistan, Jordan, Federal Repubilc of Germany, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Panama and the Netherlands. During the same period, the Heads of Mission of the following 20 countries presented their credentials to the President of India (up to 14 December 1990): Guinea, Morocco, Italy, Venezuela, Chile, Sudan, Mexico, Argentina, Spain, Guyana, Lebanon, Kenya, Ireland, Japan, Norway, Pakistan, Holy See, Australia, Brunei Darussalam and Federal Republic of Germany. India decided to grant diplomatic status to the office of the African Nationa l Congress in New Delhi. A list of Heads of State/Government who visited India during 1990-91 is at Appendix XV.

Passport And Consular Services


DURING the year 1990, several innovative measures were introduced by the Consular, Passport and Visa (CPV) Division to rationalise, simplify and further streamline the functioning of the passport offices in India and consular sectio ns of the Indian Missions/Posts abroad. These measures were initiated to maintain a time schedule in issue of passport and render prompt and efficient service in a ll types of cases by the passport offices to the public all over India. The visa p olicy was also amended considerably. One of the various recommendations made by the All India Passport Officers' conference held from 14 to Feb 16, 1990 in New Delhi pertained to the handling of Mission's references by opening a separate d esk in the passport offices. The conference also recommended simplification of the procedures in general. These have been implemented.

A new verification system to issue passports expeditiously was introduced from 1 June 1990. Under this system, any Government servant/employee of the Public Sector Undertaking applying for passport through the Head of Department with No Objection Certificate (NOC), any sitting or former MP/MLA/MLC, any child below 15 years of age, and any person who applies for a passport with a prescribed, verification certificates signed by a competent officer can be give n passport without prior verification. In all other cases, passport is to be issu ed after four weeks of waiting for the police/CID verification reports. This syste m has proved very useful in cutting down delay in issue of passports all over Ind ia. It has also been decided that from 16 August 1990 all international passports will continue to be in force for 10 years at a stretch and a fresh passport val id for 10 years is to be issued on final expiry of a passport after 10 years from the date of its issue, without conducting any prior police verification.
Other procedures streamlined relate to:
(a) Waiver of Submission of NOC by Government servants/ employees holding passports for ten years;
(b) Acceptance of application for renewal of passports earlier than one year of the expiry of its initial validity;
(c) Issue of police clearance certificates for Kuwait repatriates;
(d) Abolition of the system of affixing thumb impression by literate persons on passport application form;
(e) Acceptance of notarised affidavit as proof of date of birth and marital status of ladies (acceptance of a. couple's photograph and sworn affidavit/marriage certificate); and
(f) In a bid to further simplify the passport application forms, their number has been reduced from 4 to 2. Separate forms have been prescribed for India and Missions.

As a part of the programme of expansion of Computerisation, Regional Passport Office, Delhi was computerised by installation of 436 computers. The Government of India made various relaxations in 1990 relating to the grant of visas to foreign nationals. Accordingly, tourists can avail of six mon ths multi-entry visas. Foreigners who are frequent visitors and foreigners, of Indi an origin can be granted five years multi-entry visas also. Efforts are being made for the issue of visas on the same day or maximum by the next working day.

Visa fees for foreign nationals vary from country to country, as the prime consideration is reciprocity. Recently, in order to promote tourism, visa fees for the nationals of Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Fr ance, the USA and the UK were unilaterally reduced for one year on an experimental basis.
As a gesture to elder persons, the Government of India introduced a scheme of giving gratis visa for persons above 65 years of age. In addition, a new mode of payment of visa fees was introduced for the convenience of visa seekers. Thus, payments can now be made by cheques, credit cards and traveller cheques as well. The Government of India have recently liberalised Landing Permit facilities t o foreigners with certain exceptions.

Prevention of Photo substitution and other types of forgeries is one of the prime concerns of a Passport Issuing Authority. In order to minimise such forgeries in Indian passports, the More Secured Passports (MSPs) were introduce d in 1990. About 400 cases of passport forgery were detected. Concerned Passport Officers were asked to initiate necessary action in all cases. These cases rela te to passports issued before the introduction of the MSPs.

About 400 cases for issue of Identity Certificate were processed and approval conveyed to the Passport Officers. Fifty cases of South Africa endorsements on Indian Passports including visits of cultural/Press groups were also processed. Twenty eight appeals, were received during the year of which seven were decided. Ten appeals of previous years were also decided.

Over 1100 complaints in respect of delay in issue of passports by various Passport Officers were reported of which over 600 cases were settled. Two hundred twenty five cases of renewal and 50 cases of fresh recognition of Travel Agencies were approved. During 1990, one thousand twenty four cases of deportation of Indian nationals by Foreign Governments were brought to the notice of the Government Of India. Indian Missions and Posts abroad repatriated 86 Indian nationals on Government cost. During the year, approximately 4726 Indian nationals were arrested in foreign countries. All possible consular assistance was rendered to them and in some cases their release and return to India was facilitated.
Five hundred thirty one cases of death of foreign nationals in India were als o handled. About 905 cases of death compensation in respect of Indian nationals died abroad were processed. One lakh three thousand one hundred eighty one documents received from the public for submission to foreign authorities were attested/authenticated by the Division. The work relating to the administration of the passport offices was made more accountable. According to the suggestion made by the All India Passport Officers' conference, a new transfer policy has been evolved modifying the guidelines of 1982, keeping in view the welfare of all the officials especially those of group 'C'. Passport, offices at Srinagar, Bareilly, Trichy, Patna, Panaji, Lucknow and Guwahati were inspected during the year. The then External Affairs Minister visited and inspected RPO Bombay and PLO Trivandrum. During the year 1,538,783 new passports were issued. Appendix VII details the input-output figures in respect of passports and miscellaneous services. Appendix VIII gives the revenue-expenditure figures. In addition, a total of 1425 Diplomatic and 4651 official passports were issued. Seven thousand two hundred eighty miscellaneous services were also rendered. All the 22 Passport Offices and two Passport Liaison Offices functioned normally except the Passport Office in Srinagar which was gutted by fire during February 1990. Presently the work of that office is being looked after by the Regional Passport Office, Delhi.

The recognition to travel agencies started by ex-servicemen has been liberalised with a view to assisting their prompt rehabilitation. Provisional recognition could be granted without their meeting the existing criteria of off ice space, telephone, number of employees etc for a period of one year; but they ha ve to fulfil the criteria before the expiry of the provisional recognition period.

Administration And Organization
ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANIZATION SHRI V C Shukla assumed charge as Minister for External Affairs on Nov 21, 1990. His resignation was accepted on 21 February 1991. Shri Digvijay Singh, Deputy Minister for Finance assumed additional charg e of Deputy Minister for External Affairs on 28 November 1990. Earlier, Shri I K Gujral and Shri Hari Kishore Singh demitted charge as Minister for External Aff airs and Minister of State respectively on 10 November 1990. Shri Hari Kishore Singh had taken over as Minister of State on 23 April 1990. Shri Muchkund Dubey assumed charge as Foreign Secretary on 19 April 1990 consequent on the voluntary retirement from service of Shri S K Singh, earlier Foreign Secretary. Shri L L Mehrotra, formerly High Commissioner of India in Sr i Lanka, was appointed Secretary (East) in the Ministry of External Affairs on 6 June 1990. Shri A N D Haksar relinquished charge of the post of Dean, Foreign Servic e Training Institute on 24 August 1990 to take up a diplomatic assignment abroad. Shri K Doshi succeeded Shri A N D Haksar as Dean, FSTI. Shri A K Banerjee, Secretary and Financial Advisor retired on superannuation on 31 October 1990. Following the declaration of independence of Namibia, a High Commission of India was established in Windhoek and commenced functioning on 25 March 1990 with Shri S S Mukherjee as India's first High Commissioner to Namibia. With the unification of Germany, India's Consulate General in west Berlin was closed. An office of the Embassy of India in Germany was opened in Berlin, replacing the Indian Embassy to the erstwhile GDR.
Consequent on the unification of Yemen, the Embassy of India in Aden was closed and replaced by a Consulate General. The Ministry now has 140 Resident Missions/Posts abroad manned by officials from India.

The total sanctioned strength of the IFS and IFS(B) at Headquarters and India n Missions/Posts abroad is 3436. The Cadre-wise strength is at Appendix IX. The list of officers in this Ministry qualified in various foreign languages is at Appendix X.

The momentum with regard to acquisition of property and construction projects for Indian Missions abroad was maintained. The Ministry completed transactions for the purchase of built-up property for Chanceries at Lima and Cairo. The Ministry also purchased a plot of land for the campus of the Foreign Service Training Institute in Delhi and built-up property for the office of the Regional Passport Office in Madras. A proposal for the purchase of built-up properties in Tehran is under active consideration. Construction work in the Chancery cum residence project at Lagos has been substantially completed. Construction of the office cum residence building for the Permanent Mission of India at New York, Chancery and staff residences in Kuala Lumpur and Chancery cum residence at Dubai are at an advanced stage of progress and scheduled for completion during 1991. The project comprising the Chancery, Embassy residence and staff residences at Kuwait was substantially completed in July 1990.

Administrative inspection of Indian Missions in Mogadishu, Khartoum, Kinsh- asa, Rangoon, Tunis, Algiers, Rabat, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Male, Colombo, Amman and Tehran took place during the year. Computers were provided to the Mission in Saudi Arabia for streamlining the handling of Haj work.

Foreign Service Training Institute
FOREIGN SERVICE TRAINING INSTITUTE THE training activities of the Foreign Service Training Institute (FSTI) increased manifold during the year under, review. Among the important courses organized were the 26-module Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for IFS Probationers, a Refresher Course of Commercial Officers abroad, a Familiarisation Programme for resident Foreign diplomats, th e Basic Professional Course for IFS(B) Personnel and three training programmes in the use of computers for Ministry of External Affairs officials. In all, 29 cou rses were conducted. A Foreign language training programme for IFS Probationers was launched from January 1991.

During the year under review, FSTI organized the following training courses:
(i) Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for IFS Probationers--2 courses;
(ii) Orientation Programme for Spouses--2 courses;
(iii) Refresher Course for Commercial Officers abroad--2 courses;
(iv) Orientation Programme for State/UT Protocol Officers--1 course;
(v) Programme on Crises Management--1 course;

(vi) Familiarisation Programme for Resident Foreign Diplomats--2 courses,
(vii) Programme for Senior Diplomats from Commonwealth Countries--1 course;
(viii) Orientation Programme for IOC officials--1 course;
(ix) Refresher Course for SOs and Assistants--1 course;
(x) Basic Professional Course for IFS(B) Personnel being posted abroad--3 courses;
(xi) Induction Course for newly recruited Assistants--1 course;
(xii) Induction Course for newly recruited Stenographers--1 course;
(xiii) Computer Course for Senior Ministry of External Affairs Officers--2 courses; and
(xiv) Basic Data Management Course through Computers--9 courses;. UNDTCD and the Government of India have signed an agreement in terms of which the former will provide funds to the extent of US $ 663,100 to FSTI for strengthening and enhancing its capabilities in training and development progra m- mes for the upgradation of the capacity of its trainers. The funds will also be used for updating curriculum designs for multi-level training, preparation of i n- depth training packages/materials in selected areas to augment the quality of training at all levels to meet the current and future needs of the Government.

The second meeting of the FSTI Advisory Committee was held in April under the Chairmanship of the then Minister for External Affairs. The Committee reviewed the functioning of FSTI and approved several measures. A 6-acre plot of land has been purchased by the Ministry of External Affairs in the old JNU Campus for FSTI. Construction of the Office Buildings, Hostels and ancillaries is to commence soon.
FSTI continued to maintain contacts with other training institutions both in India and abroad. In September 1990, the Dean attended the Conference of the Association of Diplomatic Academies and Institutes of International Relations i n Cairo.
Use Of Hindi In Official Work
USE OF HINDI IN OFFICIAL WORK HINDI Section of this Ministry is responsible for the implementation of Official Language policy of the Government of India at the Headquarters, Regional Passport Offices located in India and Missions/Posts abroad and also f or propagation of Hindi abroad. In addition, it caters to the entire translation w ork from English to Hindi and vice versa of the Ministry. During the year under review, the Ministry reconstituted its Hindi Advisory Committee and organized i ts first meeting on Sep 30, 1990. There is an Official Language Implementa- tion Committee also in the Ministry and during the year its meetings were held and action taken on the decisions adopted therein. During the year, the Ministry implemented various schemes of progressive use of Hindi at the Headquarters. Three workshops for those who have attained the working knowledge of Hindi were organized to remove their hesitation in doing their official work in Hindi.

Twenty seven sections were inspected with a view to review the progress made by them in the implementation of official language policy of the Govern- ment. During the inspection, deficiencies were pointed out and defaulting sections were ordered to remove them. Six typists were nominated for Hindi Typing Training and five officers were also sent for Hindi training. In compliance of the Department of Official Language's instructions, Hindi Week was observed and various competitions were organized. Special Consultation Cell was set up at Akbar Bhawan during the week to remove the problems faced by the employees intending to do their official work in Hindi.
The Ministry introduced a Rajbhasha running shield scheme for its Regional Passport Offices located in India to encourage them to do maximum work in Hindi during the year. The scheme carries a running shield and a cash award of Rs 1000 as First Prize, a cup with a cash prize of Rs 750 as Second Prize and a cup with a cash prize of Rs 500 as. Third Prize. As a result, Passport Offices in Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Jaipur and Delhi gave good performances. Passport Office at Ahmedabad is doing nearly cent percent of its official work in Hindi. The Committee of Parliament on Official Language visited Passport Offices at Calcut ta and Ahmedabad and also the Indian Council for Cultural Relations. The quarterly progress reports regarding progressive use of Hindi received from Passport Offices were reviewed and deficiencies pointed out. They were advised to adhere to the rules. In discharge of its obligation regarding propagation of Hindi abroad, the Ministry processed the demands received from the Governmental and Non- Governmental bodies, and individuals engaged in the propagation of Hindi abroad and sent the required Hindi teaching aid material, Hindi typewriters etc to the m through Indian Missions free of cost. In addition, the Ministry proposes to donate a kit of Hindi teaching aid material to 100 Universities/Institutions te aching Hindi abroad. The proposal was approved by the Finance Division of the Ministry and the material is expected to be despatched shortly.

During the year, the Missions abroad were requested to explore the possibilities for the propagation of Hindi in the country of their accreditatio n. Embassy of India, Seoul organized debates in the Hangcook University of foreign studies and the foreign participants were suitably rewarded. Besides, the Missions in Port Louis, London, Kathmandu, Port of Spain, Paramaribo and Georgetown were doing good work. Hindi classes for children continued to be held in the Missions and this scheme produced good results. As in the past, OSD (Hindi) was sent to New York to help the members of the Indian delegation to the UN General Assembly intending to speak in Hindi during the year. He also visited Guyana and Trinidad & Tobago with a view to explore the possibilities of propagation of Hindi in these countries.
Cultural Relations
CULTURAL RELATIONS THE Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) which was established in 1950 with the basic objectives of establishing and strengthening cultural relations and exchanges between India and other countries continued to work steadily during the year under review. The Council while maintaining traditional and historical ties with all countr ies in the field of culture, continued to make special efforts to strengthen its interaction with and the projection of culture in Asia, Africa and Latin Americ a. Among the highlights of this year's activities, the ICCR, in association with the Sangeet Natak Akademi, convened the India International Puppetry Festival in September 1990 which consisted of performances, workshops, symposium and exhibitions of puppets and masks from 26 countries in six continents. The groups visited over 25 cities in India. ICCR in collaboration with the Sangeet Natak Akademi also convened the India International Dance Festival with eminent dancers and choreographers conducting performances, lecture demonstrations and a special workshop for Indian dance students. The participants were drawn from 24 countries and they interacted with their Indian counterparts. They also presented over 50 shows in various Indian cities and towns. A symposium was held on "International Trends in Puppetry" and a seminar on "Dance : Plural Vocabularies on Movement" to coincide with these two festivals. A workshop on "Towards on Open Technique" was also organized during the Dance Festival, conducted by Mr Charles Reinhart, Director, American Dance Festival, USA. A number of foreign and Indian experts participated in these events.
Both these festivals were the first of their kind to be held in India on this scale. Their emphasis on interactive activities between Indian and foreign maestros and experts, and the participation of countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America on large scale have been widely acclaimed and welcomed by participants and the press alike. This year, Africa Day was celebrated on May 25, 1990 with a special African Festival called The Arts of Africa 1990 involving performing groups from 6 countries and exhibitions from 5 countries of Africa. Special invitees on the occasion were Mr Alfred Nzo, Secretary General of the African National Congress and Mr J W Wentworth, Minister of Education and Culture from Namibia. It was the biggest presentation of events from Africa to be seen in India. The response to and public participation in these events were enthusiastic and heartwarming.

The Council also organized a series of events entitled Switzerland in India 1991 (February-March 1991) in reciprocity to the India in Switzerland events held in 1987. These included visits by three performing arts groups, four exhibitions, a film festival and a poets' and writers' symposium. Special guest s included Swiss Senator Rosemarie Simmon, noted artist Hans Erni and photo- grapher Rene Burri. The Council also organized a series of concerts under the Parivar Parampara and Guru Shishya Parampara, a festival of Chhau dances and special performances on the occasion of important seminars, conferences and VIP gatherings. It may be noted that in keeping with our special interest in inviting groups from priority areas, the Council received 15 groups from Asia, 10 from Africa, 8 from Latin America and 2 from West Asia. This was close to 50% of the total number of foreign groups visiting India during the period under review. The 1990 Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Memorial Lecture was delivered by Nobel Laureate Sir Andrew Huxley on 19 March 1991 on the theme "Science : A Supra-National Activity." The winners of the 1989 Maulana Azad Eassay Competition on "Secularism and Nationalism" were given prizes on 8 September 1990 by the Vice President of India at the closing ceremony of the Maulana Azad Centenary celebrations.
ICCR organized a civic reception and a cultural programme in honour of Dr Nelson Mandela at Indira Gandhi Stadium in Delhi on 15 October 1990 which was well attended and televised nation-wide. The 1989 Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding has been conferred on Mr Robert G Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe and will be awarded to him on his visit to India. During the period under review, the Council sponsored 63 cultural troupes to participate in important international festivals and to give individual perform ances at the invitations of foreign governments as well as private institutions. A ma jor effort was made to participate effectively in the "Ramayana Festival" held in Mauritius in August 1990 with not only performing arts but also several delegat es and an exhibition on Ramayana Crafts. The artists sent abroad included prominent dancers such as Sanjukta Panigrahi, Sonal Mansingh and Vyjayanthimala Bali in various classical disciplines such as Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi, Manipuri , Kathak and Odissi. Similarly, eminent musicians such as Ustad Amjad Ali Khan, D r L Subramaniam, Maharajapuram Santhanam, Hari Prasad Chaurasia and Arvind Parikh were sponsored to various countries. Popular music group of Usha Uthup and Remo Fernandes were also sponsored in addition to folk music and folk dance groups from Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Rajasthan etc. Special efforts were made to project Indian theatre abroad by sending the theatre groups of Rattan Thiyam, Dinesh Thakur and the Yaksharanga Kendra group led by Kota Shiva Rama Karanth. The Council has been responsible for the welfare of foreign students studying in India. In June 1990 all work of scholarships for foreign students, which was being dealt with by the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, was handed over to the Council. About 1800 government scholars studying under various scholarships schemes now come under the direct purview of the Council. ICCR has already initiated several steps to streamline the handling of this work, including computerization of all foreign students data, enhancing substantially the stipend for all foreign student scholarship holders , strengthening the role of Foreign Students Advisors at the Universities and the role of ICCR's Regional Directors in handling foreign students work.

The Council organized a number of programmes for the welfare of foreign students during the year under review. There was one summer camp in Shimla- Kulu-Manali and the second covering Ooty-Mysore-Bangalore. Over 65 foreign
students from different countries paritcipated in these two camps. Five study tours were organized to Bombay and Goa during the December vacations. Over 225 foreign students from various countries participated in these study tours. Foreign Students Day was celebrated on 11 November 1990 in Delhi and all the Regional Offices for the benefit of foreign students studying in India. For promoting greater awareness and appreciation of Indian cultural heritage abroad, the Council has established Indian Cultural Centres in Georgetown (Guyana), Jakarta (Indonesia), Moscow (USSR), Port Louis (Mauritius) and Paramaribo (Suriname). The Centre at Fiji was closed in May 1990 along with the closure of the Indian Embassy, Indian music, dance and languages are taught at these Centres by Indian teachers deputed by the Council. The Centre at Moscow also conducts courses in Yoga with the help of teachers deputed from India. These Centres maintain libraries and reading rooms, organize lectures, symposia, exhibitions, essay competitions, performances of dance and music, staging of plays, screening of films and publication of news bulletins. The Centres are expected to develop and maintain contacts with a wide cross section of local citizens including students, teachers, scholars and cultural personali ties. Books, cassettes, video tapes and musical instruments etc have been sent to these cultural centres. Separately under various schemes, the Council sends abroad Visiting Professors for teaching Indology, Indian languages and allied subjects. During the period under review over 21 academics were in position abroad. The major exhibitions sent abroad during the year were "Splendours of Indian Textiles" compiled by Shri Martand Singh to China, and exhibition of textiles, handicrafts and books on Ramayana to Mauritius on the occasion of International Ramayana Conference, and paintings and graphics by M F Hussain and Shamshad Hussain to Egypt. Some of the exhibitions that were received by ICCR were the Art of Chinese Carvings, Sculptures from Zimbabwe, Makonde Carvings from Tanzania, Coptic Art from Ethiopia and Arts and Crafts of Namibia. An exhibition from African countries was organized to coincide with the Africa Day celebrations. "PUTUL" an exhibition of Indian and foreign puppets was organized by the Council in collaboration with the Sangeet Natak Akademi. A large number of puppets were received for display from abroad.
The Council co-sponsored an exhibition titled "Yankee Traders and Calcutta Merchants" under the aegis of the Indo-US Sub Commission on Education and Culture. An exhibition of Design from Sweden was also circulated in India during this period. As in the previous years, the Council sent out scholars, writers, intellectua ls, academicians and persons from different walks of life during the year. Emphasis were again put on the developing and neighbouring countries. Out of 117 persons sponsored by ICCR during the year, 20 were sent to Asia, 30 to Africa, 4 to Austrlia, 4 to Latin America, 13 to USA and Canada and 46 to European countries. To highlight the Outgoing Visitors Programme, the Council sent 13 scholars to participate in VIII World Sanskrit Conference held in Vienna, 15 scholars to participate in the International Ramayana Conference held in Maurit ius, 7 scholars to attend the 33rd International, Congress of Asian and North Africa n Studies held in Toronto and 6 scholars to participate in the Ramayana Conferenc e held in Suriname. Similarly, of the 91 Incoming Visitors received by ICCR under our disting- uished Visitors Programme, 37 persons were from Asia, 7 from Africa, 2 from Lat in America, 1 from Australia, 7 from USA and Canada and 37 from European countries. One of the highlights of this year's publication programme of the Council was the special release function arranged by the Ministry of Human Resource Development for its 4 volume publication India's Maulana (in English, Urdu and Hindi) commemorating Maulana Abut Kalam Azad's contributions to education, culture and international understanding. These volumes were brought out in commemoration of the centenary of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad's birth. This decision was in consistent with an announcement made by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on 24 February 1959 that a collection of the well-known writings and speeches of Maulana Azad representing his views on various matters will be published by the Government of India. The Publication Division of the Council continued to publish quarterly journals Indian Horizons and Africa Quarterly in English; Gagananchal in Hindi; Thaqafatul Hindi in Arabic; Recontre avec 1' Inde in French and Papeles de la I ndia in Spanish During this period, the following books were published; India and World Literature, Indian Music (reprint); Science, Socialism and Humanism and
Discovery of India (Vietnamese edition) The following tides are under active preparation: Buddhism and National Cultures; Jawaharlal Nehru: An Anthology (Arabic edition); Continual Renewal; Directory of Cultural Organizations in Ind ia; and Theatre in Asia. The Council participated in International Book Fairs and Book Exhibitions in Egypt, Singapore and Malaysia through the National Book Trust. The presentation section coordinated the purchase of books and objects of art which were sent through our Missions to cultural and educational institutio ns abroad. Major presentations included the sending of several sets of books on the Ramayana in different Indian languages to Mauritius. As part of the ongoing programme on streamlining and modernising the work of the Council, the archives of video and audio recordings of the performing art and artistes and maintenance of valid records and data bank of performances has been undertaken and is going apace. Special video films were produced during the year on the Arts of Africa, the India International Puppetr y Festival and the India International Dance Festival. Extracts from these audio- visual materials were utilised by Doordarshan to ensure public access to these events. The Council's library continued to offer its services to its readers and research scholars. The library now has over 75,000 volumes and had more than 5000 visitors this year. Several leading scholars utilised the library's services and have acknowledged its contribution in their publication. The library has started the preparation of a descriptive catalogue of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad's collection of documents presented to the ICCR. The Africa Section of the Library was retrieved from Patiala House and now offers oppor- tunities for research in African Studies. The Computer Section, which began as a part of the library has become operational and programmes have been developed for an Artist's Data Bank and Foreign Students Data Bank which will be essential for speedy information retrieval and safe data storage. The Council provides the Secretariat of the Indo-US Sub Commission and also coordinates with other departments/organizations. The joint Committee
meetings on Cultural Heritage, and Endeavour and Media were held on 29 and 30 November and 3 and 4 December 1990 respectively. The Council hosted a full meeting of the Indo-US Sub Commission on Education and Culture at Azad Bhawan on 29 and 30 March 1990. The Council continued to supervise the work of Foreign Cultural Centres in India, especially those operating in places where there was no official represe nta- tion of the country concerned. Thus the Council supervises the operations of British Council libraries in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Ranchi, Trivandrum and Hyderabad; the Affiance Francaise in Ahmedabad, Banga- lore, Bhopal, Bombay, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Goa, Hyderabad, Madras, Pondicherry , Pune, Trivandrum and Delhi; the Max Mueller Bhawan in Bangalore, Bombay, Hyderabad, Pune, Madras, Calcutta and Delhi; and the House of Soviet Culture in Trivandrum. The Council provides administrative support to these foreign centres and also collaborates with them whenever possible in organizing cultura l programmes. The Council functions from its Headquarters in New Delhi and seven Regional Offices. The Regional Offices located at Bombay, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Calcutta, Lucknow, Madras and Trivandrum have been active in promoting its work in places other than Delhi. There has been active interest shown by the Government of Andhra Pradesh in opening of a new ICCR Regional Office in Hyderabad and rent free premises have been offered. Construction work on ICCR's prestigious Calcutta Cultural Complex cum Regional Office project with Charles Correa as Architect is to commence soon.

Appendix I Division-wise List of Countries

Ministry of External Affairs -- Division-wise List of Countries

1 Angola
2 Benin 38 Tanzania
3 Botswana 39 Togo
4 Burkina Faso 40 Uganda
5 Burundi 41 Zaire
6 Cameroon 42 Zambia
7 Cape Verde Islands 43 Zimbabwe
8 Central African Republic
10 Comoros
11 Congo 1 Canada
12 Equatorial Guinea 2 United States of America(including Bahamas)
13 Ethiopia
14 Gabon
15 Gambia   BM DIVISION
16 Ghana
17 Guinea 1 Bangladesh
18 Guinea Bissau 2 Myanmar
19 Cote d' Ivoire
21 Lesotho 1 People's Republic of China
22 Liberia 2 Hongkong
23 Madagascar 3 Japan
24 Malawi 4 Democratic People's Republic of Korea
25 Mali 5 Republic of Korea
26 Mauritius 6 People's Republic of Mongolia
27 Mozambique
28 Namibia
29 Niger   EE DIVISION
30 Nigeria 1 People's Socialist Republic of Albania
31 Rwanda 2 Republic of Bulgaria
32 Sao Tome & Principe 3 Czech & Solvak Republic
33 Senegal 4 Republic of Hungary
34 Seychelles 5 Republic of Poland
35 Sierra Leone 6 Romania
36 South Africa 7 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
37 Swaziland 8 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1 Austria 1 Antigua & Barbuda
2 Belgium 2 Argentina
3 Cyprus 3 Barbados
4 Denmark 4 Belize
5 Finland 5 Bolivia
6 France 6 Brazil
7 Germany, Federal Republic of 7 Chile
8 Gibraltar 8 Colombia
9 Greece 9 Costa Rica
10 Holy See, The 10 Cuba
11 Iceland 11 Commonwealth of Dominica
12 Ireland 12 Dominican Republic
13 Italy 13 Ecuador
14 Liechtenstein 14 El Salvador
15 Luxembourg 15 Grenada
16 Malta 16 Guatemala
17 Monaco 17 Guyana
18 Netherlands 18 Haiti
19 Norway 19 Honduras
20 Portugal 20 Jamaica
21 San Marino 21 Mexico
22 Spain 22 Nicaragua
23 Sweden 23 Panama
24 Switzerland 24 Paraguay
25 Turkey 25 Peru
26 United Kingdom of Great Britain 26 St Christopher and Nevis
and Northern Ireland 27 St Lucia
  28 St Vincent and the Grenadines
1 Bahrain 30 Trinidad & Tobago
2 Iraq 31 Uruguay
3 Kuwait 32 Venezuela
5 Qatar
6 Saudi Arabia 1 Bhutan
7 Republic of Yemen 2 Nepal
8 United Arab Emirates
IAP DIVISION 1 Australia
1 Afghanistan 2 Brunei
2 Iran 3 Cambodia
3 Pakistan 4 Fiji
5 Indonesia 1 Sri Lanka
6 Kiribati 2 Maldives
7 Laos 3 Indian Ocean
8 Malaysia   WANA DIVISION
9 Nauru
10 New Caledonia 1 Algeria
11 New Zealand 2 Djibouti
  3 Egypt
12 Papua New Guinea 4 Israel
13 Philippines 5 Jordan
14 Western Samoa 6 League of Arab States
15 Singapore 7 Lebanon
16 Society Islands 8 Libya
17 Solomon Islands 9 Mauritania
18 Thailand 10 Morocco
    11 Palestine
19 Tonga 12 SADR (Sahrawi Arab Democratic
20 Tuvalu   Republic)
21 UN Trust Territories in South Pacific 13 Somalia
22 Vanuatu 14 Sudan
23 Vietnam 15 Syria
16 Tunisia
Appendix II Treaties/Conventions/Agreements

Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India with
other countries in 1990.*
Sl Title of Convention/ Date of Date of Date on
No Treaty/Agreement etc Signature Ratification, which
      Accession entered into
      or force
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Apartheid in Sports
1 International Convention against Apar-Sep 12, 1990 12.10.1990
theid in Sports
European Economic Com-
2 Agreement between India and the Euro- 10.11.1989 10.11.1989
pean Economic Community-Streng-
thening of Veterinary Services for Lives-
tock Disease Control
Hazardous Wastes
3 Basel Convention on the Control of 15.3.1990
Transboundary Movement of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal
Integrated Circuits
4 Treaty on Intellectual Property in re- 25.6.1990
spect of Integrated Circuits
International Coffee Agreement
5 Extension of the international
Coffee Agreement,1983 Jute Agreement 29.9.1989 27.3.1990 27.3.1990
6 International Agreement on jute
and jute Products, 1989 28.8.1990 17.9.199 17.9.1990
Narcotic Drugs Psychotropic
7 United Nations Convention against Illicit     27.3.1990
  Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychot-
  ropic Substances
  *This list is not exhaustive.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
8 SAARC Convention on Narcotic Drugs 23.11.1990
and Psychotropic Substances
Oil Pollution Compensation
9 International Convention on the
Establ- 10.7.1990 8.10.1990
ishment of an International Fund for
Compensation for the Pollution Damage,
1971 and its 1976 Protocol
United Nations Development
10 Agreement between India and the Un- 15.2.1990 15.2.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/004-
Upgrading Research & Training Capacity
of the W Bahadur Shashtri National
11 Agreement between India and the Un- 22.2.1990 22.2.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding the Project No. IND/109/A/
01/01--Development of Gemstone Re-
sources of Orissa State
12 Agreement between India and the Un- 28.2.1990 28.2.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding the Project No. IND/89/133/
A/01/37--Process & Product Develop-
ment Centre for Essential Oils, Kannauj
13 Agreement between India and the Un- 1.3.1990 1.3.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. DP/IND/90/005/
A/01/37--Development of Tech-
nologies for Utilization of Blue Dust &
Kimberlite Waste Material
14 Agreement between India and the Un- 1.3.1990   1.3.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/006-
Upgrading Training Capabilities of
National institute of Design
15 Agreement between India and the Un- 27.4.1990   27.4.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/007/A/
01/12-- Phytotron Facility at Indian
Agricultural Resources Institute
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
16 Agreement between India and the Un-#30.4.1990   30.4.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/008/A/
01/01-- Automated Operation of Irriga-
tion Canal Systems
17 Agreement between India and the Un- 23.5.1990   23.5.1990
  ited Nations Development Programme
  regarding Project No. DP/IND/90/
  014--Establishment of a Centre for
  Electronics Design & Technology on
  Process Control & Instrumentation
18 Agreement between India and the Un- 24.5.1990   24.5.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. DP/IND/90/18-
Assistance to the Centre for VLSI Design
& Prototyping
19 Agreement between India and the Un- 21.6.1990   21.6.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/010-
Programme for the Improvement of the
Glass Industry, Firozabad (PIGI)
20 Agreement between India and the Un- 22.7.1990   22.7.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/017-
Strengthening of the Foreign Service
Training Institute (FSTI)
21 Agreement between India and the Un- 14.9.1990   14.9.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/035/A/
01/99--Strengthening of National Insti-
tute of Fashion Technology
22 Agreement between India and the Un- 25.9.1990   25.9.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/99/028/A/
01/39--Establishment of Surface Analy-
tical Facilities
23 Agreement between India and the Un- 28.9.1990   28.9.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/003/A/
01/99--Developing Capabilities for
Hydrological Studies
24 Agreement between India and the Un- 28.9.1990   28.9.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/009/A/
01/99--Upgradation of Geomechanics
Investigation Facilities at Central Soil
and Materials Research Station (CSMRS)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
25 Agreement between India and the Un- 28.9.1990   28.9.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/038/A/
01/99--Mathematical Modelling Centre
for Fluvial & Ocean Hydromechanics
26 Agreement between India and the Un- 12.11.1990   12.11.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/024/A/
01/99--Performance Evaluation of EOR
Pilot & Development Strategy of Volatile
Oil/Condensate Reservoirs
27 Agreement between India and the Un- 22.11.1990   22.11.1990
ited Nations Development Programme
regarding Project No. IND/90/037--
Strengthening the Handmade Paper In-
dustry in India
28 Memorandum of Understanding between 17.9.1990   17.9.1990
the Government of the Republic of India
and the Government of the People's
Republic of Bangladesh on the Customs
Facilities for Bangladesh Nationals from
the Gulf transiting through India
29 Indo-Bhutan Agreement on Trade & 2.3.1990   2.3.1990
30 Memorandum of Understanding between 19.6.1990   19.6.1990
India and Bhutan regarding Air Services
31 Memorandum of Understanding between 25.11.1990   25.11.1990
India and Bhutan regarding Preparation
of Detailed Project Reports for the Tala
Hydroelectric Project and the Wangchu
Reservoir Scheme
32 Indo-French Protocol for Cooperation in 18.1.1990   18.1.1990
the field of Agriculture and Rural De-
33 Agreement between the Government of 16.1.1990   16.1.1990
the Republic of India and the Govern-
ment of the Federal Republic of Ger-
many concerning Financial Cooperation.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
34 Low Agreement between the President 27.3.1990   27.3.1990
of India and the Overseas Economic
Cooperation Fund, Japan for Kolaghat
Thermal Power Station Flyash
35 Loan Agreement between the President 27.3.1990   27.3.1990
of India and the Overseas Economic
Cooperation Fund, Japan for the Basin
Bridge Gas Turbine Project
36 Loan Agreement between the President 27.3.1990   27.3.1990
of India and the Overseas Economic
Cooperation Fund, Japan regarding the
Gandhar Gas Based Combined Cycle
Power Project
37 Loan Agreement between the President 27.3.1990   27.3.1990
of India and the Overseas Economic
Cooperation Fund, Japan for Bhavani
Kattalai Barrage Hydroelectric
Project (I)
38 Agreement between the President of 27.3.1990   27.3.1990
India and the Overseas Economic Coop-
eration Fund, Japan for the Indira Gan-
dhi Nahar Project
39 Agreement between the President of 27.3.1990   27.3.1990
India and the Overseas Economic Coop-
eration Fund, Japan for the Rolling Stock
Workshop Modernisation Project
40 Exchange of Letters between India & 6.7.1990   6.7.1990
Japan regarding a Development Grant of
four hundred and thirty five million yen
41 Exchange of Letters between India & 6.7.1990   6.7.1990
Japan regarding Japanase Grant of 370
million yen for the improvement of Fire
Fighting & Rescue Equipment Project
42 Exchange of Letters between India & 6.7.1990   6.7.1990
Japan regarding Japanese Grant of 401
million yen for the execution of the
Groundwater Exploitation Project
43 Exchange of Letters between India & 14.9.1990   14.9.1990
Japan regarding Japanese Loan assistance
of Yen 104,826 million
44 Exchange of Letters between India & 4.10.1990   4.10.1990
Japan regarding a Japanese grant of 600
million yen for fertilisers, agricultural
machinery and equipment
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
45 Exchange of Letters between India and 20.12.1990   20.12.1990
Japan regarding a Japanese grant of
401.761 million yen
The Netherlands
46 Loan Agreement between the President 3.7.1990   3.7.1990
of India and De Nederlands Investerings
bank Voor
47 Trade Agreement between the Govern- 26.11.1990   1.1.1991
ment of the Republic of India and the
Government of the Republic of Poland
48 Trade Agreement between the Govern- 13.6.1990
ment of the Republic of India and the
Government of Rwanda
49 Agreement for Economic and Technical 13.6.1990
Cooperation between the Government
of the Republic of India and the Govern-
mew of the Republic of Rwanda
50 Agreement on Cooperation in the 2.9.1988   14.5.1990
Sphere of Information between the Re-
public of India and the Syrian Arab
United States of America
51 Project Grant Agreement between the 24.9.1990   24.9.1990
President of India and the United States
of America for Quality Control of Health
52 Convention between the Government of 12.9.1989 18.12.1990 18.12.1990
the Republic of India and the Govern-
ment of the United States of America for
the Avoidance of Double Taxation and
the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with
respect to Taxes on Income
Union of Soviet Socialist
53 Agreement between India and the Union 23.7.1990   23.7.1990
of Soviet Socialist Republics on coopera-
tion in the field of information
Appendix III Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc organized by Inter-
Governmental Organizations at which Government of India was represented in
Sl No Title of Conferences Venue Date
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1 27th Session of Legal Committee of Montreal 27 March to Apr 12, 1990
2 20th FAO Regional Conference for Asia Beijing 23 to 27 April 1990
and the Pacific
3 First Regular Session of ECOSOC New York 1 to 25 May 1990
4 First Asia Pacific Regional Workshop on Manila 7 to 11 May 1990
Human Rights Issues
5 43rd Session of the World Health As- Geneva 7 to 18 May 1990
6 Meeting of the Executive Council of Berne 7 to 20 May 1990
UPU Steering Committee and Sym-
posium on Security of Mails
7 29th General Assembly and the 16th Rome 8 to 11 May 1990
World Congress at the International Sav-
ings Bank Institute
8 GIRO system in French Postal Bank Paris 13 to 30 May 1990
9 10th Meeting of Statistical Panel or- Montreal 14 to 18 May 1990
ganized by ICAO
10 CIP Board of Trustees The Hague 16 to 19 May 1990
11 37th Session of the Coverning Council New York 28 May to 22 June 1990
of NDP
12 77th Session of International Labour Geneva 2 to 27 June 1990
13 64th Session of the IMO Council London 11 to 15 June 1990
14 International Seminar on Desertification Beijing 25 June to 3 July 1990
15 Second Meeting of the States Parties to London 27 to 29 June 1990
the Montreal Protocol on Substances
that deplete the Ozone Layer
16 Second Regular Session of ECOSOC Geneva 4 to 27 July 1990
17 UNEP sponsored Meeting on External Geneva 6 to 9 July 1990
Evaluation of the Plan of Action to
Combat Desertification
18 FAO Regional Expert Consultation on Bangkok 30 July to 3 August 1990
Management and Supervision of Agricul-
tural Extension Programme
(1) (2) (3) (4)
19 CABI Review Conference, 1990 London 30 July to 3 August 1990
20 UNEP Governing Council Special Session Nairobi 1 to 3 August 1990
21 UN Sub Commission on Prevention of Geneva 6 to 31 August 1990
Discrimination and Protection of
22 First Substantive Session of Prepcom of Nairobi 6 to 31 August 1990
the UN Conference on Environment and
23 Eighth UN Congress on the Prevention Havana 27 August to 7 September 1990
of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders
24 Seminar on the impact of European Paris 10 to 14 September 1990
Single Market on the Development of
Aviation in the Asia Pacific Region or-
ganized by UNDP
25 UNHCR Executive Committee, 41st Session
    Geneva 25 September to 9 October 1990
26 World Summit for Children New York 30 September 1990
27 FAO Regional Expert Consultation on Nagpur 21 to 25 October 1990
Hybrid Cotton Production
28 2nd Regional Seminar on Maritime Legis- Bangkok 22 to 26 October 1990
29 28th Session of ICAO Assembly Montreal 22 to 26 October 1990
30 Meeting of the General Concept of Sep
aration Panel organized by ICAO
    Montreal 30 October to20 November 1990
31 Second World Climate Conference Geneva 6 and 7 November 1990
32 First Session of the Ad hoc Working Nairobi 19 to 23 November 1990
Group of Legal and Technical Experts on
Biological Diversity
33 FAO Council, 98th Session Rome 19 to 30 November 1990
34 UN Seminar on Political, Historical, Geneva 9 to 15 December 1990
Economic, Social and Cultural Factors
contributing to Racism, Racial Discrimi-
nation and Apartheid
35 47th Session of the UN Commission on Geneva 28 January to 8 March 1991
Human Rights
Appendix IV Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc organized by Non-Gov-ernmental Organizations in which Indian experts participated in their personal capacity with Government assistance in 1990-91.
Sl.No. Title of Conferences etc Venue Date
1 International Symposium on Application New Delhi 21 to May 23, 1990
and Management of Energy in Agriculture
2 Final Session of the Group Qualified New York 2 to 13 July 1990
Governmental experts to undertake
study on the role of United Nations in
the field of Verifications
3 Workshop on Improving Cyclone Warn- Bangkok 16 to 22 July 1990
ing Response and Mitigation
4 Eleventh international Congress of the Bangalore 5 to 11 August 1990
International Union for the Study of
Social Insects
5 International symposium on Water Ero- Dehradun 9 to 12 October 1990
sion and Sediment Transport
6 International Symposium on Rice Re- Hyderabad 19 to 22 November 1990
search New Frontiers
7 International Symposium on New Fron- Bangalore 25 to 28 November 1990
tier in Horticulture
8 International Conference on Power De- New Delhi 10 to 14 December 1990
velopment in Afro-Asian Countries
9 Technical Training cum Seminar New Delhi 13 to 19 January 1991
10 International Conference on Extension New Delhi 19 to 22 January 1991
Strategy for minimising risk in rainfed
11 Golden Jubilee Symposium on Genetic New Delhi 22 to 25 January 1991
Research and Education-Current
Trends and the next 50 years
12 International Satellite Symposium on New Delhi 9 to 11 February 1991
grain legumes
13 International Symposium on Recent Ad- Hyderabad 19 to 21 February 1991
vances in Viticulture and Oenology
14 Workshop on Farming System Hyderabad February 1991
15 ICAR-ACIAR Collaborative Research New Delhi February/March 1991
Programme-Workshop on Wheat Rust
16 International Workshop on Small Rumin- New Delhi February/ March 1991
ant Production with emphasis on meat
and fibre production in Central Asia
Appendix V Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc

Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc in 1990-91, at which Govern-ment of India was represented or in which Indian experts participated with
Government of India's assistance in their personal capacity.
Sl.No. Title of Conferences etc Venue Date
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1 Conference of Select Developing coun- New Delhi 23 to Apr 25, 1990
tries on Global Environmental Issues
2 Conference on Advanced materials for Washington 3 May 1990
the 90s
3 IEEE International Radar Conference 90 Arlington 7 to 10 May 1990
4 1st Congress of the International En- California 10 to 12 May 1990
dotoxin Society
5 IEEE Robotics & Automation Conference Ohio 13 to 18 May 1990
6 EDI Seminar on Financial Sector-Lib-Massachus- settes 10 to 15 June1990
eralisation & Regulation
7 Seminar on Computerised Banking & Paris 18 to 30 June 1990
Monetary Transactions
8 Final session of the Group of qualified New York 2 to 13 July 1990
Governmental Experts to undertake
study on the role of United Nations in
the field of Verifications
9 21st International Annual Conference of Karlsruhe 3 to 6 July 1990
ICT (West Ger- many)
10 International Photodynamic As- New York 16 to 21 July 1990
sociation-3rd Biennial Meeting
11 10th International Biophysics Congress
    Vancouver(Canada) 29 July to 3 August 1990
12 6th Congress of the ASEAN Associationof Radiology
    Kuala Lumpur 30 August to 2 September 1990
13 2nd Conference of Attorneys, General of Seoul 1 to 9 September 1990
Asia and the Pacific Region
14 8th International Conference on Ternary
& Multinary Compounds (ICTMC 8)
    Kishinev(USSR) 11 to 14 September 1990
15 International Banking Seminar held by London 12 to 21 September 1990
European Service Industries Forum
16 International Conference on Automation, Singapore 18 to 21 September 1990
Robotics & Computer Vision (ICARCV 90)
17 Regional Seminar on Maritime Bangkok 22 to 26 October 1990
18 International Symposium on Advanced Bombay 26 to 28 November 1990
19 Group of Experts to examine the impli- Malta 13 to 15 December 1990
cations of the "Common Concern of
Mankind" concept on Global Environ-
mental Issues
(1) (2) (3) (4)
20 International Conference on Millimeter Dehradun 18 to 21 December 1990
Wave and Microwave
21 International symposium on Intelligent Bangalore 3 to 5 January 1991
22 International Conference on Advances in Bombay 9 to 11 January 1991
Chemical Metallurgy
Appendix V-A Major Commonwealth Conferences in 1990-91

Major Commonwealth Conferences in 1990-91 in which Government of India was represented.

1 First Meeting of Commonwealth (CW) High Level Appraisal Group at the level of Senior Officials, London -- 15 and Mar 16, 1990

2 XIth Conference of CW Statisticians, Canberra -- 2 to 11 April 1990

3 Meeting of the CW Law Ministers, Christchurch -- 23 to 27 April 1990

4 Pre-WHA Meeting of the CW Health Ministers, Geneva -- 6 May 1990

5 CW Committee of Foreign Ministers on South Africa (CCFMSA) Meeting, Abuj a -- 15 to 17 May 1990

6 Meeting of the CW Ministers of Youth A Sports, Harare 1 to 5 June 1990

7 2nd Meeting of CW High Level Appraisal Group at the level of Senior Offi cials, London -- 29 to 31 August 1990

8 36th CW Parliamentary Conference, Harare -- 14 to 22 September 1990

9 CW Finance Ministers & Senior Finance Officials Meeting, Port of Spain - - 18 to 20 September 1990

10 Third Meeting of CW Ministers responsible for Women's Affairs, Ottawa -- 9 to 12 October 1990

11 XIth Conference of CW Education Ministers, Barbados -- 29 October to 2 N ovember 1990

12 Meeting of the CW Senior Officials, Port Mores -- 26 to 28 November 1990

13 3rd Meeting of CW High Level Appraisal Group at the level of Senior Offi cials, Kuala Lumpur -- 1 and 2 December 1990

14 CW Committee of Foreign Ministers on South Africa Meeting, London--15 Fe bruary 1991

Appendix VI Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of (NAM)

Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) during 1990-91.

1 Meeting of NAM Coordinators of Health at Brioni -- March 1990

2 Ministerial meeting of NAM committee of Nine on Palestine, Tunisia -- Ma
rch 1990

3 NAM Ministerial Meeting, New York -- April 1990

4 Meeting of NAM Guest Countries, Belgrade -- July 1990

5 Third Conference of Ministers of Information of NAM Countries, Havana -- September 1990

6 Ministerial Meeting of Algeria, India and Yugoslavia, Belgrade -- September 1990

7 Ministerial Meeting with European Community 'Troika' -- September 1990

8 4th Conference of the Ministers of Labour of NAM Countries, Tunis -- Nov ember 1990

9 Meeting of Ministers and Heads of Delegations of NAM Countries at 45th U NGA, New York -- October 1990

10 A Foreign Ministers' Level Meeting of 15 NAM Countries and PLO Represent ative, Belgrade--12 February 1991

Appendix VII Statement showing the number of Fresh and Miscellaneous applications received


Statement showing the number of Fresh and Miscellaneous applications received and services granted in each passport office during the year 1990 Fresh Applications Miscellaneous Services
Sl.No. Station Received Granted Received Granted
1 Ahmedabad 94,966 98,693 67,593 66,762
2 Bangalore 66,416 68,742 35,096 34,730
3 Bareilly 54,200 43,432 24,366 23,178
4 Bhopal 19,759 19,634 10,238 9912
5 Bhubaneswar 5625 6420 2230 2530
6 Bombay 243,171 242,156 148,714 147,187
7 Calcutta 57,918 55,921 28,419 28,514
8 Chandigarh 81,905 77,303 30,520 30,507
9 Cochin 153,830 141,832 78,318 77,360
10 Delhi 100,962 90,065 81,870 79,049
11 Goa 10,633 10,311 17,993 17,755
12 Guwahati 6805 6070 2122 2049
13 Hyderabad 105,415 115,256 61,418 60,884
14 Jaipur 56,071 62,274 25,997 24,817
15 Jalandhar 97,765 91,879 33,855 34,869
16 Kozhikode 121,405 122,793 71,744 71,169
17 Lucknow 64,450 62,917 18,039 17,799
18 Madras 74,055 76,609 56,493 54,546
19 Nagpur 6982 7447 6483 6569
20 Patna 19,131 18,853 6950 7054
21 Srinagar ----- N O T F U N C T I O N I N G --------------------------------------------------------------
22 Trichy 132,464 120,176 43,218 42,642
Total 1,573,928 1,538,783 851,676 839,882
Appendix VIII Statement showing the Revenue earned and Expenditure incurred by each passport

Statement showing the Revenue earned and Expenditure incurred by each passpo
office during the year 19
Sl.No. Station Revenue Expenditure
1 Ahmedabad 8,824,848.00 3,111,877.00
2 Bangalore 6,353,853.50 3,175,324.00
3 Bareilly 4,055,975.00 1,553,217.70
4 Bhopal 1,732,541.00 934,099.00
5 Bhubaneswar 494,978.00 608,361.00
6 Bombay 23,679,820.00 8,936,460.00
7 Calcutta 5,501,602.00 2,006,482.00
8 Chandigarh 7,550,985.29 3,546,650.00
9 Cochin 11,023,492.00 4,594,038.00
10 Delhi 11,440,020.00 6,637,382.00
11 Goa 1,312,803.00 1,385,593.00
12 Guwahati 512,928.00 712,556.00
13 Hyderabad 9,283,040.31 4,210,661.00
14 Jaipur 4,901,187.00 1,914,108.00
15 Jalandhar 8,595,959.00 3,824,092.00
16 Kozhikode 10,224,702.00 3,378,050.00
17 Lucknow 5,344,944.00 2,840,994.00
18 Madras 7,127,404.00 3,583,353.00
19 Nagpur 553,627.15 656,475.00
20 Patna 1,637,359.00 990,077.00
21 Srinagar ---------- N O T F U N C T I O N I N G ------------------------------
22 Trichy 10,920,101.00 2,265,109.00
Total 1,41,072,169.25 60,864,958.70
Appendix IX Cadre Strength at Headquarters

Cadre Strength at Headquarters and 139 Missions/Posts abroad during 1990-91
Sl.No Cadre/Post Posts at Posts at Total
  Headquarters Missions abroad
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1 Grade I 3 18 21
2 Grade II 3 25 28
3 Grade III 31 86 117
4 Grade IV 31 78 109
5 Sr Scale 47 187 234
6 Jr Scale 5 28 33
7 Training Reserve (Prob) Jr Scale 27   27
8 Training Reserve for all Grades 10   10
9 Leave Reserve 19   19
10 Deputation Reserve   20 20
1 Grade I 62 63 125
2 Grade II/III 160 124 284
3 Grade IV 340 379 719
4 Grade V/VI 450 193 643
5 Grade II of Cypher Sub Cadre 81 117 198
6 Selection Grade of Steno Cadre 18 36 54
7 Grade I of Steno Cadre 32 169 201
8 Grade II of Steno Cadre 202 187 389
9 Grade III of Steno Cadre 42 77 119
  Combined Research Cadre 22 2 24
  Interpreters' Cadre 14 21 35
  L & T Cadre   17 17
  Ex-Cadre HOMs   10 10
Total 1636 1800 3436
Appendix X Compulsory Foreign Language
Foreign Language Chart
Sl No Compulsory Foreign Language No. of Officers
1 Arabic 81
2 Bahasa Indonesia 10
3 Bulgarian 1
4 Burmese 2
5 Chinese 43
6 Dutch 1
7 French 84
8 German 41
9 Gorakhali/Nepali 5
10 Hungarian 1
11 Italian 5
12 Japanese 25
13 Kiswahili 10
14 Laotian
15 Malay 1
16 Persian 18
17 Polish 1
18 Portuguese 14
19 Russian 67
20 Serbo-Croatian 3
21 Sinhalese 3
22 Spanish 53
23 Swedish 1
24 Thai 2
25 Tibetan 3
26 Turkish 2
27 Vietnamese 2
Total 479
Appendix XI Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment

Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment and promotion) made in various groups in the Ministry of External Affairs and reserved vacancies filled by scheduled castes/scheduled tribes during the year 1990.
Number of vacancies 
             de-reserved due to 
                                       Number of vacancies   Number of reserved
      non-availability of 
                        Total No.         reserved for       candidates appoint
ed    reserved candidates 
                        of vacan- 
     Group           filled         SC        ST           SC        ST   
           SC       ST 
     Group 'A'             84             5         2           15        5 
     Group 'B'             177           42        30           23        2    
           19       28 
     Group 'C'             152           36        22           17       10    
           19       12 
     Group 'D'             53            15         4           15       5* 
     (excluding Sweepers) 
      *3 out of 5 candidates have 
      accepted appointment letters. 
Appendix XII Revenue Expenditure of the MEA


Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry of External Affairs during the Financial Year 1990-91.

Revised Estimates 1990-91 (Rs in lakhs)
Headquarters 2812.09
Missions/ Posts abroad 15,020.81
Supply Wing Washington / London 200.00
OTHER ITEMS Contribution to UN etc 530.00
Commonwealth Secretariat 78.53
Commonwealth Foundation 23.00
SAARC Secretariat & other International institutions 86.78
Central Passport Organization 1198.00
Special Diplomatic Expenditure 9466.00
Grant-in-Aid to ICCR 1194.00
Gulf Evacuation 30,000.00
Assistance to ANC 929.00
Other Miscellaneous Items 1041.04
AID TO OTHER COUNTRIES Aid to Bangladesh 604.75
Aid to Bhutan 7029.00
Aid to Nepal 1699.00
Relief Assistance to USSR 5000.00
Aid to other developing countries (including Rs 14.25 crores to Sri Lanka
4487.00Rs 13.15 crores to Maldives)
ITEC Programmes 1426.00
Aid under AFRICA Fund 900.00
Total Revenue Expenditure during 1990-91 83,725.00
Apendix XIII

Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters of the Ministry of External Affairs in 1990 -91. The estimated expenditure on the Headquarters organization of the Ministry du ring the Current Financial Year 1990-91 is expected to be Rs 2812.09 lakhs which is 3.36% of the total estimated revenue expenditure of this Ministry. Out of this Rs 908.15 lakhs will be on Sa laries and Wages, Rs 393 lakhs on Travel Expenses, Rs 924.94 lakhs on Office Expenses, Rs 370 lakhs on P ublicity, Rs 10 lakhs on Subsidy to Canteen, Rs 200 lakhs on Rent and Maintenance. The total estimated expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad excluding Ind ia Supply Missions, London and Washington, Is expected to be Rs 15,020.81 lakhs during the Current Financial Year which works out to Rs 17.94% of the total estimated Revenue Expenditure of this Minis try. Out of this, an amount of Rs 5324 lakhs are for Salaries and Wages (including Foreign Allowance ), Rs 1930.50 lakhs on Travel Expenses (Transfer Passages/Home Leave Passages and Local Tours), Rs. 33 10 lakhs on Office Expenses and Rs 4436.31 lakhs on Rent, Rates and Taxes as well as on repairs an d maintenance of Government owned/rented accommodation in Missions abroad. Average expenditure p er Mission abroad (including, Publicity) works out to Rs 106.53 lakhs.

The remaining 78.7% of the Estimated Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry Is b eing incurred on various Aid Programmes to neighbouring and other developing countries, Relief A ssistance to the USSR, Aid under AFRICA Fund, SAARC and SCAAP Programmes, contribution to United Natio ns Organizations and other international bodies, Passport organization Hospitality, Grant-in-Aid to Indian Council of Cultural Relations and on other Miscellaneous items. It also includes an estima ted expenditure of Rs 300 crores on evacuation of Indian nationals from the Gulf.

Appendix XIV International Conferences/Meetings and Functions arranged

International Conferences/Meetings and Functions arranged during the year 1990- 91 with the assistance of the Conference Cell, Ministry of External Affairs.

1 Meeting of National integration Council--Apr 11, 1990

2 Meeting of Select Developing Countries on Global Environmental Issues -- 23 to 25 April 1990

3 Second SAARC Meeting on the implementation of SAARC Travel Voucher Scheme and Settlement of Accounts held at Bomaby--15 and 16 March 1990

4 Indira Gandhi memorial Lecture--30 April 1990

5 23rd Annual Meeting of the Board of Governors of the Asian Development Ba nk--2 to 5 May 1990

6 SAARC Meeting on Literacy, Post-Literacy and Continuing Education--16 to 19 June 1990

7 Meeting of the National Reception Committee for Dr Nelson Mandela -- 18 May 1990

8 Meeting of the Working Group of National Reception Committee for Dr Nelson Mandela--30July 1990

9 The Global Consultation on Water Sanitation for the 1990's -- 10 to 14 September 1990

10 Meeting of the Working Group of National Reception Committee for Dr Nelso n Mandela -- 18 September 1990

11 Meeting of the National Reception Committee for Dr Nelson Mandela -- 6 October. 1990

12 National Reception Committee Meeting with Dr Nelson Mandela at Rashtrapat i Bhavan -- 15 October 1990

13 People's Reception for Dr Nelson Mandela at Indira Gandhi Stadium--15 Oct ober 1990

14 SAARC Workshop on Plan Modelling Techinques--29 to 31 October 1990

15 39th WTO Executive Council Meeting held at Goa--6 to 8 December 1990

16 National Workshop on the Rights of the Child with Focus on Girl Child--11
to 14 December 1990.

Appendix XV VVIPs Visits to India during 1990-91
Former Chancellor of Federal Republic of Germany
VVIPs Visits to India during 1990-91
Sl.No Heads of State, Heads of Government Date
(1) (2) (3)
1 H.E. Mr Maumoon Abdul Gayoom. 15 to Mar 17, 1990
President of Maldives
2 H.E. Mr Yasser Arafat, 26 to 28 March 1990
President of Palestine
3 H.E. Mr Toshiki Kaifu, 29 April to 1 May 1990
Prime Minister of Japan
4 H.E. Mr D B Wijetunge, 1 and 2 May 1990
Prime Minister of Sri Lanka
5 H.E. Mr K P Bhattarai, 8 to 10 June 1990
Prime Minister of Nepal
6 H.E. Dr Najibullah, 28 to 31 August 1990
President of Afghanistan
7 H.E. Mr France Albert Rene, 24 to 26 September 1990
President of Seychelles
8 H.E. Mr Hun Sen, 7 to 11 October 1990
Prime Minister of Cambodia
9 H.E. Dr Nelson Mandela, 15 to 19 October 1991
Deputy President of the African National Congress
of South Africa
10 H.M. Jigme Singye Wangchuck, 23 to 26 November 1990
King of Bhutan
11 H.E. Mr K P Bhattarai, 24 to 26 November 1990
Prime Minister of Nepal
12 H.E. Mr Bernard Dowiyogo, 30 December 1990 to 3 January 1991
President of Nauru
13 H.E. Ion Iliescu, 16 January 1991
President of Romania
14 H.E Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, 25 to 27 January 1991
President of Maldives
Deputy Prime minsters, Foreign, Ministers and
1 H.E. Mr Winsten Dookeran, 9 to 16 March 1990
Deputy prime Minister of Trinidad & Tobago
(1) (2) (3)
2 H.E. Mr Jiri Dienstbier, 30 October to 2 November 1990
Deputy Prime Minister and
Foreign Minister of Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
3 H.E. Mr Mana Saeed Al-Otaiba, 6 to 8 March 1990
Minister of Petroleum & Mineral Resources and
Special Envoy of President of United Arab Emirates
4 H.E. Mr Choi Ho-Joong, 15 to 17 March 1990
Foreign Minister of Republic of Korea
5 H.E. Mr Qian Qichen, 20 to 24 March 1990
Foreign Minister of China
6 H.E. Mr Isidoro Malmierca, 8 to 13 April 1990
Foreign Ministeer of Cuba
7 H.E. Datuk Abu Hassan Omar, 10 to 13 April 1990
Foreign Minister of Malaysia
8 Dr M A Ranganathan, 7 to 14 May 1990
Special Adviser to the President of Zambia
9 Mr Willy Brandt, 27 to 30 May 1990
10 H.E. Dr B Casimir, 11 to 13 June 1990
Foreign Minister of Rwanda
11 H.E. Mr Abdul Wakil, 11 to 15 June 1990
Foreign Minister of Afghanistan
12 H.E. Mr Gareth Evans, 1 and 2 August 1990
Foreign Minister of Australia
13 H.E. Mr Raul S Manglapus, 1 to 4 August 1990 and
Foreign Minister of Philippines 23 and 24 August 1990
14 H.E. Mr Tanvir Ahmed, 9 to 12 August 1990
Foreign Secretary of Pakistan
15 Mrs Gro Harloom Brundtland, 18 to 21 September 1990
Former Prime Minister of Norway
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