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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1991-92


Introduction, (i)-(ix)

S.NO.  CHAPTERS                                                                    PAGE No.
1India's Neighbours, 1-9
2South-East Asia and the Pacific, 10-15
3East Asia, 16-23
4West Asia and North Africa, 24-29
5Africa (South of the Sahara), 30-34
6Europe, 35-44
  Erstwhile USSR, 35
 Eastern Europe,39
 Western Europe, 42
7 The Americas, 45-50
 North America, 45
 Central and South America and the Caribbean, 48
8 United Nations and International Conferences, 51-64
 Political Issues, 52
  Disarmament Issues, 54
  Economic Issues, 56
  Administrative and Budgetary Matters, 58
 Social and Humanitarian Issues, 59
  Apartheid, 66
  Decolonisation, 59
  Election to UN Bodies and other International Organizations, 60
 Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement, 60
 Commonwealth, 61
  Conferences, 62
  International Law: Development and Activities, 63
9 Foreign Economic Relations,65-67
10 Policy Planning and Research, 68-70
11 External Publicity, 71-75
12 Indians Overseas, 76-77
13 Protocol, 78
14 Passport and Consular Services, 79-82
15 Administration and Organization, 83-84
16 Foreign Service Training Institute, 85-87
17 Use of Hindi in Official Work,88-89
18 Cultural Relations, 90-99


The world scene witnessed momentous changes during the year under review with far-reaching implications for India's foreign policy. These changes have reaffirmed the need, given the state of ferment and metamorphosis in which the world is in today, to utilise foreign policy as an instrument to further our national interest in a dynamic manner. The upsurge of democratic sentiment, together with a renewed and focussed desire for peace, not only globally but at the sub-regional and regional levels, the demand for greater economic justice and the desire to uphold human dignity, provide both the background and setting for such changes. These aspirations have naturally led to replacement of outmoded state structures, and policies with new approaches for frameworks of political and economic development.

The disintegration of the erstwhile Soviet State structure and emergence of the Commonwealth of Independent States, comprising individual, constituent republics, constitutes, the most profound of such developments. Th e modalities for mutual interaction among the republics and for their inter- action, in turn, with the community of nations is still in a state of evolution.

The perception that the world has become unipolar, needs to be taken note of in the context of the strategic, political and economic inter- dependence among countries. Unified Germany and Japan are on the road to becoming still more important centres of economic power. The rapid process of integration of the European Economic Community is likely to enhance its importance as yet another major important centre of economic power.

The improvement of relations between the United States and the former Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War and newer diplomatic initiatives have facilitated the resolution of several outstanding problems. And yet, the lowering and elimination of East-West tensions, and the renewed quest for solutions to sub-regional and regional conflicts, have not brought solutions to the basic and fundamental problems of development faced by the large majority of countries.

The successful conclusion of the Paris Conference on Cambodia in which India was proud to have played an important role renewed hopes for return of peace in that war-torn country and emergence of a sovereign, independent, non-aligned and democratic Cambodia.

(i) India welcomed the convening of the Middle-East Peace Conference and hoped that this would successfully lead to a just, comprehensive and mutually acceptable settlement of the Middle-East problem and the Palestinian issue.

India's decision to establish full diplomatic ties with Israel was a natural concomitant to the evolution of the politcal moves for restoration of peace in the war-torn region.

The Government carefully examined the evolving international situation and took timely initiatives to adapt our policies to obtain maximum benefits for the country in the changing situation. At the macro-level, the foreign policy was directed at achieving three important objectives: maintaining the territorial integrity of India, ensuring her geo-political security by creating a durable environment of peace and stability in the region and to build a framework for the economic well-being of the poeple by encouraging a healthy external economic environment.

The Government attached the highest priority to further improvement of our friendly relations with our neighbours in South Asia and to expansion of our mutually beneficial cooperation with them. Several high level exchanges were undertaken to acheive these objectives.

The visit of the Prime Minister of Nepal to India in December 1991 ushered in a qualitatively new era of relations between the two countries. This has opened very important areas of cooperation which will fortify the unique closeness of our ties which have been strengthened by the emergence of multi-party democracy in Nepal.

India's traditionally close and cordial relations with Bhutan were further strengthened by the visit of His Majesty the King of Bhutan to India in September 1991. Through intensive economic and technical cooperation, India has sought to make its contribution to the economic development of Bhutan.

The visit of Bangladesh Foreign Minister to India in August 1991 resulted in a mutual understanding on the need for adopting a fresh approach for immediate removal of some irritants through dialogue and enhanced cooperation. It was significant that the first ever visit of an Indian Chief of Army Staff to Bangladesh took place in July 1991. The tempo of bilateral talks on the problems of sharing of the river waters was maintained. Further momentum was lent to the bilateral relations when the Indian Prime Minister met Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia at Harare during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in October 1991. India is keen that its traditionally friendly relations with Bangladesh are further expanded.

The advent of democracy in Bangladesh has become an additional bond between the two countries.

India continues to sustain her keen interest in a peaceful resolution of the ethnic issue in Sri Lanka. India has reiterated to Sri Lanka her faith in the need for a negotiated political settlement within the framework of the unity and territorial integrity of Sri Lanka for arriving at a lasting and permanent solution to the ethnic problem. The Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement of 1987 and the 13th amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution provide the framework for a solution to Sri Lanka's ethnic crisis. India is simultaneously committed to the strengthening and consolidation of bilateral relations with Sri Lanka in keeping with the traditional and historic ties between the two countries. It was against this background that both India and Sri Lanka signed, in July 1991, an agreement for establishment of an Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Commission. The voluntary return of Sri Lankan refugees to their homeland, based on assurances received from Sri Lanka Government commenced on Jan 20, 1992 and is continuing.

India has consistently maintained closest understanding with Maldives at the highest level and continues to pursue ongoing multi-dimensional cooperation programmes with that country encompassing a wide-range of fields of infrastructural development.

Pakistan's undiminished support to terrorism in Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir and its mischievous attempts to internationalise the Kashmir issue with hostile and misleading propaganda in violation of the Simla Agreement have further exacerbated the already strained relations between India and Pakistan. Pakistan Foreign Secretary's assurances to India in August 1991 to engage in constructive dialogue and approach issues with a new mindset have failed to get reflected on the ground. Despite the continuous tension in relations, India, aware of the imperative necessity of establishing good neighbourly relationship, has continued with her efforts to carry the confidence building process and the bilateral dialogue forward. A positive development in this direction was the signing of the two agreement in April 1991 relatng to (i) advance notification of military exercises and manoeuvres and (ii) prevention of air space violations by military aircraft. In addition, on 1 January 1992, lists of nuclear installations and facilities in India and Pakistan were exchanged in pursuance of the bilateral Agreement on Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities which had been signed in December 1988. Although the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan reiterated after their meetings in October and December 1991, and February 1992 the need to reduce tensions and resolve issues bilaterally and peacefully, Pakistan's actions have not yet matched its stated desire to bring about any improvement in bilateral relations. India hopes that Pakistan would abandon its negative policies and join her in serious endeavours to establish tension-free and good neighbourly relations between the two countires.

India views with regret that political power yet remains untransferred, to the people's representatives after the general elections in Myanmar in May 1990. India is equally distressed at the continued house detention of Ms Aung San Suu Kyi. Despite its policy of non-interference in the affairs of other countries, India cannot ignore the democratic aspirations of the people of Myanmar and has, therefore, expressed her strong apprehensions about the lack of progress towards democracy and infringement of human rights in Myanmar. India hopes that the ruling Government would release Ms Aung San Suu Kyi and pave the way for the introduction of the democratic processes of governance.

India continued to extend full support to the political settlement of the Afghan crisis based on her conviction that any such settlement should recognize the legitimate interests of all concerned and be arrived at by the Afghans themselves without any external interference. India, therefore, welcomed the UN Secretary General's Five-Point Peace Proposals announced in May 1991. While continuing her endeavours to further cement the traditionally warm relations with Afghanistan, India pursued her efforts to promote bilateral cooperation in various fields.

The Sixth Summit of SAARC countries was held at Colombo in December 1991. India continued to play an active role to expand further mutually beneficial cooperation among SAARC countries.

Positive steps were taken in several areas of regional cooperation. The most laudable step forward was the approval by the Sixth SAARC Summit of the recommendation of the Committee on Economic Cooperation to set up an Inter-Governmental Group to formulate and seek agreement on an institutional framework under which specific measures for trade liberalization could be initiated. Another decision of far-reaching importance was to institute a Fund by pooling regional resources and to constitute a SAARC Regional Council of Development Financial Institutions to manage the Fund. Under the 13 agreed areas of technical cooperation, 62 SAARC activities were held during 1991; of these nearly a quarter were held in India. The Sixth SAARC Summit also decided to set up a South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation, which would present a report to the Seventh SAARC Summit. The year 1992 is to be observed as the "SAARC Year of Environment". India views SAARC as an important instrument for realising collective self-reliance and accelerating socio-economic development, and is convinced that the SAARC cooperation should envelop further the core economic areas so as to percolate benefits to the common man in an effective and palpable form.

India attached particular significance to strengthening her traditionally close and warm relations with countries in South-East Asia and the South Pacific. The bilateral talks with Mr Hun Sen, Prime Minister of Cambodia, during his visit to India in October 1991 and his appreciation of India's role in the Cambodian settlement and his call for a major Indian presence in the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) reflected the high regard and esteem enjoyed by India. India has contributed civilian and military personnel for the UN Advance Mission in Cambodia. India has expressed her readiness to actively participate in the UNTAC operation to the extent requested by the United Nations. India participated in the Second Session of the Paris International Conference on Cambodia held in October 1991. India was one of the countries especially mentioned at the Paris Conference for facilitating the peace process.

The visit of the President of India to Vietnam in April 1991 lent special emphasis to enhancing bilateral cooperation with Vietnam. The State visit of t he President of India to the Philippines in April-May 1991 was the first ever visi t by an Indian Head of State to that country. It generated considerable goodwill and understanding between the two countries.

Visit of the Minister for External Affairs to Singapore in August 1991 laidspecial stress on increasing investment from the region in India in context of the new liberalised economic environment. The return visit of the Foreign Minister of Singapore to India in December 1991 gave further momentum to expanding our bilateral cooperation.

The sectoral dialogue partner relationship between India and ASEAN is not only a development of importance but is likely to strengthen India's relationsh ip with ASEAN countries.

Despite the earlier temporary set-back in bilateral relations with Australia, on account of the sale of Mirage aircraft by Australia to Pakistan, subsequent interactions at higher level have improved our relations. Fiji has become a source of constant concern to India in view of the fact that the illegal Government of Fiji installed after the coup in 1987 has institutionalised racial discriminatiion. India has readily extended moral sup port to the democratic forces in Fiji by taking up this matter at the UN General Assembly from 1987 onwards and by opposing the re-entry of Fiji into the Commonwealth.

The momentum of bilateral exchanges with China initiated with the visit of
late Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in December 1988 was further increased. The visit of the Chinese Premier Mr Li Peng to India in December 1991 was an important milestone and it resulted in several positive achievement: the re-establishement of Consulates General in Shanghai and Bombay, a Consular Convention, a memorandum on the resumption of border trade, the Trade Protocol for 1992 and a memorandum of cooperation in the field of space were agreed to. The Joint Working Group on the Boundary Question held its third session in Beijing in May 1991 and fourth session at New Delhi on 20 and 21 February 1992. The two sides continued their discussions aimed at arriving at a mutually acceptable settlement of the boundary question and to ensure peace and tranquillity in the areas along the Line of Actual Control. They agreed th at the military personnel of the two sides would have regular meetings in June and October every year and additional meetings whenever need arises at Bumla Pass in the Eastern Sector and in the Spanggur Gap area in the Western Sector. They also agreed to establish telephone communication links to facilitate easy conta cts between the border personnel on each side. India conveyed to China her concern about its arms supplies to Pakistan.

A new era was introduced in the history of the Soviet Union with the dissolution of the USSR founded in 1922. The emergence of the Commonwealth of Independent States heralded an end of the political and economic structures established in the erstwhile USSR on socialist ideology. President Gorbachev's relinquishment of office marked the end of a decisive phase in domestic and international politics initiated by him in April 1985. India's response to the developments was dictated by her national interests including geopolitical, strategic and economic imperatives. On 26 December 1991, India announced her decision to accord formal recognition to the Russian Federation and to all the other Republics of the former Soviet Union. Russia has assumed the role of a successor State and has taken over the seat of the erstwhile Soviet Union in the UN Security Council. India has sought to maintain her traditionally close relations not only with Russia but with the other Republics as well. The visit of the Minister for External Affairs in November 1991 and his meetings with President Yeltsin were a step towards laying the foundation for further enhancement of relations between India and the Russian Federation. A multi- sectoral team of senior officials led by the Foreign Secretary visited Russia a nd Ukraine in January 1992 to establish a new framework of political relations wit h these independent Republics and to review arrangements for maintaining our long-standing trade and economic links with them. Several delegations from India have visited the Central Asian Republics. The Presidents of Uzbekistan
and Kazakhstan visited India in August 1991 and February 1992 respectively and more visits by leaders from the Central Asian Republics are expected in the near future. These visits are aimed at concluding appropriate agreements to promote our political, economic and cultural tics with these countries with whom we share historic bonds of friendship. India has also decided to open Embassies in Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus and upgrade its Consulate General at Tashkent in Uzbekistan to Embassy level.

There has been a significant and perceptible improvement in Indo-US relations. Our shared values of democracy, individual liberty and respect for human rights provide a strong basis for close cooperation between the two largest democracies of the world. Political and official contacts in both bila teral and multilateral fora on a wide-range of issues including peace, security and threats emanating from terrorism and drug trafficking have contributed towards a greater appreciation of each other's views and interests.

The United States is our largest trading partner and a major source of technology. It has been supportive of our efforts to overcome our temporary economic difficulties and programme of economic reform. A new feature in Indo-US relations was the cooperation initiated on the defence side. The visit of our Chief of Army Staff to the USA in August 1991 and the visit of the Commanding-General and the US Commander-in-Chief of Pacific Command to India are noteworthy. The Prime Minister had a very useful meeting with President George Bush in New York during the UN Security Council Meeting in January 1992. There was a strong mutual desire expressed in further expanding our bilateral and multi-dimensional ties. India's liberalised economic policie s have opened new possibilities of a long-term mutually beneficial economic partnership with the United States.

India viewed with concern the political and constitutional crisis in Yugoslavia and expressed herself in favour of a restructured federal framework. India adopted a principled and constructive approach in the United Nations Security Council on Yugoslavia; the Indian stand emanated from her basic belief
that the crisis in Yogoslavia was essentially an internal matter.

India views the Maastricht Summit of December 1991 as a watershed in the history of Europe in the post-World War II era. The European Community embarked on a new chapter in its move towards the creation of a political, economic and monetary union. India maintained an intensified political dialogu e with the European countries through frequent high-level exchanges. India viewed with satisfaction the positive response in Western Eruope to the new economic policies and liberalisation measures announced by India. Prime Minister Shri Narasimha Rao's visits to Germany and France in September and November 1991 respectively were undertaken with a view to exploring the promising prospects for strengthening of multifaceted cooperation. The visit o f the President of Portugal to India in January 1992 was another landmark in relations with Portugal.

Increased momentum was established in India's bilateral relations with Japan. The visit of the Minister for External Affairs, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki to Japan in January 1992 has helped deepen the political and economic dialogue with Japan and helped promote better mutual understanding between India and Japan, countries that share democratic values and whose cultural interaction has spanned the centuries. Japan has emerged as India's largest bilateral donor and has reacted favourably to India's new policy initiatives in economic liberalisation. It has indicated its desire to take steps to enable the inflow of Japanese investment to India.

In recognition of the positive and balanced nature of the relationship that
India always enjoyed with the two Koreas, India supported the entry of both the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the United Nations. Both the DPRK and the ROK have expressed their appreciation of India's position on this subject. Bilateral cooperation with t he Republic of Korea in the economic sphere continued to surge.

India attached special importance to its relations with countries of West Asia and North Africa. India maintained her consistent and unequivocal support to the Arab cause particularly to the Palestinian struggle for their just and inalienable rights. This was reiterated during the visit of the PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat to India in January 1992. India has welcomed the reactivation of
the West Asian peace process and the ongoing dialogue between Arab States and Israel to find a just and equitable settlement to the Arab-Israeli dispute. India supported the revocation of the 1975 UN resolution equating Zionism with Racism, based on her perception that it would remove an obstacle in the path to peace in West Asia and facilitate a larger UN role in the peace process. Upon establishment of diplomatic relations with Israel, India looks forward to establishing a comprehensive and multi-faceted relationship with that country.

India's close tics with the Gulf region have now acquired a strong economic
and social dimension. The liberation of Kuwait was an act of affirmation of international legality. The Minister for External Affairs visited Kuwait on 15 and 16 February 1992 and an agreement for establishing a Ministerial-level Joint Commision was signed during the visit. India also made all possible efforts to facilitate the return of Indian nationals earlier employed in Kuwait. The rapid developments in sub-Saharan Africa crystallised in further accentuation of the trends towards political pluralism, economic liberalisation and the resolution of internal conflicts. India viewed with satisfaction the growing acceptance of multiparty democracy in Africa although its progress in different countries was uneven. India intensified her efforts to expand bilate ral cooperation with African countries. The reform process in South Africa gathered further momentum with the prospects of a constitutional settlement getting brighter. The political reforms in South Africa acted as a catalyst to
India's decision to lift all "people-to-people sanctions". India welcomed the signing of the Lisbon Peace Accords which finally brought peace to Angola after 16 years of cruel civil strife.

In an effort to strengthen our rlations with Latin America and the Caribbean, we applied for permanent Observer status at the Organisation of American States. Immediately after this was accepted, we attended the OAS General Assembly meeting in Chile in June 1991. Our association with the OAS is expected to provide an additional forum for interaction with the countries i n the region, 15 of which are members of NAM and six share membership with us in the G-15.

India continued to play a constructive role in the deliberations of the UN Security Council on a number of major political issues. On the political issue of continuing sanctions against Iraq, India urged that the humanitarian aspect of the situation should also be taken into consideration while all efforts are mad e for creating conditions for lasting peace.

The Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992 served to highlight the new and effective role that the UN has assumed in the wake of momentous changes in the international situation. India asked for an expansion
in the membership of the Security Council to make the UN not only more representative but also to ensure its moral sanction and political effectivenes s.

The Prime Minister set forth at the Council meeting India's position on certain vital issues such as need for a new international consensus on a global non-proliferation regime, harmonisation of the defence of national integrity wi th respect for human rights and a just and fair world economic order.

At the 46th United Nations General Assembly, India effectively participated in all deliberations, emphasising urgent need to address development issues. In the meetings of the General Assembly and its main Committees and the Group of 77, India pointed out that the developing countries had become increasingly vulnerable with inadequate financial and resource flows, high debt burdens, worsening terms of trade, problems in access to technologies, and continued protectionism. It had, therefore, become imperative for the developing countries to display solidarity and articulate th eir common interests through constructive and meaningful proposals for negotiations with the industrialised North. India also voiced her concern at t he growing tendency to shift the focus away from development issues and to attach non-economic conditionalities to development assistance.

At the second G-15 Summit at Caracas in November 1991, the Prime Minister was the lead speaker on the subject of a new international consensus on
development. He emphasised the need to restore the centrality and criticality of development issues on the multilateral agenda.

The Non-Aligned Movement crossed another landmark in 1991 when it completed 30 years of sustained activities since its inception. At the 10th Ministerial Conference of Non-aligned countries held in Accra in September 1991, a reassessment of the role, objectives and activities of NAM brought outa reaffirmation of the role and continuing relevance of the Movement in the changed international situation as a political forum of the developing world. A major achievement was the Movement's endorsement of the Indian proposal on the democratisation of the UN and expansion of the Security Council. Further emphasis was given to the need for greater North-South cooperation, issues relating to disarmament, environment and development and giving greater priority to economic issues.

India believes that global environmental issues cannot be isolated from the general issue of development. India made a constructive contribution to the preparatory meetings of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development to ensure that the twin issues of environment and development are
addressed in a balanced way and in their totality in the 1992 Conference.

India continued to play a significant role in the three main multilateral disarmament fora. India's approach to this issue has been guided by the basic philosophy that given the global reach of nuclear weapons, we need to follow a global approach in regard to nuclear disarmament issues. Partial or piecemeal measures such as Limited Nuclear Weapons Free Zone, therefore, are of little utility and could even detract us from our ultimate goal.

In his statement at the UN Security Council, the Prime Minister emphasised the need for a new global nonproliferation regime which must be universal, comprehensive and non-discriminatory and linked to the goal of complete nuclear disarmament. He also proposed that the target date for the Action Plan put forward by the late Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi for complete elimination of nuclear weapons by the year 2010 could now be advanced to the end of the present century.

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting was held in Harare in October 1991. The Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao put across the perspective of the developing world on the issues and challenges facing the world today. India made a significant contribution by securing a balanced declaration which reflected the concerns of India and other developing countrie s on issues such as imposition of non-economic conditionalities to development assistance.

During the year under review, our endeavour has been to provide an increased economic content to our diplomatic efforts, while at the same time vigorously pursuing our basic foreign policy goals in the political field. The comprehensive changes in India's economic, industrial and trade policies made imperative re-orientation of priorities in our activities in the area of foreig n policy as well. The Ministry of External Affairs through our Missions abroad launched a programme to inform the potential investors, the NRIs and other target audiences in the OECD, ASEAN, Gulf and other countries of these policy changes and new climate and opportunities for investment and trade with India. Missions in target countries were geared to work towards increasing investment flows and export growth; visits of private trade and industry delegations to these countries for direct talks with their counterparts were actively organized and promoted.

India's Neighbours

INDIA'S NEIGHBOURS INDIA, in pursuance of her policy of according consistent importance to relations with the neighbouring countries of South Asia, continued her efforts to forge friendship, cooperation and mutual understanding. High-level contacts were consistently maintained to accomplish these objectives.

The year under review witnessed substantial progress in consolidating Indo-Nepal relations and establishing a durable framework for expanding all- round bilateral cooperation. After the general elections under the new politic al system in May 1991, the Government of Prime Minister G P Koirala assumed office in Nepal. A new stage was thus set for both countries to focus on maximising mutually beneficial cooperation in a variety of fields. The goal wa s to usher in a new era in Indo-Nepal cooperation to which both Governments had committed themselves in the Indo-Nepal Joint Communique of Jun 10, 1990.

The visit of Prime Minister Koirala to India from 5 to 10 December 1991 was preceded by four months of active and extensive consultations between the two sides. For the first time, an Indo-Nepal High-Level Task Force had been set up--chaired by the Cabinet Secretary or equivalent on both sides and including the Foreign Secretary, the Finance Secretary and the Commerce Secretary-- which prepared a comprehensive programme for bilateral cooperation. This was a unique effort, for this was the first time such an approach had been adopted between Nepal and India. The emphasis on expanding economic and industrial cooperation was highlighted by the fact that Prime Minister Koirala was accompanied by a delegation of Nepalese industrialists and businessmen besides Ministers and senior officials. The Indo-Nepal Joint Commission met just before his visit to finalize a comprehensive set of recommendations to the two Prime Ministers.

The subsequent discussions at the Prime Ministerial level resulted in a wide ranging set of decisions of crucial significance for intensifying Indo-Nepal cooperation for mutual benefit. As many as five important treaties and agreements were signed. These included a new trade treaty, a new transit treaty, an agreement for cooperation in controlling unauthorised trade, a Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in agriculture meant to promote rural development and rural employment in Nepal and another Memorandum of Understanding for the establishment of the B P Koirala India Nepal Foundation,

in the memory of the great Nepalese statesman and patriot who had also been closely involved with the Indian independence movement. A number of decisions were also taken regarding various aspects of cooperation in water resources development. This is the area with the maximum potential for revolutionising the Nepalese economy while also benefitting India greatly, The trade and transit treaties provide substantial new tariff concessions and procedural simplifications which, if fully exploited by Nepalese trade and industry, should substantially boost Nepalese exports to the large Indian marke t next door. An especially favourable access regime has been provided for the products of approved Indo-Nepal joint ventures. Thus, a solid framework has been set up for Nepal and India to work together for the benefit of both peoples, and the overall prospects of such Indo-Nepal cooperation are bright.

The traditionally close and friendly relations between India and Bhutan were further strengthened. In May 1991, His Majesty Jigme Singye Wangchuck- led a delegation to India to attend the funeral of the former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. He again visited India in September 1991 and held extensive
discussions with the President, Prime Minister and others. The discussions on bilateral and multilateral issues of mutual interest were marked by a close identity of views and great warmth and cordiality.

The growing economic and technical cooperation between the two countries was maintained and intensified further. The highlights were the inauguration i n March 1991 of the 50 KW Bhutan Broadcasting Station built entirely with Indian assistance and the handing over to Bhutan in June 1991 of the 336 MW Chukha Hydel Project which provide half of Bhutan's national revenue. The confluence bridge, another Indian aided project, was inaugurated in June. India continued
to cooperate with Bhutan in various other fields such as telecommunications, health services, industrial estates, hydel projects, livestock breeding, solar energy, etc.

In view of Bhutan's forthcoming 7th Five Year Plan (1992-97), extensive discussions were held with the Royal Government of Bhutan to finalize Indian aid to Bhutan for this Plan. This was in pursuance of India's traditionally intensive involvement with the economic development process in Bhutan, especially through substantial infrastructural development. In this context, the
Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, visited Bhutan in December 1991, and the Special Secretary (Planning Commission) had led a delegation to Bhutan earlier in October 1991 for detailed technical discussions. The Indian aid package, to be finalized soon, will help Bhutan s et up greater revenue earning projects, especially in hydropower and industry, besides taking up some in the social sector and meeting continuing commitments.

During the visit of the King of Bhutan to India in September 1991, a new Air Services Agreement was signed between the two countries. India continued to offer Bhutanese students opportunity for secondary as well as higher education and training in various fields. Nearly 100 Bhutanese students are availing of scholarships tinder the Government of India schemes and the Colombo Plan. The number of Indian lecturers on deputation to Slerubtse College under Colombo Plan was increased from 9 to 13. India continued to supply Bhutan with essential commodities at controlled prices under a special quota system.

The advent of democracy in Bangladesh gave a new impetus to Indo-Bangaladesh relations. Bangladesh's Foreign Minister paid an official vis it to India in August 1991 at the invitation of the Minister for External Affairs. Wide-ranging discussions were held on bilateral issues and both sides agreed to further strengthen their relations by removing immediately some of the outstanding irritants through dialogue and by adopting a fresh approach for enhancing economic cooperation. A Credit Agreement and an Avoidance of Double Taxation Agreement were also signed.

The Indian Chief of Army Staff visited Bangladesh at the invitation of the Bangladesh's COAS in July 1991-the first ever visit by an Indian COAS. Secretary-level talks on the sharing of river waters were also held in Dhaka in April 1991, New Delhi in October 1991 and Dhaka in February 1992. The meeting of the Prime Minister with Prime Minister of Bangaldesh, Begum Khaleda Zia, at Harare during the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in October 1991 lent further momentum to India's relations with Bangladesh.

During the earlier part of the year, Bangladesh remained preoccupied with bringing about constitutional and political changes in order to revert to the Parliamentary system of Government. Policies to restructure the economy with a view to introducing requisite liberalisation were continued. On 16 December 1991, the nation celebrated two decades of independence. Bangladesh media took a special notice of the significance of this occasion and highlighted India's role in the liberation war and assistance given to the country at the dawn of freedom.

More than a year and half after the general elections in Myanmar in May 1990, power remains yet to be transferred to the elected representatives of the people. The 1991 Nobel Peace Prize winner Ms Aung San Suu Kyi continues to suffer under house arrest. The National League for Democracy (NLD) leadership has been pressurised into expelling her from the party's membership. Other leaders and supporters of democracy are either in prison or in exile, or continue facing political repression.

India would like to maintain a working relationship with the Government of this important neighbouring country with whom she shares historical and cultura l ties of long-standing. However, despite India's policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, she cannot ignore the democratic aspiratio ns of the people of Myanmar who continue to suffer. Over the past few months, India-both on her own through public statements and in concert with other like-minded countries through a resolution adopted in the third committee of th e UN-expressed concern about the absence of democracy and widespread infringement of human rights in Myanmar. India also called upon that Government to release Ms Aung San Suu Kyi unconditionally and to pave way for setting up a multi-party democratic system of governance. India's concerns were reiterated through the speech delivered by the President on the occasion o f the acceptance of credentials presented by the new Myanmar Ambassador on 3 Fabruary 1992, in which he also praised the non-violent, Gandhian leadership of Ms Suu Kyi. India sincerely hopes that State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) would take necessary steps, enabling the country to take up its rightful place among the community of nations.

India's sincere interest and concern in a peaceful resolution of the ethnic issue in Sri Lanka which meets the broad aspirations of the Tamils continue. A t the same time, India is equally committed to develop bilateral relations with Sri Lanka in their widest sense, particularly in commercial, economic, industri al, scientific, technical and cultural fields. It was against this background that both India and Sri Lanka signed an agreement in July 1991 during the visit of Sri Lanka Foreign Minister, Mr Harold Herat to establish Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Commission. Its Sub-Commissions on Trade, Investment and Finance, and on cultural, educational and social matters met in Colombo in October 1991 and discussed measures to strengthen cooperation in various spheres. A Cultural Exchange Programme was signed between the two countries for the years 1992 to 1994. The First Session of the Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Commission was held in Delhi on 6 and 7 January 1992. The Joint Commission gave directions for future bilateral cooperaiton and further agreed to set up a Sub-Commission on Science and Technology.

The process of voluntary return of Sri Lankan refugees back to their homeland, based on the assurances received from the Sri Lanka Government regarding their safety and appropriate arrangements for their rehabilitation, commenced on 20 January 1992 and is continuing according to schedule. India has reiterated to Sri Lanka her conviction that only a negotiated political settlement within the unity and integrity of Sri Lanka would bring a lasting solution to the ethnic problem. It is her view that the political fram ework created by the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lanka Constitution following the 1987 Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement remains a constructive point of reference for any future negotiations which must include all Tamil Groups, especially those who have eschewed violence and joined the democratic mainstream.

The existing close and friendly relations between India and Maldives were further consolidated and reinforced by regular consultations and meetings which resulted in a close understanding at the highest level. This cooperation has provided the opportunity to assess the ongoing multi- dimensional cooperation programmes which encompasses infrastructure development, health and welfare, civil aviation, communication and manpower resources development.

President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom visited India on 15 and 16 June 1991 to pay condolences on the sad demise of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. He again visited India from 18 to 20 August 1991 for consultation on SAARC and bilateral relations. The Minister for External Affairs visited Male on 3 and 4 July 1991 for the SAARC Ministerial Council meeting. Kum. Girija Vyas, Deputy Minister for Information and Broadcasting, visited Maldives from 6 to 9 September 1991 to handover the fully aided Television Reception Centre installed and commissioned by Doordarshan. Shri A Arunachalam, Minister of State for Urban Development, visited Maldives from 28 to 31 October 1991 to inspect and review progress on the prestigious 200-bed Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital, an Indian-aided project, due for completion in September 1992.

The second Indo-Maldives Joint Commission for Economic and Technical Cooperation met at New Delhi on 2 and 3 March 1992. Minister for External Affairs, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr Fathulla Jameel, led the respective delegations.

India's relations with Pakistan continued to be under stress and strain on account of its undiminished support to terrorism in Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir, directed against India, and its attempts to internationalise the Kashm ir issue in violation of the Simla Agreement. Pakistan has also continued with its hostile anti-India propaganda, misrepresenting the situation in Jammu & Kashmir, and seeking to spread distorted and exaggerated accounts of alleged atrocities by security forces.

Pakistan's Foreign Secretary visited India from 18 to 21 August 1991 as Special Envoy of the Pakistan Prime Minister and conveyed the desire of his Government to engage in a serious and constructive dialogue with India and to approach issues with a new mindset. He asserted that Pakistan's new approach would be reflected on the ground. However, all evidence point towards the contrary and shows that Pakistan's support to terrorism and subversion continues unabated.

Convinced of the imperative necessity of establishing a tension-free and good neighbourly relationship with Pakistan, India has persisted with efforts to reduce tensions with Pakistan and carry the bilateral dialogue forward. In accordance with this approach, India proposed a Confidence Building Package in May 1990 and in its pursuance five rounds of Foreign Secretary level talks have been held between the two countries. Some forward move could also be made. In April 1991, during the fourth round of discussions, two agreements were signed on (i) Advance Notification of Military Exercises and Manoeuvres and (ii) Prevention of Air Space violations by Military Aircraft. The Directors General Military Operations of the two countries have been in regular weekly telephonic contact since 1 January 1991. Military delegations have paid reciprocal visits in March and September 1991. Both sides have agreed to consider a joint declaration and a bilateral agreement banning the production, development, deployment and use of chemical weapons. The lists of nuclear installations and facilities, to be covered under the Agreement on Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities, were exchanged on 1 January 1992.

Discussions have also been held on several pending issues such as demarcation of the boundary in the Sir Creek area, controlling drug trafficking and smuggling and the Tulbal, Navigation Project. Both sides have agreed in principle to resume discussions on the Siachen issue at the appropriate time an d to reconvene meetings of the Sub-Commissions of the India-Pakistan Joint Commission on mutually convenient dates.

The Minister for External Affairs met the Pakistan Minister of State for Foreign Affairs in New York on 30 September 1991 and called for the cessation of Pakistan's support to subversion and terrorism in Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir.

The Prime Ministers of the two countries met in Harare on 17 October 1991 and in Colombo oil 21 December 1991 and reiterated the need to reduce tensions and resolve issues bilaterally and peacefully. The Prime Minister reminded the Pakistan Prime Minister that despite assurances, Pakistan continued with its support to terrorism, and that these actions of Pakistan do not match with Pakistan's stated desire to improve bilateral relations with India. The two Prime Minister had another useful meeting at Davos (Switzerland) on 2 February 1992. However, immediately thereafter, the Government and the National Assembly of Pakistan regrettably chose to associate themeselves with statements and actions that vitiated the atmosphere in bilateral relations. India hopes that Pakistan would abandon its negative approach and join in the endeavour to establish friendly and cooperative relations in the interest o f the peoples of the two countries and of peace and stability in the region. India maintained her endeavours to strengthen the traditionally close relations with Afghanistan. There were regular high-level exchanges. The Vice President of Afghanistan visited India in September 1991. Agreements were concluded to promote bilateral cooperation in the economic, cultural and other fields. India also continued to extend economic assistance to Afghanista n which, inter alia, included relief assistance for refugee rehabilitation, deput ation of experts and scholarships for Afghan nationals. The Government of India agreed to supply 50,000 tonnes of wheat to Afghanistan on a grant basis.

India continued to extend full support to the political settlement of the Afghan crisis. India believes that a political settlement taking into account the legitimate interests of all concerned should be arrived at by the Afghans themselves without any form of external interference. In this context, India welcomed the UNSG's five-point peace proposals announced in May 1991. During the year under review, South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) made notable progress in different areas of regional cooperation. The Sixth SAARC Summit was held at Colombo on 21 December. The Colombo Declaration, which was issued from the Summit, contained several decisions of far-reaching significance.

Several steps in regional economic cooperation were initiated. In June 1991 , a Regional Study on Trade, Manufactures and Services, first proposed to be undertaken in 1987, was finalized at an Expert level meeting in New Delhi. Its recommendations were endorsed "in principle" at the Ninth Session of the Council of Ministers held in July 1991, in Maldives, and it was decided to set up a high-level Committee on Economic Cooperation (CEC) to examine the recommendations and identify measures for immediate implementation from out of the Study. The CEC, composed of Secretary-level officials from member- states, met in Kathmandu on 15 and 16 September 1991. Its most important recommendation, to set up an Inter-Governmental Group (IGG) to formulate and seek agreement on an institutional framework under which specific measures for trade liberalisation could be furthered, was approved by the Sixth SAARC Summit. The First Meeting of the IGG is to be held shortly in India. At this Meeting, a Sri Lankan proposal to establish a SAARC Preferential Trade Arrangement (SAPTA) by 1997 will also be comprehensively examined.

Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) hosted, on 3 and 4 October 1991, a meeting of national development institutions to decide the modalities o f a Fund to finance the Identification and Development of Regional Projects, an Indian proposal accepted in the Male Declaration. It was agreed to institute a Fund of US $ 5 million to begin with, by pooling regional resources, and to constitute a SAARC Regional Council of Development Financial Institutions (RCDFI) to manage the Fund. The first meeting of the RCDFI is due to take place in India in Februray 1992, also under IDBI auspices.

Pursuant to an earlier decision, SAARC member-states had prepared National Studies on `Causes and Consequences of Natural Disasters and Protection and preservation of Environment', which were synthesized into a Regional Study in 1991. The Sixth SAARC Summit agreed to set up a SAARC Committee on Environment to examine the recommendations of this Study comprehensively and to identify measures for its implementation.

Another Study under preparation is on the Greenhouse Effect or Global Warming, with particular reference to its impact on the region. National Studi es are to be synthesized into a Regional Study in time for UNCED Meeting at Rio in June 1992. The Colombo Declaration considered it useful to hold a Ministerial meeting to harmonise views of SAARC member-states for effective projection at the UNCED Meeting. India will host a Ministerial-level Meeting for this purpose in April 1992. The year 1992 is to be observed as the SAARC year of Environment. As in the past, both National and Regional Programmes in this field are proposed for implementation in India.

In order to promote people-to-people contact, a Visa Exemption Sticker (also called SAARC Travel Document) will become operational from 1 March 1992. This will enable visa-free travel within the region to Members of Nation al Parliaments, Supreme Court Judges, Heads of National Academic Institutions, their spouses and dependent children.

A laudable decision of the Sixth SAARC Summit was to set up a South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation consisting of eminent persons from this region who would draw upon the region's experiences gained in Poverty Alleviation Programmes and present its Report to the Seventh SAARC Summit.

Under the 13 agreed areas of technical cooperation of which the Integrated Programme of Action is composed, 62 SAARC activities such as workshops, training programmes, seminars, symposia and conferences were held during 1991, out of which nearly a quarter were held in India. In Tourism, a newly identified area of technical cooperation, India will be hosting a Meeting of Experts to devise strategies for marketing SAARC abroad in order to promote tourist arrivals from developed countries.

As decided by the Fifth SAARC Summit, 1991 was observed as `SAARC Year of Shelter' in order to focus attention on and redress the grievances of t he homeless in the SAARC region. A SAARC Workshop on `Appropriate Building Materials and Technologies' was held in Madras earlier this year, and a documentary film on `Slum Upgradation' was telecast on the National Network on 8 December, the anniversary of the signing of the SAARC Charter. The Sixth SAARC Summit has directed the establishment of "Shelternet", a shelter information network, to pursue some of the activities initiated in the SAARC Year of Shelter.

India is firmly committed to regional cooperation under SAARC. The Government of India view SAARC as an instrument of realising collective self- reliance and accelerating socioeconomic development. India believes that SAARC cooperation should be extended as expeditiously as possible to the core economic areas of trade, manufactures and services, so that the benefits of the Association reach the common man in an effective and palpable form.

South-East Asia And The Pacific

SOUTH-EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFICINDIA'S traditionally close and friendly relations with countries in South-E ast Asia and the South Pacific were maintained and broadened by numerous high-level contacts with countries in this region. Relations with Cambodia continued to be close and friendly. Mr Hun Sen, Prime Minister of the State of Cambodia (SOC), visited India from 3 to Oct 95, 1991. During the visit, he met Prime Minister, Minister for External Affairs and other Ministers, and held discussions on bilateral issues as well a s on prospects for a Cambodian settlement. He expressed deep appreciation of India's role and called for a major Indian presence in the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). India assured Cambodia that she would continue to play a keen role along with other countries to ensure the emergence of a sovereign, independent, non-aligned and democratic Cambodia. India stressed her readiness to actively participate in the UNTAC operations and to share her experience in peace keeping and in the conduct of elections, to the extent she is called upon to do so by the United Nations.

India continued to extend bilateral assistance to Cambodia. A gift of 5,0 00 MT of rice, which was offered during Prime Minister Hun Sen's October 1990 visit, was handed over in June 1991. An agreement in respect of the Rs 1.5 crore commercial credit extended by India in October 1990 was signed in July 1991. The credit is to be utilised, at the Cambodian request, for aluminium coils. Action is under way to supply these items and the medicines, requested by Cambodia under the Rs 1.5 crore grant also extended in October 1990. In response to an appeal, relief supplies worth Rs 5 lakhs are being despatched fo r flood victims in Cambodia. Arrangements are also being made to hold artificial limb fitment camps in Cambodia.

India continued to play an active role in the efforts to achieve a Cambodian settlement, through frequent official interaction to promote her views on major issues including the need for an early ceasefire, cessation of arms supplies to all the factions and demobilization. As part of the efforts, Secretary (East) visi ted Bangkok in May and Beijing and Pyongyang in July 1991 and held consultations which paved the way for a meeting between Prime Minister Hun Sen and Prince Sihanouk. On 22 July 1991, Secretary (East) personally conveyed Prime Minister's felicitations to Prince Sihanouk on his election as Chairman of the Cambodian Supreme National Council (SNC). In August 1991, India decided to accredit a representative to the SNC, a decision which Prince Sihanouk greatly welcomed. In August 1991, immediately prior to the meeting of SNC at Pattaya, India made a suggestion for phased demobilization. This was subsequently accepted by the SNC and the Five Permanent Members of the UN Security Council (P-5).

A delegation led by Minister for External Affairs participated in the seco nd session of the Paris International Conference on Cambodia (PICC) from 21 to 23 October 1991. Prime Minister sent congratulatory messages to President Mitterrand and President Soeharto conveying India's appreciation of the role played by France and Indonesia as Co-Chairmen of the Conference and offered all possible Assistance in the implementation of the Agreement and in the reconstruction of Cambodia.

India's constructive contribution has been widely acknowledged and appreciated by all parties. India was among the countries specially mentioned at the PICC for facilitating the peace process in Cambodia. At the request of the UN, India has contributed civilian and military personnel for the United Nation s Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC), and has conveyed her willingness to participate in UNTAC. An Indian election expert was a member of the UN Election Survey team which visited Cambodia in October 1991 to study the preparations required for the holding of UN supervised elections, which are likely to be held in 1993.

The Minister of State for External Affairs visited Cambodia from 12 to 15 December 1991 and had meetings with Prince Sihanouk, Prime Minister Hun Sen and other Members of the SNC. He reaffirmed India's continued support for peace and reconstruction in Cambodia as per the Paris Accords. India's representative to the SNC presented his credentials to Prince Sihanouk in December 1991. In his communications to the President and the Prime Minister, Prince Sihanouk has paid handsome tributes to the active role played by India i n the negotiations leading to the signing of the Paris Accord. He has expressed the hope that India would continue to play a leading role in the reconstruction of Cambodia.

India's traditional relations with Vietnam were further strengthened by exchange of high-level visits with special emphasis laid on enhancing bilat eral economic, scientific and technical cooperation. The President of India paid a highly successful visit to Vietnam from 24 to 28 April 1991. He had discussion s with the Vietnamese leadership on bilateral and regional issues. A delegation led by the Vice President of the State Council of Vietnam attended the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in May 1991.

Following the President's visit, India agreed to assist Vietnam in establishing an industrial estate at an estimated cost of Rs 1 crore. It was decided that talks on Civil Aviation and Banking would be held with the objective of establishing air links and opening a branch of the State Bank of India in Vietnam. The Civil Aviation talks were held in November 1991 and an Air Services Agreement providing for the establishment of air links between the two countries was initialled.

India's friendly relations and economic cooperation with Laos were maintained. Laotian trainees continued to visit India for training in diverse fields under Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) and other programmes. Deputation of Indian experts to Laos also continued. The President accompanied by an official delegation, paid a State visit to the Philippines from 28 April to 1 May 1991, which was the first ever visit by an Indian Head of State to that country. During the visit, bilateral, regional an d international issues of mutual interest were discussed. An Agreement for Cooperation in Utilization of Atomic Energy for peaceful purposes and a Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of Agricultural Science and Technology were signed during the visit. The Philippines also extended support to India's principled position on the institutionalisation of racism in Fiji. An official announcement was later made by the Philippines sid e including Fiji in their restricted list because of Fiji's policy of racial discrimination. One of the highlights of the President's visit was his address in the University of Philippines on the subject "Developing Countries in the Changing World" and conferment on him of the Degree of Doctorate of Laws (Honoris Causa) by the University. The President also extended an invitation t o the President of the Philippines to visit India. The visit has resulted in gre ater degree of goodwill and understanding between the leaders of the two countries. India is also providing an assistance of about Rs 42 lakhs to the Philippines f or setting up a Handtool and Design Centre at Angels City under the ITEC Programme.

India has extended a token relief assistance of Rs 5 lakhs worth of essenti al medicines for the quake victims due to the massive volcanic eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991. The President also sent a message of sympathy to the Philippines President on this natural calamity.

Relations with Singapore became more friendly and close through several exchanges of ministerial level visits. Singapore Minister for Health, Mr Yeo Cheow Tong, attended the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. The Minister for External Affairs visited Singapore on 12 August 1991. He called on Singapore's Prime Minister, Mr Goh Chok Tong and Foreign Minister, Mr Wong Kan Seng and had discussions with them on matters of mutual concern, including an invitation to Singapore to consider investing in India in view of her liberalised economic environment. Subsequently, a Seminar on "Investing in India: New Business Opportunities", was held in Singapore on 18 October, which was jointly organized by the Singapore Trade Development Board in association with High Commission of India and the Ministry of External Affairs. The official delegation at the Seminar was led by the Finance Minister and included the Minister of State for Commerce and senior representatives from the concerned Government departments, trade and industry and financial institutions. The Seminar was highly successful in its objective of dissemination of information about India' s new trade, economic and investment policies to the investors in Singapore and its neighbouring countries.

Singapore Foreign Minister, Mr Wong Kan Seng, later visited India on 5 and 6 December 1991. He called on the Prime Minister, Minister for External Affairs, Finance Minister and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and had very useful exchange of views with them for promoting bilateral cooperation in economic and other areas, including Singapore's investment in India. The visit of Singapore Foreign Minister which took place after about 20 years has generated further momentum in the friendly and cooperative relations between India and Singapore.

Relations with Malaysia continued to be friendly. Malaysian Minister for Human Resource attended the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. The Prime Minister had bilateral meeting with the Malaysian Prime Minister, Dr Mahathir during the CHOGM Summit at Harare in October 1991 when both leaders exchanged ideas for further promotion of cooperation in economic and other fields as an example of South-South Cooperation.

Indonesian Coordinating Minister for Security, Mr Sudomo, attended the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. Other visits from Indonesia included the visit of a delegation led by Secretary General in Indonesian Ministry of Defence and Security, Gen. I B M Sudjana, in May 1991 and the transit visit of Director General in the Indonesian Foreign Office , Mr Wiryono, in October 1991.

The Fifth Meeting of the Indo-Thai Joint Trade Committee was held in New Delhi in November 1991. Earlier, Mr Kasem Kasemsri, Minister in the Thai Prime Minister's Office visited India to attend the funeral of former Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi.

Brunei's High Commissioner in Kuala Lumpur, Mr Pengiran Haji Abdul Momin, visited India to attend the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. A resident Assistant High Commissioner of Brunei will commence operations in Delhi from 1992.

India's proposal to have sectoral dialogue with ASEAN in the areas of trade, technical and manpower development,. technology and tourism was accepted by ASEAN in January 1992. This significant development would open up avenues of improving India's relations with ASEAN in economic and other. fields.

Bilateral relations with Australia progressed towards normalcy after the temporary set back in 1990-91 on account of the sale of Mirage aircraft by Australia to Pakistan. Various bilateral meetings postponed last year were revived. The Joint Working Group on Coal met in Australia in May 1991. The 5th Joint Business Council Meeting took place at New Delhi on 3 and 4 Septemebr 1991. High-level economic consultations were held in Delhi on 13 and 14 November 1991, followed by the second round of senior official-level talks on 18 and 19 November 1991. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research signed a Memorandum of Understanding with its Australian counterpart, Department of Industry, Technology and Commerce in April 1991. An Avoidance of Double Taxation Agreement was signed on 25 July 1991.

Australian Foreign Minister, Senator Gareth Evans, and Mrs Hazel Hawke, wife of the then Australian Prime Minister, represented Australia at the funeral of Shri Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991. Senator Evans again visited India in September 1991 for the meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on South Africa. The Prime Minister met the then Australian Prime Minister, Mr Bob Hawke, at the Commonwealth Summit in Harare.

Cordial relations with New Zealand were maintained. The Prime Minister met New Zealand Prime Minister, Mr Bolger, at the Commonwealth Summit in Harare. New Zealand Deputy Prime Minister, Mr Don Mckinnon, visited India in May 1991 to attend the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. He also met several Indian leaders.

Fiji remained a matter of intense concern to India. The Minister for External Affairs in his statement at the UN Generaly Assembly (1991) underscored the institutionalised racial discrimination being perpetuated in Fi ji by the illegal Government installed after the coups in 1987. India continued to extend moral support to democratic forces in Fiji. Indian Missions in Canberra and Sydney retained contact with senior coalition leaders from Fiji. The ban on commercial, economic and technical cooperation with Fiji was maintained. Scholarships were given to deserving Fijian students.
East Asia
THE visit of the Chinese Premier Mr Li Peng to India from 11 to Dec 16, 1991 was a significant milestone in India-China relations. This was the first visit by a Chinese Premier to India in thirty one years. The visit was in return for the one undertaken by the former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, to China in December 1988.

The Chinese Premier's visit was an expression of the continuing positive momentum in India-China relations. The leaders of India and China reaffirmed the desire of both countries to further strengthen their friendly, good neighbourly and mutually beneficial relations.

During the year under review, India and China maintained high level exchanges. The then Commerce Minister visited China for the second session of the Joint Group on Economic Relations & Trade and Science & Technology in February 1991. In March 1991, Mr Li Ximing, member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, paid a visit to India at the invitation of the Congress (I) Party. The Acting Culture Minister of China also visited India in March 1991. Vice Premier Wu Xueqian represented the Chinese Government at the funeral of the former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. Peacetime exchanges in the defence field also continued with a visit by the National Defence University delegation to India in November 1991 in return for a visit made by the National Defence College in 1990. The Director of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Chinese Ministry of National Defence and the Director General of Military Intelligence of India also exchanged visits in 1991.

The Cultural Exchange Programme for 1991-93 was signed in March 1991 and a two year Programme for Science and Technology was signed in July 1991 for the promotion of research exchanges in the fields of lasers, remote sensing, new materials, bio-engineering and agriculture.

The Joint Working Group on the boundary question held its third session in Beijing in May 1991. Both sides also held the second set of meetings between the border security personnel in the Eastern and Western sectors in July 1991.

On his visit to India in December 1991, Premier Li Peng was accompanied by a high level delegation including the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister for Foreign Economic Relations and Trade. He held wide-ranging talks with the Prime Minister and called on the President and the Vice President. He also met the Ministers for External Affairs, Defence and Finance and leaders of major political parties. Separate talks were held between the Foreign Minister s and the Commerce Ministers of the two countries.

The visit had a positive and notable outcome. An Agreement on the Re- establishment of Consulates General in Shanghai and Bombay, a Consular Convention, a Memorandum on the Resumption of Border Trade, the Trade Protocol for 1992, and a Memorandum of Cooperation on the Peaceful Applications of Outer Space Sciences and Technology were signed during the visit. An India-China Joint Communique was also issued at the conclusion of Mr Li Peng's visit to India.

On the crucial boundary question, both India and China reaffirmed the need for an early and mutually acceptable settlement and to keep the border areas free from tension pending a final settlement of the issue. China agreed that meetings between the border security personnel should be held on a regular basis to ensure peace and tranquillity in the border areas. It was further agr eed that the Joint Working Group will hold its next session in New Delhi in the fir st half of 1992.

On the issue of Tibet, the Chinese Premier said that China is willing to have a dialogue with the Dalai Lama on all issues with the exception of Tibet's independence. India reiterated her long standing and consistent position that Tibet is an autonomous region of China and that she will not allow Tibetans to engage in anti-China political activities in India. This position of the Government does not conflict with the religious and cultural affinities that In dia has had with Tibet through the centuries.

The third session of the Joint Group on Economic Relations & Trade and Science & Technology was held in New Delhi in December 1991. The two sides signed the Trade Protocol for 1992. New areas of cooperation in the fields of agriculture, energy, education and public health have been identified. The Chinese have agreed on the need for a dynamic increase and diversification of trade relations, and have expressed their willingness to redress the present adverse balance of trade which affects India. The Chinese have shown interest in the steel and power sectors in India and it has been agreed to jointly bid f or project exports in third countries. A Festival of India is to be held in China and a Festival of China is to be held in India.

India and China signed a Memorandum on the Resumption of Border Trade. Initially the trade will be carried out at one point across the Uttar Pradesh-Tibet border. There are provisions for the expansion of border trade to other areas along the frontier. India's desire to expand the scope of borde r trade to cover other areas along the border was emphasised to the Chinese side.

During the visit of the Chinese Premier, India's standpoint on relations with Pakistan, her concerns about Pakistan's continued support to militant and terrorist activity in Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir were frankly conveyed to the Chinese side. The Chinese Premier said that China is opposed to terrorism since it does not solve problems and only sharpens contradictions. It was also stated that China would convey India's concerns to Pakistan when the opportunity arises.

India's concerns about arms supplies to Pakistan and Myanmar were also conveyed to the Chinese side. The Chinese side has said that they want to see peace and stability in South Asia and do not wish to see an escalation of the arms race in the region. It was also mentioned that China would abide by the Missile Technology Control Regime guidelines in missile exports to Pakistan. During discussions on the international situation, both India and China expressed the hope that the changes in the international situation will lead to the establishment of a New World Order based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence and the principles of the UN Charter, and an equitable and mutually beneficial economic order in which the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

The momentum in relations between India and Japan was further intensified during the year under review. Exchanges and interaction continued at the highest level. Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu warmly congratulated Prime Minister P V Narasimha Rao on his assumption of the office of Prime Minister. Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao's message of felicitation to Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa on his election as Prime Minister of Japan elicited a warm and cordial response from the latter who expressed the hope for further strengthening and adding new content to bilateral ties so that the two countries could contribute jointly to stability and peace in Asia and the whole world. Former Prime Minister of Japan, Mr Noboru Takeshita, represented the Government of Japan at the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in May 1991.

The Minister for External Affairs, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, visited Japan from 18 to 24 January 1992 and had wide-ranging discussions with the top Japanese leadership. The entire gamut of bilateral relations was examined and areas of further cooperation in the emerging international order were explored. The year 1992 marks the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and the signing of separate peace treaty between the two countries. The visit also provided the first opportunity for a visiting Indian Minister to explain the recent economic changes in India to the Japanese Government and business community.

The then Finance Minister accompanied by Finance Secretary visited Japan from 10 to 12 April 1991. He met the then Finance Minister of Japan, Mr Ryutaro Hashimoto, the then Foreign Minister, Mr Taro Nakayama and Speaker of the House of Representatives, Mr Yoshio Sakurauchi, who is also the President of the India-Japan Association. The Petroleum Minister, Shri B Shankaranand also visited Japan in October 1991.

In the economic sphere, Japan reacted favourably to Government's new policy initiatives in economic liberalisation and opening up of the Indian economy and indicated its intention of studying the situation in further detail so as to enable inflow of investment from Japan to India. A high-level 101-member Economic Mission led by Dr Rokuro Ishikawa, President of the Japan and Tokyo Chambers of Commerce and Industry, visited India from 27 to 31 January 1992. The Economic Mission was able to study the impact of the recent liberalisation measures and explore further areas of economic cooperation particularly in the area of direct foreign investment from Japan. The visit al so coincided with the 23rd Joint Meeting of the India-Japan Business Cooperation Committee represented by FICCI and the Japan and Tokyo Chambers of Commerce and Industry.

Indo-Japan cooperation in the field of development continued to be one of the important aspects of the bilateral relationship. Japan remained India's largest aid donor. At the Aid India Consortium in Paris in September 1991, Japan pledged a total of 106.6 billion Yen for 1991-92 which was marginally higher than 104.8 billion Yen pledged in previous year. Though the figure indicated a marginal increase over the previous year in Yen terms, in Rupee terms it indicated a 50% increase. During the year Japanese loan assistance wa s announced for the following projects:
(i) The Gandhar Gas Combined Cycle Project.
(ii) National Highway No. 2 Improvement Project (Mathura-Agra Section).
(iii) Aravalli Hills Afforestation Project.
(iv) Urban City Water Supply Project.
(v) The Ajanta-Ellora Conservation and Tourism Development Project. At the official level, visits were exchanged in the economic, trade, scientific , technological and defence fields. The Mixed Commission for exchanges in the field of culture and education held its meeting in Tokyo in December 1991. The commemoration of the 40th Anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and Japan in 1992 figured on the agenda of these discussions. The Third India-Japan Joint Committee for Cooperation in Science and Technology met in New Delhi on 15 and 16 April 1991. In addition to reviewing in detail the progress made, it discussed new proposals for further cooperaion and interaction in science and technology.

The Chief of Army Staff briefly visited Tokyo in September and held useful discussions with senior defence officials of the Government of Japan. In addition, reciprocal arrangements for exchange of research scholars/officials i n defence studies were initiated with an Indian scholar visiting Japan in June 19 91 and a Japanese scholar visiting India in December 1991.

The Third India-Japan Working Group for Railways met in Tokyo in December and reviewed the progress made in areas of cooperation identified in earlier meetings and also discussed new areas where cooperation could be extended particularly in specialised areas and new technology in the Railways. Bilateral consultative talks of the economic Ministries took place in New Delhi on 19 and 20 November 1991 where the two sides reviewed implementation of assistance-related projects and discussed future projects whi ch could be covered under grant-in-aid assistance.

The interaction at the non-governmental level in the spheres of economy and trade was also substantive in nature. The India-Japan Joint Study Committee met in Tokyo under the Co-Chairmenship of Dr V Krishnamurthy, Member, Planning Commission, and Mr Eijiro Noda, former Japanese Ambassador to India, on 26 and 27 November 1991 and discussed inter-alia new developments in the international political and economic order, India's new economic policies from the respective vantage points of the two countries, establishment of an Industrial Model Town in India, ways to commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and the intensification of exchanges particularly in the field of science and technolog y.

The Committee decided to meet biannually. The Standing Committee of the India-Japan Joint Business Cooperation Committee (IJBCC) held its 14th Meeting in New Delhi from 23 to 25 July 1991; The Japanese delegation led by Mr Eme Yamashita called on the Finance Minister, Minister for External Affairs and Ministers of State for Commerce and Industry. A 9-member delegation from the Punjab, Haryana and Delhi Chambers of Commerce and Industry visited Tokyo and Osaka and had meetings with Tokyo Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Osaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry, officials in Ministry of International Trade & Industry and Japan External Trade Organization.

In recognition of the positive and balanced nature of the relationship tha t India has always enjoyed with the two Koreas, both the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea sought India's understanding on the question of their entry to the United Nations. India was also requested by both the Koreas to initiate the resolution admitting them in the United Nations as full-fledged members in September 1991. Both the DPRK and the ROK expressed appreciation of India's position on the subject of their entry to the United Nations.

India's bilateral relations with the Republic of Korea were marked by friendship and cooperation and increased interaction particularly in the economic sphere. Former Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea, Mr Shinyong Lho, visited India as Special Envoy of President Roh Tae Woo from 30 April to 3 May 1991 carrying a message seeking India's support for the ROK to join the United Nations. He called on the President and Vice President of India.

The bilateral trade figures showed an upward trend. Given the complementarity of India's economy with the ROK, the potential for enhancing trade, cooperating in joint ventures and attracting ROK investment were also explored in depth. The Trade Development Authority (TDA) and its Korean equivalent the Korea Trade Promotion Corporation (KOTRA) organized a conference on "Industrial Cooperation and Investment Promotion between India and Korea" in New Delhi on 4 and 5 September 1991 in which 33 Korean firms and 500 Indian firms participated.

The then Minister of Commerce, Law and Justice visited Seoul from 1 to 1 0 April 1991 for the ESCAP Ministerial Meeting and utilised the opportunity for discussions on bilateral matters of mutual interest with Foreign Minister Lee Sang Ok and Trade and Industry Minister Lee Bong Suk. In the academic and cultural fields too there was a discernible trend of gradually increasing interaction. Of significance was the 3rd India-Korea Conference held at Yonsei University where various facets of bilateral relation s were examined in depth and the potential for future cooperation explored particularly in the light of India's new liberalised economic policy.

Bilateral relations with the DPRK progressed well during the year under review. Vice President Li Jong Ok visited India from 7 to 11 May 1991. He called on the President, Shri R Venkataraman, Vice President, Dr S D Sharma and also met the then Deputy Minister for External Affairs. Two documents were signed during the visit, namely, the Plan of Cooperation in Science and Technology and the Cultural Exchange Programme for 1991-92. During the visit, the adherence of both sides to the principles of the non-aligned movement of which both are members was reaffirmed.

Secretary (East), Shri L L Mehrotra, paid an official visit to Pyongyang from 19 to 23 July 1991 and called on Vice President Li Jong Ok, Vice Premier and Foreign Minister Kim Yong Nam. He held in-depth discussions on the current international situation, bilateral matters and issues of common concern with his counterpart, Vice Minister Cha Bong Ju. Secretary (East) also met Prime Minister Hun Sen of Cambodia and Prince Norodom Sihanouk who were in Pyongyang at that time.

India was represented at the Asian Ministerial meeting of G-77 in Pyongyang held from 10 to 12 September 1991 by Special Secretary (Commerce), Shri S Kanungo, leading the delegation as Ministerial representative.

Contacts at both the official and non-official levels continued in diverse fields. A Parliamentary group led by Shri M A Masodkar attended the 85th International Parliamentary Union Conference in Pyongyang in April 1991. As in past years, India took part in the April Spring Friendship Art Festival in Pyongyang.

The year was marked by a continuation of traditional ties of friendship and cordiality with the Mongolian People's Republic and steady contacts at both the official and people-to-people levels were maintained. Prominent visitors to Mongolia included:
(i) A 3-member Parliamentary group led by Shri Bhaktacharan Das visited Mongolia to attend an international conference on new democracy in Mongolia.
(ii) Shri L L Mehrotra, Secretary (East), attended the National Day celebrations of Mongolia in July 1991 and also held extensive consultations on matters of bilateral and mutual interest with his Mongolian counterpart, Vice Minister Doljintseren. Secretary (East) also called on President P Ochirbaat, Prime Minister D Bymbasuren, Foreign Minister Ts. Gymbasuren and Minister of Trade Bayer Baataar. Three agreements were signed during the visit, namely, (i) Cultural Exchange Programme for 1991-93, (ii) Plan of Cooperation in the field of Health and Medical Sciences and (iii) Protocol on the Equivalence of Degrees and Diplomas.
(iii) Secretary, Planning Commission, Shri N Sengupta visited Mongolia to give a series of lectures on the market economy to Mongolian Government and administration officials.
(iv) The former Chief Justice of India, Justice P N Bhagwati, visited Mongolia in connection with the drafting of the new constitution. Prominent among the visits from Mongolia was that of the Minister for Labour, Mr Ts. Tsolomon, in November 1991 who had meetings with the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, and Minister of State for Industry, Shri P K Thungon, and with other Government officials in addition to meeting private business entrepreneurs.

Efforts were directed towards increasing cooperation in the economic and trade fields. Broad areas of cooperation were identified, with Mongolia showin g particular interest in the agricultural sector and in the small scale and mediu m sectors of industry. Special stress was laid on assistance to Mongolia in trai ning and management under the ITEC Programme.
West Asia And North Africa
DURING the year under review, India's relations with countries of West Asia and North Africa continued to flourish within the parameters of normal friendship and cooperation. In the beginning of the year, the impact of the Gulf Crisis was felt in the region, with new friendship made and old alliances readjusted between Arabic speaking countries, even far removed from the Gulf region, as a result of the new and emergent realities. In the latter half of the year, the joint US and Soviet initiative to restart Middle East tal ks bore fruit with the principal antagonists gathering in Madrid on 30 October, for the first ever face to face talks. The preoccupation of the countries in West Asia and North Africa with regional politics perforce led to their distraction from enlarging their traditional friendship with countries like Ind ia.
India also continued to monitor the role of the countries in West Asia and
North Africa in the Organization of Islamic Countries, at which Pakistan continued to drum up support for its stand on the Kashmir issue. This complex mossaic of international motives presented to Indian diplomacy a fresh challenge.

Indian solidarity with the people of Palestine was highlighted by the visit of Shri Eduardo Faleiro, Minister of State for External Affairs, to Tunisia from 11 to Oct 13, 1991, when he called on Mr Yasser Arafat, the President of the State of Palestine, and Mr Farooq Qadumi, the Palestinian Foreign Minister. The two sides exchanged views on the then upcoming Middle East Peace Conference and the PLO shared with India their perspective of the US-Soviet initiative and the options available to them at that crucial juncture . India reiterated her support for the Palestinian people and their cause. On 29 November 1991 a function was held in New Delhi to observe the Indian Solidarity Day with the Palestinian people. Shri Eduardo Faleiro, Minister of State for External Affairs, in his address reiterated the Indian solidarity wit h the Palestinian people. Dr Najma Heptulla, Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, recalled the background of the Palestinian struggle and India's consiste nt support for the Palestinian rights.

President Yasser Arafat visited India from 20 to 22 January 1992 on a State visit. Besides calling on the President, he had discussions with the Prime Minister and also met with the Vice President, the Minister of State for Extern al Affairs, and the Ministers for Finance and Human Resource Development. Leaders of some political parties i.e. CPI, CPM, Janta Dal and BJP, also called on him. During his stay, President Arafat was also presented the Indira Gandhi International Award by the Indian Council for World Affairs. He held a Press Conference, at which he clearly articulated the Palestinian stand that the presence of India at the Middle East peace talks was desirable and that any sovereign step that India might take by way of establishing diplomatic relation s with Israel would be totally within India's prerogative. His visit provided an opportunity for an intense exchange of views and reaffirmation of confidence and support for each other. This was significant as the politics in the Middle East are rapidly evolving with the traditional alignments between the Arabs, overtaken by these events.

Two rounds of talks between Arab and Israel have been held, the first one at Madrid from 29 October to 5 November, and the second one in Washington from 11 to 17 December. The Palestinians had earlier agreed to be a part of th e Jordanian delegation. The outcome of the Washington Session has been less satisfactory than the one in Madrid, which had raised hopes of noticeable progress in the peaceful resolution of Arab-Israeli differences, dating from th e birth of the State of Israel. The next Session is expected by a wider number o f countries, even other than Israel's immediate Arab neighbours, in order to discuss multilateral issues of disarmament, utilisation of water resources, etc . India has welcomed the Middle East peace talks and voted for the rescinding of UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 hoping that this would enable the United Nations to play a role in the talks and lead to the lessening of acrimon y and tension.

Mr Hocinedjoudi, Secretary General of the Algerian Foreign Ministry, visited India from 18 to 21 April 1991 to hold official level bilateral talks. The discussions centred on the role of the Non-Aligned Movement. The two sides agreed to strengthen and promote bilateral cooperation. Mr Hocinedjoudi also called on the then Minister of State for External Affairs and discussed a wide range of international issues, including the post-Gulf crisis situations. Symbolising the traditional friendship between India and Egypt was the presence of the Egyptian Speaker of Shura, Dr Mustafa Kamal Helmi, as a representative of the Egyptian President at the funeral of Shri Rajiv Gandhi.

The two countries signed in July 1991 a new Air Agreement to provide reciprocal bi-weekly air services between India and Egypt. Dr Boutros Ghali, the Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for External Affairs, visited India in August 1991 for soliciting Indian support for his candidature for election to the post of Secretary General of the United Nations. On his election subsequently, the Egyptian Foreign Minister conveyed Egypt's grateful thanks to the Minister for External Affairs for India's role in Dr Ghali's election.
Minister for External Affairs, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, visited Egypt from 12 to 16 January 1992 at the invitation of his Egyptian counterpart. This visi t was in line with periodic bilateral exchanges between India and Egypt at the political level. He was accompanied, amongst others, by Shri I P Khosla, Secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs. Six prominent businessmen also visited Egypt at the same time for the inauguration of the Indo-Egypt Business Forum. Shri Solanki launched an Indian Film Week. The Minister also inaugurated the Maulana Abul Kalam Cultural Centre in Cairo, which would provide a window to the Egyptians to the vast riches of Indian culture. The complete gamut of bilateral relations and important international issues were discussed in detail during the Indo-Egyptian talks. He called on President Hosni Mubarak and Speaker of the People's Assembly, Mr Ahmed Fathi Sarour. He also met the Arab League Secretary General, Dr Esmat Abdel Meguid. Shri Solanki delivered a talk at the Cairo University on `India's perception on the new international scenario' and the role of NAM with Egypt and India in it. A subject of common concern discussed by the Minister for External Affairs with both President Mubarak and his counterpart was the danger to secular societies from the rising crest of fundamentalism. The two sides also agreed that the Indo-Egyptian Joint Commission should meet this year in New Delhi.

A six member Parliamentary Delegation from Jordan visited India in December 1991. They called on the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Minister for External Affairs. They emphasised the role of Parliamentarians in building bridges between countries and the need to maintain these exchanges. Brig. General Mahmooud Mattar, the Chief of the Lebanese Air Force, was in India in November-December 1991. He called on the Indian Air Chief and discussed matters of mutual concern. He expressed interest in the purchase of essential items required by Lebanese Defence Services like the Kiran Mark II aircraft.

Mr Rafiq Haddaoui, Minister in the Moroccan Prime Minister's Office, visited India in August 1991 as a Special Envoy of King Hassan II. The visit was part of Moroccan demarches with the members of UN Security Council on Western Sahara. Shri Jagdish Tytler, Minister for Surface Transport, visited Morocco from 22 to 28 September 1991 to participate in the 19th Permanent International Association of Road Congress.

Dr Mohd. Zuhair Masharqah, Vice President of the Syrian Arab Republic, transited through India on 27 and 29 July 1991 on his way to and back from Kabul. During his stay, he called on the Vice President of India and discussed bilateral and multilateral issues. On 8 October 1991, an agreement was signed in Damascus between India and Syria for cooperation in the field of tourism. Shri Eduardo Faleiro, Minister of State for External Affairs, visited Tuni sia in October 1991 for the annual political consultations, the second round of which was held in Delhi in 1989. Shri Faleiro was received by President Ben Al i to whom he handed over a letter from the Prime Minister. President Ben Ali conveyed his greetings to Prime Minister and accepted the invitation to visit India. Shri Faleiro also had wide-ranging discussions with Mr Habib Ben Yahia, Tunisian Foreign Minister and the Secretary of State. The Tunisian leaders expressed admiration for India and its contribution to the improvement in international relations. They also expressed keen interest in the new politica l and economic initiatives undertaken by India. Relations with their respective neighbours were also discussed as well as the possibility of inter-regional economic cooperation. Shri Faleiro brought up the question of Tunisia importin g more from India to offset the imbalance in the bilateral trade as India is the largest importer of phosphoric acid from Tunisia as well as of expanding and diversifying economic cooperation to include joint industrial and technical collaboration in areas already identified by the Joint Committee. There was general satisfaction at the present state of bilateral relations and keenness t o strengthen and promote them further.

Mr Abdus Salaam Al Jalloud, Vice President of the People's Bureau of Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, paid a transit visit to India on 22 January 1992. A working lunch was hosted by the Prime Minister, at which the two leaders exchanged views on a number of bilateral and multilateral issues. Mr Jalloud, in particular, conveyed the Libyan perception of the situation that has developed following the allegations levelled by the USA, UK and France that two Libyan agents had complicity in the Pan Am/UTA air crashes. The three Western Powers have demanded the handing over of these two suspects. Contemporaneously with the visit of Mr Jalloud, UN Security Council passed Resulution 731, endorsing unanimously the above demand. India voted in favour of the Resolution. Mr Jalloud reiterated the Libyan resolve to reinvigorate th e bilateral relations and that there should be regular political level bilateral consultations and exchange of high level visits. Earlier, Libya had dropped th e reference to Kashmir in a document on terrorism introduced by it in the UN General Assembly. He also suggested that the Non-Alignment Movement needed to be revitalised.

India decided to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel and an announcement to this effect was made on 29 January 1992 by Foreign Secretary, indicating that Embassies would be set up by India in Tel Aviv and by Israel in New Delhi as soon as physically feasible. India's decision reflects the change d international situation and the ongoing Arab-Israel dialogue on a West Asian settlement and her desire to encourage these peace talks. India has had a longstanding tradition of close and friendly tics with the Gulf region. During the last two decades, her ties with the countries of the region have acquired a strong economic and social dimension. It has been India's endeavour to encourage this trend towards mutually beneficial partnership.

India welcomed the liberation of Kuwait on 28 February 1991 as a reassertion of international legality. Subsequently, India was also gratified to note the fast pace of restoration of normal life in that country. India and Ku wait resumed their economic ties. The Government made all possible efforts to facilitate the return of Indian nationals earlier employed in Kuwait. As a res ult of these efforts, the number of Indians in Kuwait by the end of December 1991 was estimated at 70,000. The then Minister for Commerce visited Kuwait in May 1991 with a number of Indian businessmen to hold indepth discussions with the Kuwaiti leaders on Indian participation in the reconstruction of that country.

The third session of Indo-Saudi Joint Commission was held from 12 to 14 November 1991. During the session, the two sides signed a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement on Aircraft Profits and agreed to consider a bilateral Comprehensive Double Taxation Agreement. This session was conspicuous for inclusion in the Saudi delegation of 20 businessmen who interacted extensively with their Indian counterparts. The session also afforded an opportunity for exchange of views on issues of mutual interest.

A delegation of Staff and Command College of the Sultanate of Oman visited India in July 1991. This was followed by an official visit to India in October 1991 by the Commander of the Royal Navy of Oman, Rear Admiral Sayyid Shihab bin Taimour Al-Said.

The second session of the Indo-Bahraini Joint Economic Committee was held in Manama in November 1991. The Indian Red Cross Society sent a consignment of relief supplies comprising food and medicines to Iraq by sea in May 1991. India, a member of the United Nations Security Council, made sincere efforts to alleviate the sufferings of Iraqi people through relaxation of sanctions against Iraq followi ng the termination of hostilities.

There was a steady progress in Indo-Iranian relations. There were several high-level exchanges. In the latter half of 1991 the Minister for External Aff airs met his Iranian counterpart thrice, the last occasion being the Fifth Session o f the Indo-Iranian Joint Commission which was held in Tehran during November 1991. Substantive results were achieved during this meeting with agreements being signed on cooperation in the cultural, economic, industrial, technical, scientific, agricultural and consular fields which augur well for further diversification and expansion of relations between the two countries.
Africa (South Of The Sahara)
DURING the year, sub-Saharan Africa witnessed an accentuation of the trends towards political pluralism, economic liberalisation and the resolution of internal conflicts. The reform process in South Africa gathered some momentum with the prospects of a constitutional settlement appearing brighter in a land devastated by decades of apartheid.

While India welcomed the growing acceptance of multi-party democracy in Africa, its progress in different countries was uneven. The smooth transfer of power, resulting from the Presidential and Parliamentary elections held in Zambia in October 1991 was noteworthy. During this period, other countries like Kenya and Seychelles announced preparations for the adoption of multi- party systems. Nigeria kept a steady course towards the return of democratic rule by the end of 1992. However, civil strife complicated attempts at politic al liberalisation in a number of other countries.

The Peace Accord concluded between the MPLA Government and UNITA in May 1991, and the promise of elections during the second half of 1992, final ly brought peace to Angola after 16 years of cruel civil conflict. Attempts at achieving some agreement between the Mozambican Government and the RENAMO rebels have, however, not succeeded so far. Years of civil war ended in Ethiopia with the collapse of President Mengistu's regime in May 1991 and the assumption of power by a transitional government under President Meles Zenawi.

Economically, the Continent in general continues to suffer from a crippling debt burden, balance of payments difficulties, unfavourable terms of trade and an overall decline in foreign aid. The majority of African countries have embarked on economic adjustment or restructuring programmes under agreements with the IMF. There has also been a trend towards greater regional cooperation, whether through ECOWAS in West Africa, SADCC in Southern Africa, the Preferential Trade Area covering 19 Eastern, Central and Southern African countries, or the Indian Ocean Commission covering the Indian Ocean Island States. The OAU is also actively considering an African Economic Community to come into being, in phases, over the next three decades. India continued to intensify efforts to convert the historic goodwill exist ing in African countries for her into mutually beneficial economic, technical and cultural cooperation. Despite severe constraints of resources on both sides, India's efforts are bearing fruit. Nearly 10,000 African students are studying in India on various Government of India scholarship schemes and on self-financing basis. A large number of Indian scientific and technical experts are working i n Africa and trade is expanding quite satisfactorily. It is being increasingly re alised that India possesses the appropriate technology for employment generation in resource-deficient countries and that her "Green Revolution" is worthy of emulation.

Noting that the statutory pillars of apartheid in South Africa have alrea dy fallen and some further progress registered towards the emergence of a fully democratic South Africa at the Convention for a Democratic South Africa, several steps have been undertaken by India to encourage the process. The recommendations made by the New Delhi Meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa (CCFMSA) in September last year for a phased lifting of sanctions against South Africa were adopted b y the Commonwealth Summit (CHOGM) in Harare in October 1991. In consonance with the CHOGM decision, India lifted all "people to people" sanctions, including visa and consular restrictions against South Africa. Economic sanctions would also be lifted when further progress is made towards some form of interim government on which the black majority would be represented. Given her historic links, India is intensifying assistance to the African National Congress by providing vocational, technical and administrative training to representatives of the black majority.

India has welcomed the holding of the convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) in Johannesburg on 20 and Dec 21, 1991. CODESA marked the first substantive step towards the establishment of a non-racial democracy based on universal suffrage in South Africa. At the Convention, 17 political organizations led by the ANC and the ruling National Party signed a Declaration of Intent which commits CODESA to the basic tenets of a non- racial democratic and undivided South Africa based on multi-party democracy, regular elections, an independent judiciary, the supremacy of the Constitution and a division of executive, legislative and judicial powers. India has applau ded these decisions since it has been in the forefront of the struggle against apar theid for about a century now.

President Sam Nujoma of Namibia was awarded the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 1990. He visited India in February 1992 to receive the award.

President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe paid a State visit to India from 14 to 16 November 1991. During the visit, President Mugabe was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for 1989. Leaders of the two countries reaffirmed their desire to intensity bilateral, economic and technical cooperation.

India welcomed the signing of the Lisbon Peace Accords which brought an end to 16 years of civil strife in Angola. Widespread rioting and looting erupted in Zaire on 23 and 24 September 1991 as a result of a revolt by some sections of the Zairean army. Residences and property of Indians and other foreign nationals were destroyed and looted. No Indian was, however, physically harmed. France and Belgium rushed troops to Zaire and law and order was restored to a large extent by 24 September 1991. With the help of the French, Congolese and Belgian authorities, the Ministry arranged the evacuation of Indian nationals and dependents of Indian Embassy staff from Kinshasa.

The Nigerian Minister of External Affairs, Major-General Nwachukwu, led an official delegation to New Delhi to attend the Commonwealth Conference of Foreign Ministers on South Africa (CCFMSA) on 13 and 14 September 1991. During his visit, he had bilateral discussions with the Minister for External Affairs.

The Ghanian Minister for Energy, Mr Ato Ahwoi, visited India in September-October 1991. During his visit, he discussed the possibilities of procurement of equipment for electrification from India and of the establishment of joint ventures in Ghana.

The Tanzanian Foreign Minister, Mr Hassan Diria, visited India to attend the CCFMSA Meeting in September 1991. During his meeting with the Minister for External Affairs, the ways and means to further bilateral relations includi ng the problem of blocked funds, were discussed.

The civil war led to the defeat and collapse of the Mengistu regime and the EPRDF forces took control of Addis Ababa on 28 May 1991. Simultaneously, the EPLF took control of the Eritrean capital of Asmara. Since then the countr y has been divided into two de-facto administrations. A multi-party conference o n national reconciliation was held in Addis Ababa in the first week of July 1991.
This conference, inter alia, accepted the right of the Eritrean people to self- determination.

A Special Envoy of President Meles Zenawi, the Ethiopian Minister for Housing and Construction, Mr Ato Aragaw Tiruneh, visited India in November 1991. He called on the Prime Minister and the Minister for External Affairs.

The Indian leaders assured the Special Envoy of India's desire to maintain assistance to Ethiopia, especially in the small-scale industry sector, water resources management and agriculture.

Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth of Mauritius visited India from 23 to 26 July 1991 to further forge ties with the new Indian Government. He was accompanied by Foreign Minister Jean Claude L' Estrac and Home Secretary Bhinod Bacha. Mr Jugnauth called on the President and also had discussions with the Vice President, Prime Minister and the Minister for External Affairs.

The Minister for External Affairs visited Mauritius in August 1991 for the sixth session of the Indo-Mauritian Joint Commission. The on-going programmes of economic and technical cooperation between the two countries were reviewed and it was agreed to expand bilateral cooperation in the sectors of computer software, remote sensing, water resources education and health.

The Deputy Prime Minister and Health Minister of Mauritius visited India from 15 to 20 December 1991, and had wide-ranging discussions with Minister of Health on bilateral cooperation in the field of health. He also called on Vice President and Prime Minister. He also had a meeting with Minister for External Affairs.

A constitutional amendment Bill was passed by Mauritius to proclaim itself a Republic from 12 March 1992. The Prime Minister, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, has been invited as a chief guest on the occasion.

The only legal party in Seychelles decided in December 1991 to adopt a multi-party democratic system. It was decided that the constitution would be amended to allow the registration of political parties and the election of a Co nsti- tutional Commission, which would draft a new constitution. A referendum would be field on the new constitution and elections held before the end of 1992.

The Action for Resisting Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid (AFRICA) Fund was constituted by the 8th Summit of the Heads of State/Government of Non-Aligned countries in Harare in September 1986 and its mandate was renewed by the 9th NAM Summit in Belgrade in 1989. The AFRICA Fund was the political expression of the Movement's support and solidarity to the frontl ine African states to fight the apartheid policy of Pretoria regime and to assist liberation movements in South Africa in their unrelenting struggle against raci st and colonialist oppression.

The Government of India contributed a sum of Rs 50 crores in 1987. In addition, a sum of Rs 2.6 crores was contributed by individuals and orgaization s in India to the AFRICA (Public Contributions-India) Fund, set up under the Societies Registration Act. During the year, a large number of multually identified projects have been implemented in the Frontline States and assistanc e has been provided to the liberation movements in South Africa. The projects implemented include supply of transport vehicles, essential commodities, mobile clinics, medicines, mining equipment, etc. A project on feasibility study for refractory brick plant in Zimbabwe and setting up of a Vocational Training Centre in Namibia have also been undertaken. A project to supply various essential commodities including medicines to ANC is also being financed front the contributions made by the Indian public.

The senior officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee at their eighth meeting held in Kuala Lumpur in May 1991, had recommended issuing of a Joint Appeal by the Foreign Ministers of the Committee member countries. The Foreign Ministers of the Committee member countries, who attended the NAM Ministerial Meeting in Accra in September 1991, met under the Chairmanship of the Minister for External Affairs of India and issued a Joint Appeal for additional contributions to the Fund by the International community.

The ninth meeting of senior officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee held in Harare, Zimbabwe from 9 to 13 December 1991 was a crucial one as it took place after a series of positive developments in South Africa such as the repea l of some important legislative pillars of apartheid, the formation of the Patrio tic Front, all Parties Conference, etc. The meeting concluded that the AFRICA Fund could not continue further without additional funds and considered that it is necessary to change the form and content of the Fund if the donor community were to make fresh contributions. It was further felt that the Fund will have to be completely reconstituted and restructured if it were to assist the people of South Africa in addressing the residual problems of Apartheid such as resettlement, rehabilitation and human resource development. The next meeting will give due consideration to these and other new suggestions for making suitable recommendations on the mandate of the Fund to the 10th NAM Summit to be held in Jakarta in 1992.
Erstwhile USSR

THE year 1991 proved to be historic. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic founded in 1922 following the October Revolution of 1917 was dissolved. All the 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union emerged as independent States.

Eleven of these States came together to establish a Commonwealth of Independent States pledging themselves to abide by the universally-recognized principles and norms of international law. The emergence of the independent Republics also heralded the end of the political and economic structures create d in the erstwhile USSR on socialist ideology.

After the formation of the Commonwealth, President Gorbachev, who had all along advocated the preservation of the Union, relinquished his post, there by marking the end of a phase in domestic and international politics which was begun by him in April 1985. The Prime Minister, in his message to Mr Gorbachev, noted his epoch-making role, unparalleled in recent history, in making the world a safer and more peaceful place for all mankind.

Events in the erstwhile USSR moved at a repid pace. In a nationwide referendum held in March 1991, a majority of those who voted, favoured the preservation of the Union. In April, President Gorbachev initiated what has been termed as the Novo-Ogarevo process in which he sought to persuade the Republics to come together in a Union under a new Union Treaty. Many of the Republics agreed to sign the new Union Treaty on 20 August. However, this move was pre-empted by an attempted coup on 19 August.

The August developments marked a turning point in the history of the erstwhile USSR. The coup fizzled out within 72 hours and Mr Gorbachev, who had been placed in a sort of preventive custody, returned to Moscow in his capacity as the President of the Soviet Union. President B N Yeltsin of the Russian Federation, displaying rare courage and qualities of outstanding leadership, played a crucial role in bringing about the collapse of the coup. The restoration of constitutional order following the abortive coup marked the victory of the will of the people and a reassertion of democratic values.

The abortive coup accelerated the process of the emergence of independent Republics. In the aftermath of the coup, new political, legislative, executive and economic structures were created with varying degrees of success. However, with the declaration of independence by Ukraine in December, it became clear that these structures which presumed the existence of a Union would not survive. On 8 December, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine signed an agreement in Minsk creating a Commonwealth of Independent States which was later joined by the Republic of Armenia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Kirghizstan on 21 December at the Alma Ata Summit.

The Commonwealth leaders have been engaged in discussing issues of mutual interest, viz, defence policy, future of strategic weapons, economic reforms, foreign policy, social policies, etc. They have stressed that they wo uld not like to recreate the Centre. Instead, they would like to resolve these iss ues in the spirit of mutual cooperation mid accommodation but preserving at the same time their independence and sovereignty. The Commonwealth has been formaly declared to be neither a State nor a Superstate. Its exact shape and indentity is yet to develop.

During the year, developments of far-reaching importance took place in the different Republics. The actions of their governments and leaders were directe d at reassertion of their independence and sovereignty. Direct Presidential elections, changes in the structure of the political parties and movements, religious revivalism in some Republics and opening to the outside world were the characteristic features of the developments in the Republics.

The economic situation in the different Republics deteriorated. The Republics reacted by resorting to concluding mutually beneficial agreements with other Republics and countries. There was also a distinct accent on market - oriented economic reforms, although the exact method and pace of making this transition continue to be debated.

India's response to the developments in the erstwhile Soviet Union was in keeping, inter alia, with her geopolitical, strategic and economic imperatives. India has in the past had wideranging and intensive cooperation with different Republics under the overall umbrella of Indo-Soviet cooperation. The Government thus undertook the task of disaggregating, Republic-wise, Indo-Soviet ties.

In September, India recognized the independence of the three Baltic States. In December, India positively assessed the proposed Commonwealth of Independent States and accorded diplomatic recognition to all the Republics of the former Soviet Union. It is intended to establish diplomatic relations with all 15 Republics. Accordingly, it was decided to concurrently accredit India's Ambassador in Helsinki to Estonia, India's Ambassador in Stockholm to Latvia and India's Ambassador in Warsaw to Lithuania. A decision was also taken to open, at this stage, new Embassies in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus and upgrade India's Consulate General in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and to open Consulates/CGs in Vladivostok and St. Petersburg. For the present, the other countries, viz, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Kirghizstan, Turkmenistan and Tadjikistan would be covered by concurrent accreditation.

President Karimov of the Republic of Uzbekistan paid an official visit to India from 17 to 19 August. India signed two framework agreements with Uzbekistan on economic and cultural cooperation. This was followed by visits o f a senior official of the Ministry of External Affairs and of a commercial delegation to the Republics if Uzbekistan. Kazakhstan and Kirghizstan to explore the possibilities of direct, inter alia, economic and cultural ties wit h these Republics. A trade protocol between India and Uzbekistan was signed in October.

President Nazarbaev of Kazakhstan, on his first State visit abroad since th e declaration of Kazakh independence, chose to visit India on 21 and 22 February at the invitation of the Prime Minsiter. During the visit, India and Kazakhsta n signed 5 Agreements, including a Declaration on Basic Principles of Inter- Governmental Relations, Diplomatic and Consular Protocols, and two framework agreements in the cultural and economic spheres. In addition, an agreement between the State Bank of India and the Kazakh Foreign Economic Relations Bank concerning correspondent relations was also signed. A trade delegation from Kazakhstan is expected to visit India shortly.

A goodwill inter-Ministerial delegation led by the Minister of State for Ci vil Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution, Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed visited Azerbaijan from 26 February to 1 March. During the visit, he called on President Mutalibov and other Ministers. Two Protocols were signed on the establishment of diplomatic and consular relations. Draft framework agreements on economic and cultural cooperation were handed over for consideration of the Government of Azerbaijan.

India also offered technical assistance to the Central Asian Republics. Already 12 trainees from Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Tadjikstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are undergoing training in India in different fields.

Drafts of framework for economic and cultural agreements were sent for consideration to the Republics of Kirghizstan, Turkmenistan and Tadjikistan. The Government also received proposals for political, economic and cultural exchanges from different Republics. India is very keen to enter into detailed cooperation arrangements based on mutual benefit with all the Republics of the erstwhile USSR.

Kirghizstan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan were admitted to the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) at its first summit held in Teheran on 16 and 17 February. It may be recalled that in 1985, the ECO replaced the former Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) grouping founded by Iran, Turkey and Pakistan some 27 years ago. The ECO is primarily an economic grouping aimed at forging stronger economic and commercial tics amongst the member-States and also with the outside world. The 5 Caspian Sea littoral States (Iran, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan) formed the Caspian Sea Cooperation Organization in Tehran on 19 February to reportedly "better handle the geopolitical situation in the region" .

It is also understood that cooperation between these States would have an economic foundation with a focus on shipping, fisheries, environmental protection and oil exploration.

India is carefully monitoring these fast-moving developments and has undertaken a number of initiatives to establish various linkages with the above - mentioned Republics of the former USSR with which we have historical, cultural and commercial contacts of long-standing.

The Minister for External Affairs visited Moscow from 14 to 19 November. He held extensive, and useful discussions with the Soviet and Russian leaders o n International and bilateral issues. His meetings with President Yeltsin and oth er senior leaders of the Russian Federation were extremely useful as they laid the foundation for further development of relation between India and the Russian Federation, The Russian leadership conveyed that it attached priority to development of multi-sectoral ties with India. President Yeltsin also accepted Prime Minister's invitation to visit India.

The Prime Minister met President Yeltsin in New York on 31 January. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Burbulis is expected to come to India in the near future for discussions on economic and other related issues. President Yeltsin's visit is expected in the Autumn/Winter of 1992.

The Prime Minister also met President Kravchuk of the Ukraine in Davos on Feb 02, 1992. The two leaders discussed issues relating to further development of relations in diverse fields and expressed the intention to devel op close relations with each other. An early visit to India by the Ukrainian President is expected.

Invitations have been extended to the Presidents of Belarus, Ukraine, Kirghizstan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan to visit India. The Government intend to also invite the leaders of the other Republics. Foreign Secretary led a high-level multi-sectoral team of officials to R ussia and Ukraine in January 1992. The visit provided a useful opportunity for gaini ng a first hand assessment of the developing situation in Russia and Ukraine and t o initiate the process of drawing up cooperation arrangements in diverse sectors with a view to ensuring continuity in bilateral relationships and for laying th e foundation of long term relationships with these countries. A new Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation with Russia has been finalized. A Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation with Ukraine is also under consideration. Russia and Ukraine, the two largest Republics of the erstwhile Soviet Union, together account for an extremely high proportion of India's interchanges in diverse fie lds of activity with the erstwhile USSR.

India offered humanitarian assistance to the Russian Federation amounting to Rs 15 crores. The purpose was to offer some succor to those sections of the population which have been adversely affected by the dislocation of economic activities following the recent political and economic changes in the erstwhile USSR. The amount is to be used to supply urgently required items including baby food, rice, standard medicines, including sulphur drugs and antibiotics.

India also contributed an amount equivalent to US$ 250,000 for assistance to those affected by the Chernobyl disaster. This pledge was made in the context of the United Nations' efforts towards this end.

A Russian delegation visited India from 14 to 22 February and finalized the first-ever India-Russia Trade Protocol. The Protocol is valid for 1992. The Russian Coal Mining Engineer, My Sergei Grishchenko was kidnapped and reportedly killed by ULFA extremists in Assam. This was a matter of great concern and distress to the Government.

Ea stern Europe India's traditionally friendly relations with Hungary received a strong positive impetus with the visit of President of Hungary, Dr Arpad Goncz, in April 1991. The visit reflected the desire on the part of both countries to ta ke advantage of the opportunities opened up by democratisation and economic liberalisation in Hungary to strengthen and further develop existing tics, inte r alia, of solidarity, culture, trade and economic cooperation which have been nurtured over the years. Trade, which is conducted in hard currency, continued to show a favourable trend, while new possibilities for cooperation with a high potential were explored, laying the basis for a further consolidation of bilate ral relations. The 10th Joint Business Council session, held in India from 21 to 2 3 January 1992, was well received by the business community in Bombay and Delhi. Political contacts are to be furthered by a visit to India of a Hungari an parliamentary delegation in 1992.

Relations between India and Poland have been traditionally friendly and cooperative. The year 1991 witnessed major political developments reflecting a phase of adjustment and transition as a result of the process of democratisatio n and radical economic reforms that were initiated by Poland in the last couple o f years. The first fully free parliamentary elections held on 27 October 1991 resulted in it parliament in which no single party or coalition could claim a majority. In spite of this political uncertainty, the desire of both sides to maintain high-level political contacts was reflected in a meeting of the Foreig n Ministers of Poland and India in New York in September and preparations for a visit of President Walesa to India some time in 1992. Trade was affacted by th e switch over from rupee to hard currency. At the same time, efforts were directed at stimulating the business sector in both countries to explore new opportunities for trade and economic cooperation with a view to sustaining and developing the existing basis for economic cooperation. Wide-ranging programme on scientific cooperation between the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and the Polish Academy of Sciences was finalized in New Delhi for the years 1992-94.

Bulgaria has been no exception to the shift to democracy in Eastern Europe. The second democratic elections were held on 13 October 1991 in a peaceful manner, with the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) forming the Government headed by Mr Filip Dimitrov. Subsequently, President Zhelev was re-elected after the second round of voting in mid-January 1992.

Relations between India and Bulgaria continued to be warm and friendly during the year. The now Bulgarian Government has reiterated its desire to consolidate the relations further.

Romania maintained the momentum of political and economic reforms, introduced in the wake of December 1989 events and the general elections of May 1990. The highlights of reforms in 1991 were the adoption of a new Constitution, and of privatisation of agricultural land and small industries. A programme of privatisation of some of the state-owned enterprises, in 1992, has been drawn up.

Indo-Romanian relations received a boost during the year with the official visit of the Romanian Foreign Minister, Mr Adrian Nastase to India from 30 October to 1 November 1991. This was the first visit of a Romanian Foreign Minister to India in ten years and also the first since the momentous events of December 1989. It was a successful and useful visit. The meeting of Indo- Romanian Joint Commission was held in New Delhi from 18 to 20 December 1991 in which both sides discussed new avenues of diversifying and further strengthening economic cooperation. Substantial progress has taken place in discussion for signing a programme of cultural exchanges between the two countries.

A Romanian diplomat, Mr Liviu Radu, was kidnapped by terrorists in New Delhi on 9 October 1991. This evoked great anxiety and concern for his safety and well-being. As a result of intensive efforts made by the Government of India, Mr Radu was released on 26 November after 48 days of captivity. The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic adopted both economic and political reforms. While in the political arena, the scene was dominated by th e process of drawing up a new Constitution and the debate on redefinition of federal and repbulican powers, in the economic sector, price decontrols were introduced and the pace of privatisation of agriculture and industry hastened. Inviting foreign investment was accorded priority on the economic agenda. The country has drawn up an ambitious programme of privatising all state enterprise s over the next few years. These reforms have received a boost with the signing of an Association Agreement with the European Community in December 1991. Relations between India and the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic remained close and friendly. Both countries negotiated a Plan of Cooperation in the fie ld of health, which is expected to be initiated soon. Trade Plan for 1992, betwee n the two countries, under the Trade and Payment Agreement was negotiated in November 1991. A Czech and Slovak defence delegation led by the Chief of General Staff visited India in December 1991, and the meeting of the Joint Commission is likely to be held in March 1992. Bilateral exchanges, covering artists, academicians, museums, archaeology and other fields took place under the cultural exchange programme. An exhibition of Indian handicrafts was organized in Prague. In the field for science and technology, there was a regu lar exchange of scientists between the two-countries under the agreement between the CSIR and the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.

Yugoslavia faced a severe political and constitutional crisis during the y ear. Two of its republics, Slovenia and Croatia, declared independence on 26 June 1991. Efforts by the European Community countries, under a mandate from the

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and through the mechanism of a Conference on Yugoslavia, to arrive at a political settlement have been under way. The United Nations Security Council, of which India is currently a member, has also adopted five Resolutions 713, 721, 724, 727 and 740 relating, inter alia, to imposing an arms embargo against Yugoslavia, the possible deployment of UN peace-keeping forces and sending UN military personnel to monitor the ceasefire there. The independence of the republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia has been recognized by a varying number of countries.

The situation in Yugoslavia, with whom India has traditionally friendly relations, bilaterally as well as in the non-aligned movement, remains a cause for distress and concern to India. India had expressed herself in favour of a restructured federal framework. The restructuring should be done in a peaceful and democratic manner to be worked out primarily between the different republics and peoples of Yugoslavia. India adopted a principled and constructive approach in the UN Security Council. India voted for all the resolutions on Yugoslavia. India's position was that this essentially being an internal crisis of Yugoslavia, a discussion on this subjec t in the Security Council could be undertaken only after a formal request from Yugoslavia. This condition was met as Yugoslavia formally requested the President of the Security Council to discuss the Yugoslav situation, Yugoslavia, too, supported the provisions of the Security Council resolutions. However, India did not favour the moves by some countries attempting to impose an oil embargo against Yugoslavia as this move would have severely and adversely affected the Yugoslav people who are already undergoing the suffering of a civil war.

India signed an agreement for cooperation in the field of tourism, and a sports protocol with Yugoslavia in April 1991. The Minister of International Cooperation of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina visited India, at the invitation of the ICCR in August 1991.
Western Europe
The Maastricht Summit meeting on 9 and 10 December 1991 was a watershed in the history of Europe in the post-World War II era. The European Community has embarked on a new chapter in its history with its decision to move towards the creation of a political, economic and monetary union. A single currency (ECU) will be introduced and a European Central Bank established latest by 1999. The EC has expressed its intention to steadily move towards a common foreign and security policy. At the same time the EC and EFTA countries have agreed to create by 1993 a European Economic Area comprising a large market of 380 million people.

With these developments, the EC, which is already India's largest trading and economic partner, offers additional opportunities for even closer cooperation with India. During the year under review, India upgraded its relations with the EC and maintained active contact with the individual members of the Community. An intensive political dialogue with the European countries was maintained through frequent high-level visits and exchanges. European Governments, business and industry reacted positively to the new economic policy and liberalisation measures initiated by the new Government. Many business and industrial delegations were exchanged between India and the European countries to explore and exploit the new opportunities for trade and investment. Germany remains India's largest trading and economic partner in Europe. The President of Germany, Dr Richard von Weizsaecker, paid a visit to India in February-March 1991. The successful visit of the Prime Minister to Germany in September 1991 underlined the importance of the growing Indo-German bilateral relations and gave a fresh impetus to Indo-German cooperation. Durin g the visit, the Festival of India in Germany was inaugurated by the Prime Minister and Chancellor Kohl. It was decided to set up an Indo-German Consultative Group to advise both the Governments regarding upgrading the bilateral relations in various fields in a long-term perspective. Minister for External Affairs paid a visit to Germany in September 1991. The Indo-German Joint Commission meeting and the visit of the German Minister of Economics in November 1991 accompanised by a high-level business delegation have opened new perspectives for strengthening bilateral economic ties.

Indo-UK relations were marked by growing understanding and cooperation in diverse fields. It is a matter of considerable satisfaction that UK has bee n closely cooperating with India in countering terrorism and has taken stern acti on against terrorists based in UK. The Minister of State for External Affairs vis ited UK in November 1991. Matters relating to the conclusion of the Extradition Treaty and Agreement for the tracing, restraint and confiscation of the proceed s and instruments of crime and terrorist funds with UK were discussed in depth during the visit of the British Home Secretary in January 1992. The Foreign Secretary of UK visited India also in January 1992 and had extensive and fruitf ul discussions with Indian leaders on a wide range of issues. The Prince and Princess of Wales visited India in February 1992. India and UK agreed to institutionalise political dialogue at different levels.

Prime Minister's transit visit to France in November 1991 and his meeting with President Mitterand brought about better understanding and opened promising prospectives for strengthening multi-faceted cooperation with France. Indo-French Foreign Secretary level consultations were held in May 1991 in New Delhi. The Minister of State for External Affairs visited France in October 199 1. Indo-French trade and economic coperation was reviewed in the Joint Commission meeting held in Paris in November 1991.

Relations with Portugal improved during this period. During the visit of the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, to Portugal in Ju ly 1991 an agreement was signed on the return of the gold ornaments which got shifted to Portugal after the liberation of Goa in 1961. The gold ornaments ha ve since been returned to India. The President of Portugal paid a State visit to India in January 1992, the first such visit by a Portuguese President. He was the Chief Guest at India's Republic Day celebrations.

The President of Malta paid a State visit to India in January 1992. He ha d friendly and useful discussions with the President, Prime Minister and other Indian leaders. A Cultural Agreement and an Agreement on Economic, Industrial, Scientific and Technological Cooperation were signed during the vis it.

A European Parliamentary delegation visited India in November 1991. The Indo-EC Joint Commission meeting was held in New Delhi in November 1991. Earlier Mr Andriessen, Vice President of EC, visited India in October 1991 and had extensive discussions with Commerce Minister on multilateral trade issues. An Indo-EC Business Forum is being established for regular interaction between the businessmen and the Government of India with the EC and the European business leaders. This will be inaugurated by Mr A Matutes, Commissioner EC, in March 1992 in New Delhi. The next round of Indo-EC Troika talks are to be held in March 1992.
The Americas
North America

The end of the Cold War, which brought about a qualitative change in the international situation, has had a positive impact on Indo-US relations and has contributed to the consolidation and strengthening of bilateral ties.

Contacts at political and official levels have been frequent. Vice Presi dent Dan Quayle attended the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. Among other prominent visitors were Senators Daniel P Moynihan and Larry Pressler, Congressman James Mcdermott, former Senator Charles Percy, Congressman Mike Kopetski and the US Trade Representative, Ms Carla Hills.

The Minister for External Affairs visited New York for the annual session of the UN General Assembly. He met Secretary of State James Baker for discussions on bilateral and multilateral issues. He also visited Chicago for discussions with businessmen and non-resident Indians. The Ministers of State for Commerce and Finance also visited the USA for bilateral trade talks and for the promotion of investment from NRIs.

The Prime Minister met President George Bush at New York during the summit meeting of the members of the UN Security Council. At the official level, there were visits by the US Under Secretary of St ate for International Security Affairs, the Permanent Representative to the UN, the Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs and the Director of the US Information Agency. The US Deputy Assistant Secretaries of State for Consular Affairs and Near East and South Asia Bureau were also among the visitors.

On the defence side there was an exchange of high level visits. The Commanding General, US Army Pacific Command and the US Commander-in- Chief, Pacific Command visited India. The US Chief of Naval Operations returned the visit of Indian Chief of Naval Staff. Among the other noteworthy visits was that of a team from the US National War College. India's Chief of Army Staff visited the USA in August 1991. Indo-US cooperation in the field of defence technologies have progressed mainly in the Light Combat Aircraft Project. Commercial purchases of defence items from the USA have continued but there has been no major acquisition of military hardware of US origin. In the-fields of training and other professional military interaction, cooperation between the Armed Forces of the two countries has expanded to some extent.

The annual review meeting of the Indo-US Memorandum of Understanding on transfer of high-technology was held in Delhi. The meeting covered a whole range of issues and sought to smoothen the flow of high-technology trade between the two countries. However, US concerns on nuclear and missile proliferation have impeded the trade in high technology items. Negotiations on the upgradation of the Supercomputer at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, Department of Science and Technology at Delhi have been concluded. Negotiations for the second Supercomputer for the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore are continuing. Indo-US cooperation in joint projects in the agricultural and medical sciences have continued satisfactorily .

The USA is India's largest trading partner with total trade turnover in 1990-91 of around Rs 10,040 crores. India has had a favourable balance of trad e over several years. This trend was reversed in 1990-91. Indian exports were o f the order of Rs 4,796.48 crores and imports around Rs 5,244.64 crores. Trade protectionism in the USA and stringent health and sanitary regulations have inhibited faster growth of Indian exports to the USA.

In April 1991, the US Government named India as "Priority Foreign Country" under the so-called Special 301 provision of a US Trade Act. The USA cited India's laws on Intellectual Property Rights, such as patents, copyrights and trade marks as inadequate. Consultations have been held with the USA in the context of the multilateral negotiations on these issues at the Uruguay Round of GATT. While there has been a narrowing of differences on copyrights, trade marks, etc discussions have continued to seek mutually acceptable solutions on certain aspects of patents.

The USA is an important source of investments and technology for India. The liberalised policies on foreign investment and technology tie-ups have give n a new impetus to Indo-US cooperation in these areas. Several important investment proposals from US companies have been approved by the Government. In 1991, investment proposals worth Rs 186 crores were approved. The US attitude in multilateral financial institutions towards India's req uest for assistance to tide over the temporary adverse balance of payments situation has been sympathetic and helpful. Bilateral US assistance to India is marginal , consisting mainly of food aid and some funding for military exchanges and training.

Indo-Canadian relations have been traditionally friendly. The Government 's new economic policies have given a fresh impetus in strengthening the economic ties between the two countries.

The Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs visited India twice. She represented Canada at the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in May 1991, and chaired the meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of the Foreign Ministers on South Africa held in Delhi in September 1991. A Canadian Parliamentary delegation participated in the 37th Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference at New Delhi.

The Minister for External Affairs visited Canada in October 1991 for bilateral talks. The Prime Ministers of the two countries met at the Harare Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in October 1991.

The Indo-Canadian Joint Business Council met in September 1991 to review trade and economic relations in the aftermath of new economic policies on investments and technology cooperation.

India has appreciated the stand taken by Canada in multilateral financial institutions on India's request for loans. The total trade turnover with Canada has gone up to around Rs 840 crores in 1990-91. India's exports have increased marginally to around Rs 280.875 crores, whereas imports have been relatively higher at around Rs 559.231 crores , leaving an adverse trade balance of around Rs 278.356 crores. India's adverse trade balance has been a consistent trend in Indo-Canadian trade. Renewed efforts to address and rectify this trend have been made. Quota restrictions o n certain exports from India and protectionist measures are factors inhibiting bilateral trade.

Canadian investments in India are minimal. Canada is interested in participating in infrastructural projects in India in the fields of Power, Telecommunications and Urban Transport Systems.

An Indo-Canadian Memorandum of Understanding on Cultural Exchanges is under negotiation. The new building of the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute was inaugurated by the President in Delhi. To mark the occasion, an academic seminar was held at Simla to discuss educational and cultural issues. Security cooperation with Canada in tackling terrorism has been satisfactory.

Three members of the Canadian Parliament visited Punjab in January 1992 to see for themselves about the alleged human rights violation by Indian securi ty forces. During their stay, they had meetings with Central and Punjab Government officials in New Delhi, Chandigarh and Amritsar. They also met other private individuals and groups.
Central and South America and the Caribbean
During the period under review, India's relations with the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean progressed satisfactorily. In order to intensi fy her relations with these countries, India interacted with them through international organizations, like the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned Movement and at various international fora as well as at bilateral levels throu gh exchange of visits and delegations in diverse areas of mutual interest.

Prospects of cooperation in defence were explored by the then Chief of Air Staff of India during his visit to Argentina and Brazil in April 1991, the firs t ever visit by an Indian Air Chief to Latin America.

Following the grant of permanent observer status to India in May 1991 by the Organization of American States (OAS), India attended for the first time the OAS General Assembly session in Chile in June 1991. India's association as the 27th permanent observer to the 35-member body with headquarters at Washington will provide an opportunity for enhancing the political and economic links with the region.

Dr Reinaldo Figuerado, Venezuela's former Foreign Minister, visited New Delhi in June 1991 as President's special envoy to convey that country's condolences on the sad demise of the former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. He called on the President and had also meeting with the Foreign Secretary. The Panamanian Foreign Minister deeply appreciated Indian consignment of medicines and medical equipment handed over to him in July 1991 for the relief of earthquake victims in Panama.

Guyana and Nicaragua closed down their Missions in New Delhi due to resources constraints but assured India of reopening them when their economic situation improved.

Minister for External Affairs received Dr Cedric Grant, Special Adviser on Foreign Affairs to the President of Guyana, who brought a written message from his President for Prime Minister. The Special Adviser was in New Delhi to attend the meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa held on 13 and Sep 14, 1991. Trinidad and Tobago's Junior Minister of Tourism and Industry led his country's delegation to the 37t h Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference held in New Delhi from 23 to 29 September 1991.

Argentina's withdrawal from the Non-Aligned Movement on 19 September 1991 reduces the number of member-states from the Latin America and the Caribbean to 16. However, Chile's participation in the Movement after many years and the admission of Guatemala and Honduras as observers demonstrated the region's continuing interest in the Movement.

While in New York in September/October 1991 for the UN General Assembly session, the Minister for External Affairs met with the Foreign Ministers of Colombia and Cuba. At the Harare CHOGM in October 1991, the Prime Minister had talks with the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago.

Four countries from the region, viz Argentina, Cuba, Mexico and Peru were represented in the International Conference on Hispanism in the 20h Century organized in New Delhi in November 1991 by the Jawaharlal Nehru University in collaboration with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations. Pr of. Rene Maria Cura (Padma Shree) of Argentina was among the 30 eminent foreign scholars.

The Prime Minister accompanied by the Minister for External Affairs attended the second G-15 Summit in Caracas in November 1991. His bilateral discussions with President Perez of Venezuela and President Salinas of Mexico covered various issues of common interest.

The Prime Minister in his meeting with the Indian businessmen who were in Caracas during the G-15 Summit highlighted the prospects for Indian exports and investments in Latin America and the Caribbean and assured them of the Government's encouragement and support to new ventures.

Cuba's Foreign Minister, Mr Isidoro Malmierca, called on the Prime Minister and the Minister for External Affairs when he visited New Delhi from 16 to 26 December 1991. He also had meetings with the Commerce Minister and the Minister of State for External Affairs. Views were exchanged on the latest developments in the international scene, especially the transformations in the former Soviet Union.

A 6 member delegation from the Engineering Exports Promotion Council undertook an export promotion tour of Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil. Measures for improving bilateral and economic relations with Argentina were discussed at the second meeting of the Indo-Argentine Joint Trade Committee held in Buenos Aires in August 1991.

Indian exports to the region are on the rise but the imports are increasing at a higher rate. In 1990-91, India's exports to the region accounted for 0.6 per cent of her total exports while imports from the region were 2.44 per cent of t he total imports.

The first ever cultural agreement between India and Colombia was signed in New Delhi in August 1991. Peru's Vice President inaugurated the "Images of India" exhibition at the National Museum in Lima. Cultural links with the Caribbean countries were maintained through the two Indian Cultural Centres in Guyana and Suriname. A project for constructing a similar Centre in Trinidad and Tobago was set in motion when their Minister of External Affairs and International Trade and Indian High Commissioner signed the requisite protocol in Port of Spain on 29 November 1991. The Minister described the event as "a significant and historical day" in his country's cultural life.

Enhancing India's ties with the countries in the region through various academic and cultural programmes will be a major objective of the recently reconstituted ICCR Advisory Panel for Latin America and the Caribbean.
United Nations And International Conferences
The deliberations and decisions of the United Nations (UN) in 1991 were wide-ranging, substantive, and often precedent setting. The reinvigoration of the UN and its energetic activities were, at one level, reflective of the ma jor changes in the world, at the same time, at another level, these UN activities themselves influenced changes in many parts of the world. During the year, fou r new UN Peace-Keeping Operations were launched. UN was involved in conflict resolution and peace keeping in diverse situations, such as Iraq-Kuwait crisis, Central America, Cambodia, Yugoslavia, Western Sahara and Angola.

Apart from the heavy political agenda and significant activities in the maintenance of international peace and security, UN focussed on diverse issues such as development, human rights, economic issues, environment and drug abuse control. The issue of restructuring of the UN system, rationalisation of the work of the UN bodies and the UN Secretariat reforms were also discussed.

At the end of 1991, Dr Boutros Ghali of Egypt had been elected as Secretary-General of the UN, the first representative of Africa and the Arab world to assume this high office.

India continued to play an active and constructive role in multilateral for a, including the UN, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth. India became a member of the Security Council of the UN for the period 1991-92 and in this capacity was actively engaged in the deliberations of the Council on a number of major political issues. India also urged an expansion in the membership of the Security Council to make it more representative as also to reflect the changing international realities.

The Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao, attended the unprecedented summit level meeting of the Security Council held on Jan 31, 1992. The theme of the meeting was "The responsibility of the Security Council in the maintenance of international peace and security". At the end of the meeting, the President of the Security Council read out a statement which referred to th e UN's role in peace making and peace keeping, collective security, disarmament and arms control. The leaders collectively agreed to further strengthen the ro le of the UN in carrying out its activities in accordance with the UN Charter. Th e Prime Minister's address at the meeting put across effectively the point of vie w of India, of the Non-aligned and developing countries on a number of global issues, and the role of the UN in addressing these issues. The Prime Minister led the Indian delegation to the Commonwealth Summit of in Harare, Zimbabwe. Pakistan's efforts to bring the Kashmir issue to the fore in the UN and other multilateral fora were effectively countered by India.
Political Issues
The Gulf crisis was a major issue, which engaged the UN throughout 1991. Once the military action against Iraq was launched on 16 January 1991 with the objective of forcing a withdrawal from Kuwait in accordance with Security Council Resolutions, India supported the twin objectives of limiting the armed conflict and minimising human suffering. India's initiatives in the Security Council were aimed at ensuring that the Council was fully briefed on the military action and underscoring its role in bringing about a ceasefire and restoration of peace. India welcomed the liberation of Kuwait and restoration of its independence. Since then the Security Council has taken a series of innovative and far-reaching decisions which affect Iraq, the region, and other countries of the international community as well.

The Sanctions against Iraq have continued as Iraq has not accepted all the Security Council Resolutions. India's approach has been to support all the efforts at creating conditions for lasting peace. At the same time, India has addressed the humanitarian aspects of the situation, including the plight of th e Iraqi civilians. India also called for remedial measures for countries adverse ly affected by the Sanctions.

Initiatives on the Cambodian issue culminated in a comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in Paris on 23 October 1991. Since then the UN has begun preparations for a major deployment of UN personnel in Cambodia. The United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) has been deployed, to which India has also made a contribution. India will also participate in the United Nations Transitional Authority for Cambodia (UNTAC), the authority which will help administer Cambodia in the interim period upto consitution of a new Government.

The violent internal conflict in Yugoslavia has been a cause of concern. Towards the end of 1991, the UN endorsed in principle the idea of a UN Peace Keeping Force if conditions for a ceasefire were favourable. India's view is t hat any multilateral effort to promote peace should be undertaken in the context of a request and with the agreement of the Government of Yugoslavia and the concerned parties.

India maintained its consistent position of support for the 1971 Declara tion of the Indian Ocean as Zone of Peace. The adhoc committee on the Indian Ocean continued its deliberations on the convening of the proposed Conference on the Indian Ocean. However, the prospects for an early Conference remained uncertain since many Western and major maritime users of the Ocean continued to have reservations on participation. The General Assembly adopted a Resolution which reflected the Indian position that the cooperation and participation of the major powers was essential for the success of the Conference.

The situation in West Asia, particularly Palestine, has remained an unresolved issue for long. India has supported a larger UN role in the US-USSR sponsored peace process which was launched in October 1991. India maintained her principled position of support to the cause of the Palestinian people, including their right to their homeland, as well as the recognition of the righ ts of all States in the region, including Palestine and Israel, to live in peace with in internationally recognized and secured boundaries. India's consistent position was given expression through her various statements, co-sponsorships and votes in the General Assembly, Security Council and other fora.

The consideration by the UN of issues relating to South Africa and the apartheid took note of the rapid changes in the situation. Though several lega l pillars of the apartheid had been dismantled, the consequences of the apartheid in the form of socio-economic inequities continue and need to be redressed. Th e UN adopted a resolution for selective removal of people to people sanctions against South Africa, but continuing trade, financial and military sanctions ti ll such time as further progress is achieved towards the establishment of non-raci al and democratic South Africa. India continued to play an active role in the UN Special Committee against the apartheid.

The UN involvement in finding a durable settlement to the conflict in Afghanistan gathered momentum as UNSG sought to reconcile differences between the various parties. The General Assembly adopted a Resolution on Afghanistan, as in previous years.

There was some forward movement on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS). During the year, there were detailed discussions on possible amendments which would enable the US and some industrialised countries to become members of the Convention. The US, which had all along voted against the Resolution on UNCLOS, changed its vote to abstention. India played a significant role in the informal discussions as als o in the negotiations prior to voting in the UNGA.

One important issue during the year was the initiative in the General Assembly to revoke a Resolution passed in 1975 equating Zionism with Racism. The revocation of the determination was approved with a large majority. In keeping with her position that it is certain policies and practices attributed to Zionism which are discriminatory, and in the hope and expectation that this would remove an obstacle in the path to peace in West Asia and facilitate more active role for the UN in the peace process, India voted for the proposal. India welcomed the admission of North and South Koreas to the UN, as also the membership of the three Baltic States, the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia. In the wake of the collapse of the USSR and the emergence of Commonwealth of Independent States, the Russian Federation has assumed the duties and obligations of the erstwhile USSR, including permanent membership of the Security Council.
Disarmament Issues
During 1991, India continued to play a leading role in the three main multilateral disarmament fora, viz. the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, the UN Disarmament Commission and the First Committee of the UN General Assembly. In addition, India also made significant contributions at the 3rd Biological Weapons Review Conference held at Geneva from 9 to 27 September 1991.

The Indian approach to disarmament continued to be guided by the basic philosophy that in the nuclear age and especially after the end of the cold war , disarmament measures should be taken in a time bound manner for the survival of mankind and for promoting development. India maintains the view that the priorities for disarmament are postulated in the consensus final document of th e 1978 first session devoted to disarmament. The Indian approach to disarmament is best reflected in the "Action Plan" for a "Nuclear-weapon free and Non- violent World Order" that was tabled at the Third Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to Disarmament and also in the Conference on Disarmament in the same year.

In the Conference on Disarmament, which is the sole multilateral negotiating body, India played a leading role in the group of neutral and non- aligned countries otherwise known as G-21. The Indian delegation chaired the Ad hoc Committee on the crucial issue of "Nuclear Test Ban". An ad hoc Committee on this issue was re-established in the Conference on Disarmament after a gap of seven years at the end of 1990 and functioned during the three sessions of the Conference on Disarmament in 1991. India continued to highligh t the urgent need for commencing negotiations for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, stressing that its scope should be consistent with what the preamble of the Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963 seeks to achieve, viz. a total ban on all tests of nuclear weapons in all environments and for all time. India also coordinated t he G-21 position on the agenda item relating to the "cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and Nuclear Disarmament". In the Ad hoc Committee on Chemical Weapons Convention India endeavoured to ensure that discriminatory and short-term measures are effectively rejected. India also continued to be associated with the meetings of the Ad hoc Group of Scientific Experts working towards the eleboration of a global seismic monitoring system for a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and their related experiments. India was also represented in the meeting with the chemical industry held in June 1991 at Geneva in the context of the chemical weapons negotiations.

At the 46th session of the UN General Assembly, India introduced two resolutions in the First Committee. The first resolution, entitled "Convention on the Prohibition of the use of Nuclear Weapons" highlights the threat which nuclear war poses to the life on the planet and the urgent task of preventing such a war. The resolution contains a draft convention which could form the basis for such an agreement. It enjoyed broad support with 112 countries votin g in its favour. The second initiative taken by India and Mexico following SSOD- II in 1982 for drawing the attention of the world community towards the important aspect of nuclear disarmament. The Resolution enjoyed wide-spread support with 119 countries voting in its favour.

India participated actively in the deliberations of the UN Disarmament Commission, which met in New York from 22 April to 13 May 1991. The agenda included "Role of Science and Technology in the context of International Security, Disarmament and Related Fields", a topic based on the Indian sponsored resolution entitiled "Scientific and Technological Developments and Their Impact on International Security". At the 3rd Biological Weapons Review Conference held at Geneva in September 1991, India was elected as one of the Vice-Chairmen and introduced a number of proposals which were reflected in the final declaration and which helped in strengthening the role of the Biological Weapons Convention. Outside the three main multilateral disarmament fora, India continued to support disarmament initiatives taken by non-governmental organizations and participated actively in the meetings organized by them.
Economic Issues
The year under review saw significant developments in the economic field. A number of important meetings took place, including the meeting of the Economic and Social Council, the negotiations in the Second Committee of the General Assembly, the meeting of the subsidiary bodies and the traditional meeting of Foreign Minister of G-77 on the eve of the 46th General Assembly.
India participated in a number of multilateral meetings of global environmental issues held during the year. The Indian approach was based on her conviction that environmental problems cannot be isolated from the general issue of development and must be viewed as an integral part of development efforts. India constructively contributed to the meetings of the Preparatory Committee for the 1992 UN Conference on Enviornment and Development with the expectation that the twin issues of environment and development would be addressed in a balanced way and in their totality at the 1992 Conference. Indi a also actively projected her concern and promoted her interests while participating in the intergovernmental negotiating sessions for drafting a Framework Convention on Climate Change and a Convention on Biological Diversity.

The second regular session of ECOSOC was held in Geneva in June 1991. India has been elected as a member for a 3-year term beginning 1992. For the first time ECOSOC held a special high-level meeting on the impact of the recent evolution of East-West relations on the growth of the world economy and its implications for developing countries. It also considered the report of the So uth Commission, the economic, social and environmental consequences of the Iraq- Kuwait war and the strengthening of multilateral cooperation. At the summer session of the ECOSOC, UNSG suggested the convening of an international conference on the financing of development. This proposal was welcomed by India and endorsed in the Ministerial Declaration of G-77 On the eve of 46th General Assembly, Foreign Ministers of G-77 met in New York and adopted a Ministerial Declaration which expressed concern at the deteriorating economic situation. The Minister for External Affairs addressed the meeting.

At the 46th General Assembly, the issues of special focus were: the long- standing proposal for restructuring and revitalisation of the UN in socio- economic fields (with the emergence of the contours of consensus resolution which will oversee expertisation of subsidiary bodies); the report of the ECOSOC (which included a resolution on the impact of East-West relations and on convening of an international conference on financing of development); trade and development (with specific reference to the problems of the land-locked developing countries); international code of conduct on transfer of tecnology; economic and technical cooperation among developing countries; environment (large scale pellagic drift net fishing); science and technology for developmen t; entrepreneurship and operational activities for development; and better coordination of humanitarian assistance.

The Indian delegation actively participated in all deliberations, emphasisin g the urgent need to address development issues. India's efforts for a greater integration into the international economy as well as far-reaching macro economic and domestic reforms were brought to the attention of the General Assembly.

In the context of South-South Cooperation, progress was made with regard to the specific projects identified at the first meeting of the Summit Level Gr oup on South-South Consultation and Cooperation (G-15), which was held in Kuala Lumpur in June 1990. The Heads of State/Government of G-15 member countries had mandated India to develop projects on the establishment of a Gene Bank for Medicinal Plants and Herbs in developing countries and Solar Energy Applications for fabrication of Small Refrigerators. In pursuance of th is mandate, a meeting of the Group of Experts from G-15 member countries was convened by the Government of India in New Delhi from 23 to 25 September 1991 to define and finalise these two projects. The meeting was attended by Experts/Senior Officials from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, India, Mexico, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, Venezuela, Yugoslavia and Zimbabwe.

At the Second G-15 Summit held in Caracas, Venezuela from 27 to 29
November 1991, the Heads of State/Government approved the two Indian projects. The Summit also approved other specific projects to promote South- South Cooperation and decided on a series of follow-up measures to coordinate future activities of the G-15. India articulated the position of the G-15 coun tries on the evolution of a consensus on ensuring that development remained at the centre of international attention and that modalities were found to place the issues of economic development and international cooperation at the centre of the multilateral agenda. This was fully reflected in the Joint Communique adopted at the end of the Summit. Decisions arrived at during the Caracas Summit have led to a further institutionalisation and consolidation of G-15 to act as a catalyst to promote South-South Cooperation and to constitute a credible platform to act as an interlocutor with the industrialised countries.

The Summit level meeting of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), which met in Singapore on 27 and 28 January 1992, approved that India would be a sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN. The sectoral dialogue is expected to commence as soon as modalities for these are mutually finalised. The sectoral dialogue will strengthen India's economic cooperation in various fields with the ASEAN countries, including in the areas of trade, human resource development, science and technology, and tourism. Besides ASEAN, India has been making efforts to associate itself with other regional and sub-regional groupings in the region, such as Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).

As far as developments in the international trading system were concerned, the Uruguay Round of Multilatral Trade Negotiations continued to be a focus of attention. The outcome of these negotiations, however, remain uncertain, especially for the developing countries. Apart from the impasse over agricultural, trade and subsidies, agreement in the so-called new areas of TRIPS, TRIMS and Services have continued to elude the negotiators. There are apprehensions that a failure of the Uruguay Round would lead to a break-down of multilateralism, further fragmentation of the international trading system and an increasing resort to unilateral and bilateral measures.

Little progress was made in the area of North-South Cooperation. The external environment facing the developing countries continued to be adverse and was characterised by a lack of resource flows and access to markets and technologies. The debt problem of the developing countries remained a cause of worry. There was also a growing tendency on the part of developed countries to shift the focus away from hard development issues to issues like popular participation, political pluralism, human rights, environment, military expenditures, etc and to attach non-economic conditionalities to development assistance.
Administrative and Budgetary Matters

The two most important issues before the 5th Committee in 1992 related to the programme budget and the scale of assessment for contributions to the UN regular budget. Argeement on both issues was reached without recourse to voting. The budget resolution included a chapter on the proposed structure and policies of the UN Drug Control Programme. India played an important role in striking a balance between the need for managerial flexibility for the programme and the need for adherence to UN financial rules and regulations and personnel policies. India's concern relating to the need for devising ways and means for increasing access to licit opiates for medical purposes in developing countries was endorsed by the General Assembly and the budget resolution stressed the need for allocation of adequate resources for activitie s in this sphere.

The scale of assessment for the contribution to the UN regular budget was adopted for the period 1992-94. India's contribution has declined from 0.37% i n the previous scale to 0.36% in the present scale. This would not only reduce h er contributions to the UN regular budget but also to various specialised agencies of the UN whose contributions are linked to the UN regular budget. The financial crisis affecting the UN was also highlighted. The UN Secretary General made a number of new suggestions to overcome the serious problems faced by the UN due to paucity of funds. Discussions on this issue were inconclusive.

Social and Humanitarian Issues

India continued to play an active role in the consideration by the UN bodies such as the General Assembly, ECOSOC and the Commission on Human Rights of social and humanitarian issues. India's stand on such issues was bas ed on her principled position on matters pertaining to human rights and social justice and her deep and abiding commitment to democracy, the rule of law and the protection and promotion of human rights, and fundamental freedoms. India welcomed changes around the world that served to strengthen human rights. India played an important role in the deliberations of the Third Committee at the 46th Session of the UN General Assembly and participated actively in the 43rd Session of the UN Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities held in Geneva in August 1991 and the 48th Session of the Human Rights Commission also held in Geneva from 27 Janaury to 6 March 1992.


India continued to play an active role in the UN Committee on Decolonisation. Of the 18 remaining non-governing territories on the UN agenda, the focus was primarily on the Western Sahara, where preparations for a referendum on self-determination are underway under the supervision of the Security Council. India has traditionally supported the Saharawi self- determination and is amongst the countries expected to participate in the UN Peace Keeing Operation (MINURSO) which will organize and supervise the referendum.

Elections to UN Bodies and other International Organisations

In 1991 India was elected to the Economic and Social Council of the UN winning 127 votes, the highest for any contesting candidate. Previously India was member of this body during 1988-90 and with this selection she would be member of both the main charter organization of the UN, i.e. the Security Council and the ECOSOC during 1992.

Dr P S Rao was re-elected as member of the Internaitonal Law Commission on 14 November 1991. India was also reelected to the UN Commission on International Trade Law, the Governing Council of the UN Environment Programme, the UN Commission on Human Rights and the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs.

India was elected as a Category 'B' member in the International Maritime Organization Council.

Activities of the Non-aligned Movement

The major event during the year was the 10th Ministerial Conference of Non-aligned countries which was held in Accra from 2 to 7 September 1991. In many ways this was a landmark event for the Movement which has completed 30 years since its inception. The meeting took place against the backdrop of far-reaching changes in the international political scenario. The Conference undertook an indepth assessment of the role, objectives and activities of NAM while reaffirming the continuing relevance of its principles and agenda. The Conference took several important decisions to strengthen the capacity of the Movement to respond effectively to the emerging opportunities in the evolving world order. It also considered issues relating to international security, disarmament, external aid, North-South and South- South cooperation, the situation in South Africa, human rights, drug abuse, environment and other emerging issues on the international agenda. It also took special position to convene a special Ministerial meeting of Non-aligned countries prior to 1992 UNCED, as also to hold 7th meeting of the coordinating countries of the Action Programme for Economic Cooperation before the Ministerial meeting of the Coorodinating Bureau which is held prior to a Summit. It was also decided that the 10th Summit would be held in Indonesia in 1992.

During the year, the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement met regularly in New York to deal with matters of concern to the Movement. In addition, in December 1991 the Coordinating Bureau adopted a statement on the situation in Yugoslavia The non-aligned members of the Security Council remained active during the year taking initiatives and adopting common positions wherever possible on issues that came up before the Council.

India played a leading role in the deliberations of the Ministerial meetin g in Accra as also in the Non-Aligned Coordinating Bureau meetings. As a member of the Security Council, India played a leading role in the formulation of common positions and in maintaining the unity of Non-aligned countries - a role which attracted appreciation from other Non-aligned countries.

Other Non-Aligned Meetings which were held during the year included the meeting of the Committee of 9 NAM countries on Palestine held in September 1991, Ministerial meeting on the eve of 46th General Assembly held in September 1991, 15th Meeting of Health Ministers of NAM countries held in May 1991, NAM News Pool Agency Meeting in Havana held in the last quarter of 1991 and 10th meeting of NAM Foreign Ministers in Accra held in September 1991.


The 6th meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa (CCFMSA) was held in New Delhi on 13 and 14 September 1991. The Foreign Ministers of 8 countries - Canada, Australia, Guyana, Malaysia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Zambia took part in the deliberations. Canada is the Chairman of the Committee. The Prime Minister inaugurated the meeting. The Minister for External Affairs participated in its deliberations.

The meeting decided to recommend to the Commonwealth Heads of Government the need to lift people to people related sanctions in view of the substantial progress that had been made in South Africa. However, it was decided that trade and financial sanctions would continue till a transitional mechanism satisfactory to the majority community parties were agreed upon. It was also decided that the arms embargo would not be lifted till a non-racial an d post-apartheid new South African Government was established with full democratic control.

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) was held in Harare from 16 to 22 October 1991. The meeting adopted the Harare Declaration which identified priorities of the Commonwealth in 1990s and beyond. Apart from reaffirming the traditional emphasis on such issues as the struggle against apartheid and cooperation for development, the declaration stressed the importance of democratic institutions, human rights and the rule o f law. On South Africa, the CHOGM endorsed the recommendations of the New Delhi Meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa for a "programme management" and phased easing of sanctions. A wide range of international issues and Commonwealth matters were also discussed.

The Indian delegation, led by the Prime Minister, which also included Minister for External Affairs, played an active part. As a lead speaker on glo bal review (political), the Prime Minister put across the perspective of the developing world on the issues and challenges facing the world today. The Indian delgation made a significant contribution to securing a balanced declaration, fully reflecting the priorities India attaches to the issues on th e agenda of the Commonwealth.


Conference Division is entrusted with the responsibility of providing the logistical support and managerial assistance in the organization of internation al conferences convened by the Ministry of External Affairs and other Ministries/ Departments of the Government of India. During the year, following international conferences/meetings were organized:

(i) SAARC Meeting of Experts to Prepare Plan of Action for Children pertaining to South Asian countries was held in New Delhi on 10 and 11 April 1991. The Department of Woman and Child Development, Ministry of Welfare was also associated.

(ii) SAARC Meeting of National Coordinators to finalise Regional Study on Trade Manufacturers and Services was held in New Delhi from 3 to 5 June 1991. Delegates from SAARC countries and Secretary General, SAARC Secretariat participated.

(iii) The Meeting of Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa was held in New Delhi on 13 and 14 September 1991. The meeting was attended by Foreign Ministers of 11 countries and Commonwealth Secretary General.

(iv) International Meeting of Experts of G-15 Countries on Science and Technology Projects-Gene Bank and Solar Energy-was held in New Delhi from 23 to 25 September 1991. The Meeting was attended by 48 experts from India and abraod.

(v) UN Conference on Environment and Development convened by the Department of Bio-Technology was held at Surajkund (Haryana) from 23 to 26 October 1991.

(vi) Indo-EEC Joint Commission Meeting convened by the Ministry of Commerce was held in New Delhi on 13 and 14 November 1991.

(vii) Indo-German Joint Commission Meeting was held at New Delhi on 18 and 19 November 1991 under the auspices of the Ministry of Finance. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Secretariats were advised and assisted in organizing Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference which was held in New Delhi from 23 to 29 September 1991.

Advice and assistance were also tendered to the Indian Association of Diplomats for organizing the Fifth Indira Gandhi Memorial Lecture by the President of Hungary, Mr Arpad Goncz. The Division was also entrusted with the task of making boarding, lodging

and transport arrangements for a large number of delegations, many of them led by Heads of State/Government, during the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi.

International Law : Development and Activities

The United Nations General Assembly (Sixth Committee) at its 46th Session considered 13 agenda items during its deliberations from 17 September to 28 November 1991. The important items among these related to the work of the International Law Commission (ILC), the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the United Nations Special Committee on the Charter and the Strengthening of the Organisation, measures to prevent international terrorism, New International Economic Order and United Nations Decade of International Law. The Indian delegation expressed its happiness over the work done by the ILC in completing the draft text on jurisdictional immunities of States and their property and commented on the progress made by the Commission in its 43td Session in the areas of draft Code of Crimes against peace and security of mankind, on the non-navigational uses of international rivers and the international liability for injurious consequences arising out of acts not prohibited tinder international law. On other items, t he Indian delegation actively participated in the deliberations of the Committee, including its consultations in several areas concerned.

The 30th Session of the Legal Sub-Committee of the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was held in New York from 25 March to 19 April 1991. The Sub-Committee discussed the issues concerning the development of the draft principles on Nuclear Power Sources (NPS), Geo-Stationary Orbit (GSO) and definition and delimitation of Outer Space, and Outer Space benefits taking into account the needs of the developing countries. Consensus was reached on some outstanding principles dealing with the guidelines and standards for safe use in NPS in space objects. On the other two items, the discussions held have yet to achieve agreement.

The 30th Annual Session of Asian African Legal Consultative Committee (AALCC) was held in Cairo from 22 to 27 April 1991. As in the past, the AALCC provided a forum for the Legal Experts of the two continents to come together to exchange views on several contemporary legal issues, such as the status and treatment of refugees, law of the sea, definition of terrorism and to distinguish it from liberation struggles, Geneva Conventions on law of war and deportation of Palestinians, environment and development, and UN Decade of International Law. Views were also exchanged on legal issues concerning international trade law being discussed in UNCITRAL and other fora.

India participated in a meeting of legal experts held in Colombo from 30 September to 2 October 1991 to review the implementation of the SAARC Convention on Suppression of Terrorism. India has actively participated in several meetings and consultations hold i n connection with the developments in the law of the sea, especially under the aegies of PREPCOM, Antarctica Treaty and the development of environmental law, in general, as well as in specific field such as climate change and bio- diversity. India has also played an active role in the various Working Groups, Groups of Legal Experts and the PREPCOM for UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), 1992.

As in the past years, the Ministry undertook drafting and processed for signature, ratification/accession of several bilateral and multilateral agreeme nts involving India. The bilateral treaties which India entered into with other countries include Consular Convention and Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Space Activities with China, Treaties on Trade and Transit, and Curbing of Unauthorised Traffic with Nepal. At the multilateral level, India became a party to the Vienna Convention for Protection of Ozone layer, the International Labour Organization Convetion No. 136 concerning Protection against Hazards and Poisoning arising from Benzens, and INMARSAT Agreement on Ship-Earth Stations within the Terrorial Sea and Ports. A complete list of treaties entered into by India during the year is placed at Appendix II.

Foreign Economic Relations
During the year, the commercial content of the Economic Division's work has been further augmented with a view to assisting in the efforts to optimise exports. Commercial queries and information about possible business opportunities abroad were regularly received by the Division and disseminated to the concerned parties. To assist commercial representatives in Indian Missions, the Division compiled and circulated a Trade Directory containing references of export promotion bodies, commodity boards, important public sector organizations, institutions dealing with credit and finance besides references of Government officials dealing with the foregoing subject matter. The Directory has been found to be a handy guide by India's commercial representatives abroad.

Approximately 600 nominees (including some from the previous year) underwent training under Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme and Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme (SCAAP) for a period ranging from six months to one and a half years. A broad range of training courses from small scale industries to advance level telecommunications, legislative drafting to foreign trade, diplomacy and civil aviation were covered under the programmes.

During the year, 57 experts were on deputation under ITEC programme to various countries. The major beneficiaries have been Afghanistan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen and Zambia. The areas of their specialisation include engineering, medicine, small scale industry and general academic teaching.

Over 300 military personnel from nearly 30 countries underwent training in defence courses of instructions in India. A large number of them came from South Asian and African countries. Sustained interests continued to exist to avail of training facilities at India's military establishments.

Major projects completed during the year with ITEC assistance included the Farmers Service Centre in Mauritius and Common Facility Centre for the Industrial Estate Project and a Chalk Manufacturing Unit in Afghanistan. The Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health Expansion project in Kabul is nearing completion. The sixth phase of the Angkor Vat restoration project in Cambodia is in progress.

Emergency relief assistance was extended to Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Iran, Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines and Zambia. These countries had suffered either natural calamities or epidemics, resulting in large scale destruction of property and loss of human lives. The assistance given included medicines, milk powder, food items and blankets.

The sixth meeting of the India-Mauritius Joint Commission was held in August 1991 in Port Louis. Several areas of future cooperation were identified at the meeting. It was also decided that India would give priority in helping Mauritius in human resource development programmes in future.

The ITEC programme was extended to China, Soviet Republics, particularly Central Asian Republics and East European countries like Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Hungary, etc during the year.

For the first time since the inception of the programme in 1964, ITEC "Alumni Associations" were formed by Indian Missions. It was also decided to celebrate 15 September every year as the "ITEC Day". According to reports received ITEC Day was celebrated with much, enthusiasm in some 30 Missions this year. The scheme is expected to be extended to remaining Missions being covered under ITEC programme next year. A handbook on guidelines for the trainees who come to India under ITEC/SCAAP programme and a presentation brochure on the ITEC/SCAAP programme were also produced and distributed during the year.

The Division in collaboration with XP Division has produced a 30 minute film on the ITEC programme. The film projects the philosophy behind the inception of the ITEC programme besides of recounting its accomplishment.

Under the scheme of inviting foreign delegations from developing countries aimed at exposing them to the industrial progress made in India, study visits from Uganda, Mongolia, Indonesia and Botswana were conducted. The visits were found to be helpful in identifying areas in which future collaboration may be developed.

The Economic Coordination Unit (ECU) was set up in August 1990. Its original mandate covered studying from the economic standpoint and formulating appropriate policy orientations on a range of specific issues such as EC-92, the Gulf crisis, the changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, etc. During the first six months of its inception, the ECU prepared indepth studies on each of these issues. It also became the nodal Unit for a number of specific subjects which were of an inter-departmental nature and which had a substantial economic content. These included the proposals for forging a speci al relationship with the EC, the setting up of an Indo-EC Business Forum and membership of the EBRD, apart from coordinating the participations of the Ministry of External Affairs in the India-Japan Study Committee and dealing with issues such as the non-economic conditionalities being attached to foreign aid. It also monitored major international developments such as the trend towards formation of regional economic groupings and attempted to analyse the implications of these developments for India.

Since July 1991, the activities of the ECU have acquired a new dimension as a result of the changes in economic policy announced by the Government. ECU has played a major coordinating role in obtaining details of the new policies from the concerned ministries and quickly transmitting them to India's Missions abroad. It has also assisted in the formulation of guidelines for Missions so that they can reorient their priorities in line with the new econom ic policies and the changing global economic situation. Action on the responses received from Missions has already been initiated.

In addition, the ECU has also been playing the role of an investment promotion agency at a time when there is no established institutional framework for performing this important activity. A major investment seminar was held in Singapore in October to attract FDI to India and to create greater awareness of the new economic policies among potential investors. A Composite media package entitled "Doing Business with India" comprising a set of brochures, a floppy diskette and a video film was prepared especially for this occasion. Bo th the seminar and the package were regarded as a success. Proposals for similar seminars in Japan and the USA have already been approved and preparations have been initiated, Action-has also been initiated to update the media package in the light of changes in economic policies made during the last two months, and to prepare Japanese, German, French and Arabic versions of the package. Apart from this promotional work, ECU has also been servicing investment related queries from the Missions by liaising with the concerned Ministries through an informal inter-ministcrial group which is coordinated by the ECU.

Policy Planning And Research
The Policy Planning Division was actively engaged in preparing briefs and background papers on wide-ranging issues concerning India's Foreign Policy. and her role in the rapidly evolving international situation.

The Division is also the nodal point for interaction with the Joint Intelligence Committee, the University Grants Commission and its affiliated Area Study Centres attached to various Universities. These activities were strengthened during the year.

The Historical Division, which provides research input to the Ministry, prepared research papers and background notes on various issues relating to international developments. The Division interacts with the Territorial Divisi ons of the Ministry in the preparation of the research papers and background notes. The Division also renders all possible help to the Territorial Divisions as wel l as Indian Missions abroad whenever specific information or documents on international relations are required.

During the year, the Division extended all required assistance to the concerned Territorial Divisions on India's international boundary problems. The Division examines the incorrect depiction of India's international boundaries in foreign publications-private as well as official-and maintains contacts with the Missions abroad for taking up the matter with the concerned publishers or the Government authorities for proper depiction and necessary corrective measures.

The Division also closely coordinates with the Survey of India and the Ministry of Defence on the question of supply of map sheets to various Government and semi-Government agencies for use in their official work, The Division deals with the requests from research scholars in consultatio n with the concerned Territorial Divisions for access to the records of the Government of India relating to the restricted areas or the closed period as la id down in the Access Rules. It also scrutinises the excerpts of the closed perio d records submitted by the research scholars and gives final clearance in consultation with the concerned Territorial Divisions.

An important task of the Division is to edit and supervise printing of the Annual Report of the Ministry on the basis of the material prepared by the various Divisions. The Printing of Old Records (POR) Unit of the Division edits and prints selected old policy files of the Ministry. The POR Unit also undertakes the review/weeding of old files in the Record Management Section of the Ministry and also coordinates with the Missions abroad in the same work. Similarly, the Unit reviews old records of the Ministry which were transferred to the National Archives of India in the past.

Research Section of the Division coordinates the distribution Of Periodic al reports received from Indian Missions abroad. To support the research efforts, a library equipped with modern facilities and large resource material is maintained with over one hundred thousand books and documents in its collection. During the last year 1350 books, 60 maps, 500 pamphlets, and 30 reels of microfilm were added. The Library subscribes to 600 periodical titles.

Library is equipped with in-house computer system with 9 terminals two of which support data entry and retrieval in Indian languages; a microfilm/fiche reader printer and a plain paper photocopier. Documentation/Bibiliographic Services as well as other library operations and services were computerised using an integrated software package developed in India. Information about books and selected periodical articles received in Library since 1986 is available on-line through each terminal. All new documents received in Library-books, maps, microfilms, selected articles from periodicals, etc are being fed into the in-house computer system to create Database on Foreign Affairs. Using this Database, the Library provides Current Awareness Service and Bibliographical Services. In additions, the Library regularly issued a monthly Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin and an annotated monthly list of recent additions to the Library.

Library users including Research Scholars can have access to on-line computer-based information held in Library in different databases through Foreign Affairs Information Retrieval System (FAIRS). Photocopying and Computer Print-out facilities are also available to all Library users including Research Scholars.

External Publicity
THE External Publicity Division is charged with the responsibility of projecting India's position on various issues and developments in India; different aspects of Indian life, art and culture; as well as countering distor ted and malicious propaganda against India, sponsored by vested interests overseas. In order to meet these objectives the XP Division utilises a variety of channel s which include: briefing of journalists, transmission of information to Indian Missions, purchase and publication of books, and production of documentaries and audio visual material.

The XP Division conducts regular briefings for foreign and Indian journa- lists on developments that impinge upon India's foreign policy interests. In addition to the regular briefings, the Division also arranges detailed backgrou nd briefings for select foreign and Indian journalists on topical issues so that a n accurate perception of India's position is projected in the media. For instanc e, during the Gulf War, regular background briefings were conducted to emphasise India's stand on the conflict, her support for the UN Resolutions and her commitment to ensuring that all disputes are resolved without recourse to force . The Government of India's success in taking care of the Indians stranded in the war zone was particularly emphasised and the foreign media lauded the manner in which the Government had executed such a difficult undertaking. Other issues on which special briefings were held included the developments in the former USSR, Yugoslavia, India's views on NAM, Indo-Pak relations, Indo-US relations, Kashmir and Punjab, etc.

The Division also continued its programme of inviting foreign journalists to visit India. During. the year, the Division hosted 25 journalists from differe nt countries including Germany, Japan, Switzerland, China, Vietnam, Bangladesh, the USA and the United Kingdom. Visits to different cities and industrial unit s, meetings with government officials and media personnel and briefings on issues of concern to India as well as on developments in India were organized for the visiting journalists. The articles written by these journalists on return to t heir countries testify to the positive results of the programme. In addition, the Division cleared temporary accreditation for 571 visiting foreign journalists. A large number of proposals from foreign producers to make documentaries on different aspects of India were examined and cleared. These included documentaries on culture, tourism, environment, etc as well as current affairs programmes.

On the domestic front, the assassination of Shri Rajiv Gandhi, and the Indian General Elections attracted considerable international media attention. In the aftermath of the assassination nearly 400 foreign journalists arrived in In dia to cover the funeral rites. All arrangements for the visiting journalists were made by the XP Division. The Division's efforts were well appreciated by the journalists who even wrote about it.

Many of the journalists who covered the assassination of Shri Rajiv Gandhi stayed on to cover the General Elections. The Division briefed the visiting journalists about the democratic traditions of India, the strengths of the Indi an polity and the manner of the conduct of elections. A major effort was undertaken to dispell gloomy predictions of imminent chaos following the assassination of Shri Gandhi. Its success was underscored by the articles in m any foreign publications which stressed that the democratic tradition in India had the strength to withstand such shocks and India would remain true to its secular ethos. In connection with the General Elections the Division produced a ten minute news clip on India's democratic system which was sent to Missions abroad to be used by local television stations. In addition, the Division prin ted brochures giving basic facts about India, the different parties, the results of previous elections, and a brief write up on the Indian polity. These brochures were distributed abroad to journalists and writers by the Indian Missions. On the new Government taking office, the division briefed the international media on the Government's priorities and programmes and its foreign policy concerns. Special emphasis was laid on the economic initiatives taken by the new Government. A brochure entitled "Doing Business with India" and a documentary "India: The Land of New Opportunities" highlighting the new policy initiatives and the viability of India as an economic and trade partner were produced and distributed overseas. This material was also distributed at the Seminar organized in Singapore on Oct 18, 1991. The package of material was well received and complimented upon by the media. Detailed briefings were arranged for select foreign and Indian journalists to acquaint them with the Government's economic programmes. The foreign media's coverage of the Government's economic policy initiatives has been uniformly positive and in some cases laudatory.

The Division looked after the media arrangements during the visits abroad of the Prime Minister to Bonn for the Festival of India in October 1991, Caracas for the G-15 Summit in November 1991, Colombo for the SAARC Summit in December 1991, New York in January 1992, Davos (Switzerland) in February 1992 and Port Louis (Mauritius) in March 1992. Similarly, it organized media coverage of the visits of the German President in February-March 1991; the President of Malta, President Yasser Arafat and the President of Portugal in January 1992; and the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the Presidents of Kazakhstan and Namibia in February 1992.

The year witnessed an escalation of propaganda against India on the Kashmir and Human Rights issues, and attempts by interested parties to internationalise the Kashmir issue. The Division through its audio visual programmes and print programmes and briefings of the foreign media highlighted the fact that the problem in Kashmir and Punjab was the result of direct interference by Pakistan which was training and arming the militants. Independent producers were encouraged to make documentaries which projected a true historical perspective of the Kashmir issue and Pak involvement. While in the past the foreign media had tended to give Pakistan the benefit of doubt by stating that India "alleged" that Pakistan was involved, during the year there was increasing and categorical acknowledgement in the foreign media of Pakistan's training and arming the terrorists. This shift in the reporting in the international media was a major achievement and possibly, influenced the position taken by many governments on Pakistan's involvement in subversion in Kashmir and Punjab and their response to Pakistan's attempts to internationalise the Kashmir issue.

The Division continued to send on a daily, weekly or bi-weekly basis detailed news to Indian Missions on developments in India. Material on the situation in Kashmir and Punjab was sent to select Missions to enable them to counter anti-Indian propaganda and to accurately brief their host governments and the media.

The publication of books, the production of documentaries and the dissemination of audio visual and printed material formed Part of the programme to create a greater awareness abroad of the different facets of Indian life. In addition to sending presentation books and books on topical issues to Indian Missions, the Division's publication "Muslims In India" was printed in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic and French. The book highlighted the contribution of Indian Muslims to the making of modern India and projected India's secular polity. The publication was highly appreciated by all recipients abroad including in Pakistan.

The Second edition of "Muslims In India" and a similar book on "Christians In India" are nearing completion.

The Division's monthly magazine "India Perspectives" which has a circulation of 37,000, was highly commended in reviews in the Indian Press and in letters received from readers in different countries. The magazine which is published in English, French, Urdu, Arabic and Spanish focuses on different aspects of Indian life, art and culture and also includes material of touristic interest. The emphasis has been on obtaining the maximum number of articles by foreign authors on different topics and during the year authors from Germany, Bangladesh, Nepal, Australia, Afghanistan and France contributed to the "India Perspectives". The Government has agreed to the publication of the "India Perspectives" in Hindi, Bhasa Indonesia, Russian and Portugese and the first issues in these languages are likely to be brought out in the first quart er of 1992. The magazine is being subscribed to by public sector units, the hotel industry, etc and has attracted advertisements from State Governments and Public Sector units. During the year, a total revenue of Rs. 1,60,000 was earn ed through advertisements.

Six special feature articles were commissioned and sent to Indian Missions/ Posts abroad for publication on the Republic Day, 1992. These articles were widely read and appreciated. On the audio visual front a number of documentaries were produced by the Division either directly or by encouraging independent producers. "Pastures New", on Indian Muslims settled abroad was telecast in the USA. Documentaries on the Environment, Telecommunications, Indian Democracy, etc were distributed for screening by Indian Missions. A documentary on three contemporary painters, entitled "Figures of Thought" won the First Prize for non-feature films at the 38th National Film Festival during the year. It also won the first prize for short documentaries at the Athens (Ohio) Film Festival 1991 . This documentary was telecast in Ireland and sent to many other countries where TV Networks had shown interest in its telecast. Under an arrangement entered into with the producer of the documentary, the Division received 60 per cent of the royalty from the telecast. Another documentary "Sanchari" on the Bharat Natyam dancer, Leela Samson, was released during the year and received excellent reviews in the media. The Division's film "People of Peace-Christianity in India" was released on 2 February 1992. In addition, a film "Bhavantarana", on the Odissi maestro Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra sponsored by this Division, was screened at the Bangalore Film Festival and the Bombay International Festival of Documentary, Short and Amination Films and had won an International Critics Prize award at the latter festival. Projects nearing completition include among others documentaries on Indian Muslims and the ITEC programme. The Division also supplied films to Missions abroad in connection with Film Festivals organized in the host countries. Film Festiv als were held in Muscat, Windhoek, Port of Spain, Abu Dhabi amongst others.
Indian Overseas
It is estimated that there are about 12 million persons of Indian origin resi- ding in different parts of the world. It is the consistent policy of the Government that persons of Indian origin who have taken foreign nationality should identify themselves with and integrate in the mainstream of social and political life of the country of their domicile. The Government naturally rema ins alive to their interests and general welfare and encourages cultural contacts w ith them. As far as Indian citizens residing abroad are concerned, they are the responsibility of the Government of India and the Government continue to exercise due care for their safety and welfare and takes all necessary steps in this regard.

Wherever they may be living, people of Indian origin have always cherished and retained their cultural and personal ties with their motherland. The Government of India consciously and on a continuous basis strives to strengthen their cultural and emotional tics by setting up cultural centres, exchange of cultural troupes, and teaching of Indian music, languages and philosophy in foreign countries.

The Overseas Indians Division was set up to develop social, economic and cultural contacts between India and the Overseas Indians. Indian Missions have been instructed to maintain close contacts with Overseas Indians and render them all possible assistance. The Division also disseminates information about matters of interest to Overseas Indians like investment procedures in India through the Missions abroad.

The Overseas Indians have been projecting a number of demands to the Government of India relating to further liberalisation in the Indian economy, relaxation in the rules and regulations in respect of taxation, Foreign Exchang e Regulation Act (FERA), bank and portfolio investment, project and industrial investment, educational needs of the children of Overseas Indians and resettlement requirements including housing. The revised economic policy of th e Government has acceded to a number of these demands by encouraging investment in new sectors such as housing, infrastructure and real estate development on a repatriation basis, remittances in foreign exchange to any person in India without being subject to gift tax and total immunity from any investigation/enquiry, issue of India Development Bonds, investment upto 100% equity in high priority industries with full benefit of repatriation of capital invested and income accruing thereon including investments for extension and diversification of existing industrial undertakings.

To discuss the remaining problems and demands of the Overseas Indians, for the first time an All-India meeting of organizations representing Overseas Indians was convened under the Chairmanship of the Minister of State for External Affairs in September 1991 after an Inter-Ministerial meeting in July. As a follow-up to the points which emerged at the meeting, favourable decisions have resulted in placing six more categories of emigrants comprising supervisor s, skilled workers, semi-skilled workers, vehicle drivers, clerical workers includ ing store keepers, etc and cooks excluding those in domestic employment, under the "Emigration Clearance not required" category on an experimental basis and formulation of guidelines for setting up of schools, colleges, etc with NRI fun ds where a certain number of seats could be reserved for children of Overseas Indians. A scheme for Overseas Indians and Non-Resident Indians relating to housing and real estate development is being finalized by the Ministry of Urban Development in consultation with the Overseas Indians Division.

During the year under review, Heads of Mission of the following 22 countries left India on completion of their tenure:

Nigeria, Peru, Kuwait, Yemen, Belgium, Yugoslavia, China, Republic of Korea, Algeria, EEC, Arab Republic of Egypt, Finland, Tunisia, the USSR, Myanmar, the UK, Uganda, Cambodia, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Thailand and Turkey.

During the same period, Heads of Mission of the following 22 countries presented their Credentials to the President of India:

Colombia, Sri Lanka, Bulgaria, Nigeria, Kuwait, Czech & Slovak Federal Republic, Swaziland (non-resident), Yemen, Finland, China, Republic of Korea, Arab Republic of Egypt, the USSR, EEC, Belgium, Romania, Uganda, Turkey, the UK, Tunisia, Nepal and Benin (non-resident).

India decided to grant diplomatic status to the Asian African Legal Consultative Committee in New Delhi with effect from February 1991. It was decided to extend privileges and immunities granted to the International Committee of Red Cross in New Delhi for another 5 years starting June 1991.

A list containing names of foreign dignitaries who visited India during 1991 along with the dates of such visits is at Appendix XV.
Passport And Consular Services
The year 1991 witnessed heavy increase in number of input applications for passports and miscellaneous services. During the year, a total of 35,02,973 applications were received compared to 24,25,604 received in 1990, registering a growth of 44%. During the same period total output of all the Passport Offices in India also increased by about 3 lakh services, from 23.8 lakhs in 1990 to 26.9 lakhs in 1991, registering a growth of about 13%.

During the last year several measures were introduced by the Consular, Passport & Visa (CPV) Division to further simplify the passport procedures. Attestation of photograph of applicant by any Gazetted Officer for submission alongwith application form has been dispensed with. The application forms complete in all respects will be accepted at counters of Passport Offices even from persons other than applicants. But passports will be despatched only through Registered Post to avoid any malpractices where applications were not submitted by recognized travel agents.

Passport Officers have been instructed to accept a copy of letter of employment from, reputed employers towards proof of stay of applicant within jurisdiction of a Passport Office. Sitting MPs, MLAs and MLCs have been exempted from the requirement of prior police verification where they choose to apply for ordinary passports. Relevant guidelines to fill an application form have been printed and appended to each EAP (1) application form so that an applicant on his own may fill up the application.

This form was introduced from June 1991. The recognized travel agents have also been authorised to print application forms and give to public free of any charge. Some Passport Offices have been able to arrange sale of blank application forms through branches of some backs. Attempts are being made to resume sale of application forms through head post offices all over India. In case of Gulf evacuees it has been decided to issue police clearance certificate based on verification certificates issued by concerned di strict Superintendent of Police.

Indian passports have been made valid for travel to South Africa. Indian nationals therefore can feely travel to South Africa. Indian Missions have bee n authorised to issue Indian visas to South African nationals on the same basis a s Indian tourist visas are given to other foreign tourists. Tourist visas will a lso be given to South African diplomats and officials wishing to visit India for touri st purpose.

With a view to further facilitate foreign travel of Indian nationals, it has been decided that Indian nationals who earlier required special approval from a Protector of Emigrant will no longer require it if travelling to North America or Europe.

Passport Offices have been authorised to grant "Emigration Clearance not required" (ECNR) on passports of Iraq/Kuwait evacuees for Gulf region for a period of one year with effect from Apr 18, 1991 provided such applicants have any documentary evidence of offer of employment.

Six categories of workers have been added to the existing list of persons eligible for ECNR for a period of six months from 4 October 1991. Such persons have to apply to Protector of Emigrant or Passport Office through an authorised recruiting agent with passports having valid employment visa.

The visa fee structure was rationalised and made universally applicable to all foreign countries except those with which India has gratis visa or bilatera llyagreed visa fee agreements.This step will help Indian Missions to respond more quickly to visa fee queries and also help maintain proper internal accounting supervision.

During 1991, 3,335 cases of lost passports were referred to the CPV Division by various Passport Offices in India and Indian Missions/Posts abroad.

After consulting the concerned authorities, clearance for issue of passports was accorded in respect of 2,921 cases. For convenience of some category of applicants, it has been decided that where clearance is not received from concerned authorities within six weeks, the CPV Division may issue clearance.

As a part of programme of expansion of computer based, data processing,the Regional Passport Office in Delhi has been computerised. It is proposed to undertake similar computerisation at other Passport Offices.

The prevention of photo substitution and other types of forgeries on passports has been one of the prime concerns. Introduction of MSP in Indian ssions/Posts abroad has been taken up in phased manner. About 415 cases of forgery on non-MSP passports were detected during the year and concerned Passport Offices were asked to take necessary action in all cases.
Four hundred and fifty cases for issue of identity certificates were proce ssed and approval conveyed to concerned Passport Offices.

Prior to removal of restrictions on travel to South Africa, 75 requests for allowing endorsements on Indian passports for travel to South Africa were processed and approved.

Twenty seven appeals tinder Section 11 of the Passport Act were received during the year, of which 14 appeals have been decided.

About 700 complaints in respect of delay in issue of passports by various Passport Offices were received in the CPV Division. Out of which 400 cases have been settled. This number of complaints received is negligible when seen in the light of 35 lakh input applications received and 26.9 lakh services rendered during the year.

Licences of 172 travel agents were renewed and 71 fresh licences were issued to travel agents.

The Passport Liaison Office at Trivandrum has been upgraded to a full- fledged Passport Office w.e.f. 10 January 1992.

At a conference of the Passport Offices held in October 1991 ways and means to further increase productivity Of the Central Passport Organization was discussed and concrete measures taken which is reflected in the increased output.

During the year, Passport Offices in Goa, Bombay, Kozhikode, Cochin, Bareilly, Jalandhar, Chandigarh, Patna and Delhi were inspected. The Minister of State for External Affairs inspected the Passport Offices at Goa and Bangalore. "Open Passport Houses" on passport matters were organized at Goa and Bangalore. Based on inspection reports, necessary administrative actions were initiated against officers and staff found indulging in malpractices. At present three officials are tinder suspension.

During the year, 16,15,019 new passports were issued and 10,75,384 scellaneous services were rendered by all Passport Offices in India. Detailed input-output figures in respect of passports and miscellaneous services are given at Appendix VII. In addition, a total of 969 diplomatic passports and 3669 official passports were issued by the CPV Division. About 6,000 ellaneous services pertaining to official and diplomatic passports were also rendered. A ll the 21 Passport Offices and 2 Passport Liaison Offices functioned normally except the Passport Office in Srinagar which continued to remain non-nctional. Presently, the work of Srinagar office is being looked after by the Passport Office, Delhi. A statement showing revenue earned and expenditure incurred by Passport Offices from 1 January to 31 December 1991 is at Appendix VIII.

During 1991, 1,171 cases of deportation of Indian nationals by foreign Governments were brought to the notice of the Government of India. Indian Missions and Posts abroad repatriated 214 Indian nationals on Government cost.

During the year, approximately 1,584 cases of Indian nationals arrested in foreign countries had conic to the notice of the Ministry. All possible consular assistance was rendered to them and in some cases their release and return to India was facilitated.

Four hundred and five cases of death of foreign nationals in India were also handled. About 972 cases of death compensation in respect of Indian nationals (tied abroad were processed. One lakh fourteen thousand four hundred eighty documents received from the public for submission to foreign authorities were attested/authenticated by the CPV Division.

Administration And Organization
SHRI Madhavsinh Solanki assumed charge as Minister for External Affairs on Jun 21, 1991 following change in the Government at the Centre. Shri Eduardo Faleiro assumed charge as Minister of State for External Affairs also on 21 June 1991. Earlier, Shri Digvijay Singh demitted charge as Deputy Minister for External Affairs on 21 June 1991.

Shri J N Dixit assumed charge as Foreign Secretary on 1 December 1991. He took over from Shri Muchkund Dubey who retired on 30 November 1991. Shri J R Hiremath relinquished the charge of the office of Special Envoy of Prime Minister to Africa on 14 November 1991 on expiry of his term.

Following internal disturbances in Somalia India's Mission in Mogadiscio was temporarily closed on 8 January 1991.

The Ministry now has 139 Resident Missions/Posts abroad manned by officials from India. In keeping with the economic austerity measures being undertaken by the Government of India, the Ministry is committed to meeting the requirements of the new Missions being opened in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union) as well as in sonic other countries within the existing budgetary provisions and existing personnel strength as far as possible by reducing expenditure and posts in other Missions.

The total sanctioned strength of the IFS and IFS(B) at Headquarters and Indian Missions/Posts abroad is 3409. This includes certain posts borne oil th e budget of Ministry of Commerce but excludes posts held in abeyance ex-cadered. The cadrewise strength is at Appendix IX. The list of officers in this Ministry qualified in various foreign languages is at Appendix X.

On account of a freeze owing to budgetary constraints, fresh proposals for the acquisition of properties and commencement of construction were not taken up till recently. However, construction activity on ongoing projects continued . The Chancery-cum-residential complex at Lagos was completed and occupied.

The construction of an office-cum-residential block in New York for the Permanent Mission of India to the UN is at an advanced stage. The Chancery- cum-residential building for CGI, Dubai has been functionally completed and the offices occupied in December 1991. The Chancery-cum-residential building at Kuala Lumpur is expected to be completed in the first half of 1992. The new building at Kuwait suffered a setback due to the Gulf War during which the building sustained some damage. Repair work has been started and the building is expected to be ready for occupation by mid 1992.

The construction of Embassy complexes at Riyadh, Kathmandu and Abu Dhabi and a residential block at Islamabad are at an advanced stage of planning. Tenders for the construction of the Indira Gandhi Cultural Centre at Mauritius are due to be floated soon. In India, the construction of buildings for the Regional Passport Offices in Cochin and Calicut is in progress and the construction of the Foreign Service Training Institute in New Delhi and the Regional Office of the ICCR at Calcutta are at advanced stages of planning.

Administrative inspections of the Indian Missions at Kathmandu, Windhoek, Abidjan, Dakar, Accra, Prague, Sofia, Budapest, Thimpu, Mexico,- Kingston, Georgetown and Port of Spain were conducted during the year with a view to reviewing and improving the functioning of and working conditions in these Missions.

Efforts continued to streamline and simplify procedures in several areas and to upgrade the quality of office equipment. Work in several areas of the Ministry and various Missions is being computerised. Proposals have been made to decentralise and to delegate decision-making powers to Missions abroad on various administrative matters.

Foreign Service Training Institute
During the year under review, the Foreign Service Training Institute re- designed and restructured the existing training curricula for the IFS Probationers in tune with the evolving international realities and the current economic and commercial priorities of the Government. In order to enhance the capabilities of the trainees in major foreign languages, the FSTI introduced during the year language classes in French for IFS Probationers and in spoken Arabic for newly recruited Assistants. The Basic Professional Course meant for IFS(B) personnel being posted abroad was rehashed and retooled with more stress on finance, accounts and cash-book management. The computer Courses were made hands-on oriented so that the participants become familiar with real life situation from the very first day. The Refresher Course for Commercial Representatives was modified to help acquaint the CRs with the new monetary, fiscal, commercial and industrial policies of the Government and their implications for enhancing India's export, attracting foreign investment and facilitating technology transfer.

The FSTI organized the following training programmes during the year:
(i) Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for IFS Probationers (1990 and 1991 batches)-2 courses;
(ii) Orientation Programme for Spouses-1 course;
(iii) Refresher Course for Commercial Representatives-1 course (to be held in March 1992);
(iv) Familiarization Programme for Resident Foreign Diplomats-1 course (to be conducted in February 1992);
(v) Orientation Programme for Central Trade Service officers-1 course;
(vi) Basic Professional Course for IFS(B) Personnel being posted abroad-5 courses;
(vii) Induction course for Assistants-1 course;
(viii) Computer Courses-10 courses;
(ix) French Language Course for IFS (Probationers)-1 course; and
(x) Arabic Language Course for Assistants-1 course.

The year-long Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for 12 IFS Probationers of the 1990 batch consisted of 22 modules covering the following areas: International Relations; International Economic Relations; Multilateral Diplomacy; International Law; Cultural Diplomacy; Diplomatic Practice and Protocol; Representational Skills; Hindi; Administration/Establishment/Finance and Accounts; Commercial Work and International Marketing; Parliamentary Processes and Procedures; External Publicity; Indian Foreign Policy and National Security Isues; Consular Work; Overseas Indians; Effective Communication; and Typing and Driving. The Institute also organized a comprehensive Bharat Darshan-cum-Study Tour and District Training Programme for the IFS Probationers (1990 Batch) during the summer months. Young diplomats from Botswana, the Maldives and Vietnam also attended a part of this Programme.

The Programme for the IFS Probationers of the 1991 batch commenced on Dec 23, 1991 and will continue till December 1992. As in the past, a number of young diplomats from friendly countries attended this Programme from January to March 1992.

As part of FSTI's ongoing Programme, a total of 185 persons to be posted abroad attended the basic Professional Course which covered all aspects of functioning in Missions abroad. In collaboration with the BPC, short courses o n Computer Appreciation, Word Processing and Data base Management were organized so as to enable the participants familiarize themselves with modern office management tools and techniques.

Under the UNDP Project No. IND/90/017, four IFS officers were sent for higher learning and training to the following Institutes:

(i) MIPP Programme - Johns Hopkins University, the USA;
(ii) M.A. Degree Course in International Relations - Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the USA;
(iii) Diplomatic Associates Programme - Georgetown University, the USA; and
(iv) Mid Career MPA - Harvard University, the USA.

Also under the same project, indents were placed with the UNDP for purchase of a state-of-the-art computer assisted audio-visual equipment for the Language Laboratory to be set up, and softwares for setting up a Self Access Pair Learning (SAPL) Language booth.

The FSTI continued to maintain contacts with other training institutes both in India and abroad. As a part of this ongoing process, the Dean of the Instit ute visited various institutions in Geneva, London, Washington, Boston and New York in July-August 1991 under grants made available through the UNDP Project No. IND/90/017.

As a part of its publication programme, the FSTI brought out a written symposium entitled "The Head of Mission". In addition, the FSTI also brought out the following background materials for its trainees:

(i) Fifth Refresher Course for Commercial Representatives;
(ii) Computer Appreciation Programme for Senior Officers;
(iii) Basic Data Management Course;
(iv) Introduction to Passport, Consular & Visa work in Missions;
(v) Fifth Orientation Programme for spouses;
(vi) Programme on Crisis Management;
(vii) Basic Professional Course: A Handout; and
(viii) Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for entrants to the Indian Foreign Service.
Use Of Hindi In Official Work
The Ministry of External Affairs is charged with the dual responsibility of implementation of official language policy of the Union of India at Headqarters, Regional Passport Offices located in India and Indian Missions/ Posts abroad and propagation of Hindi abroad. The aforesaid work is accomplished by the Hindi Section of the Ministry. In addition, Hindi Section also caters to the entire translation work in the Ministry from English to Hindi and vice-versa.

A Hindi Advisory Committee is working in the Ministry under the chairmanship of Minister for External Affairs to render advice and guidance to the Ministry in the field of implementation of Official Language Policy and allied matters. An Official Language Implementation Committee headed by JS(AD) is also working to oversee the progress in the progressive use of Hindi in the official work.

During the year, Ministry continued with various schemes of progressive use of Hindi at headquarters as well as at its various Passport Offices. Workshops for those who have attained working knowledge of Hindi were organized with a view to removing their hesitation in doing their official work in Hindi. In pursuance of the provisions of official language rules, PE Section of the Minis try has been nominated for doing its entire work in Hindi.

English typists were nominated for Hindi typing training and officers not possessing working knowledge of Hindi were also sent for Hindi training. In compliance of the Department of Official Language's instructions Hindi week was observed and various competitions were organized at the Headquarters, in some of the Indian Missions abroad and also in some of the Passport Offices located in India. Special Consultation Cell was set up at Akbar Bhavan during the week to remove the problems faced by the employees intending to do their official work in Hindi. On this occasion an appeal from the Minister for External Affairs was issued to all officers and employees requesting them to do their maximum work in Hindi. JS(AD) also took an active part in the organization of Hindi Week and. held a meeting of officers with a view to request them to encourage the use of Hindi. In addition, High Commission of India, Dhaka, Embassy of India, Tokyo, Embassy of India, Paramaribo and Passport Offices situated at Bhopal, Bareilly, Lucknow, Ahmedabad and Delhi have celebrated Hindi Week/Day and organized various competitions with a view to create suitable atmosphere for use of Hindi in the official work.

This year too the Ministry continued with a Rajbhasha running shield scheme for its Regional Passport Offices located in India to encourage them to do their maximum work in Hindi. As a result Passport Offices in Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Bareilly, Lucknow and Delhi gave a good account of themselves in this field.

In discharge of its obligation regarding propagation of Hindi abroad, the Ministry processed the demands received from the Governmental and Non- Governmental bodies and individuals engaged in the propagation of Hind abroad and sent the required Hindi teaching aid material, Hindi typewriters, etc to them through Indian Missions abroad free of cost. In addition, the Ministry donated kits of Hindi teaching aid material to a large number of Universities/ Institutions teaching Hindi abroad.

During the year, Indian Missions were requested to further improve the work of propagation of Hindi in the countries of their accreditation. Embassy of India, Seoul organized debates in the Hangcook University and the foreign Participants were suitably awarded. Hindi classes for children continued to be held in the Missions abroad and this scheme produced good results.

The aforesaid efforts have resulted in an atmosphere conducive to the use of Hindi in official work at headquarters, Indian Missions abroad and Passport Offices located in India.
Cultural Relations
The Indian Council for Cultural Relations was established in 1950 to foster and strengthen the cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries. The Council continued to work towards these objectives steadily during 1991-92 by further strengthening and expanding its activities through its various Wings like publications, incoming and outgoing cultural troupes, incoming and outgoing distinguished visitors, incoming and outgoing exhibitions, foreign students, cultural centres abroad, etc. While maintaining the traditional and historical ties with all countries in the field of culture and education, the Council continued to make special efforts to strengthen its interaction and projection of culture in Asia, Africa and Latin America with particular emphasis on neighbouring countries. Among the highlights of this year's activities, the Council, as part of the Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Centenary Celebrations, organized an International Seminar on Sufism in New Delhi in November 1991. The participants in the Seminar included about 30 delegates from 18 countries and over 50 participants from India. The foreign delegates came from Afghanistan, France, Pakistan, Iraq, th e UK, Russia, Bangladesh, Iran, Turkey, Japan, Malaysia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, the USA, Nepal, Thailand, Italy and the Sudan. Fifty papers were presented on the three major themes: "History and Philosophy of Sufism", "Contemporary Relevance of Sufism" and "Sufism and the Arts". A unique Exhibition of Calligraphy and Manuscripts pertaining to Sufism was arranged on the occasion in collaboration with the National Museum, New Delhi. A publication entitled `The Rubiyat of Sarmad' containing select qatrains of the Sufi Saint and Poet, Sarmad, with Maulana Abul Kalam Azad's essay `Sarmad Shaheed' rendered into English, was released on the occasion. The book, with a special Foreward by the Vice President, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, is being published in Urdu as well.

As part of the Seminar, the ICCR organized performing arts events based on Sufi music, literature and poetry. Baul songs, Sufiana Kalam, Tarana, Qawwali, the musical `Sulagde Darya' based on Bulle Shah's verses, Lallan Geeti from Bangladesh and dances of the Whirling Dervishes from Turkey were presented on the occasion.

It was the first time ever that an International Seminar on Sufism on such a broad scale had been organized in India. The Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for 1989 was awarded to President Robert Gabriel Mugabe of Zimbabwe at a function held on Nov 14, 1991 at Rashtrapati Bhawan. The President, Shri R Venkataraman, presented the Award in the presence of the Vice President, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao and a large number of high dignitaries.

The Jury for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award, chaired by the Vice President, announced its decision to confer the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for 1990 on Dr Helmut Kohl, Federal Chancellor of Germany. During the year, a 55-member ballet group led by the renowned Bolshoi Ballet Soloist V Gordeev and a 22-member music group led by popular singer, V Leontiev, from Russia visited India on the occasion of the 20th Anniversary of Indo-USSR Treaty for Peace, Friendship and Cooperation. As a part of the Swedish Cultural Manifestation in India, a composite group of Swedish dance and music visited India during December 1991 and performed in Delhi, Ahmedabad, Bombay, Calcutta and Imphal. In August 1991, the prestigious dance and music group `Amandla' of the African National Congress visited India and performed in Delhi, Calcutta and Bombay.

The Council played its part in observing the Bicentennial of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by sponsoring visit and performances by two quartets from Austria, two Chamber Orchestras from Germany and the noted Pianist Kjell Baekkelund from Norway.

As a part of the "Switzerland in India", two groups of BRYNOSPOERRI RETO WEBER DUI and KURT HESS/SUE LOH visited India to give performances.

Apart from this, cultural groups from Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, France, Germany and Portugal were invited by the Council for performances in Delhi and other cities of India. In connection with the visit of foreign and o ther dignitaries, the Council organized six performances by Indian artists in Delhi.

The Council collaborated with the Centre for Spanish Studies of Jawaharlal Nehru University in organizing the Second International Conference on 20th Century Hispanism in November 1991 in New Delhi. A one-day colloquium on Victoria Ocampo, the Argentinian poetess, and her interaction with Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore was held on this occasion. The Council invited eminent and distinguished scholars from Latin America and the Philippines in addition t o several Indian scholars.

The Council collaborated with the National Centre for Performing Arts, Bombay, in organizing a 7-day Seminar on the subject `Actor at Work' in November 1991.

In 1989, the Council started conducting an essay competition to coincide with the centenary year of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. The second essay competition for 1990 on `The Philosophy of Humanism as expressed in the Holy Quran' was conducted in English, Hindi and Urdu. The competition was open to the nationals of ail SAARC countries. The Council received a total of 54 entries in English, 39 in Hindi and 25 in Urdu.

The Council was entrusted by the Department of Culture, Ministry of Human Resource Development, with the presentation of the entire performing arts component of the Festival of India in Germany, which was by far the single largest component of the Festival. A special Selection Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri H Y Sharada Prasad was set-up. The conceptualisation, selection and presentation of the Performing Arts Section involved painstaking efforts over a one year period. The Festival was inaugurated in Bonn on 7 September 1991 by the Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, and the Federal Chancellor of Germany, Dr Helmut Kohl. About 150 artists, in 16 groups, participated in the inaugural phase of the Festival. Four classical gr oups were part of "Leela", the inaugural presentation. Twelve folk groups from different States of India participated in "Ranjani", the outdoor presentation h eld in squares and market places in eight cities of Germany. These and subsequent performing arts events have received an overwhelmingly Warm response and positive acclaim from the public and in the electronic and print media.

Three groups, i.e. puppet, chhau and kathakali were sent between October and December 1991 under the Indian Traditional Theatre & Puppet Series. The closing phase of the Festival of India in Germany in February and March 1992 include a joint theatre production where Girish Karnad's 'Nagamandala', translated into German, is being presented by the Leipzig Theatre Company directed by Vijaya Mehta. The premier will be followed by a Seminar on theatre with the participants of Indian and German theatre experts, directors and critics.

There will be a major presentation of Indian classical music both Carnatic and Hindustani and of classical dance. Even before the Festival was formally inaugurated, the Council participated in several curtain raising events in Berlin including the Indian Music Village Project, special events on Independence Day (August 1991) and the Popular Music Festival.

Taken as whole, the performing arts events of the Festival of India in Germany have generated tremendous goodwill and interest, and will now be followed up with new series of collaborated projects through ICCR's Cultural Centre in Berlin.

Apart from the Festival of India groups, the Council sponsored over 85 performing arts groups during the year for participation in important international festivals and to give performances at the invitation of foreign Governments and private institutions. The Council participated in the Limasol Festival in Cyprus, the Manila International Festival of Dance Academics, the Cerventino Festival in Mexico, the International Ramayana Festival in Thailand, the April Spring Friendship Art Festival in Pyongyang (DPRK), the Alma-Ata Festival in Kazakhstan, the Festival of Experimental Theatre in Cairo, the Autumn Festival of the University of Witwatersand in Johannesburg, the International Puppet Festival in Bilbao (Spain), the Carthage Festival in Tunisia and others.

At the request of the Mauritian Government, the Council sent a delegation of eminent scholars, led by Mohd. Shafi Qureshi, Governor of Bihar, to participate in the World Urdu Conference in Mauritius in December 1991. Urdu books, dictionaries and typewriters from India were presented during the Conference. An exhibition on Urdu calligraphy together with a calligrapher to conduct master classes was also sent on the occasion of the Conference. Renowned ghazal singer, Talat Aziz, participated in the cultural events held during the Conference.

The ICCR in collaboration with the Government of Egypt and the Embassy of India in Cairo organized a major Seminar in Cairo on "Historical and Cultural Relations between Egypt and India through the Ages", A high-level delegation of scholars, academicians and writers, led by Dr Najma Heptulla, Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, participated in this event.

Similarly, in Ankara (Turkey) a Symposium on "Cross-Cultural Influences on Indo-Turkish Relations" was organized by the Council in collaboration with the Government of Turkey and the Embassy of India in Ankara to commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the Indo-Turkish Cultural Agreement signed during the visit of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to that country in 1951.

These events in Cairo and Ankara were the first of their kind ever to be held. The resultant interaction between the intellectuals of India and these countries have had a positive resonance and has created the environment for establishing institutional linkages and continuing the exchanges further. Alre ady with Egypt, it has been decided to bring out a joint publication on the result s of the Seminar.

As in the past, the Council under its Distinguished Visitors Programme se nt out and received scholars, writers, intellectuals, academicians and creative individuals from different walks of life during 1991-92. Under the Outgoing Visitors Programme, the ICCR sent out 77 persons. Out of this, 20 were sent to Asia, 18 to Africa, 3 to Australia, 1 to Latin America, 3 to USA and 32 to European countries. Eight Scholars were sent to Mauritius to participate in th e Second World Marathi Conference and a 3-Member Delegation of the Association of Writers & Illustrators for Children was sent to Italy to partici pate in the Children's Book Fair at Bologna.

Under its Incoming Visitors Programme, the Council received a total number of 100 visitors. Out of this, 53 persons were from Asia, 15 from Africa , 1 from Australia, 3 from USA, 9 from Latin America and 19 from European countries. This include the visits of Dr Raymond Ranjeva, Judge of the International Court of Justice, and Mrs Ranjeva from Madagascar, Dr Haris Silajdzic, Minister for International Cooperation of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and his wife from Yugoslavia, Princess Wizdan Ali from Jordan, Mr Mir Hussain Musavi, the former Prime Minister of Iran, Dr Daisaku Ikada of Japan, Dr Jose V Abveva, President of the University of Phillippines, Mr Justice Ismail Mahomed, Judge of the Supreme Court of South Africa, Fatima Meer (biographer of Dr Nelson Mandela) from South Africa and Dr Jairam Reddy, Vice Chancellor, University of Durban, West Ville.

During the year, the Council sent abroad 12 exhibitions of contem- porary arts and traditional Arts and crafts and provided travel grants for 16 artistes/commissioners. During the year 5 exhibitions of contemporary art/crafts were received from abroad for display in India and two foreign commissioners were accorded local hospitality.

Some of the important exhibitions sent abroad were on small sculpture (curated by Nagji Patel) to Namibia and Zimbabwe, graphics by Bimal Das to Egypt, cartoons by Sudhir Dar and Abu Abraham to Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Turkey, an exhibition on the life and works of Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore to China and Egypt, separate exhibitions on contemporary Indian art and Indian handicrafts to Cuba, contemporary paintings to Sri Lanka, and a major exhibition of contemporary art, curated by Jogen Choudhry, to Bangladesh.

An exhibition of 29 original works by Rabindranath Tagore, together with a photographic exhibition on the life of Tagore, prepared in collaboration with Rabindra Bharati University, Calcutta was sent to Beijing and Cairo. The Vice Chancellor of Rabindra Bharati University visited the two places on the occasio n of the exhibition and gave talks on Gurudev Tagore. In China, the exhibition was also accompanied by a specialty choreographed production of Tagore's dance drama "Tasher Desh", done by Manjushree Chaki Sircar of Dancers' Guild, Calcutta. Both in Egypt and China, this exhibition has created a specia l impact and been enthusiastically received.

Equally well-received was the exhibition of contemporary arts sent to Dac ca in January 1992. Some of the incoming exhibitions organised were the exhibitions of Portuguese tiles and paintings, handicrafts/photographs from Cyprus, contemporary clay works from Japan, etc.

The Council is now the nodal agency for administering all the major scholarship schemes for foreign students offered by the Government of India. During 1991-92, the Council, for the first time, administered these schemes ful ly including seeking nominations from foreign Governments, corresponding with over 75 Universities and arranging admissions of the foreign students in the courses requested. Over 1000 scholarships are offered each year by the Government of India to students from over 84 countries. This year, for the fir st time, the utilisation rate of the scholarships crossed the 50% mark and went as high as 60%. Payment of scholarships at a substantially enhanced rates has bee n fully implemented during the year. In order to strengthen the office of the Foreign Students Advisers in different Universities, the Sumptuary Allowances at enhanced rates has also been paid to the Advisers. The details of each scho lar have been computerised by the Computer Wing of the Council in order to further streamline payments and other requirements of foreign scholars.

For the welfare of foreign students, the Council organized two Summer Camps during the year. One Summer Camp was held in North India covering Simla, Kulu and Manali and the second covering Mysore, Ooty and Bangalore in South India. About 75 foreign students from different countries participate d in these two camps. Foreign Student's Day, as in the past, was celebrated by t he Council on 11 November 1991 at the Headquarters and at the Regional Offices and various Indian Universities. Functions were also organized in a large number of Indian Missions abroad. The Council, financially and otherwise, assisted different foreign students organizations and individual foreign schola rs in distress. Regional Offices also organized orientation courses and other get - to-gethers for the benefit of the foreign student.

The Publications Wing of the Council continued to remain active during the period. Important publications released (luring this period were- "Discovery of India" (3rd Abridged Edition), "Vision of India" (Arabic Edition) with the assistance of the Embassy of India in Damascus, and "The Rubiyat of Sarmad".

Two other publication entitled "Science - A Supranational Activity" (Azad Memorial Lecture by Sir Andrew Huxley) and "Jawaharlal Nehru : An Anthology" (Arabic Edition) are under print. The Council participated in the International Book Fairs in Moscow and Frankfurt through the National Book Trust. The council continued to publish six quarterly journals: `Indian Horizons' and `Africa Quarterly' in English, `Gagananchal' in Hindi, `Taqafat-ul-Hind' in Arabic, `Rencontre avec l Inde' in French and `Papeles de la India' in Spanish. During the year, the Audio Visual Reference Unit of the Council was further strengthened by adding recordings of 10 Indian performances and 22 performances by foreign groups in U-matic tapes. During the International Seminar on Sufism two short films, namely, `Sufism and the Composite Culture of India' by Saeed Naqvi and `Lamp in the Niche' by Girish Karnad were brought out in a special edition for distribution to all participants.

In collaboration with Doordarshan, a Panel discussion and a special programme on the International Seminar on Sufism as well as interviews by some distinguished visitors were arranged for telecast. With extracts from the Audio Visual material of the Council, requisite media publicity was given to the Nehru Award Ceremony, the Sufism Seminar and World Urdu Conference held in Mauritius to ensure widespread dissemination of these events.

The Library of the Council continued to be used by the scholars interested in all aspects of India's cultural heritage, in the original works of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and on African Studies. The Library added about 1,000 titles to its existing 75,000 volumes during the year. More than 2,000 readers including leading scholars and researchers utilised the library services and ha ve acknowledged the library's contribution in their specialised publications. The Azad Collection which has been given special importance by establishing the Gosh-e-Azad, is now being utilised by large number of scholars. During the year, 60 documents (57 manuscripts and 3 books) from the Azad Collection were laminated and bound as part of a special drive to preserve these rare documents, which include his hand-written manuscripts.

The Council which provides the Secretariat for the Indo-US Sub- Commission continued to coordinate its activities with a wide cross section of Departments/Organizations. The Joint meeting of the Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education & Culture was held on 9 and 10 April 1991 in the USA and from 3 to 5 February 1992 in India.

Meetings of the Indian Panel of the Sub-Commission on Education & Culture were held under the Chairmanship of Shri Ram Niwas Mirdha on 8 July 1991 and 8 January 1992 to deliberate and evolve joint postures on the items under the Joint Media Committee and the Joint Committee on Cultural Heritage and Endeavour.

The Meeting of the Joint Committee on Culture was held on 18 and 19 November 1991 and the meeting of the Joint Media Committee was held of 21 and 22 November 1991 both in New York.

The Council continued to supervise the work of Foreign Cultural Centres in India especially the operation of British Libraries at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Thiruvananthapuram, Hyderabad and Pune. The Council supervised and gave clearance for the activities of Alliance Francaise, Max Muller Bhawan, Japan Cultural Centre and Portugal Cultural Centre. The Council provides administrative support to these foreign centres and also collaborated with them whenever possible in organizing Cultural programmes. The Council was actively involved in completing the administrative work relatin g to closure of House of Soviet Culture in Trivandrum.

The Presentation Unit of the Council arranged to send books on various aspects of Indian culture and handicrafts, musical instruments and art objects totalling approximately Rs 15 lakhs to Indian Missions abroad for presentation to institutions and universities. Reproduction of paintings, art objects, stat ionery items and music cassettes were also sent for various essay competitions organized by Indian Missions abroad. Twenty sets of Indian Musical Instruments were sent to Mauritius for presentation to different organizations for Promotio n of Indian music and dance in Mauritius.

For promoting greater awareness and appreciation of Indian cultural heritage abroad, the Council has established Indian Cultural Centres in Georgetown (Guyana), Jakarta (Indonesia), Moscow (Russia), Port Louis (Mauritius) and Paramaribo (Suriname). During 1991-92, two new Cultural Centres were opened, respectively in Berlin (Germany) and Cairo (Arab Republic of Egypt). The Cairo Centre, named after Maulana Abul Kalam Azad,was augurated by Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, Minister for External Affairs, on 14 January 1992.

The Centres are expected to develop and maintain contacts with a wide cross-sections of local citizens including students, teachers, scholars and cul tural personalities, Universities and allied Institutions. Books, cassettes, video tapes and musical instruments have been sent to these cultural centres separately under various schemes.

The Council also deputes to Universities and other interested institutions abroad visiting Professors for teaching Indology, Indian languages and allied subjects. During the year under review, over 22 academicians were in position in Belgium, France, Finland, Turkey, Bulgaria, Czech & Slovak Federal Republic, Poland, Russia, China, South Korea, Indonesia, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago.

During the year, three advisory panels, viz, that of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and South and South-East Asia have been reconstituted. In addition, the Advisory Panel for Overseas Indians to look after the interests of the Indians abroad as well as to foster better relationship with them has been constituted. Shri Eduardo Faleiro, Minister of State for External Affairs, is the Chairman of all the four panels. There have been two meetings of the Advisory Panel for South and South-East Asia on 23 October and 4 December 1991.

Under the Chairmanship of Shri H Y Sharada Prasad, Vice President of ICCR, the major Advisory Panels of the Council on the performing arts side met during the year. The meeting of the Advisory Panel for Theatre was hold on 3 May 1991 and the meeting of the Advisory Panel for Folk Art and Puppetry was held on 27 June 1991. The Advisory Panel on Music met on 28 February 1992 and the Advisory Panel on Dance met on 3 March 1992.

The Joint Meetings of the ICCR Advisory Panel on Contemporary Arts and Traditional Arts & Crafts were held on 8 August 1991 and 29 January 1992 at Azad Bhawan. These two meetings were charred by Smt. Pupul Jayakar, Vice President of ICCR.

During the year, the General Assembly of the Council met on 24 October 1991 and the Governing Body met twice on 25 April and 24 October 1991. The other statutory body known its Finance Committee had its meeting of] 24 February 1991.

Within India, the Regional Offices of the Council are located at Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Thiruvananthapuram and Madras. During the year, a new Regional Office of the Council was opened in Hyderabad. The Hyderabad Regional Office was inaugurated by the Vice President of India, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, in the presence of the Governor and Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. The Ground Breaking Ceremony of the Calcutta Cultural Complex-cum-Regional Office Project as designed by Shri Charles Correa was performed in August 1991 by the Vice President of India Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma in the presence of the Governor and the Chief Minister of West Bengal. The Regional Offices continued to remain active in promoting the Council's work in their respective areas in India.
Appendix I Division-wise List of Countries
Jan 01, 1991 APPENDIX I Ministry of External Affairs-Division-wise List of Countries


















Burkina Faso












Cape Verde Islands




Central African Republic














United States of America


Equatorial Guinea


(including Bahamas)






















Guinea Bissau




Cote d' Ivoire










People's Republic


of China














Democratic People's


Republic of Korea






Republic of Korea




People's Republic


of Mongolia
























Sao Tome & Principe












Sierra Leone


Czech and Slovak


Federal Republic




South Africa














United Kingdom of Great




and Northern Ireland




































Saudi Arabia




Republic of Yemen




United Arab Emirates
























Antigua & Barbuda






















Germany, Federal Republic of










Costa Rica


Holy See, The






Commonwealth of Dominica




Dominican Republic








El Salvador


























San Marino
































St Christopher and Nevis




St Lucia




St Vincent and the Grenadines


UN Trust Territories


Territories in South Pacific








Trinidad & Tobago














Sri Lanka








Indian Ocean




























League of Arab States














New Caledonia




New Zealand




Papua New Guinea


SADR (Sahrawi Arab




Democratic Republic)


Western Samoa








Society Islands




Solomon Islands







Appendix II Treaties/Conventions/Agreements
   Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India with
other countries in 1991. Sl Title of Convention/ Date of Date of Date on No Treaty/Agreement etc Signature Ratification which Accession entered or into Acceptance force (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) MULTILATERAL Ozone Layer 1 Vienna Convention for the Protection of Mar 18, 1991 18.6.1991 Ozone Layer International Labour Organization 2 Convention concerning Protection against 2.6.1991 8.5.1991 Hazards of poisoning arising from Benzene (Convention No. 136)
3    International Agreement on the Use of  10.5.1991  21.6.1991
INMARSAT Ship Earth Stations within the 
Territorial Sea and Ports 
     International Sugar Agreement 
4    Extension of the International Sugar   30.7.1991   1.1.1991
Agreement 1987 
    United Nations Development Programme 
5    Agreement between India and the United 13.2.1991   25.7.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding 
Project No. IND/91/002-Modernization of the 
Patent Information System (PIS), Nagpur 
6    Agreement between India and the United 25.2.1991   25.2.1991       
Nations Development Programme regarding 
Project No. IND/91/005-Strengthening of 
Fluid Control Research Institute, Palghat 
7    Agreement between India and the United 12.4.1991    12.4.1991         
Nations Development Programme regarding 
Project No. IND/91/010/A/01/11-Improve- 
ment of Working Conditions and Productivity 
in Small Scale Enterprises 
        *This list is not exhaustive.
(1)          (2)         (3)            (4)     (5) 
8   Agreement between India and the United 14.4.91   14.4.1991         
Nations Development Programme regarding 
Project No. IND/90/042-Transfer of Know- 
ledge through Expatriate nationals (TOKEN- 
India) Pb.  II 
9   Agreement between India and the United 19.4.1991  19.4.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/008/-Developrnent and
use of Hybrid Rice Technology (old number

10   Agreement between India and the United  24.7.1991  24.7.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/025/A/101/99-Computer
Integrated Manufacturing

11   Agreement between India and United Nations 29.8.1991   29.8.1991
Development Programme regarding Project
No. IND/91/026-Metals and Plastics Industries
Services and Training Centre, Goa

12   Agreement between India and the United  8.10.1991   8.10.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/007-Upgradation of AIR
Archives with Refurbishing and Optical Disc
Storage Facilities

13   Agreement between India and the United  29.11.1991   29.11.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/040-Leather Sector
14   Agreement between India and the United  13.12.1991  13.12.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/058-Microprocessor
Application Engineering Programme (Phase
15   Agreement between India and the United  13.12.1991   13.12.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/093-Establishment of an
Experimental/Demonstration  Unit for
manufacturing Super-purity Aluminium and
Condensor Foils from it--Feasibility Study 
(1)            (2)      (3)            (4)                 (5)
16 Agreement between the Government of India 20.12.1991 20.12.1991
and the Austrian Federal Government on
Financial Assistance to India
17Protocol on Inland Water Transit and Trade 8.10.1991  8.10.1991
between Government of India  and 
Government of Bangladesh 
18     Convention between the Government of the  27.8.1991 
Republic of India and the Government of the 
People's Republic of Bangladesh for the 
Avoidance of Double Taxation and  the 
Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to 
Taxes on Income 
19     Credit Agreement between the Government of 27.8.1991 27.8.1991
the Republic of Idnia and the Government of
the People's Republic of Bangladesh

20     Memorandum of Understanding between the 13.12.1991 13.12.1991

Department of Space (DOS) of the Republic
of India and the Ministry of Aero-Space India
(MAS) of the People's Republic of China on
Cooperation in the Peaceful Application of 
Outer Space Science and Technology 
21     Consular Convention between the Republic of 13.12.1991
India and the People's Republic of China
            Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
22     Trade and Payments Agreement between the  17.1.1991    1.1.1991
Republic of India and Czech and Slovak
Federal Republic

23     Memorandum of Understanding on Consular 11.11.1991 11.11.1991
Matters between the Government of Islamic 
Republic of Iran and the Republic of India 
(1)             (2)          (3)           (4)      (5) 
24 Memorandum of Understanding between the   11.11.1991   11.11.1991
    Government of the Republic of India, Ministry
of Agricultural Research and Education, and
the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran
for Cooperation in the field of Agricultural
Research and Education 
25 Memorandum of Understanding of the Fifth  11.11.1991  11.11.1991
Session of Joint Ministerial Commission 
between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the
Republic of India 
26 Agreed Minutes of the Committee on   11.11.1991   11.11.1991
Cultural, Consular, Information, Scientific and 
Technical Cooperation 
27 Exchange of Notes between the Government  22.1.1991       22.1.1991
of India and the Government of Japan for
extension of grant of 981 million Yen for the
project for provision of programme production
Equipment for Mass Communication Research
Centre in Jamia Millia  Islamia Central
28 Exchange of Notes between the Government  22.1.1991        22.1.1991
of India and the Government of Japan for 
Extension of 375 million Yen for Expansion of 
Fish-Net making Machine Project  
29 Loan Agreement between the Government of  23.1.1991   23.1.1991  
      India and the Government of Japan for 
Afforestation and Pasture Development 
Project along Indira Gandhi Canal Area 
30  Loan Agreement between the Overseas    23.1.1991      23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India 
for Teesta Canal Hydroelectric Project (II) 
31  Loan Agreement between the Overseas    23.1.1991       23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India 
for Anpara `B' Thermal Power Station 
Construction Project (III) 
32  Loan Agreement between the Overseas   23.1.1991        23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India 
for Power System Improvement and Small 
Hydro Electric Project 
(1)          (2)         (3)             (4)     (5) 
33     Loan Agreement between the Overseas  23.1.1991    23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India 
for Housing Programme for Low and Medium 
Income Households  
34 Loan Agreement between the Overseas   23.1.1991       23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India 
for Small Scale Industries Development 
Programme (II) 
35 Loan Agreement between the Overseas    23.1.1991       23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India 
for Quality Control of Health Technologies 
36 Exchange of Notes between the Government 8.5.1991       8.5.1991
of India and the Government of Japan for 
Extension of the grant of 39,000,000 Yen to 
the National Museum for Import of Photo- 
Documentation Equipment for the year 1991 
37 Exchange of Notes between the Government  29.5.1991   29.5.1991
of India and Overseas Economic Cooperation 
Fund, Japan for Commodity Loan Assistance 
of 20,256 million Yen for the year 1991-92 
38 Loan Agreement between the Overseas   31.5.1991      31.5.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India 
for Emergency Commodity Loan  
39 Notes of exchange between the Government 11.6.1991  1.10.1990 to
of India and the Government of Japan for 
Extension of the Debt Relief Grant Aid of 
Yen 373,050,000 for the period 
40 Exchange of Notes and Loan Agreement  13.6.1991       13.6.1991
between the Government of India and the 
Government of Japan for the Assistance of the 
Indian Project: Small Scale Industries 
Development Programme (III) 
41 Loan Agreement between the Overseas   13.6.1991      13.6.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India 
for Anpara Power Transmission System 
Project (I) 
42 Exchange of Notes between the Government  2.7.1991      2.7.1991
of India and the Government of Japan for 
Extension of the Japanese Giant of Assistance 
of 600 million Yen for increasing food 
production for the year 1991-92 
(1)       (2)                (3)            (4)        (5) 
Democratic People's Republic of 
43 Agreement between the Government of the   8.5.1991      8.5.1991
Republic of India and the Government of 
Democratic People's Republic of Korea on 
Co-operation in the fields of Science and 
44 Protocol  for Educational and Cultural Co- 24.1.1991    24.1.1991
operation between the Government of the 
Republic  of India and the Government of 
Mauritius  for the years 1990-92 
45 Treaty of Trade between the Government of 6.12.1991    6.12.1991
India and His Majesty's Government of Nepal
46 Treaty of Transit between the Government of    6,12.1991  6.12.1991
India and His Majesty's Government of Nepal
47  Protocol of the Treaty of Transit between the  6.12.1991  6.12.1991
Government of India and His Majesty's 
Government of Nepal 
48     Agreement of Cooperation between the    6.12.1991   6.12.1991
Government of India and His Majesty's 
Government of Nepal to control Unauthorised 
49     Agreement on Prohibition on Attack Against  31.12.1991 27.1.1991
Nuclear Installations and Facilities between the 
Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of 
50     Agreement between the Government of tire 29.4.1991  29.4.1991
Republic of India and the Government of the 
Republic of Philippines for Cooperation on 
Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful 
(1)             (2)         (3)            (4)     (5) 
51      Memorandum of Understanding on      8.4.1991         8.4.1991
      Cooperation in the fields of Agriculture, 
Science  and  Technology  between  the 
Government of the Republic of India and the 
Government of the Republic of Philippines 
52 Agreement on Cooperation in Tourism 29.7.1991        29.7.1991
between India and Portugal 
Saudi Arabia 
53      Agreement between the Republic of India and   14.11.1991 
the Kingdom  of Saudi Arabia for Avoidance 
of Double Taxation by Reciprocal Exemption 
of Taxes on Income on the Activities of Air 
Transport Enterprises of the two countries 
54  Agreed Minutes of the third Session of the 14.11.1991  14.11.1991
Indo-Saudi Joint Commission of Economic and 
Technical Cooperation 
United Arab Emirates 
55      Agreement Concerning International Money 1.4.1991  1.4.1991
Order Services from the United Arab Emirates 
to India 
1991 Appendix III Major International Conferences/Meeting/Seminars
Major International Conferences/Meeting/Seminars etc Organized by Inter-
Governmental Organizations at which Government of India was  Represented
in 1991-92.
Sl No Title of Conference               Venue              Date
(1)        (2)                         (3)                 (4) 
1  Seminar on the use of multiround Surveys Bangkok    20 to
, ˙śĆ˙19910524 e ,  
e of multiround Surveys      Bangkok               20 to @@for
Estimating Vital
 Statistics organisated
2  First Research Coordination Meeting of Kuala Lumpur 9 to 13
International Atomic Energy Agency              September 1991
3  TCDC Programming Exercise in  New Delhi 7 to 11 October 1991 
Agricultural Sector 
4  Workshop on Asian Sugar Cane 
Industry                        Islamabad 5 to 9 May 1991
5  FAO/AFMA/AMIS/BULOG Regional Jakarta 20 to 24 August 1991
6  Social Meeting of SAARC Food Security Paro 1 to 2 October 1991
   Reserve Board 
7  Third Session of the SAARC  Colombo 2 to 6 November 1991
   Food Security Board 
8  Tenth Session of the Colombo 2 to 6 November 1991 
Council of Ministers
9  66th Session of the London   10 to 14June 1991 
  International Maritime Organisation Council 
10  16th Extraordinatary Session London 25 October 1991
 of the IMO Council 
11 17th Session of the London 28 October to 8 November 1991
 IMO Assembly
12  67th Session of the IMO Council London 8 November 1991
13  Seminar-cum-Study Tour in the    7 to 12 April 1991
Development of Inland Waterways under
the aegis of ESCAP
14  Third IWT Training of Trainers Bangkok 12 to 28 June 1991
Programme under the aegis of ESCAP. 
15  Regional Seminar on Dredging  Bangkok 11 to 15 November
relatedSediment Transport and                1991
Siltation Problem under the aegis of ESCAP 
16  Thirty Eighth Session of the New York 3 to 28 June 1991
  Governing Council of UNDP 
(1)                  (2)       (3)      (4) 
17 Inter-sessional Meeting of New York 6 to 10 May 1991
the Governing Council of UNDP 
18 Fifth TOKTEN Committee  Manila 14 to 18 November 1991
19 Fifth Meeting of Aid-   Manila  20 to 23 January 1992
     Coordinators (MAC-V) 
20Symposium on Economic Growth, Bombay  3 to 6January 1992 
 Sustainable Human Development of 
 Poverty Alleviation in India 
21 Senior Postal  Ghaziabad 18 November to 14 December 1991
Management Course
22 SAARC Study Tour "New Mail and            23 April to 7 May 1991
Financial Services" organised by Pakistan 
Postal Administration 
23Seminar on "Postal Operations  Colombo 9 June to 21 June 1991
 and Future Challenges" of SAARC Countries 
24    Tenth Meeting of Technical  Kathmandu  11 to 12 June 1991
Committee on Postal Service 
25    Annual Session of CCPS Berne 13 to 26 October 1991 

26ICTP Workshop on Long Range Weather  Trieste  8 to 12 April 1991
27 Ninth Meeting of SAARC Technical Karachi 24 to 25 April 1991
Committee on Meteorology
28 Meeting of Ad-hoc Group of Experts Pasadena  23 to 26 April 1991
 on TOGA Data management and TOGA 
CDROM Project 
29 Agroclimate & Climate Impact Melbourne 22 April to 3 May 1991
 Assessment Programme 
30    Eleventh WMO Congress Geneva  1 to25 May 1991
31    Forty Third Session of E C Geneva   27 May to1 June 1991
32    Symposium on Trupospheric Colorada  3 to 6 June 1991 
 Chemistry of Antarctic Region 
33    WMO Ozonesonde Intercomparison Saskatoon  13 to 24 May 1991 
34    WMO Training Workshop   Wageningen  29 July to 9 August 1991 
35    International Symposium on  Perugia   4 to 9 August 1991
  Geophysical Hazards in Developing Countries 
36    XXth General Assembly on IUGG. Vienna  11 to 13 August 1991 

37Symposium on Methods of Meteorological Toronto 19 to 23 August 1991
Education & Training 
(1)                (2)          (3)       (4) 
38  Meeting of Directors/     Toronto   24 August 1991 
 Principals of RMTCs
39   Meeting of Experts to     Helsinki   26 to 30 August 1991
 Prepare a Review of
 Global Climate System for 1989-91 
40   WMO Technical Conference on  Shanghai   23 to 27 September 1991
 Development of National Meteorological
 Services in Response to users' needs 
41   Workshop on Wind Extraction from Washington  17 to 19 September 1991
 Operational Satellite Data
42   First Session of RA-II Working Tokyo  30 September to 4 October 1991
Group on Planning & Implementation of WWW in
43   WMO/RA-I Training Seminar  Maputo   28 October to 1 November 1991
 on Tropical Cyclone Forecasting

44   First Session of Working Group Geneva  21 to 25 October 1991
on Climate Change Detection
1991 Appendix IV
Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars
Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc Organized by Non-
Governmental Organizations in which Indian experts participated in their
personal capacity with Government assistance in 1991-92.
Sl No     Title of Conference etc          Venue           Date
1    Regional Expert Consultation of Asian     Bangkok    23 to Jul 29,
Network for Food and Nutrition on the                      1991
Progress in Nutrition improvement in Asia 
and Pacific Region 
2    6th Asian Congress of Nutrition organized  Kuala Lampur 16 to 19
 by UNICEF                                                   September
1991 Appendix V Miscellaneous Major International Conferences
Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc in 1991-92, at which
Government of India was represented or in which Indian experts
participated with Government of India's assistance in their personal 
Sl No Title of Conference             Venue             Date          
1  International Congress on Oral Cancer  New Delhi   2 to @
@19911206 Co,  
ress on Oral Cancer            New Delhi               2 to @ 

2  International Symposium on Mechanical   Koto       7 to 10 May 1991 
Alloying (ISMA) 
3  Workshop on Solidstate Amorphisation    Kyoto     11 May 1991        

4  The Royal Society Meeting on Science, Cambridge  8 to  10 July 1991 

Technology and International Security 
5  International Conference on Radar  Beijing  22 to 24 October 1991
6  Meeting of the Royal Academy of                 11 November 1991
7  International Joint Conference  Singapore 18 to 21 November 1991
   on Neural Networks (IJCNN) 
8  Singapore Robotics Festival            Singapore  22 November 1991
9  17th Ministerial Session of the  Helsingor  5 to 8 June 1991 
   World Food Council 
10  Council Session of the International  London 24 to 29 November 1991
    Sugar Organization 
11  116th Session of the International    London 3 to 4 December 1991 
    Wheat Council 
12  Bilateral Meeting for Renewal of   Dhaka 26 to 29 August 1991
    Protocol on IWT and Trade between  
    India and Bangladesh 
13  International Symposium on the     Kobe  17 to 21 June 1991
Mathematical Theory of Networks and 
Systems (MTNS-91) 
Appendix V-A Major Commonwealth Conferences in 1991-92

Major Commonwealth Conferences in 1991-92 in which Government of India was represented.

1 Special Meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on South A frica, London--Feb 16, 1991
2 Meeting of the Commonwealth High Level Appraisal Group, London--10 to 12 June 1991
3 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Harare--16 to 22 October 1991 A-18
Appendix VI Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of NAM

Jan 01, 1991 APPENDIX VI

Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) during 1991-92.
1 15th Meeting of the Health Ministers of Non-Aligned Countries-May 1991
2 Meeting of the Committee of 9 Non-Aligned Countries on Palestine-September 1 991
3 Ministerial Meeting on the eve of 46th General Assembly-September 1991
4 10th Meeting of the Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers in Accra--September 1991
5 NAM News Pool Agency Meeting in Havana-last quarter 1991
Appendix VII Statement showing the number of Fresh and Mis. Appl.
Jan 01, 1991

Statement showing the number of Fresh and Miscellaneous applications received and services granted in each passport office during the year 1991.



Fresh Applications


Miscellaneous Services


Sl No











































































































































Grand Total












Appendix VIII Statement showing the Revenue earned
and Expenditure
Jan 01, 1991


Statement showing the Revenue earned and Expenditure incurred by each
passport office (faring the year 1991.

Sl No












3 vBareilly
























































































Appendix IX Cadre Strength at Headquarters
Jan 01, 1991


Cadre Strength at Headquarters and 139 Missions/Posts abroad during 1991-92
(including posts budgeted by Ministry of Commerce and ending posts held in

Sl No  Cadre/Post     Posts at           Posts at     Total 
                                        Headquarters    Missions abroad
1     Grade I        3                 18                21 
2     Grade II        3                 25               28 
3     Grage III      31                 86               117 
4     Grade IV      31                 78                109 
5     Jr Administrative 
      Grade/Sr Scale   47                187              234 
6     Jr Scale        5                 28                 33 
7     Training Reserve 
      (Prob) Jr Scale                    27              27 
8     Training  Reserve for all Grades   10              10 
9     Leave Reserve                      19              19  
10    Deputation Reserve                 20              20 
1     Grade I         62                  63            125 
2     Grade II/III   171                 153            324 
3     Grade IV      367                 355             722 
4     Grade V/VI    459                 134            593 
5     Grade 11 of 
       Cypher Sub Cadre  81             123            204 
6     Principal Private Secretary 
      Grade of Stenographers Cadre  3       18            21 
7     Grade I of Stenographers Cadre 32        176     208 
     (including the erstwhile Selection Grade) 
8     Grade 11 of Stenographers Cadre    212           177      389 
9     Grade III of Stenographers Cadre   42            77      119 
       Combined Research Cadre          22               2     24 
       Interpreters' Cadre              14             21       35 
       L & T Cadre                                     17      17 
       Ex-Cadre HOMs                                    10      10 
                Total                1678                1731     3409 

Appendix X Foreign Language Chart
Jan 01, 1991


Foreign Language Chart

Sl No

Compulsory Foreign Language

No. of Officers





Bahasa Indonesia




















































































Appendix XI Statement showing the number of appointments
Jan 01, 1991


Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment
and promotion) made in various groups in the Ministry of External Affairs
and reserved vacancies filled by scheduled castes/scheduled tribes
during the year 1991.

Number of 
Vacancies de-reserved due to Number of Number of reserved
non-availability of            Total No.     vacancies     candidates
reserved candidates 
             of vacan-     reserved for         appointed
 Group         filled      SC       ST        SC         ST     SC
 Group  'A'       152       7        6        25         9 
 Group  'B'       167      40       38        31         12     2
 Group  'C'       135      29       26        19          6     3
 Group  'D'        23       5        5         5         4
 (excluding  Sweepers

Appendix XII Revenue Expenditure of the MEA
Jan 01, 1991 
 Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry of External Affairs during the
Financial Year 1991-92. Revised Estimate 1991-92 (In Crores of Rupees) Headquarters 31.43 Missions/Posts abroad 209.25 OTHER ITEMS Contribution to international Organizations 13.21 (Including UN) Central Passport Organization 15.85 Special Diplomatic Expenditure 93.80 Grant-in-Aid to ICCR 13.50 Other Miscellaneous items 12.67 AID TO OTHER COUNTRIES Aid to Bangladesh 2.88 Aid to Bhutan 63.02 Aid to Nepal 14.13 Aid to Sri Lanka 8.25 Aid to Maldives 16.55 Aid to Cambodia 1.50 Aid to other Developing Countries 20.50 ITEC Programmes 13.41 Aid under AFRICA Fund 10.30 Total Revenue Expenditure 540.25 A-25

Appendix XIII Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad
Jan 01, 1991

Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters of the Ministry of External Affairs in 1991-92.

The estimated expenditure on the Headquarters Organization of the Ministry during the Current Financial Year (1991-92) is expected to be Rs 31.43 Crs. which is 5.82% of the total estimated revenue expenditure of this Ministry. Out of this, Rs 9.62 Crs. will be on Sal aries and Wages, Rs 4.11 Crs. on Travel Expenses, Rs 11,53 Crs. on Office Expenses, Rs 3.77 Crs. on Publicity, and Rs 2.00 Crs, on Rent and Maintenance.

The total estimated expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad including India Supply Wings, London and Washington, is expected to be Rs 209.25 Crs. during the Current Fina ncial Year which works out to 38.73% of the total estimated Revenue Expenditure of this Ministry . Out of this, an amount of Rs 76,57 Crs. is for Salaries (including Foreign Allowance) and Wages , Rs 28.10 Crs. for Travel Expenses (Transfer Passages/Home Leave Passages and Local Tours), Rs 45. 61 Crs. for Office Expenses and Rs 57.67 Crs. for Rent, Rates and Taxes as well as for Repa irs and Maintenance of Government owned/rented accommodation in Missions abroad. Avera ge expenditure per Mission abroad (including Publicity) works out to Rs 1.49 Crs.

The remaining 55.45% of the Estimated Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry is be ing incurred on various Aid Programmes for neighbouring and other developing countries includin g ITEC Programmes, Aid under AFRICA Fund, SAARC and SCAAP Programmes, contribution to United Nations Organisation and other international bodies, Passport organization, Hos pitality, Grant-in-Aid to Indian Council of Cultural Relations and on other miscellaneous items.


Appendix XIV International Conferences/Meetings and Functions arranged

International Conferences/Meetings and Functions arranged during the year 1991-92 with the assistance of the Conference Cell, Ministry of External Affair s.

1 SAARC Meeting of Panel of Experts to prepare Plan of Action for Children in the context of South Asian Countries--10 and Apr 11, 1991

2 Indira Gandhi Memorial Lecture-11 April 1991

3 SAARC Meeting of National Coordinators for finalising the Regional Study on Trade Manufacturers and Service-3 to 5 June 1991

4 Meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Afric a-13 and 14 September 1991

5 Meeting of Experts of G-15 Countries on Science & Technology Projects-Gene B ank & Solar Energy-23 to 25 September 1991

6 UN Conference on Environment Development, convened by Department of Bio- Technology-23 to 26 October 1991

7 Indo-EEC Joint Commission Meeting, convened by Ministry of Commerce-13 and 1 4 November 1991

8 Indo-German Joint Commission Meeting, convened by Ministry of Finance-15 Nov ember 1991

Appendix XV VVIPs Visits to India
 VVIPs Visits to India during 1991.
Sl   Heads of State, Heads of Government          Date 
(1)       (2)                                     (3) 
1     H.E. Mr Ion Iliescu,                    Jan 16, 1991 
      President  of Romania 
2     H.E. Mr Maumoon Abdul Gayoom,          25 to  27 January 1991 
      President  of the Republic of Maldives 
      and Mrs Nasreena M A Gayoom 
3     H.E. Dr Richard von Weizsaecker,      28 February to 6 March 1991 
      President of the  Federal Republic 
      of Germany and 
      Mrs Weizsaecker 
4     H.E. Mr Arpad Goncz,                  10 to 15 April 1991 
      President of the  Republic 
      of Hungary and 
      Madame Arpadne Goncz 
5     H.E. Mr Maumoon Abdul Gayoom,          15 and 16 June 1991 
      President of the Republic of Maldives 
      and Mrs Nasreena M A Gayoom 
6     H.E. My Anerood Jugnauth,             23 to 26 July 1991 
      Prime Minister of Mauritius 
      and Mrs Sarojini Jugnauth 
7     H.E. Mr Islam A Karimov               17  to 19 August 1991 
      President of the Uzbek SSR and 
      Mrs Tatyana A Karimova 
8     H.E. Mr Maumoon Abdul Gayoom,         18  to 20 August 1991 
      President of the Republic of Maldives 
      and Mrs Nasreena M A Gayoom 
9     H.M. Jigme Singye Wangchuck,          9 to  12 September 1991 
      King of Bhutan 
10    H.E. Mr Hun Sen,                      3  to 5 October 1991 
      Prime Minister of Cambodia and 
      Mrs Bun Sam Hieng 
11    H.E. Mr Robert G Mugabe,              14 to 16 November 1991 
      President of the Republic 
      of Zimbabwe 

12     H.E. Mr G P Koirala,                5 to 10 December 1991 

       Prime Minister of Nepal 
13     H.E. Mr Li Peng,                   11 to 16 December 1991 

       Premier of the State Council of 
       the People's Republic of China 
       and Madame Zhu Lin 
       Deputy Prime Ministers, Foreign Ministers 
       and others 
1    Prince Claus and Crown Prince        11 to 21 January 1991 

     Willem Alexander of the 
2    H.E. Mr Pertti Paasio,               12 to 14 January 1991 

     Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
     Finland and Mrs Passio 
3    H.E. Mr Abdul Wakil,                7 to 9 February 1991 

     Foreign Minister of Afghanistan 
4    H.E. Mr Gerard Collins, TD          20 to 25 February 1991 
     Foreign Minister of Ireland 
     and Mrs Hilary Collins 
5    H.E. Mr Shahryar Khan,              4 to 7 April 1991 

     Foreign Secretary of Islamic 
     Republic of Pakistan 
6    H.E. Mr Li Jong Ok,                   7 to 11 May 1991 

     Vice-President of the Democratic 
     People's Republic of Korea 
7    H.E. Dr Reinaldo Figueredo Planchart,   10 June 1991 

     Special Envoy of the President 
     of Venezuela 
8    H.E. Dr Nathan M Shamuyarira,          5 to 7 July 1991 

     Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
     Republic of Zimbabwe 
9    H.E. Mwalimu Julius K Nyerere,       14 to 16 July 1991 

     Former President of United Republic 
     of Tanzania 
10   H.E Mr Harold Herat,                 27 to 31 July 1991 

     Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
     Sri Lanka 
11   H.E. Dr Boutros Boutros Ghali,      11 to 17 August 1991 

     Deputy Prime Minister for Foreign 
     Relations of Arab Republic of 
(1)               (2)                        (3) 
12    H.E. Mr Shahryar Khan,             18 to 21 August  1991 
      Foreign Secretary of Pakistan 
      as Special Envoy 
13     H.E. Mr A S M Mostafizur Rahman,   26 to 29 August 1991 
       Minister for Foreign Affairs of 
       People's Republic of Bangladesh 
       and Begum Sufia Rahman 
14     H.E. Mr Rene Felber,               4 to 13 October 1991 
       Minister of Foreign Affairs and 
       Vice-President of Switzerland 
       and Mrs Luce Felber 
15     H.E. Mr Adrian Nastase,            29 October to 1 November 1991  
       Minister of Foreign Affairs                               
       of Romania 
16     H.E. Mr Fathulla Jameel,          19 to 22 November  1991 
       Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
       the Republic of Maldives 
17     H.E. Mr Wong Kan Seng,             5 to 8 December 1991 
       Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
       Singapore and Mrs Seng 
18     H.E. Mr Isodoro P Malmierca,      16 to 27 December 1991 
       Minister of Foreign Affairs of 
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