java script is required for this page
Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1992-93

India's External Relations : An overview 1


1. India's Neighbours 15
2. South-East Asia and the Pacific 27
3. East Asia 34
4. Central Asia 41
5. West Asia and North Africa 43
6. Africa (South of the Sahara) 54
7. Europe 60
Eastern Europe 60
Western Europe 71
8. The Americas 75
North America 75
Central and South America and the Caribbean 80
9. United Nations and International Conferences 83
Political Issues 83
Disarmament Issues 87
Economic Issues 89
Social and Humanitarian Issues 92
Budgetary and administrative Issues 93
Election/Appointments 93
Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement 93
Commonwealth 93
Conferences 94
International Law: Development and Activities 95
10. Foreign Economic Relations 98
11. Policy Planning and Research 102
12.External Publicity 104
13. Protocol 108
14.Passport and Consular Services and Indians Overseas 110
15.Administration and Organization 115
16.Foreign Service Training Institute 117
17.Implementation of Official Language Policy and Propagation of Hindi Abroad119
18. Cultural Relations 122
India's External Relations An Overview

The functioning of the Minis" of External Affairs during the year 1992-93 should be evaluated in the context of the additional dimensions of changes and uncertainties which characterised international relations during this period, as well as certain trends of domestic turmoil and tension. India's foreign policy, therefore, had to acquire the necessary flexibility and responsiveness to meet the situation. The year under review shows that the Ministry under the guidance of the higher leadership in the Government has been able to meet this objective to a satisfactory extent despite external pressures and internal constraints.

Basic considerations which governed the structuring of our foreign policy and its implementation are: preservation of India's national identity as a plural, democratic and secular society, India's territorial integrity, and well-being of our people. This last objective involved the refashioning of our domestic economic arrangements and its appropriate projection abroad so that the necessary external inputs could be ensured for sustaining developmental activities and modernisation of our economy. These factors governing our foreign policy were subject to pressures generated by external trends and forces characterising the international situation. While there were growing trends of democracy in the international community and a greater demand for economic fairplay and respect for human rights, there was also an upsurge of centrifugal ethno-religious forces, secessionist movements, assertion of subnational identities threatening composite pluralistic societies. Our foreign policy had to and has to cope with these challenges while ensuring our abiding interests in maintaining our national identity and ensuring our economic development.

India adjusted to the rapidly changing external scenario with dynamism and a practical approach. Though in the aftermath of the cold war the world was perceived as unipolar with the United States becoming the most influential politico-military power, India perceived that the international situation cannot be defined in uni-dimensional terms. There were and there are other emerging centres of influence which would have long term influence on and implications for international relations. An economically resurgent China, - technologically and economically dominant Japan and Germany, a politically assertive Europe integrating itself in socio-economic terms were and are to be acknowledged as potent influences in the conduct of 'foreign relations. The emergence of regional cooperation arrangements in the ASEAN and Asia Pacific region and in South and North America were other factors to be reckoned with. The emerging world, therefore, is multipolar and Indian foreign policy aimed at establishing equations with these emerging centres of influence in international relations. The balance held by the two superpowers is gone. The multiplicity of new nations and the role of Russia in the changed context requires bilateral exchanges and the forging of new associations with emerging nations.

India's relations with its immediate neighbours in South Asia are naturally a matter of highest priority. India made a conscious and purposive effort to improve bilateral relations and multilateral cooperation with its neighbours. Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao, met Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif of Pakistan five times at different international conferences. Foreign Secretary level talks were held as scheduled throughout the period under review. Additional Confidence Building Measures are being put in place gradually. Attempts continued for establishing a working good-neighbourly relationship with Pakistan. In overall terms, however, there has been a distinct negative trend in Pakistan's attitude towards improving Indo-Pak relations. Unless there is a change in Pakistan's behaviour, an adversarial and tense interaction could be the prospect in the foreseeable future. The reason, in India's perception, is Pakistan's continuing domestic political compulsions to interfere in Kashmir and Punjab, Pakistan's perceptions about India's vulnerabilities of which it attempts to take advantage and Pakistan's own internal crisis of identity which necessitates the power structure of Pakistan nurturing an antagonistic relationship with India on the basis of communal and extremist religious arguments. While acknowledging these prospects realistically, India's endeavour remains to prevent the tense relationship from crossing thresholds which could drift towards military confrontation. India's long term interest is in having a good- neighbourly and normal relationship with Pakistan.

Relations with Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives have steadily improved and the content of bilateral relations has increased. There is a qualitative and positive change in our relations with Nepal, which acquired economic substance due to the discussions held between the Prime Minister of Nepal and Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao, at Delhi and Kathmandu. Our commitment to deepening our close links with Bhutan was expressed through decisions on cooperation in Bhutan's Seventh Five Year Plan (1992-97) and during the King of Bhutan's State visit to India in January 1993. With Nepal, an ambitious agenda of cooperation in developing water resources and in strengthening our many bonds was agreed during Prime Minister Shri Narasimha Rao's visit to Nepal in October 1992. Discussions held by our Prime Minister Shri Rao with President Premadasa in Colombo in late 1991 and during Mr Premadasa's visit to India in January 1993 marked a constructive orientation in relations with Sri Lanka. There have been high level visits between these countries and India which contributed substantially to this process. Discussions between Prime Minister Narasimha Rao and President Gayoom also structured bilateral relations between India and Maldives on positive lines.

Relations with Bangladesh showed improvement, the highlight of the year was Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia's visit to India in May, 1992. The long standing problem related to the Tin Bigha corridor was resolved with India handing over Tin Bigha to Bangladesh and satisfactory arrangements being made for Bangladesh's access to the Tin Bigha area through a leased corridor. Issues relating to the sharing of water resources, the return of the Chakma refugees were the subject matter of detailed discussions. Though they remain unresolved, a willingness to reason together on these issues instead of taking rigid political stances characterised exchanges between the two countries.

The demolition of the disputed structure in Ayodhya and its aftermath has affected bilateral relations with India on the one hand and Pakistan and Bangladesh on the other. The assertively intrusive pronouncements made by the leaders of these two countries and the resolutions passed in the National Legislatures of these two countries on developments in India have certainly generated additional tensions. Establishing a pattern of durable friendly relations and creating an atmosphere of peace and stability in the South Asian region, therefore, remains a difficult task but working for the objectives of friendship, peace and stability with patience remains a commitment of the Government of India not only because this is desirable but also because it is necessary and imperative for stability and progress of the South Asian region.

India's relations with the United States have become closer and more substantial. Beginning with the meeting between Prime Minister Narasimha Rao and President George Bush in New York in January 1992 during the Security Council Summit, a series of high level contacts continued throughout the period under review. These contacts covered political, strategic, economic and cultural activities in consequence of which Indo-US cooperation in these spheres have increased in range and content.

India has restructured its relations with all the countries which constituted the former Soviet Union. High level exchanges took place between India and the Russian Federation culminating in President Yeltsin's visit to India in January 1993 during which ten bilateral agreements for cooperation were signed covering the entire spectrum of political, economic, technological and defence relations. The visit, while underlining the continuity in IndoRussian relations, also signified India establishing a new pattern of relations with the Russian Federation, the latter emphasising that the relationship is with a new political entity and not merely a continuum from the relationship with the former Soviet Union.

The year was characterised by exchange of visits between the top political leaders of various Republics which constituted the former Soviet Union. A series of bilateral agreements of cooperation in different fields have been put in place with several of these Republics. India has established direct diplomatic relations with all the Central Asian Republics and European Republics which formerly were in the Soviet Union. Foundations have been laid for long term and substantive relations with all these Republics keeping in mind mutual requirements and complimentarities. Conscious of the special cultural and historical linkages with the Central Asian region, India has opened Embassies in Alma Ata in Kazhakhstan and Tashkent in Uzbekistan. The Ministry has also decided to open a Mission in Dushanbe in Tajikistan. These Missions have concurrent accreditations to cover other countries in Central Asia. The majority of leaders, who came to India from areas formerly of the Soviet Union, were from the Central Asian Republics and a number of leaders of the Government of India also visited these Republics.

The politico-economic integration of Europe despite the difficulties being encountered in the process required India to incorporate the factor in its relationship with West European countries. High level contacts were maintained with these countries with Prime Ministerial level exchanges having taken place with UK, Germany, France, Portugal and Spain. Both political and economic relations were strengthened and their long term orientation are being defined in agreements with the European Community collectively and with several European countries individually.

India's relations with China showed steady improvement and were characterised by an increasing number of high level visits and discussions. Prime Minister Li Peng visited India during the period under review; former President R Venkataraman visited China and had extensive discussions with the entire leadership of China. Apart from these, Legislators, Ministers, cultural and technological delegations exchanged visits. Consulates were reopened in Shanghai and Bombay. The Joint Working Group dealing with the boundary question increased the ' frequency of its meetings and tangible progress has been made in implementing mutual confidence building measures and towards reaching an agreement on maintaining peace and tranquillity on the Line of Actual Control. While the resolution of the boundary question will take time, the objective of both sides has been to steadily strengthen bilateral relations and evolving a political atmosphere of mutual trust which would contribute to the solution of the boundary issue. Instead of the annual one round of the bilateral meetings of the Joint Working Group, two rounds (fourth and fifth) of the JWG have already been held during the year and the next round (sixth) will take place during 1993.

Prime Minister Narasimha Rao's visit to Japan in June 1992 and the visit of Prince and Princess Akishino from Japan to India in November 1992, commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and Japan were the highlights of Indo-japanese relations during 1992-93. Indo-japanese political, cultural, economic and technological cooperation showed growth. High level exchanges between Governmental and economic leaders of the two countries gave an impetus to this process. These exchanges with Japan reflected the importance that India attaches to Indo-japanese relations in the context of Japan's significance and influence in regional and international affairs.

Success of the ASEAN as a regional grouping of countries naturally attracted India's attention, given India's own economic reforms. India desired improved relations with individual countries in the ASEAN region and with ASEAN as a collective entity. ASEAN agreed to have sectoral dialogue with India and associated India with the ASEAN in a sectoral framework. This implies India's being able to interact with the ASEAN countries in specific areas of economic and technological activities. Bilateral relations with important ASEAN countries have also increased with possibilities of greater economic interaction between them and India. Beginnings have also been made for cooperation in the fields of defence supplies and consultations on security matters with the initiation of high level visits by our Defence Minister and senior officials of the Ministry and Service Chiefs to the area.

India has shown interest in associating itself with new economic cooperation arrangements which are on the anvil in the Asia Pacific region including countries like Australia, South Korea and Japan. But as these arrangements are still embryonic, final scope for further cooperation with this area is yet to crystallise into future groupings.

India's relations with countries of the Gulf, West Asia and North Africa were maintained on an even keel. An important development was that the misunderstandings about India's policies in some countries towards the Gulf crisis of 1990-91 were removed. Relations were stabilised and upgraded. India's economic relations and the status and well-being of the people of Indian origin functioning in the Gulf countries, West Asia and North Africa stabilised and improved.

India's establishing direct diplomatic relations with Israel was in conformity with the emerging trend in international relations of more and more countries including Arab countries having contacts with Israel. The Chairman of the PLO Mr Yasser Arafat also acknowledged the political realism of the step taken by India. India was invited to become a participant in the Middle East Peace Process and was invited to become a member of all the five working groups discussing different aspects of structuring new agreements on the Middle East-Palestine question. India has been a participant in these proceedings since their inception.

Developments in South Africa, particularly the ongoing discussions between the African National Congress and the regime in Pretoria were a matter Of particular interest and attention to India. India has sent observers to monitor proceedings and discussions for the restoration of democracy and a majority government in South Africa. Indian political figures and officials have been in close touch with the Commonwealth Secretariat and with the African National Congress in furthering the process for the installation of a truly democratic Government in South Africa. Expectation is that such a Government will come into being by the end of 1993. India proposes to gradually increase its cultural, commercial and consular presence in South Africa in tandem with progress being made towards the installation of a democratic Government in that country. India expects to establish full diplomatic relations when a democratic Government comes into power in South Africa.

India maintained its close relationship with African countries and with their leaders. Programmes of economic and technical cooperation have been sustained. However, due to political violence, uncertainties and considerations of economy, the Ministry decided to close down its Missions in Zaire, Somalia and Malawi.

India's bilateral relations with countries of Caribbean and South America were maintained at optimum levels despite limitations of distance and economic factors. India's cooperation with South American countries were particularly significant in the multilateral context as during the period under report the Global Summit Conference on Environment and the various meetings of the G-15 were held in that region.

India was active in various multilateral fora sharing the concern of the international community on important issues and also for ensuring its own national interests which can be affected by the deliberations and decisions of such organisations. Prime Minister Narasimha Rao participated in the Security Council Summit at the end of January 1992. He also participated in the International Economic Conference at Davos and the Non-Aligned Summit at Jakarta. India remained active in the United Nations particularly as a member of the Security Council till the end of 1992, relinquishing the seat on the 1st of January 1993, at the end of India's two-year tenure. Indian forces are participating in UN peace keeping operations in Yugoslavia, Somalia, Cambodia and Mozambique.

The Indian delegation led by Prime Minister Narasimha Rao took part in the crucial 10th Non-Aligned Summit held in Jakarta in September 1992. This Summit was crucial because it was the first Summit of the NAM after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the end of the cold war, and the emergence of new equations between different power centres in the world. The relevance of the NAM and countries in the non-aligned movement was being questioned. Prime Minister Shri Narasimha Rao's speech gave the necessary orientation to the NAM emphasising that if the NAM was relevant in a bipolar world, it is even more relevant as a movement to protect the interests of the developing countries in a unipolar or economically multipolar world. Our Prime Minister's realistic and practical analysis of the prospect and role of the NAM was appreciated and was acknowledged as an important factor contributing to the movement adjusting to changing realities with the required orientations and directions.

Activities of the G-15 continued to be a matter of attention on the part of India. India participated in the preparatory meetings for the G-15 in Caracas, New York, Geneva and Dakar, ultimately leading to the participation of Prime Minister Narasimha Rao in the G-15 Summit in Dakar in November 1992. India alongwith Senegal and Malaysia contributed substantially to the programmes and projects being undertaken by the G- 15. India is to host the next summit of the G-15 in Delhi later in 1993.

India remains fully committed to the ideals and objectives of the SAARC Charter. Indian participation was active and sustained in various programmes, projects and workshops organised by SAARC. India took a particularly positive attitude on various new suggestions and projects for regional cooperation brought up with the SAARC during the period under review. India was supportive in finalising recommendations for poverty alleviation programme and for the establishment of a SAARC preferential trade area. It was India's expectation that high level policy decisions would be finalised during the SAARC Summit to be held in Dhaka in December and later in January. Unfortunately this Summit could not take place because of the political tensions and violence occurring in Bangladesh and Pakistan and the views expressed on bilateral and regional cooperation by leading governmental and political circles in these two countries which gave negative signals to a meaningful dialogue. The Government of India felt that holding of the Summit in a surcharged and tense atmosphere would be counterproductive. India hopes that an atmosphere of calm and peace would be restored so that the SAARC Summit could be held. India's request for a postponement of the scheduled Summit in no way erodes India's abiding commitments to cooperation with its South Asian neighbours within the framework of the SAARC. This last message was specially conveyed by the Prime Minister of India to the Heads of Governments of member countries of SAARC.

In the deliberations at the LIN during the period covered by this report, India strongly advocated the democratisation of the LIN and for making the Security Council and other organs of the LIN more representative of the increased membership of the UN. While welcoming the increasingly effective role that the UN is playing in peace keeping and peace building operations, India urged that decisions regarding UN initiatives in these matters should always be based on a consensus in the General Assembly that such action should reflect the will of the international community rather than just five permanent members of the Security Council and that such activity should always be strictly within the framework of the UN Char-ter and carried out under the command of the LIN. India also noted that the five permanent members of the Security Council are not in favour of revising the Charter or expanding the Security Council though there have been suggestions that Germany and Japan could be given permanent seats. India would continue its advocacy for the democratisation of the UN to make it more effective.

Issues of international concerns like human rights, environment, non- proliferation and the transfer of advanced technologies in their foreign policy dimensions engaged the attention of the Ministry. India has consistently maintained that while it is committed to universal norms of human rights, these should not be used unilaterally as an argument to pressurise developing countries. On non-proliferation, India remains committed to a principled stand, viz India is completely committed to nonproliferation. However, India will not be party to any discriminatory arrangement regarding non-proliferation as envisaged in the NPT. India is willing to work bilaterally and multilaterally to achieve the objective of global and complete disarmament, particularly nuclear disarmament within a definite timeframe on a non-discriminatory basis. India has agreed to have bilateral discussions with a number of important countries to meet this objective. That these countries which are committed to non-proliferation treaty are agreeable to have bilateral discussions with India indicates that in some measure they accept the logic and relevance of the Indian stand on non-proliferation though they may not completely agree with our approach. The NPT is coming up for renewal in 1995 preparatory work for this commencing later in 1993. India is of the view that this occasion should be utilised to review the contents of the NPT to make it non-discriminatory and universally applicable.

India participated in the Global Summit on Environment in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 at the Prime Minister's level. India's advocacy in favour of protecting global environment without juxtaposing this objective with the need for sustained development found a responsive echo among many of the participants.

India has voiced opposition to restrictive or discriminatory regimes being put in place against the transfer of modern and sophisticated technologies from the advanced to the developing countries. These technologies relate to space, generation of nuclear energy, communications, informatics and so on. India is hoping to work with like-minded countries in ensuring the formulation and implementation of international rules and procedures in this regard in a fair and just manner.

In step with our liberalised economic policies and the growing importance of increasing trade, investment and technology flows, the Ministry worked through its Missions and Posts to promote and safeguard India's economic and commercial interests. It paid special attention to the requirement of external economic publicity in the context of the need to effectively project India and its economic reform programme to the international business community. In addition to preparing state of the art promotional material for use by its Missions abroad, the Ministry successfully organised several investment promotion events in target countries in coordination with concerned Ministries and with the participation of their senior Ministers and officials. For visiting delegations of top rank industrialists such as those that accompanied the British Prime Minister in January and the German Chancellor in February 1993, the Ministry organised high level panel discussions between the visiting industrialists and several Secretaries to key Ministries of Government of India such as Finance, Commerce, Industry, Power and Telecommunications. These Roundtables were widely appreciated both by the foreign Governments and businessmen concerned as having provided the opportunity for useful interactions with GOI on investment and trade related issues. In addition, the Ministry was active in keeping Missions informed on an immediate basis on the changes in economic policies and in obtaining regular feedback on reactions to India's economic liberalisation programme among industrialised countries. On the basis of this feedback, the Ministry sent periodic reports to concerned Ministries and organisations on ongoing investment promotion efforts and further measures that needed to be taken on increasing inflows of foreign investment. It also organised economic orientation programmes for its Heads of Missions from target countries; these programmes served to underline the growing importance of the economic aspects of Indian diplomacy and by promoting first hand interactions with key economic Ministries, assisted the Missions in the efficient discharge of their economic and commercial responsibilities.

The Missions, especially in economically important countries, were active in reaching out to foreign business communities and Governments and keeping them informed of the new business opportunities available in India. Investment promotion seminars and industrial delegations were organised, business queries promptly responded to in coordination with concerned Ministries and methodical follow-up undertaken thereafter to maintain close contact with potential foreign investors.

In recognition of the important role being played by it in India's investment and trade promotion efforts, the Ministry has been asked to participate on the Foreign Investment Promotion Board and the Steering Committee Of Secretaries on economic reforms.

The period under review was also characterised by certain internal steps taken within the Ministry to improve its functioning and efficiency.

New Embassies were set up in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Israel and Consulates General in Shanghai, St. Petersberg and Vladivostok. In addition, the Consulate in Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan, has been upgraded to an Embassy. The personnel requirement of those new Missions was met in the short run by swift diversion from other Missions.

In accordance with the Government's directive on strict economy, certain Missions were identified for closure after weighing all relevant factors. The Missions slated for closure are those in Malawi, Zaire and Colombia. Ministry is taking measures to ensure that our bilateral relations with these countries are not affected by the closure of these resident Missions.

There has been a major reorganisation and streamlining of the work at Headquarters so that the Ministry can respond more effectively to the changed and changing international situation. Some territorial divisions have been merged to ensure better coordination of policies in the concerned area and some new Divisions have been created to enable the Ministry to focus more closely on developments within those regions. To handle work of specialised nature, separate Units have been, set up where required. For example, a Central Asia Division was established to look after the newly created CIS states in Asia; separate Asia Pacific and ASEAN Divisions have been carved out, an International Security and Disarmament Division has been set up to look after this specialised work. Further, wherever economy as well as rationalisation could be achieved through merger of Divisions, this exercise was undertaken. For example, the Conference Cell was made a part of Protocol Division; SAARC Division was merged with Economic Division.

To optimise the utilisation of manpower, a time schedule has been drawn up for regular meetings of the various Boards to recommend postings and transfers of officials which is being strictly observed. As a result it has become possible to plan the movement of personnel well ahead of time resulting in greater efficiency.

The Departmental Promotion Committees to consider promotions to various grades in IFS as well as IFS (B) are being convened more regularly. This contributed to service morale.

Greater transparency has been introduced in the posting procedure. For the first time, a system has been introduced for circulating information well in advance about the posts available at all levels to the concerned officers at Headquarters and abroad.

During the year under report, four important construction projects at New York, Kuwait, Dubai and Kuala Lumpur were completed. These buildings are symbolic of our cultural heritage and reflect the image of a modern and dynamic India. As a result of these efforts, Ministry will save considerable expenditure on the rentals of offices and residences of officials in these expensive cities. With the same objective in view, the Ministry purchased five apartments for residences of the officials of the Indian Embassy, Washington.

The Ministry also began several new projects for construction of Chanceries and residences for officials at Beijing, Islamabad (Phase II), Tashkent and a well equipped Campus for the Foreign Service Institute at New Delhi. A modern and spacious office is being built up for Regional Passport Office, New Delhi with improved facilities for the public.

The Indian Council for Cultural Relations continued its activities imaginatively and effectively under the guidance of then Vice President of India, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma. Apart from organising cultural festivals, the ICCR significantly diversified its activities to encourage academic exchanges, research projects and publication of material of contemporary socio-cultural importance.

Publicity activities of the Ministry of External Affairs assumed critical importance in face of the adverse publicity and propaganda generated by some countries against India on issues of Kashmir, Punjab, violation of human rights, etc. The reports and assessments on human rights issues in India circulated by human rights organisations like Amnesty International and Asia Watch also necessitated a gearing up of Government of India's external publicity efforts to put matters in perspective, to set the record straight and, more important, to project the problems faced by India and the remedial action being taken by India in a manner which would prevent adverse fallout. India's external publicity efforts covered the entire spectrum of media activities, audio-visual, personal interaction with Press representatives, organisation of seminars and discussions with participation from abroad, the commissioning of articles, monographs and dissemination of substantive as well as descriptive information on matters of interest and matters deserving attention.

The Ministry initiated an exercise to review the entire system of passport services with the objective of streamlining procedures in order to reduce delays, improve infrastructure and provide the public with prompt passport services, while simultaneously deterring passport fraud.

As part of this exercise the Ministry introduced a number of measures including the sale of forms through Post Offices, issuance of passports on a first-come-first-served basis with a set time-limit for the police verification report, decentralisation of powers for the priority issue of passports to specified categories of applicants, streamlined procedures for the issue of duplicate passports and availability of most miscellaneous services at any Passport Office. On the operational front, the Ministry concentrated on improving productivity. As a result, in 1992 there was a 40% increase in the output of fresh passports over the previous year.

1992 has been an eventful year for international relations. There were historic at times cataclysmic, changes in the international geo- political environment. Indian Foreign Policy had to respond not only to these external changes but also to the winds of change sweeping the internal economy. Thus, internal measures and requirements of austerity had to be balanced against the need of meeting our national interests in terms of external relations effectively. The performance of the Ministry during 1992-93 has to be evaluated against this complex and challenging backdrop.
1 India's Neighbours

COOPERATION in relations with her neighbours in South Asia. To achieve these goals India, Inter alia, maintained high level contacts with the countries of the region.

During the year under review, traditionally close and cordial relations between India and Nepal were further deepened and strengthened including through exchange of a number of official visits.

Prime Minister paid an official goodwill visit to Nepal from 19 to 21 October 1992 at the invitation of the Prime Minister of Nepal. Prime Minister was accompanied by Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia and senior officials of the Government of India. The Indian and Nepalese delegations led by the two Prime Ministers held detailed discussions on issues of common interest. During the course of these meetings, as also the earlier discussions at the official level that preceded the visit of Prime Minister, a number of decisions were taken and steps finalised with a view to further strengthening and expanding bilateral cooperation.

A Joint Communique was signed during the visit enlisting various areas of cooperation between the two countries. In the trade sector in particular, substantial improvements have been made and transit of Nepalese goods has been further facilitated. India has agreed to enhance the revolving stand-by credit facility extended to Nepal from the level of Indian Rs 35 crores to Rs 50 crores. A timeframe for investigations, preparation of project reports and other works for water resources cooperation on the Karnali-Pancheshwar, Rapti Koshi, Budhi Gandaki, Kamala and Bagmati projects were agreed upon. The B P Koirala Nepal- India Foundation was jointly inaugurated by the two Prime Ministers during the visit. The Foundation would provide an institutional framework for promoting academic, cultural and technical exchanges between India and Nepal. An Indo-Nepal high level task force has been set up to monitor and review the implementation of Indian aided projects in Nepal. The King of Nepal has accepted an invitation from Prime Minister to visit India at a mutually convenient date. The Prime Minister of Nepal has also accepted the invitation to visit India.

A 6-member Parliamentary delegation led by Shri Shivraj Patil, Speaker of Lok Sabha, visited Nepal from 15 to 19 November 1992 to participate in the SAARC Speakers' Conference. Shri Patil extended an invitation to Members of Parliament from Nepal to attend training camps organized by India's Bureau of Parliamentary Studies.

The traditionally close and friendly relations between India and Bhutan were further strengthened. His Majesty Jigme Singye Wangchuck visited India in January 1993 and held discussions with President, Prime Minister 'and other senior Ministers of the Government of India on issues of mutual interest. There were other high-level visits also from Bhutan including the visit of the Bhutanese Planning Minister, Minister for Trade and Industry and Finance Minister. The Foreign Secretary and Secretary (Water Resources) also visited Bhutan. These visits helped in further consolidating the close relations between India and Bhutan.

India's bilateral cooperation with Bhutan has been steadily increasing right from 1961, when India fully funded Bhutan's First Five Year Plan. This close economic cooperation has been further intensified during Bhutan's Seventh Five Year Plan (1992-97) which was launched in July 1992. The total Indian assistance for Bhutan's Seventh Plan would be Rs 750 crores. Several major projects are expected to be taken up by India in Bhutan during this plan period including a large cement plant at Nganglam, an Airport Terminal building at Paro, Kurichu Hydel Project in Eastern Bhutan, hospitals, roads and bridges, transmission lines and sub-stations, etc.

The long association of India in the development of Bhutan's power sector was further strengthened in November 1992 with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between India and Bhutan for taking up the detailed project report for Bunakha Hydel Project in Bhutan. Bunakha Hydel Project would have an installed capacity of 120 MW and would contribute to the welfare and economic development of Bhutan.

India continued to offer Bhutanese students opportunity for secondary as well as higher education and training in various fields. Cooperation in educational and cultural fields continued to be close.

The year 1992 began with a positive note in the Indo-Bangladesh relations with both Governments focussing attention on devising modalities for leasing Tin Bigha Corridor. An understanding on this question in March 1992 paved the way for the visit of Begum Khaleda Zia, Prime Minister of Bangladesh, to India in May. The level of interaction with the democratic government in Dhaka continued to remain relatively high, despite differences of opinion on some important bilateral issues.

The visit of democratically elected Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Begum Khaleda Zia, to India from 26 to 28 May 1992 was the first State visit to a SAARC country since her assumption of power in 1991. During the visit, fruitful discussions took place on regional and several key bilateral issues. In addition, the following three accords were signed:

(a) Memorandum of Understanding on Exchange of Plots for the Construction of Chancery and Residential building;

(b) A Cultural and Academic Exchange Agreement;

(c) Exchange of Instruments of Ratification for the Agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation.

Less than a month later, the Tin Bigha issue was satisfactorily resolved. The Corridor was finally leased to Bangladesh and opened for use by Bangladeshi passengers and vehicular traffic on 26 June.

The goodwill thus generated was further enhanced by the subsequent visits to Delhi by Bangladesh Ministers for Finance from 1 to 3 September and Foreign Affairs from 12 to 14 November, and the visits to Dhaka by Minister for Water Resources from 25 to 27 August and Foreign Secretary from 21 to 23 August.

Unfortunately, after September there were some setbacks following the controversy with regard to the steps to push back illegal Bangladeshi migrants and the resistance by Bangladesh not to accept them.

Bilateral relations came under further strains due to violent reactions in Bangladesh to the Ayodhya incident. In widespread violence, the Indian diplomatic premises in Dhaka came under attack; the High Commission Library and the Indian Airlines office were set on fire. Scores of places of worship, commercial establishments and houses of the minority community in Bangladesh were damaged and burnt. India expressed her concern in this regard to the Government of Bangladesh as also the hope that the countries of South Asia would join together in opposing communal forces and would not allow these forces to retard the process of bilateral and regional cooperation.

Despite setbacks, India and Bangladesh continued to hold discussions to resolve other outstanding bilateral matters such as the equitable sharing of the waters of the major rivers and the repatriation of Chakma refugees to Bangladesh.
-17> The first Secretary-level Joint Committee of Experts (JCE) met in New Delhi on 19 and 20 November to devise a long-term settlement including an interim arrangement of the flows of Ganga and Tista during the dry season. So far as the repatriation of Chakma refugees is concerned, a Political Level Committee was set up by the Government of Bangladesh in July as stipulated in the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Communique of May 1992 to encourage Chakma refugees to return to Bangladesh and for finding out a political solution to the Chakma problem. Negotiations were underway between the Committee and the Chakma representatives.

The trade review talks were held in New Delhi in August to place a special focus on increasing and diversifying trade and economic cooperation between India and Bangladesh.

India's exports to Bangladesh in 1991-92 were valued at Rs 810 crores whereas imports from Bangladesh were Rs 14 crores.

Despite some tentative steps taken by the Myanmar Government recently towards addressing the issue, Myanmar's suppression of the democratic movement continued to be a factor in India's relations with that country. India continued to press for the early restoration of democracy in Myanmar. In early December 1992 India extended support to a UN Resolution on Myanmar, calling for an early restoration of democracy and human rights and the immediate and unconditional release of all political prisoners including Ms Aung San Suu Kyi.

India watched with close attention the changes introduced by Gen Than Shwe, the Chairman of the state law and order restoration council, including the decision to convene a National Convention on 9 January 1993 to formulate a new Constitution for Myanmar.

With a view to a better management of a working relationship with the Myanmar Government, India received a Myanmar delegation led by the Director General of the Myanmar Foreign Office in August 1992. Discussions held during the visit identified concrete areas for bilateral cooperation including border trade, prevention of narco- trafficking and contacts between the civilian and military authorities in the border regions of the two countries to prevent illegal activities, etc. Agreements for cooperation in the areas identified thus far are expected to be signed shortly.

President of Sri Lanka, Mr Ranasinghe Premadasa, came to India from 1 to 3 October 1992 in his capacity as Chairman of the Sixth SAARC Summit. The visit also served as a State visit in view of the fact that this was his first visit to India as President of Sri Lanka. The President of Sri Lanka and the Prime Minister confirmed the validity of SAARC as a forum for enhancing interaction among countries of the region. Issues of common interest to SAARC countries, discussed during the visit, included poverty alleviation, SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA), cooperation to combat terrorism, etc. The two sides also undertook a review of bilateral matters such as repatriation of Sri Lankan refugees, practical problems faced by fishermen from both countries and economic cooperation. The two sides expressed satisfaction over the on-going return of Sri Lankan refugees to their country and agreed to continue the cooperation to ensure an early return of these refugees from India. From 21 January 1992 till 2 October 1992, over 29,000 Sri Lankan refugees had returned to their country. The process has been temporarily suspended and is expected to be resumed shortly. Regarding problems faced by fishermen from both the countries straying into each others waters, the two sides agreed to deal with such cases in a spirit of mutual accommodation and understanding and to initiate discussions on the subject at the level of senior officials.

On the ethnic question in Sri Lanka, India reiterated her considered and consistent view that the legitimate aspirations of the Tamil Community should be fulfilled within the framework of a united Sri Lanka through negotiations involving all parties which have eschewed violence. The Sri Lankan side briefed the Indian side about the present position and future prospects as seen by them.

The year 1992 saw expanding cooperation in various areas between India and Sri Lanka. The second meeting of the Sub-Commission on Trade, Finance and Investment was held in New Delhi in September 1992. Meetings of the other two Sub-Commissions on Social, Cultural and Educational matters, and on Science and Technology are also due to be convened shortly. During President Premadasa's visit, the two sides expressed satisfaction over the progress with regard to various proposals under the auspices of the Joint Commission. During the year, there were increasing contacts between the business communities of the two countries., as illustrated by the convening of the Indo-Sri Lanka joint Business Council in Delhi in March 1992, after a lapse of 11 years, and the participation of over 100 business delegates from India in the EXPO'92 held in Colombo in November 1992. The visit of the Sri Lankan Minister for Industry, Science and Technology to India in March 1992 also provided an opportunity for an useful exchange of views.

In the wake of Ayodhya incident, it was heartening to receive the message sent by President Premadasa to Prime Minister on 8 December 1992 appreciating the principled stand of Prime Minister and the Government of India. on the Ayodhya developments. The restraint and maturity shown by the Government and people of Sri Lanka in reacting to the Ayodhya developments is worthy of commendation.

Existing close and friendly relations with Maldives were further consolidated and reinforced by regular consultation and meetings which resulted in close understanding at the highest level. Prime Minister met President Gayoom in Rio during the Earth Summit in June 1992 and again in Jakarta in September 1992 during the 10th NAM Summit. These high level contacts provided an opportunity to assess the on-going multi- dimensional cooperation programmes which encompass infrastructure development, health and welfare, civil aviation, communication and manpower resource development of Maldives.

The Second Session of Indo-Maldives joint Commission for Economic and Technical Cooperation was held at New Delhi on 2 and 3 March 1992. The joint Commission looked into every aspect of non-military bilateral relations between the two countries.

Maldivian Minister of State for Presidential Affairs, Mr Abdul Rasheed Hussain, led a 6-member delegation to New Delhi to attend a conference organized jointly by UNICEF and Department of Women and Child Development from 3 to 5 June 1992.

Maldivian Minister of State and Head of Customs, Mr Hussain Manikfann, visited India for two weeks from 10 to 24 October 1992 to familiarise himself with the Customs Regulations in India.

Defence Secretary, Shri N N Vohra, visited Maldives from 19 to 21 December 1992 to discuss various matters connected with Indo-Maldives defence cooperation. During his stay in Male, Shri Vohra met President Gayoom, Foreign Minister Fathulla Jameel and Director General of National Security Service (NSS), Mr Abdul Sattar Anbaree.

Relations with Pakistan, however, continued to be under strain on account of Pakistan's negative approach. Pakistan's interference in India's internal affairs and support to subversion and terrorism directed against India not only continued in the States of Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir but assumed new dimensions. There is, however, growing international realization and concern at Pakistan's involvement with terrorism directed against India. In line with its proclivity to interfere in India's internal affairs, the Pakistani leadership sought to make statements and agitate public opinion in that country on matters such as developments in Ayodhya which were purely the internal affair of India.

India has, in the interest of peace and security of the region and in accordance with the Simla Agreement, pursued the path of bilateral dialogue with Pakistan in an attempt to create an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence. In April 1992, some proposals on Military Confidence Building Measures were forwarded to Pakistan. The sixth round of Foreign Secretary level talks between India and Pakistan which were scheduled from 1 to 3 June 1992 had to be postponed as Pakistan vitiated the atmosphere by the abduction and brutal torture of a senior Indian diplomat in Islamabad in violation of all accepted norms on the treatment of diplomatic personnel. The dialogue got back on track after the Prime Ministers of the two countries met at Rio on 14 June 1992 when they agreed that bilateral talks should be resumed. Consequently, a meeting was held from 6 to 9 August 1992 on the Tulbal Navigation Project. All legal and technical aspects were discussed. Pakistan's clearance on the joint draft (worked out in October 1991) is awaited. This was followed by the sixth round of Foreign Secretary level talks from 16 to 19 August 1992, when the two sides:

(i) Exchanged the Instruments of Ratification on the Agreement on Prevention of Air Space Violations by military aircraft and the Agreement on Advance Notice of Military Exercises, Manoeuvres and Troop Movements;

(ii) Signed the Code of Conduct on the treatment of Diplomatic/Consular personnel;

(iii) Issued the Joint Declaration on complete prohibition of chemical weapons;

(iv) Agreed to discuss a joint declaration on biological weapons along the lines of the joint declaration on chemical weapons;

(v) Reaffirmed the agreement, in principle, to convene the Sub- Commissions of the India-Pakistan joint Commission at an appropriate time. It was agreed that, in the meanwhile, senior officials of concerned Ministries (Commerce, Education & Culture and Home) could meet;

(vi) Extended a formal invitation to the Pakistan's COAS to visit, India; and

(vii) Agreed on a series of meetings at the official level: on Siachen at the Defence Secretary level (October/November 1992); on Sir Creek (September 1992); on technical discussions on the issue of missing defence personnel (September/October 1992); and on India-Pak Committee on Drug Trafficking and Smuggling.

The sixth round of talks on the Siachen issue between the Defence Secretaries of India and Pakistan were held in New Delhi from 2 to 4 November 1992. These talks were resumed after a gap of three years. Proposals to carry forward the dialogue from the fifth round of talks (June 1989) aimed at a comprehensive resolution of the Siachen issue were discussed.

The fifth round of India-Pakistan talks on the Sir Creek issue were held in New Delhi on 5 and 6 November 1992. The two sides had a detailed and useful exchange of views on the various issues involved. They agreed that the discussions would be continued on a mutually convenient date.

The Pakistan Foreign Secretary during his meeting with the Prime Minister on 17 August 1992 handed over a letter from the Prime Minister of Pakistan proposing bilateral discussions on Jammu & Kashmir under Article 6 of the Simla Agreement. It has been conveyed to Pakistan that the Simla Agreement provides the necessary framework for resolving the entire range of different issues affecting bilateral relations. Negotiations within the framework of Simla Agreement cannot be compartmentalized or fragmented under one specific article of the Agreement removed from the context. It is ironical that Pakistan so soon after suggesting bilateral talks under Article 6 of the Simla Agreement preferred to raise Kashmir in violation of the Simla Agreement at the international fora including at the 10th NAM Summit at Jakarta and UN General Assembly (UNGA) plenary session. Pakistan has yet to demonstrate its sincerity about seriously pursuing meaningful bilateral discussions. This can take place only in an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence. For this, Pakistan must stop its support to terrorism and cease interference in India's internal affairs. Unfortunately, within days of Foreign Secretary level talks, Pakistan National Assembly passed a Resolution on the Babri Masjid issue (28 August).

On 15 October 1992, two Pakistani nationals alongwith terrorist Talwinder Singh Parmar were killed in an encounter near jullundar. Pakistan's allegation that these two Pakistani nationals were killed in cold blood is unfounded and was only to detract Attention from the fact that these two Pakistani nationals were without valid visas and in the company of terrorists with arms and ammunition.

An attempt was made to cross the LOC on 24 October 1992. Earlier, attempts had been made on 11 February 1992 and 30 March 1992.

In an effort to curtail people-to-people contacts, Pakistan issued an Advisory to its citizens on 2 December 1992 not to travel to India and suggesting that those in India should curtail their stay and return home.

Following developments in Ayodhya, the Government of Pakistan took a series of steps which can only be viewed by India as an attempt to interfere in her internal affairs. Vituperative statements by leaders of Pakistan including at the highest level, resolutions passed by Pakistan National Assembly and Pakistan Senate on the demolition of Babri Masjid and the decision of Government of Pakistan to officially call for nationwide strike on 8 December 1992 to mark a "day of mourning" were highly regrettable and unacceptable. Pakistan, or for that matter, no other country has any locus standi on the developments in Ayodhya.

The situation was further aggravated when the Indian diplomatic premises in Islamabad and Karachi were targets of mob fury on 8 December. Mobs ransacked and burnt the residence of the Indian Consul General in Karachi. This was in violation of not only the international norms on the inviolability of diplomatic premises but of the recently signed Code of Conduct between the two countries, under which the receiving Government is to extend protection to diplomatic/consular property and personnel. In the prevailing circumstances, Government were forced to evacuate the families of officials in Karachi.

Through a unilateral decision Pakistan (on 29 December 1992) asked India to reduce by 31 January 1993 the strength of the Consulate General in Karachi to 20 (4 diplomats and 16 staff members). Government have conveyed to Pakistan that parity of the representation between Indian High Commission in Islamabad and the Pakistan High Commission in New Delhi should be maintained at 110. Pakistan was asked to withdraw its excess staff from India by 10 February 1993. It has been conveyed to Pakistan that henceforth it would not be allowed to operate temporary visa offices in India. Pakistan has also been informed that it has not been found possible to accede to its request for use of 'Jinnah House' for its Consulate General in Bombay or as official residence for its Consul General.

The downward trend in India-Pakistan bilateral relations has been caused by Pakistan's propensity to interfere in India's internal affairs and its continued support to subversion and terrorism directed against India. Government are of the firm view that while there could be no compromise on the unity and integrity of the nation, attempts should be made to resolve differences with Pakistan bilaterally and peacefully on the basis of the Simla Agreement and in the interest of peace and stability in the region. Government have urged the Government of Pakistan to abandon its negative approach and join in sincere efforts to have a meaningful dialogue. For this, Pakistan's support to terrorism must stop. Government hope that Pakistan will reciprocate the desire for peace and not persist with its present policies which are a negation of the accepted fundamental principles of inter-state conduct and the Simla Agreement.

India's relations with Afghanistan are based on traditional ties of common history and culture. The past year also saw some high level exchanges. President of Afghanistan, Prof Burhanuddin Rabbani, made a stop-over in New Delhi on 30 August 1992. The Afghan Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Mr Najibullah Laffraei, visited Delhi during November 1992. India maintained useful exchanges with the new leadership in Afghanistan.

India has always stood for a sovereign, independent, non-aligned and united Afghanistan. Government believe that a political settlement taking into account the legitimate interests of all concerned should be arrived at by the Afghans themselves without any form of external interference. India offered Rs 5 crores worth of assistance through the Office of UN Coordinators for Afghan Refugee Rehabilitation and an equal amount bilaterally during 1992. India supplied relief items worth Rs 1.5 crores to Afghanistan through UNCOA. As a part of India's bilateral commitment, Indian relief supplies worth Rs 4.7 crores of essential items as well as medicines and medical equipments have also been completed during 1992.

The transitionary phase in Afghanistan has been greatly complicated. A conflict situation has arisen involving various Afghan groups. Intense fighting has erupted around Kabul forcing the closure of several diplomatic missions, including India's. The absence of any political process, leading to a settlement acceptable to all sections of the Afghan people, has accentuated sectarian and ethnic tensions which could seriously undermine Afghanistan's unified character as a nation state. A renewed international peace initiative, possibly under UN auspices, is urgently called for.

India continued to play an important and crucial role in the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Recommendations of the 6th SAARC Summit were jointly implemented by India and other member countries, and she contributed to their success in the best possible way in the light of her resources and capabilities. In pursuance with the Colombo Summit directive, India held the SAARC Ministerial meeting on environmental issues in Delhi in April 1992. The meeting adopted a joint Communique reflecting the consensus of views of SAARC countries on environment and development which was presented to UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) at Rio in June 1992. Another SAARC Ministerial Conference on Children in South Asia was held in Colombo in September 1992. It adopted a Resolution in which 'illustrative regional goals' based on National Plan of Action of the Member States in education, maternal health, nutrition, access to drinking water, etc, to promote the welfare of children were identified.

One of the notable achievements of SAARC during the period under review was the drawing up of a draft framework agreement on establishment of SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA) by the Secretary-level Committee on Economic Cooperation (CEC) in November 1992 in pursuance of a mandate received from & 6th SAARC Summit. The framework agreement envisages trade liberalisation through a product by product approach to reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade among SAARC countries to be established within three years of the signing of the Agreement by the SAARC Council of Ministers.

Another related development in the area of economic cooperation was the establishment of a SAARC fund for identification and development of regional Projects of $ 5 million through proportionate contributions from the member States. A Regional Council of Development Financing Institutions (RCDFI) has been established to manage this fund.

In accordance with a decision of the 6th SAARC Summit, an independent South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation, consisting of eminent persons from all member States, was constituted to conduct an in-depth study on diverse experiences of the seven countries on poverty alleviation. The Commission has already completed its work and its recommendations will be placed before the 7th SAARC Summit.

Under the aegis of the SAARC, so far approximately 44 activities have been held in 1992. These include special training courses, seminars, meetings, workshops, joint research projects, technical studies, etc. Almost one third of the total activities were held in India. The trend in the SAARC is to shift towards concrete development-oriented discussions in core areas, such as, in economic cooperation, environment, poverty alleviation, etc.

The year 1993 was announced as the SAARC Year of Disabled Persons by the 5th Summit held in Male. A Plan of action has been drawn up to observe this year appropriately. The Plan envisages programmes at both national and regional levels.

Since India is committed to collective self-reliance among the SAARC Countries, it has always advocated in SAARC fora, the utilisation of resources available within the region for its programmes or activities. However, lately India has, in due deference to the demands of the member States for international assistance, agreed. to a proposed SAARC-Japan Special Fund of $ 5 million to be used partly for SAARC programmes and partly to provide intellectual exchange between Japan and the SAARC member States. SAARC has also authorised the Chairman of the Council of Ministers to carry out informal consultations with the EEC and the ASEAN in order to identify mutual beneficial areas of cooperation with them.

India continued to play an active role in the SAARC with the hope that it can develop into an effective vehicle for promoting the economic, social, technical, scientific and cultural development of the countries of the region, as it is required to do under its Charter.

The 7th SAARC Summit originally scheduled to be held on 12 and 13 December 1992 in Dhaka, Bangladesh, was postponed by a month to 13 and 14 January 1993 in the wake of post-Ayodhya developments. India had agreed to these new dates in the hope that the situation in and around India would have stabilised and the political tensions in the region would have abated by then.

Unfortunately, the Summit had to be postponed for the second time, at India's behest, because of continued vitiated political atmosphere and actions in some member States amounting to interference in the internal affairs of India. It was felt that the political direction needed at that stage to provide greater content and substance to regional cooperation in South Asia could not be achieved under circumstances then prevailing.

The new dates of the Summit are to be decided through diplomatic channels.
2 South-East Asia and the Pacific
INDIA'S TRADITIONALLY CLOSE AND FRIENDLY RELATIONS WITH THE MEMBER COUNTRIES of Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and with the countries in Indo-China were maintained and broadened by numerous high level contacts during 1992-93. India decided to give a special policy thrust to its relations with the ASEAN.

Bilateral relations with Malaysia were enhanced with the two countries having regular exchange of views at different levels. The Malaysian Defence Minister Dato Seri Najib visited India in March 1992 and had meetings with Prime Minister and Raksha Mantri.

The two countries signalled upgradation of economic and trade ties by raising the joint Trade Committee to a full-fledged joint Commission. The first session of the Indo-Malaysian Joint Commission was held in Kuala Lumpur on 2 and 3 November 1992, co-chaired by the Malaysian Foreign Minister and the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro. The Joint Commission has provided the necessary impetus to the existing trade and economic exchanges between the two countries.

The bilateral content of India's relationship with Malaysia comprises joint ventures, project exports and trade in commodities, particularly palm oil, petroleum crude, rubber and tin from Malaysia. As per agreed minutes signed by the Malaysian Minister for Primary Industries and the Minister of State for Commerce in August 1992, India is to import atleast 3,00,000 tons of palm oil annually for two years. In consideration of this, the Malaysian Government has expressed willingness to use the Evidence Account Mechanism for providing the necessary fillip to the arrangement.

The momentum of these exchanges was kept up with Prime Minister meeting the Malaysian Prime Minister, Dr Mahathir, during the NAM Summit in Jakarta in September 1992.

Foreign Secretary visited Malaysia from 29 to 31 January 1993, to have bilateral consultations with Mr Tan Sri Ahmad Kamil, Secretary-General of the Malaysian Foreign Office. Discussions focussed, inter alia, on preparations for the impending visit of the Defence Minister to Malaysia, certain bilateral issues such as the new visa regulation introduced by Malaysia, delay in Indian import of palm oil and import of petroleum and petroleum products. There were also exchange of views on the G-15 Summit as well as on the security environment in South-East Asia in the context of evolving perceptions in ASEAN region about China and Japan.

Raksha Mantri, Shri Sharad Pawar, visited Malaysia from 1 to 7 February 1993 at the invitation of the Malaysian Defence Minister Datuk Najib. During the visit, the Defence Minister signed a Memorandum of Understanding for cooperation in the defence field. The MOU provides for logistical support by India for the MIG-29 aircrafts which Malaysia is negotiating to purchase from Russia. Besides, the MOU will focus on defence infrastructure build-up, modernisation and training of ground forces, regular exchange of personnel, and limited joint production ventures in Air and Naval armament.

India's relations with Singapore have been marked by the readiness stressed by both sides to embark on a new phase of understanding and cooperation for mutual benefit. Singapore's Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Trade and Industry, Brig Gen Lee Hsien Loong, accompanied by a high-powered delegation, was on an official visit to India from 22 to 27 March 1992. Brig Gen Lee had meetings with the Prime Minister, Finance Minister, Minister of Civil Aviation and Tourism, and Minister of State for Commerce. In his discussions with Prime Minister, Brig Gen Lee expressed interest in a series of exhibitions from India to be held in Singapore with the cooperation of the Government of India. Emphasis was placed on future trade and investment ties between India and Singapore. A proposal for an India-Singapore Industrial Corridor in the State of Tamil Nadu also came up for examination.

Prime Minister's meeting with Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr Goh Chok Tong, during the Non-Aligned Summit in Jakarta in September 1992 provided a further fillip to the multi-sided relationship. The Prime Minister of Singapore evinced keen interest in getting skilled personnel from India for projects in third countries. He also proposed the setting up of a permanent exhibition of Indian culture in the Singapore Museum to highlight the different cultural streams represented in Singapore. Prime Minister Goh identified trade and investment as another important area of cooperation. He mentioned the need for India to hold trade fairs in Singapore and participate in fairs as a means of increasing her exports. Prime Minister offered full cooperation for sending cultural exhibits from India and welcomed the prospect for defence cooperation.

Mr B G George Yeo, Singapore's Minister for Information and the Arts and Second Minister for Foreign Affairs, visited India from 4 to 15 February 1993 at the invitation of Minister for Human Resource Development, Shri Arjun Singh. The Minister led a high level delegation which included the Senior Minister for Trade and Industry, Mr Lim Boon Heng, senior officials from the field of art and culture, trade and industry and businessmen. The visit symbolised the desire of both countries to significantly upgrade existing relations. The visiting Minister called on the Prime Minister and handed over a letter from the Prime Minister of Singapore.

He also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperation in the Arts, Archives and Heritage with Minister for Human Resource Development. The other Ministers with whom he had exchange of views included Finance Minister, Commerce Minister and Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid. Besides Delhi, the delegation visited Agra, Jaipur, Bombay, Bangalore and Madras.

India's friendly relations with the Philippines continued. India warmly congratulated and assured full cooperation to the new leadership in the Philippines under President Ramos after the General Elections held in May 1992. Volcanic eruptions of Mount Pinatubo in August 1992 caused massive destruction in the Philippines. India sent a token relief assistance of essential medicines worth Rs 5 lakhs for the quake victims.

India continued to work closely with Indonesia both bilaterally as well as in the Non-Aligned forum and contributed to the success of the NAM Summit in Jakarta under Indonesia's chairmanship.

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, visited Indonesia for the Non-Aligned Ministerial Meeting in Bali in May 1992. Mr Ali Alatas, the Foreign Minister of Indonesia, visited New Delhi in July 1992 as Special Envoy of President Soeharto, to hold consultations and to invite the Prime Minister to attend the Non-Aligned Summit in Jakarta in September 1992. During the NAM Summit, the Prime Minister had full exchange of views in his meeting with President Soeharto on NAM as well as bilateral issues of mutual interest. Shri Eduardo Faleiro and Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs, also attended the NAM Summit. The momentum of regular consultations was kept up with the Prime Minister meeting President Soeharto again in Dakar during the G-15 Summit in November 1992.

The Indonesian Minister of Industry, Mr Hartarto, accompanied by a large delegation comprising of senior officials and business and industrial representatives visited India in March 1992. Mr Hartarto had meetings with Prime Minister, Minister of State for Industry and Minister of State for Commerce. During the visit, an Agreement was signed between M/s Ballarpur Industries and an Indonesian company for setting up of a rayon pulp joint venture in Sumatra, Indonesia.

India's traditional and historical ties with Thailand registered an important step with the State Visit of His Royal Highness Maha Vajiralongkorn, the Crown Prince of Thailand, in April 1992. During the visit, the Crown Prince had meetings with the President, the Vice President and the Prime Minister. This was the first ever visit to India by the Crown Prince of Thailand.

Foreign Secretary visited Thailand on 1 and 2 February 1993 for detailed discussions with his counterpart, Thai Permanent Secretary, Dr Pracha Guna-Kasem, on all aspects of bilateral relations and regional and multilateral issues. The two Foreign Secretaries expressed the desire to increase bilateral cooperation in diverse fields encompassing trade and commerce, technology, defence and culture. Human rights and environmental issues were also discussed.

India's relations with Brunei Darussalam were given a boost by the State visit to India of the Sultan of Brunei in September 1992. This was the first ever State visit paid by the Sultan of Brunei to India. During the visit, the Sultan had meetings with the President, the Vice President and the Prime Minister. The President hosted a banquet in his honour and the Prime Minister had a luncheon where the Sultan met eminent Indians from all walks of life. Following discussions, a decision was taken for both countries to set up Resident High Commissions in each other's capitals and to exchange delegations to identify areas of cooperation. Brunei Darussalam had already set up a Resident Mission in Delhi in August 1992, headed by an Acting High Commissioner.

Relations with Cambodia continued to be close and friendly. India remained committed to the implementation of the Paris Accord and in response to requests from the United Nations, contributed about 1800 military and civilian personnel for the operations of the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC).

Shri Eduardo Faleiro, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, represented India at a Ministerial Conference on the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Cambodia held in Tokyo in June 1992. Shri Faleiro laid stress on the urgency of international support for implementation of the UN peace plan as per the -30> Paris Accords by the active cooperation of all the Cambodian parties. He also announced the readiness of India to continue with approximately $ 1.2 million worth of assistance to Cambodia despite her constraints. There was general appreciation at the conference about the role India has played in Cambodia throughout the two decades preceding the Paris Accords, during the phase of negotiations for the Accords and subsequently. Shri Faleiro also made it known that expertise, appropriate technology and pertinent experience are available in India for use in Cambodia under the appropriate auspices, be it the UNTAC or

UNDP or through third country or multilateral aid givers.

Apart from grant of food aid consisting of 2000 tons of rice, medicines worth approximately US $ 600,000 have been sent to Cambodia. Arrangements are also being made to hold artificial limb fitment camps in Cambodia. India continued to provide scholarships to Cambodian nominees for technical training in India and Indian doctors were already on deputation to work at a Cambodian hospital. India also continued to carry out the project on restoration work at the famous Angkor Vat temple in Cambodia.

The Prime Minister met Prince Sihanouk in Jakarta in September 1992. During the meeting, Prince Sihanouk expressed great appreciation for India's help and participation in the peace process and also in Cambodia's reconstruction.

India's traditional relations with Vietnam were further strengthened by exchange of high level visits with special emphasis laid on enhancing bilateral economic, scientific and technical cooperation. The Foreign Minister of Vietnam, Mr Nguyen Manh Cam, paid an official visit to India from 21 to 27 March 1992. He met the President, the Vice President, the Prime Minister and the then Minister of External Affairs and exchanged views on regional and bilateral issues. Broad identity of views emerged and it was agreed that strengthened bilateral relations between India and Vietnam would endure in the emerging international situation. The fifth session of the Indo-Vietnam Joint Commission was held on 24 and 25 March 1992. Discussions focussed on enhancement of cooperation in existing areas, especially in the field of trade and commerce, as well as identification of new areas of cooperation. The Cultural Exchange Programme for 1992-94 was also signed.

The Prime Minister had a meeting with President Vo Chi Cong of Vietnam in Jakarta during the Non-Aligned Summit in September 1992.

The General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, Mr Do Muoi, led a high level delegation to India from 8 to 13 September 1992. This was Mr Do Muoi's first visit to India and his first visit outside the Socialist States.

He had meetings with the President, the Vice President, the Prime Minister and the Finance Minister. The Prime Minister led the Indian delegation for the official talks. General Secretary Do Muoi stressed the need to give enhanced economic content to the excellent relations with India. New areas were identified for bilateral trade in commodities with a view to expanding the trade turnover. The visit of Mr Do Muoi constituted a new landmark in IndoVietnam relations and opened up broad prospects for cementing the bonds of traditional friendship and multi- faceted cooperation between the two countries.

India's friendly relations and economic cooperation with Laos were maintained. Laotian trainees continued to visit India for training in diverse fields under the India Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme (ITEC). In July 1992, India sent a gift of items of stationery for Lao school children.

Bilateral relations with Australia continued to progress with economic and commercial cooperation assuming enhanced importance. The visit of Australian Minister for Trade and Overseas Development, Mr John Kerin, to India from 25 to 29 February 1992, leading a Government trade delegation, to participate in the Joint Ministerial Commission, was ample testimony of the importance India placed in her economic and commercial relations with Australia. The Indian side was led by the then Minister of State for Commerce, Shri Chidambaram. The meeting enabled the visiting Australian Minister to witness at first hand, India's strong commitment to economic reforms and liberalisation.

Trade between India and Australia hovered in the region of US $ 1 billion. In the first six months of the year, though the balance of trade was in Australia's favour, trade figures stood at US $ 465 million with Indian exports at US $ 90 million and imports at US $ 375 million. The Sixth joint Business Council Meeting was held in Sydney from 23 to 25 March 1992 with the Australians showing keen interest in India's economic reforms. The India-Australia Joint Business Council (JBC) met in Delhi on 16 and 17 February 1993.

A high-level parliamentary delegation from India led by the Speaker, Shri Shivraj Patil, visited Australia from 21 to 30 June 1992. The visit afforded the delegation an occasion to study parliamentary practices and procedures being followed in Australia and was the first visit of an Indian Parliamentary delegation since 1984.

Exchanges with Australia at the unofficial level on strategic matters continued. A Workshop on Maritime Security jointly organized by the Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA) and the Indian Ocean Centre for Peace Studies (IOCPS), Perth, was held in New Delhi from 19 to 21 November 1992 with eminent personalities and specialists from both India and Australia taking part.

Bilateral relations with New Zealand received a fillip with the visit of Mr Don McKinnon, Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand, in June 1992 on the occasion of the inauguration of the newly built premises of the New Zealand High Commission in New Delhi. Besides attending the meetings of the Joint Trade Committee and the Joint Business Council, Mr McKinnon also had meetings with the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro.

The situation in Fiji continued to receive close attention. After parliamentary elections in May 1992, Mr Rabuka was installed as Prime Minister. Except for setting up a Joint Parliamentary Committee in connection with the review of the Constitution of 1990, the Rabuka Government failed to do anything tangible for improving the lot of the Fijians of Indian origin.

Despite press reports suggesting willingness on the part of Mr Rabuka and other members of his Government for normalisation of relations with India, no official communication or confirmation in, this regard was received.

India continued to highlight the institutionalised. racial discrimination being perpetuated in Fiji at appropriate international fora and during bilateral meetings.

The Ban on commercial and technical cooperation with Fiji continued to remain in force. Scholarships were given to deserving Fijian students.
3 East Asia
THE YEAR UNDER REVIEW SAW THE CONSOLIDATION AND STRENGTHENING OF friendly relations between India and China which started with the of the then Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi to China in December 1988 and gained momentum with the visit of Premier Li Peng to India in December 1991. The highlight of the year was the State visit by former President, Shri R Venkataraman, to China from 18 to 23 May 1992, the first such visit to China by an Indian Head of State since the establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1950. Another important landmark was the visit of Raksha Mantri to China in July, establishing formal links between the defence establishments of the two countries.

The former President's discussions with Chinese leaders such as President Yang Shangkun, General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng, confirmed the commitment of both the countries to the development of a positive momentum in India-China relations and the desire of both the countries to further strengthen their friendly, good neighbourly and mutually beneficial relations.

The visit of the Raksha Mantri can be seen as part of the confidence- building effort of both the countries in order to enhance mutual understanding and trust and establish a tension-free border, a necessary step to peacefully settle the pending issues between India and China, including the boundary question.

momentum of high-level exchanges was maintained by a number of Chinese Ministers visiting India in early 1992, such as their Auditor General, Mr Lu Peijian, in January, the State Councillor and Chairman, State Education Commission, Mr Li Tieying, in February/March and the Minister of Civil Affairs, Mr Cui Naifu, in April. Chinese Party leaders also attended the annual conclaves of the CPI (M) and the CPI in the early part of the year. From India, besides Raksha Mantri, Minister of Welfare, Shri Sitaram Kesri, and Minister of Human Resource Development, Shri Arjun Singh, also visited China in October. The first Chinese National People's Congress (NPC) delegation led by its Vice Chairman, Mr Liao Hansheng, visited India in December. High-level party delegations from the CPI(M), AICC(l), CPI and the Telegu Desam also visited China during the course of the year. The Chinese Communist Party sent a delegation headed by Mr Wu Bangguo, Shanghai Municipal Party Secretary (who was subsequently inducted as Politburo member at the Party's 14th Congress), which visited India at the invitation of the AICC W in September.

Another significant event in the year was the holding of the Festival of China in India. As agreed during Prime Minister Shri P V Narasimha Rao's talks with Premier Li Peng in Delhi in December 1991, the Festival of China in India was inaugurated by the Vice President, Shri K R Narayanan, and the Vice Chairman of the Chinese National People's Congress, Mr Liao Hansheng, on 2 December 1992 at a glittering ceremony at the Siri Fort Auditorium in New Delhi. The Festival was received with tremendous enthusiasm in 11 cities across India. Over a hundred artistes and artisans from China participated in the events. A Festival of India in China is to be held in the near future.

The Agreement on re-opening of Consulates-General of India and China in Shanghai and Bombay respectively, arrived at during the Chinese Premier's visit to India in 1991, was implemented and both Consulates- General are now functional. The Chinese Consulate General in Bombay was formally inaugurated by Mr Liao Hansheng on 7 December 1992.

Discussion on the boundary question continued within the Joint Working Group (JWG) set up for this purpose. Significantly, the JWG met twice for the first time during the same calendar year: in February and October. The year also saw mutual defence representation on the JWG for the first time. Agreement was reached on holding of meetings of border personnel of the two countries and the establishment of direct telephone links between such personnel on the boundary. These agreements are being implemented. Further confidence-building measures to ensure the maintenance of peace and tranquillity along the line of actual control are being discussed in the JWG.

A major move was the resumption of border trade between Gunji (Pithoragarh District of UP) and Pulan in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the June to September trading season in 1992. The smooth flow of such commercial traffic has encouraged the two countries to agree in principle to open further points on the border to such trade.

Trade and economic cooperation and exchanges between the two countries continued to grow during the year under review. Bilateral trade for the first nine calendar months of 1992 was at about the same level as last year. An Orissa-based company and a Chinese steel manufacturer have entered into an agreement to set up a joint venture plant. India's trade, commercial and investment ties with Hong Kong and Taiwan are also growing and their prospects for the future look bright.

The Cultural Exchange Programme is being implemented as are the various agreements on exchanges and cooperation in the fields of education, science and technology, agriculture, audit, civil services and personnel training, etc.

During the high-level dialogue with Chinese leaders, India's concerns about Chinese arms supplies to Pakistan and Myanmar were conveyed. China has expressed her desire to see peace and stability in South Asia and do not wish to see an escalation of the arms race in the region. The discussions also covered the changing international environment and the mutual desire of both the countries to see the establishment of an international order based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and an equitable and mutually beneficial economic order in which the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

Official Chinese reaction to the demolition of the mosque at Ayodhya and the resulting communal violence was muted. The Foreign Office spokesman described it as India's internal affair, though as India's neighbouring country, China hoped the problem could be settled peacefully.

India's relations with China have therefore shown the resilience and maturity that is necessary for two such large and important neighbours in Asia, which will have a bearing on peace and stability of the region and of the world.

The thrust and momentum generated in recent years in India's relations with Japan continued in 1992-93. The 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and the signing of the Peace Treaty between India and Japan in 1992 added another dimension to her steadily burgeoning relations with Japan which were marked by a spirit of friendship and cooperation in the political, economic and cultural fields. The period under review also marked renewed Japanese interest in India in view of the new economic policies introduced by India.

Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, visited Japan from 22 to 26 June 1992 at the invitation of Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa. Discussions on various issues with the Japanese Government on both bilateral and multilateral matters were fruitful with new areas for cooperation and consultations being identified. The Prime Minister also met the Japanese Ministers of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and Finance and leaders of the five major economic organizations of Japan as well as of Japanese business and industry having special interest/ties with India. It was also decided to hold, for the first time, bilateral consultations on disarmament and nuclear issues between the two countries at the official level. It is hoped that these talks will result in enhanced mutual understanding relating to their respective security concerns and the emerging international order, particularly in the Asia Pacific region.

Prince Akishino, second son of Emperor Akihito, accompanied by Princess Akishino, visited India from 12 to 20 November 1992 at the invitation of the Vice President. The Speaker of the House of Representatives of Japan, Mr Yoshio Sakurauchi, visited India in August 1992 to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and Japan and the 90th anniversary of the Indo-Japanese Association. Agriculture Minister, Shri Balram Jakhar, visited Tokyo from 26 to 29 October 1992 to attend the 30th Congress of the International Cooperation Alliance. Minister of State for Environment, Shri Kamal Nath, visited Japan from 22 to 25 March 1992 to exchange views with his Japanese counterpart prior to the Earth Summit in Rio. A return visit was paid by Mr Shozaburo Nakamura, the Director General of the Japanese Environment Agency (Cabinet Minister), in September 1992 to India for discussions with Minister of State for Environment.

In the economic sphere, the Japanese demonstrated strong interest in India's policy initiatives on economic liberalisation and the opening up of the Indian economy. Japan retained the top slot in the list of India's ODA donors. At the Aid India Consortium meeting in Paris in June 1992, Japan pledged a total of Yen 111.91 billion for 1992-93, a 5% increase over the previous year.

Japanese investment in India registered a sharp increase during the year. From Rs 50 million in 1990, investment from Japan rose to Rs 527.1 million in 1991. Total Japanese investment commitment in India had risen to Rs 4,684.40 million upto October 1992, making Japan the third largest investor in India after the United States and Switzerland.

Positive interaction was also maintained with Japan at the official level in diverse areas. The India-Japan Foreign Office Consultative Talks were held in Tokyo on 13 and 14 April 1992. The Ninth India-Japan Trade Talks were held in Delhi in September-October 1992. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Department of Industrial Development and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to examine the feasibility of establishing an Industrial Model Town (IMT) in India as a pilot project to attract private foreign investment to India. The detailed indepth pre-feasibility report is expected to be ready by the end of 1993. The Indo-Japan Working Group on Railways met in New Delhi from 30 November to 4 December 1992 for wide-ranging discussions and follow up of Japanese aid projects and for Japanese assistance in the upgradation of technology in the Indian Railways.

At the non-governmental level too, contacts and interaction were sustained at a high level. The India-Japan Study Committee (IJSC) met in Bangalore in May 1992. They examined in particular ways of strengthening the bilateral linkages with stress on specific areas such as science and technology. It was also decided to make the meetings bi-annual in view of the intensification and broadening of areas of cooperation. Subsequently the 22nd Joint Meeting of the IJSC was held on 4 and 5 February 1993 in New Delhi where it was agreed, inter alia, to undertake joint studies in areas of mutual interest. The India-Japan Joint Business Council timed its annual meeting this time in Tokyo in June to coincide with Prime Minister Narasimha Rao's visit. An Investment Promotion Seminar was organized in Japan by FICCI and the Confederation of Indian Industry in September. A delegation of the Japanese Parliamentary Association on Population and Development visited India in October 1992.

In the cultural field, a series of special events were organized both in India and Japan in commemoration of the 40th anniversary of India-Japan diplomatic ties. Japan is also in the process of assisting India in the efforts to preserve her cultural heritage, The Government of Japan sent a high level Cultural Mission to India from 28 to 31 January 1993 for exploring and suggesting ways to increase cultural exchanges between the two countries.

A steady intensification of exchanges and interaction marked India's bilateral relations with the Republic of Korea. President and the Prime Minister congratulated Mr Kim Young Sam, the new President of the Republic of Korea, who assumed office on 25 February 1993. Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, the then Minister for External Affairs, visited the Republic of Korea from 15 to 18 March 1992 at the invitation of Foreign Minister Lee Sang Ock with whom he had useful exchange of views on matters of mutual interest. An Agreement on Civil Aviation was also signed during the visit which will enable the Korean Airlines to fly to Bombay and Delhi and Air India to fly to Seoul and Pusan. The visit was also utilised to apprise the Government and business community in South Korea about India's new trade and economic reforms and the investment opportunities here. Bilateral consultations at the official level were institutionalised with the first consultations being held in Seoul during the visit.
-38> Other visits from India included the visit of the then Minister of State for Industry, Prof P J Kurien, on 24 and 25 April 1992 to attend the Sixth Session of the World Assembly of Small and Medium Enterprises (WASME) and the visit of the then Minister of State for Tourism, Shri M 0 H Farook, accompanied by high-level officials in June 1992 for discussions with his counterpart on promotion of tourism between the two countries.

Economic and trade relations showed an upward trend. Bilateral trade between the two countries touched Rs 1376 crores recording a trade surplus of Rs 152 crores in India's favour for the first time. The EXIM Bank of Korea extended credit exceeding US $ 500 million for financing important ONGC projects and for purchase of Korean ships by the Shipping Corporation of India.

The visit of Chief of Army Staff (COAS), Gen S F Rodrigues, to the Republic of Korea from 9 to 13 November 1992 was the first ever visit by Chief of Army Staff of India to South Korea and signified the growing interaction between India and the Republic of Korea. Gen Rodrigues had meetings with his counterpart, Gen Kim Jin Yon, and other senior ROK defence officials.

The year also marked increased exchange of delegations of businessmen and industrialists between the two countries. The Indo-Korea joint Business Council (JBC) was held in New Delhi in November 1992. A high- level business delegation sponsored by Indian Merchants Chamber & Association visited the Republic of Korea in October 1992.

At the academic level and person to person level, contacts with the Republic of Korea expanded during the year. The Fourth Indo-Korean Conference was held in New Delhi in November 1992 where scholars from Yonsei University participated with academics from India. A group of prominent citizens from Pusan also visited India while the Academy of Korean Studies undertook its first field trip to India.

India's traditionally cordial relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea were maintained. At the invitation of Vice President Li Jong Ok, the then Vice President, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, paid a return visit to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from 14 to 17 April 1992. The visit also coincided with the 80th birthday celebration of President Kim Il Sung. The visit was utilised to broaden exchanges, in the political, economic and cultural spheres. Dr Girija Vyas, the then Union Deputy Minister for Information and Broadcasting, visited Democratic People's Republic of Korea on 12 September 1992 to attend the 3rd Pyongyang Film Festival of the Non-Aligned and other developing countries. She also used the opportunity to meet the top DPRK leaders and discuss various aspects of bilateral relations. The cultural exchanges between the two countries continued. A two-member Nalanda Dance Troupe from India participated in the 10th Spring Friendship Art Festival of the DPRK.

The friendly and cordial ties between India and Mongolia were further strengthened during the year under review.

In what was the highest level delegation from India since the State visit of President of India in July 1988, the Vice President of India paid an official goodwill visit to Mongolia from 17 to 20 April 1992. The highlight of this visit was the signing of an agreement on economic and technical cooperation which provides for scholarships to Mongolian Government nominees in various fields, setting up of an Indian Technical Centre in Mongolia and a centre for promotion of small-scale industries in that country. The President of Mongolia has accepted an invitation to visit India.

Efforts were made to expand bilateral cooperation in the economic and trade fields. Government of India decided in principle to make available to Mongolia a line of credit upto an amount of Rs 5 crores.
4 Central Asia
PRESIDENT ASKAR AKAEV OF KYRGHYZSTAN VISITED INDIA FROM 17 TO 19 MARCH 1992. During the visit, six agreements were signed between India and Kyrghyzstan, including Declaration on Principles and Directions of Cooperation; Protocols on Establishment of Diplomatic and Consular Relations; Framework agreements on Cultural Cooperation and Trade/Economic and Technological Cooperation, and an Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation.

President S Niazov of Turkmenistan paid an official visit to India between 18 and 20 April 1992. During the visit, India and Turkmenistan signed six agreements, which included Declaration on Principles and Directions of Cooperation; Protocols on Establishment of Diplomatic and Consular Relations; Framework agreements on Cultural Cooperation and Trade/Economic and Technical Cooperation.

The visit of the Presidents of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan and Turkmenistan to India during 1991-1992 had given an impetus to the bilateral relations with these countries and these were further consolidated during the current year. Ambassadors of India were accredited at the newly-opened Embassies in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). A decision was taken to open an Embassy in Dushanbe (Tajikistan) but could not be implemented on account of the outbreak of disturbances.

An Uzbek Parliamentary delegation led by Mr S M Yuldashev, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Uzbekistan, visited India in August 1992.

Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs, visited Uzbekistan from 8 to 13 October, Kyrghyzstan on 13 and 14 October and Kazakhstan from 14 to 16 October 1992. He met Prime Minister Mutalov of Uzbekistan, President Akaev of Kyrghyzstan and President Nazarbaev of Kazakhstan. During Minister of State's visit, both sides agreed to work for the further development of bilateral relations in all spheres. The leaderships of all the three countries expressed their support for India's position that Kashmir issue should be resolved through direct bilateral Indo-Pak negotiations. Agreements establishing Joint Commissions, and Cultural Exchange Programmes were signed with the three countries. Agreements on technical and economic

cooperation were signed with Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.

Shri Salman Khursheed, the then Deputy Minister of Commerce, visited Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan and Uzbekistan from 27 October to 10 November 1992. He led a multi-disciplinary delegation including businessmen. The delegation had wide-ranging discussions on expanding trade and economic cooperation with these countries. Preliminary discussions were held on establishing joint ventures including joint venture banks. The Indian side also announced credits of US $ 10 million each to Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and US $ 5 million each to Kyrghyzstan and Turkmenistan.

The Deputy Foreign Minister of Turkmenistan, Mr Boris Shikhmuradov, visited India from I to 9 December 1992. Besides having official discussions, he also met members of the Indian business community.

Medicines worth Rupees one crore were sent to Turkmenistan as humanitarian assistance and medical supplies worth Rs 50 lakhs were sent to Kyrghyzstan for the relief of earthquake victims there.

20 MT of sugar, 10 MT each of basmati rice and tea were sent to Azerbaijan as token gift.

Tajikistan has been in a state of civil war since August 1992. India had been in touch with the countries of the region and offered to participate in any effort to find a solution.

Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao, offered condolences for the victims of the Erzincan earthquake in Turkey in March 1992. Relief supplies worth Rs 75 Lakhs were sent as assistance to the victims of the earthquake. Indian participation at the 61 st Izmir International Trade Fair was a success with only 7 companies contracting business worth US $ 6.5 million as compared to 22 companies who had bagged orders worth US $ 3 million the previous year. The Lord Mayor of Ankara, Mr Murat Karayalcin, visited Delhi from 8 to 10 December 1992 under ICCR's distinguished visitor's programme.
5 West Asia and North Africa
DURING THE PERIOD UNDER REVIEW, INDIA'S RELATIONS WITH THE COUNTRIES OF West Asia and North Africa continued to be marked by friendship and cooperation. Besides bilateral interaction, India coordinated positions with some countries in the region in the world fora including UN, NAM and G-15 on the international issues of common concern. India noted with appreciation the understanding and confidence shown by several Arab countries of WANA region at Government's handling of the Ayodhya issue. India together with several countries in the region found common cause in combating terrorism and religious extremism. Exchange of visits and foreign office consultations helped in consolidating ties during this period.

Following the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and Israel, India is looking forward to developing relations with Israel in mutually beneficial fields while continuing to advocate its support for the ongoing peace process which it is hoped will lead to a settlement acceptable to all the concerned parties, and taking into account the legitimate rights and aspirations of the Palestinian people both within and outside the occupied territories.

India was invited to participate in the multilateral phase of the Middle East Peace Process comprising five Working Groups set up to discuss regional issues of common concern viz Arms Control and Regional Security, Environment, Economic Cooperation and Development, Water Resources and Refugees. India, China and Japan are so far the only non- regional Asian countries participating in the Middle East Peace Process. Two meetings each of the Working Groups were held between May and November 1992 and India participated in all of them. India made presentations in respect of its experience in the related areas. These were well received and it is hoped that some of these may prove to be relevant enough to be taken up for greater consideration subsequently.

There were continued high level contacts between India and Algeria. The Algerian Minister of Transport visited India from 28 April to 2 May 1992 and was received by Prime Minister. Discussions inter alia focussed on the need for greater cooperation in the railway sector, especially in Algeria's development programmes. Prime Minister and Mr Radhe Malek, member of the High Committee of State of Algeria shared common perceptions on the challenges of religious extremism faced by both the countries when they met on 21 November at Dakar during the G-15 Summit. In August 1992, Secretary level discussions between two foreign offices took place in Algiers focussing mainly on pending bilateral issues including the convening of the next meeting of the Joint Commission and issues relating to the NAM Summit.

An Exim Bank Line of Credit of US $ 50 million for Algeria has been extended upto May 1993, for the purpose of providing Algeria the means to surpass previous levels of imports from India.

A delegation led by Deputy Minister of Commerce visited Egypt on 17 and 18 May 1992 to re-emphasise necessity of boosting bilateral trade between the two countries. Foreign office consultations at Secretary level took place in Cairo in August. The Egyptian Foreign Minister agreed to assist in satisfactorily resolving the issue of outstanding payments from Egypt of over Rs 80 million pending since the termination of Rupee trade agreement. Meanwhile, ECGC credits amounting to Rs 105.21 million have been recovered.

Prime Minister met President Hosni Mubarak at G-15 Summit at Dakar in November. He reiterated the outstanding invitation to President Mubarak to visit India, and President Mubarak assured Prime Minister that he would schedule a visit shortly. Both leaders while sharing views on the progress of Middle East Peace Process felt that continuing of the dialogue between the Arabs and Israel was a necessary pre-condition for peace in the region. Both India and Egypt being founding members of NAM agreed to devise means for strengthening the movement so that it could adapt to newer challenges.

India's first Ambassador to Israel presented his credentials on 28 October 1992 and the Israeli Ambassador to India on 26 November 1992. Following the establishment of diplomatic relations, a number of visits at the official level have been exchanged between Israel and India with a view to exploring possibilities of bilateral cooperation. Some broad areas of mutually beneficial cooperation have been identified, which include agriculture, civil aviation, tourism, culture, science and technology, and solar energy.

The fifth session of the Indo-Jordan Trade and Economic Committee was held in Amman from 20 to 23 April 1992 during which status of trade and economic relations between the two countries was reviewed. Both sides were satisfied with the results of the efforts made by each side to increase the volume of trade between the two countries. It was also agreed that further markets would be explored by conducting surveys and that Jordan would advise government -44> departments to buy scientific equipments from India. India agreed to maintain import of rock phosphate at the 1991-92 level, the import of which has been decanalised. Jordan showed its eagerness to import from India wheat, rice, barley and corn. A review of the ITEC programme was also made.

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, visited Jordan on 23 and 24 August 1992. The Jordanians suggested founding of an Indo-Arab thought forum and a commission of wise men for Asian Ethos. An invitation to Crown Prince Hassan Bin Talal to visit India was extended by the Minister.

India supports the full implementation of the Taif Accord in letter and spirit, and welcomed the first Parliamentary elections which took place in Lebanon after a gap of 20 years. India supports the Lebanese people and Government in their commitment to national reconciliation, unity and sovereignty, and the expansion of the authority of the Lebanese Government and the Lebanese Armed Forces throughout the country in accordance with the provisions of the Taif Agreement.

The major issue with Libya during the year was the attempt to recover Indian blocked funds owed to Indian companies. Some progress was achieved. An amount of about Rs 1350 million has been paid back to the Indian companies through oil payments in 1992, and further discussions are in progress. Libyan Minister of Economic Planning, Mr Omer Mustafa Muntassar, visited India as Col Gaddafi's special envoy on 13 August 1992 and called on the Prime Minister. He briefed about steps taken by Libya to comply with UN Security Council Resolutions, and sought India's understanding in finding an amicable solution to the problems arising out of the Lockerbie air crash case. UN sanctions against Libya continued till the end of the year.

For logistical reasons, concurrent accreditation to Mauritania was changed from Indian Embassy in Dakar (Senegal) to Indian Embassy in Algiers (Algeria).

Moroccan Foreign Minister, Mr Abdul Latif Filali, visited India from 18 to 23 February 1992. During his meetings with the Prime Minister and other leaders, discussions focussed on the Moroccan proposal to upgrade the Indo-Moroccan joint Committee, the Middle East Peace Process and developments relating to the Arab Maghreb Union.

India's sympathy and support to the Palestinian people were reiterated by Prime Minister when he met President Yasser Arafat during his one day stopover in Tunis on 20 November 1992 on his way to Dakar to attend the G-15 Summit. President Yasser Arafat briefed Prime Minister on progress in the Middle East Peace Process, especially in the Israel-Palestinian dialogue. Solidarity with the Palestinian people was expressed at a function organized by the ICCR to commemorate the International Day of Solidarity. The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, who was the Chief Guest, reiterated India's consistent and unequivocal support to the Palestinian cause. India regretted the expulsion by Israel of more than 400 Palestinians from the occupied territories and urged Israel to rescind the expulsion order. India as President of the Security Council was instrumental in having UN Security Council Resolution No 799 of 18 December passed, which inter alia condemned Israel for the expulsions.

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, visited Somalia on 16 November and handed over relief supplies worth Rs 20 lakhs in the form of medicines and baby food for the affected people of Somalia. A cheque for US $ 250,000 from the AFRICA Fund was also handed over. The Minister of State availed of the opportunity to obtain a first hand view of the prevailing chaotic situation in Somalia. He held discussions with Mr Ali Mahdi and Gen Aidid including the prospects of convening of a National Reconciliation Conference at a future date. India supported the UN Security Council Resolution 794 inviting member countries to contribute forces for the peace-keeping operations for bringing about relief to millions of starving Somalis. In pursuance of this Resolution, India also agreed to participate in the UN Peace Keeping Operation in Somalia with one Corvette and one LST and approximately with a brigade, including Paramedical units, from the Indian Navy and Army respectively.

During the current year, the Sudanese have shown a positive inclination to further boost the bilateral relations and to cooperate in the international domain with India. A very muted Sudanese reaction on the events in Ayodhya was expressed. Discussions took place to recover blocked funds amounting to Rs 62.58 crores though no significant progress has yet been noted.

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, visited Syria from 20 to 23 August 1992 with a view to rejuvenate political contacts and to, impart greater economic thrust to bilateral relations. He was accompanied by a business delegation. An exchange of views took place on local and regional issues including the Middle East Peace Process and the NAM Summit. He called on President Assad and Dr Yassin, Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs, who expressed a desire to visit India at the head of a business delegation. Syria showed keenness in developing bilateral economic ties and assured the Minister of State that Syria would welcome the participation by Indian companies especially in the supply of machines, plants, equipments as well as infrastructure turn- key projects.

The second session of the Indo-Syrian Joint Trade Committee was held in Delhi from 20 to 22 May. The Syrian delegation was led by Dr Abdul Rahim Subeih, Deputy Minister for Planning. Discussions on ways and means to develop diversified trade relations including barter were held. Cooperation in the field of irrigation and agriculture, possibilities of setting up industrial projects, further Indian participation in transport, communication and power sectors were discussed. The Syrians expressed desire to enhance scientific and technical cooperation.

A 9-member Syrian Parliamentary delegation, headed by the Speaker of the Syrian People's Council, visited India from 8 to 17 February 1993. The members of the delegation called on the President, the Vice President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the External Affairs Minister and the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khursheed during their stay. Wide ranging discussions on bilateral and international matters took place. The Syrian side expressed its desire to further strengthen the already existing friendly relations, India reiterated her stand on the Palestinian question and hoped for an early resumption of the Peace Talks. India also expressed dismay at the deportation of 400 Palestinians by Israel.

Tunisian Foreign Minister, Mr Habib Ben Yahia, visited India from 26 to 28 August 1992. He called on the President and the Prime Minister and held talks with the objective of continuing regular political consultations between the two countries. Discussions focussed on the Middle East Peace Process and the NAM Summit at Jakarta.

The fifth meeting of the Indo-Tunisian joint Committee was held in New Delhi from 26 to 28 October 1992. It was agreed to organize a multi- sector exhibition of Indian products in Tunisia in 1993, explore possibilities of maritime cooperation, joint ventures in industry and tourism and the setting up of a Joint Chamber of Commerce.

On his way to Dakar to attend G-15 Summit, the Prime Minister stopped in Tunis on 20 November. Tunisian Prime Minister, Mr Hamid Karoui, briefed Prime Minister on developments in the region with special reference to Libya, Western Sahara, and Middle East Peace Process. The potential of further expansion of commercial and economic cooperation was underlined during the discussions in view of the process of liberalisation underway in both the countries.

India's ties with the countries of the Gulf Region are as old as the recorded history, and she has close relations with the countries of the Region in almost every field. The presence of more than 1.5 million Indian citizens working in the Gulf countries has added a major new dimension to the bilateral relationship. Before the Gulf war, the annual remittances from Indian nationals in the region were estimated to be Rs 3,500 crores. Since the end of the Gulf war, 1,09,000 Indian nationals have already returned to Kuwait and more are expected to follow. The remittances are expected to register growth.

India has signed term contracts for import of 10 million tonnes of oil from Gulf Cooperation Council Countries for the year 1992-93. In addition, substantial purchases of crude oil from this region were also made through the spot market. The Gulf countries account for approximately two-thirds of India's oil import.

India's total trade with the Gulf Region during the year 1991-92 was approximately Rs 11,546 crores, of which about Rs 3,218 crores was the value of her exports. The trade would increase even further when the economic sanctions against Iraq are lifted.

The security, stability and peace in this area of strategic importance is of vital interest to India and she has high stakes in their promotion in this region. It has, therefore, been India's constant endeavour to further strengthen her ties with all the countries of this area.

As a part of these efforts, the Minister for External Affairs accompanied by a high level official and a business delegation, visited Kuwait in February 1992. A bilateral co-operation agreement providing for establishment of an Indo-Kuwait joint Commission was signed during the visit. India also had the opportunity of welcoming the Kuwaiti Ministers of Communication and Information who visited India in February and July 1992 respectively. A Memorandum of Understanding on bilateral cooperation in the field of information was signed during the visit of the Information Minister. These visits and intensified bilateral contacts have enabled the return of more than 1,09,000 Indians to Kuwait upto the end of November 1992.

The UAE President, Shaikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahayan, paid a State visit to India in April 1992 and held detailed discussions on matters of mutual interest with the Prime Minister. Both sides agreed to expand the scope of the bilateral relationship. An agreement on the avoidance of double taxation was signed during the visit. As a result of the visit the UAE has shown increased interest in investments in India. As follow up measures, a UAE delegation visited India to explore possibilities of setting up a hospital and discussions have also taken place in UAE for investments in the oil, petrochemicals and other sectors. Further discussions on these subjects are to take place.

After lying dormant for nearly two decades, the issue of sovereignty over Abu Musa Island in the Southern Gulf was revived afresh between the United Arab Emirates and Iran. Although the two sides have held discussions on this issue, the dispute has defied resolution. In a statement issued on 16 September 1992, India expressed the hope that the existing differences would be resolved through friendly' bilateral dialogue between the countries concerned in accordance with the agreements. India, consistent with basic principles governing her foreign policy, reiterated her respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all States in the Gulf region. India attached importance to the maintenance of peace, stability and security in the region.

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, visited Baharain, Oman and Qatar in May-June 1992. During his visit, Shri Faleiro held extensive discussions with the leaders of these countries with a view to explore the possibilities of further expanding the scope of bilateral relationship. The Secretary General of the GCC, Mr Abdullah Bishara, visited India and held discussions with the Indian leadership aimed at forging stronger and political ties with all the GCC States. It has been decided to hold regular dialogue with the GCC Secretariat. He also interacted with a broad strata of Indian academic and media personalities. The six GCC States are Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar and Kuwait.

The Under Secretary for Political Affairs of Oman, Sayyid Haitham Bin Tariq Al Said, visited India in September 1992 for discussions with the officials of the Ministry of External Affairs. It was agreed to conclude a new agreement on economic and technical cooperation with a view to expand economic and commercial ties. Oman also expressed interest in cooperation in the field of agriculture. In order to achieve these objectives, India extended an invitation to the Omani Minister of Commerce while Oman welcomed the visit by Indian Minister of Agriculture. A delegation led by the President of Oman Oil Company visited India in November 1992 to explore possibilities of cooperation in the oil and petrochemicals sectors and several discussions have been initiated on this subject.

The then Minister of State for Petroleum, Natural Gas and Defence, Shri Krishna Kumar, visited UAE in October 1992. He called on the President of the UAE and had detailed discussions with his UAE counterpart. He also met a wide cross-section of the Indian community there.

The Deputy Minister for Information of Saudi Arabia visited India in February 1992 at the invitation of the Government of India, and Secretary (West) in the Ministry of External Affairs visited Saudi Arabia and the UAE in October 1992. Secretary (West) held official level talks with his counterpart in the Foreign Ministry at Jeddah.

India, through her pragmatic approach, contributed to the development of consensus and endorsement of international law & legitimacy in the UN Security Council in 1992 on various resolutions pertaining to the Gulf Region. India continued her efforts to get compensation for Indian citizens and commercial establishements which suffered losses as a result of the Gulf war.

A Special Kuwait Cell was established in 1991 to deal with the compensation claims of Indian nationals, including Indian companies, who sustained losses during the Gulf crisis following Iraq's invasion and occupation of Kuwait in August 1990. More than sixty thousand claims for about US $ 733.8 million (about Rs 1,935 crores) have already been forwarded (as on 16 February 1993) to the United Nations Compensation Commission, Geneva.

The UN Security Council vide its Resolution No 687 (1991) dated 3 April 1991 reaffirmed that Iraq, without prejudice to the debts and obligations of Iraq arising prior to 2 August 1990, which will be addressed through the normal mechanisms, is liable under international law for any direct loss, damage, including environmental damage, and the depletion of natural resources or injury to foreign governments, nationals or corporations, as a result of Iraq's unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait. The Security Council, under the same Resolution, set up a fund to pay compensation for claims that fall within the above parameters and also established a UN Compensation Commission (UNCC) to administer the fund.

There were about 1,72,000 Indian nationals in Kuwait before Iraq's invasion. Even before the UNCC prescribed guidelines and formats for presenting the claims, Government of India considered it desirable to collect information on compensation claims from Indian nationals and business houses, in a suitable format which was widely circulated as early as in June 1991. The Special Kuwait Cell received about 95,000 claims which were registered and computerised. But this exercise became infructuous as later the UNCC devised its own formats for claim applications.

In June 1992, the UNCC circulated rules/procedures for filing compensation claims, Six types of forms for submission of claims, namely, 'A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E' & 'F' have been prescribed by the UNCC. These forms were given publicity, through news media, State and Union Territory Governments, etc and fresh claim applications were invited as per UNCC requirements. The first four categories pertain to claims by individuals which are required to be forwarded to the UNCC by 30 June 1993. The claims for business losses are to be subimitted on form 'E' and government claims on form 'F'. The last date for submission of 'E' & 'F' claims is 31 December 1993.

The total amount of compensation claimed by Indian nationals/companies has not yet been finally compiled as claims are still being received, but it is estimated that the total claim amount will be about US $ 2,000 million.

The details of the Claim Forms are as follows:

Form 'A': Damages arising out of departure from Iraq or Kuwait by affected individuals/families for fixed amounts between US $ 2,500 to US $ 8,000
Form 'B': Damages for serious personal injury or death
Form 'C': Individual claims for damages up to US $ 100,000
Form 'D': Individual claims for damages above US $ 100,000
Form 'E': Claims of Corporations and other entities
Form 'F': Claims of governments and international organizations.

So far 1,52,000 'A' claims have been registered with the Special Kuwait Cell. Of these about 20% claimants appear to have made more than one application. After eliminating such duplicate claims, there will be about 1,20,000 genuine claims. All these claims are being computerised by the National Informatics Centre and are under various stages of processing. Upto 16 February 1993, 66,121 claims of 'A' category for a total amount of US $ 259,921,000 have been sent to the Permanent Mission of India, Geneva, for onward transmission to the UNCC. It is proposed to send all remaining 'A' claims to Geneva, for onward transmission to the UNCC by April 1993.

A total of 325 claims tinder category 'B' have been ed, registered and scrutinised. Of these only 37 claims for US $ 92,500 have been found to conform to the UNCC requirements and have been forwarded to the PMI, Geneva. Letters have been issued to the rest of the claimants requesting them to remove the deficiencies. It is hoped that their replies will be received by the middle of March 1993 and thereafter, the remaining 'B' forms will be forwarded to the UNCC.

Claims under Category 'C' are expected to be around 20,000. Majority of these claim forms have not been filled in correctly. The claim forms are being scrutinized and the claimants will bp notified to remove the deficiencies.

The total number of claims received and registered under Category 'D' so far is 326. Scrutiny of these claims has been completed and letters have been issued to the claimants to remove deficiencies as per the UNCC requirements and resubmit the claims by March 1993.

So far, 118 claims from the Companies, Corporations, etc have been received. Very few claims have been submitted in the UNCC form 'E'. Even these have not been correctly filled in and supported with documentary evidence. Letters are being sent to the concerned to meet the UNCC requirements. Even though the last date of submission of claims in form 'E' is 31 December 1993, it is proposed to forward the forms to Geneva in the first half of 1993. One 'E' claim for US $ 472.8 million has alredy been lodged with the UNCC.

As regards government claims to be submitted in form 7, the concerned authorities have been advised to submit their claims in time.

The tensions between Iraq and coalition partners resurfaced during December 1992- January 1993. The two sides were at variance with respect to a number of issues, including border demarcation between Iraq and Kuwait, 'no fly zones' and access to the search teams from UN Special Commission. These differences resulted in a series of military actions by USA, UK and France against Iraqi targets. On 14 January 1993 a statement by India hoped that dangerous escalations would be avoided by strict adherence to the terms of the ceasefire after the Gulf war and by full recognition and observance of the sovereignty, integrity and international legitimacy of all States in the Gulf region.

The Ministry assisted in arrangements for Haj Pilgrimage and 24,000 Hajis performed the Haj in June 1992 under the auspices of the Haj Committee. 4,700 travelled by sea and 19,300 by air. A twelve member Haj Goodwill Delegation led by Shri Khurshid Alam Khan, Governor of Karnataka, visited Saudi Arabia for the pilgrimage and carried a letter from Prime Minister to King Fahd of Saudi Arabia.

The unfortunate incident that took place in Ayodhya on 6 December had its repercussions in the countries of the Gulf region. Most of the Gulf countries and inter-regional groupings such as Gulf Cooperation Council and the Organization of Islamic Conference issued critical statements condemning the incident and the communal riots that took place in the wake of the destruction of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya. The Government made every effort to explain developments in the correct perspective to the friendly countries. The Ambassadors of GCC countries as well as OIC were briefed by the Minister of State as well as the Secretaries in the Ministry of External Affairs. Indian Envoys in the Arab capitals also made efforts to explain the developments. It is assessed that as a result of these efforts, the countries by and large appreciate India's commitment to secular ideals and the sincerity with which the Government is trying to find appropriate solutions to this intensely complex problem.

India has traditionally attached importance to the relations with Iran. Iran has assumed special significance for India against the backdrop of the situation in the Gulf, developments in Central Asia and Afghanistan and in the region as a whole. Iran's large reserves of oil and gas, its status as a major power in the region and its impulses on issues of growth and development are factors conducive to cooperation of great mutual benefit and advantage.

Iran too pays substantial attention to relations with India. Frequent high level exchanges have characterised the bilateral relations. Iranian Foreign Minister, Dr Velayati, visited India for the Sixth Session of the Indo-Iranian Joint Commission on 10 and 11 November 1992. During the Joint Commission Session, Iran conveyed firm signals of its readiness to upgrade political, economic and commercial realtions with India. Apart from three existing committees dealing with trade, industry, cultural and consular matters, etc, two new committees were set up in the Joint Commission to handle new thrust areas of agriculture and transportation. There was progress in specific areas of cooperation. Indian proposals for participation in projects in Iran are also in various stages of finalisation.
6 Africa (South of the Sahara)
THE DEMOCRATIC WAVE ACROSS THE VAST AFRICAN CONTINENT HAS RESULTED IN profound changes. Some countries made progress towards multi-party democracy, in other countries the transformation has been slow, and in some there has actually been regression. The reform process in South Africa received a setback due to continuing violence specially after the initial optimism over the successful meeting of the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA-I). It is hoped that the political deadlock at CODESA-II over the formation of a representative government was only temporary.

India has welcomed the growing acceptance of multi-party democracy in Africa. There was a smooth transition in Zambia to multi-party democracy. Kenya and Tanzania have carried out the necessary constitutional amendments for registration of various political parties. The first multi-party election in 26 years was held in Kenya on 29 December 1992. Two distinguished Indians were part of the Commonwealth Observers Team in Kenya. Seychelles elected a Constitution Commission in July 1992. However, as the draft Constitution submitted for referendum in November 1992 could not muster the requisite minimum percentage of votes (60%), the Constitution Commission is being reconvened in January 1993 to draw up a fresh constitution. In Madagascar, the new constitution was approved in a referendum held in August. In Guinea and Mali multi-party elections were completed and new Governments came into power during the course of the year, In Gambia President Jawara was re- elected. In Zaire a transitional government was elected in August 1992 and has been charged with a mandate to organize multi-party elections within a period of 2 years. In Ghana Presidential elections were completed in November 1992. Ft Lt J J Rawlings was elected as the civilian President and installed on 7 January 1993. Parliamentary elections took place on 29 December 1992 with the opposition parties boycotting them. In Nigeria the democratic process received a setback due to widespread complaints of irregularities. The Presidential elections originally scheduled to take place in December 1992 have been postponed to June 1993. Mozambique, after signing a General Peace Agreement on 4 October 1992, is moving towards establishment of a multi- party system. Angola conducted

elections in September 1992. The ruling MPLA party won the elections but there will be a run-off between President Dos Santos and UNITA leader Mr Jonas Savimbi as neither got the required percentage. Thus significant changes are being effected in sub-Sahara Africa.

Economically the continent continues to suffer, its problems being compounded by a severe drought in Southern Africa. Most of the countries have accepted the structural adjustment programme of the IMF as a major means of their economic recovery even though the conditionalities involve a lot of sacrifices. There was a trend towards greater regional cooperation. Therefore, economic groupings like Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in West Africa, Southern African Development Community (SADC) in Southern Africa, Preferential Trade Area (PTA) covering Eastern, Central and Southern African countries or the Indian Ocean Commission are expected to play a greater role. Then, there is the African Economic Community which is the ultimate aim of the OAU.

India has always attached special importance to its relations with Africa. With the political independence of all African countries and the prospect of reform within South Africa, the struggle against colonialism and institutionalised racialism is moving towards a successful conclusion. In the future, new relationships based on concrete economic, technological and educational cooperation will assume enhanced significance. It is increasingly being realised that in several areas Indian technology is more relevant to the needs of Africa than that provided by the developed countries. India has initiated economic collaboration arrangements with several countries of Africa. The focus of Indian cooperation would now shift more to consultancy services, projects, joint ventures and investments in various fields besides promoting India's exports to Africa. Despite constraints of resources on both sides, Indian efforts would be to embark on mutually beneficial projects. The countries of Africa seek Indian assistance for their human resource development. In this sphere India is in a position to assist; a large number of Indian scientists and technical experts are already working in Africa.

While expressing regret at the continuing violence in South Africa, India worked assiduously in various international fora to promote the restoration of the process of negotiations for bringing about a non- racial, democratic and undivided South Africa. She has welcomed the resumption of negotiations between the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Government. The next multi-party constitutional negotiations are likely to be resumed in February 1993.

In view of the positive developments towards the formation of an interim Government of national unity, India announced the decision to set up a Cultural Centre in South Africa at a suitable location to promote "people to people" contacts, with power to discharge necessary visa functions. This is in consonance with the decision taken at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) held at Harare in 1991. India also decided to commence direct air links with South Africa. In accordance with the CHOGM time-table, diplomatic relations with South Africa will need to await the establishment of an interim Government.

India continued to give moral and material support to the ANC to end apartheid in South Africa. Sixteen ANC diplomats are being trained in the Foreign Service Training Institute. Other proposals for human resource development are also in the pipeline.

The highlight of India's relations with Mauritius was the visit by Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, in March 1992 as Chief Guest for the celebrations declaring Mauritius a Republic. This was followed by the visit of Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo, First President and former Governor General of Mauritius, in May-June. The Mauritian Foreign Minister, Mr Paul Raymond Berenger, also visited India from 5 to 12 August 1992. These and other high level visits resulted in a further consolidation of the existing close ties between the two countries.

In the elections held in Angola on 30 September and 1 October 1992 the ruling Popular Movement for the liberation of Angola (MPLA) was declared the winner having polled 53.74% votes while National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) could muster only 34.1%.

A second round of presidential polls is to take place as neither candidate could obtain more than 50% of the votes. The UN continue to make efforts to bring about a political dialogue between the two sides. India hopes that agreement is reached and peace prevails in Angola.

A General Peace Accord was signed on 4 October 1992 between the President of Mozambique, Mr Chissano, and the RENAMO leader, Mr Afonso Dhlakama, in Rome. The two leaders expressed their interest and willingness to make every effort for a lasting peace in Mozambique. A United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) has been established. The UN Force is to act in conformity with the Peace Accord in ensuring peace, ceasefire and holding of elections. India has been requested to provide logistic companies for ONUMOZ. The Mozambican Foreign Minister, Dr Pascoal Manuel Mocumbi, paid an official visit to India from 25 to 27 August 1992. Mozambique would like India to play an active role in the reconstruction of its economy, particularly in the field of agriculture, transport, communication, mines and industry.

India and Uganda have longstanding relations except for the aberration during Idi Amin's regime from 1972-76. President of Uganda, Mr Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, paid a State visit to India from 12 to 14 October 1992. The visit provided a fillip to the bilateral relations and the two countries can now move forward to forging a constructive relationship based on mutual benefit. Uganda is seeking India's assistance in various fields for the reconstruction of its economy. Some areas of cooperation have been identified like setting up food processing industry, wood products, manufacture of bicycles, edible oils and fertiliser. A Framework Agreement was also signed to sort out the problem of blocked funds in Uganda.

The then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, paid a visit to Ethiopia from 9 to 17 November 1992. This was the first Ministerial visit to Ethiopia in 15 years. The Transitional Government of Ethiopia, since it assumed power in May 1991, has been undertaking major political, economic and social changes in the country. India's assistance to Ethiopia's economic development was appreciated. The Ethiopian leadership, has expressed the hope that India would assist them further in their economic development. The Foreign Minister of Ethiopia led a high-level economic delegation to India from 14 to 16 December 1992. They have sought Indian cooperation in rural technology particularly agro-industries, small scale industries and technical assistance, specially in higher education. They are also seeking Indian investment.

Sierra Leone witnessed a coup d'etat in April 1992. The President, Mr Joseph Momoh, fled the country. Captain Valentine Strasser took over as President at the head of a military ruling council. Another coup attempt on 28 December 1992 failed.

In Ghana, the Parliamentary elections for 200 constituencies were held on 29 December 1992. With many opposition parties boycotting the elections, the National Democratic Congress Party of President Rawlings won the elections securing 189 seats.

The civil war in Liberia continued, bringing untold misery to the people. Intermittent fighting continued throughout the year, intensifying in the latter half of the year. At least 3,000 casualties were reported. The West African Peace Keeping Force, ECOMOG, continued its efforts to bring the fighting to an end. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Summit held in Abuja in November 1992 decided to impose economic sanctions on warring factions not complying with the Yamoussoukro-IV agreement. The UN Security Council passed a resolution to impose arms embargo on Liberia, excepting ECOMOG. The UN Secretary General appointed a Special Representative to evaluate the situation and report to the Security Council. All necessary efforts were made to assist Indians in Liberia.

President Eyadema of Togo dissolved the Government led by Prime Minister Joseph Koffigoh on 13 January 1993 for "failing to organize elections on schedule" thereby 11 putting the continuity of the state in peril". He stated that a new Prime Minister would be appointed to head a government of national unity which would be charged with the task of organizing in the shortest possible period, free democratic and fair elections.

Mr James A Michel, Chief of Staff of the Seychelles Peoples Defence Forces and Minister of Finance and Information of the Republic of Secychelles visited India from 12 to 17 October 1992 at the invitation of Minister of State for Defence and discussed matters relating to bilateral defence cooperation.

The Government of India was deeply concerned over the adverse effects of the unprecedented drought prevailing in Southern Africa and the consequent distress among the people of the region. Despite her severe economic constraints, India sent relief assistance comprising medicines, baby food and water purification tablets to some of the more severely affected countries like Botswana, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe as well as some countries further. up north like Ghana, Kenya and Ethiopia. While this was a modest contribution, it was symbolic of the concern that the people of India felt for the people of the countries of Africa.

During the year under review, India continued to play a significant role as Chairman of the Action For Resisting Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid (AFRICA) Fund which was set up by the 8th NAM Summit in Harare in September 1986 as an expression of the Movement's support and solidarity with the Frontline States. The mandate of the AFRICA Fund was renewed by the 9th NAM Summit in Belgrade in 1989 till the 10th NAM Summit. The 10th meeting of the Senior Officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee in Cairo in May 1992 reviewed the outcome of all the various initiatives taken by the Fund. The Prime Minister as Chairman of the AFRICA Fund Committee made a statement on the AFRICA Fund to the 10th NAM Summit in Jakarta in September 1992. In his presentation, the Prime Minister endorsed the recommendations of the AFRICA Fund Committee that while the mandate of the Fund ends at the 10th Summit, the member states of the Movement would continue to support the liberation movements in South Africa till the objective of bringing about a non-racial unified and democratic South Africa is achieved. The 10th NAM Summit commended the role played by India as Chairman, and the Committee member countries and expressed its appreciation and gratitude to all donor countries for their generous contributions. The Summit also accepted the proposal of the Chairman, Prime Minister of India, to provide US $ 250,000 for the humanitarian relief in Somalia and the remaining balance to the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) for drought relief in Southern Africa, human resource development in South Africa and voter education there before the elections. The Summit further recommended that while the mandate of the Fund ends at the Summit, member countries of the Movement should Continue to strengthen the liberation movements in South Africa with fresh expressions of political and material support.

India on her part, as a contributor to the Fund, continued to make efforts for full utilisation of its contribution of Rs 50 crores in kind and of the contribution of Rs 2.56 crores by individuals, private and public organizations in India. Further, in accordance with the decision of the 10th NAM Summit, a cheque for US $ 250,000 was given to the UN Special Representative in Somalia by the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, in Mogadishu in November 1992. Shri Eduardo Faleiro in January 1993 presented another cheque for US $ 290,000 to SADC for utilisation in accordance with NAM's decision.

The activities of the AFRICA Fund have been greatly appreciated- by the Frontline States and the liberation movements and have earned all round recognition. Its experience has set an example in South-South cooperation and collective solidarity. It was India's privilege to be associated with this effort both as a contributor to the Fund and its Chairman.
7 Europe

Eastern Europe
A. OVERALL TRENDS THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS IN 1991-92 HAD indicated the sweeping changes that had affected the erstwhile USSR and continued to take place in the countries of Eastern Europe. The changes that have taken place and are continuing in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are expected to have a major impact on international relations. The process of reformulation of international relations and the building of new international structures has begun. Developments in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union will have a very important bearing on the evolution of this new order.

The changes taking place in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are not only of a political dimension but also embrace far-reaching economic reforms with the objective of closer integration into the international economic system and efforts to firmly establish a pluralist form of democracy although the pace and content in respect of these activities varies from country to country. These processes, taking place simultaneously, have given rise to a plethora of problems within these countries and also those which have an external dimension including, inter alia, the rise of ethnic nationalism, migration of populations, a re-orientation of the Trans-Atlantic and European security structures, multiplicity of political parties and movements and self-doubt about several aspects of the change including the likelihood of substantial economic recovery in an acceptably reasonable time-frame.

India has welcomed the advent of democracy and a pluralist form of Government in the East European countries. India has also welcomed the efforts being made by these countries to re-model their economic structures to integrate them into the international economic system based on market principles. At the same time, it is India's belief that the political and economic changes in these countries provide the framework for even closer, mutually beneficial political, economic, commercial, scientific and other forms of cooperation. The changes in these countries have brought them ideologically more in line with India's own non-ideological orientation and democratic beliefs. They also provide opportunities for India, particularly in economic terms.

Several steps were taken to consolidate India's traditionally friendly, cooperative and mutually beneficial relations with the independent Republics that emerged from the former Soviet Union. These included high level political interchanges. Diplomatic relations have been established with all the Republics that emerged from the former Soviet Union. India's diplomatic presence has been expanded. Indian Embassies are now functioning in Kiev and Minsk and Consulates General in Vladivostok and St. Petersburg. India's relations with these countries are being reconstructed on new lines. The expectation, however, is that India's relations with all the successor States would stabilise. India had very good relations with the former Soviet Union and it is the intention that these relations will endure with the successor Republics.

Efforts are being made and would be pursued to maintain the close political relations that India had previously enjoyed with the East European countries. The economic dimension of the relationship has necessarily to take into account the changes not only in these countries but also the on-going changes in India.

Following the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, India had on 11 May 1992 extended recognition to the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina and the Indian Embassy in Belgrade continued to be accredited to the newly formed Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In respect of Macedonia, taking all relevant factors into account, India has not accorded recognition.

The on-going crisis in the former Yugoslavia is a matter of serious concern and anxiety. India is grieved at the loss of innocent lives and the economic and social distress that has resulted from the crisis. India's approach to the crisis has from the very inception been based on principle. She welcomes all efforts to bring about an immediate peaceful settlement and stress the need for an early political resolution without resort to any form of force or violence.

As a gesture of solidarity, India has decided to contribute humanitarian relief amounting to Rs 1 million for the former Yugoslavia. The amount is to be used to purchase medicines, etc, through the Indian Red Cross for use by the ICRC.

The year also saw the peaceful and constitutional division of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic with effect from 1 January 1993. India has recognised both the new Republics that have emerged, viz the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Diplomatic relations continue, without break, with both these countries. India's Ambassador in Prague has been appointed as the first resident Ambassador to the Czech Republic and the first non- resident Ambassador to the Slovak Republic. The Embassy of the CSFR in New Delhi has been divided into two portions. Both countries have diplomatic representation in India on a continuing basis.


The emergence of Russia as an independent State, together with the process of democratisation and economic reforms entailed certain adjustments in bilateral relations on both sides. While the process involved some transitional difficulties mainly in economic interaction, both countries are aware of the continued convergence of interests and the new opportunities that have opened up for the further development of mutually beneficial cooperation in the new context.

High level political and official contacts with Russia underlined the importance both countries attach to the bilateral relationship. Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, and President Yeltsin have since their January 1992 meeting kept in touch including through exchange of letters and President Yeltsin paid an official visit to India in late January 1993. President and Prime Minister have been invited to visit Russia.

Former State Secretary, Mr Gennady Burbulis, visited India in May 1992 at the invitation of Finance Minister. He was accompanied by Ministers of Foreign Economic Relations, Economy, and Fuel and Energy and State Counsellor for Conversion of Defence Industry. He called on the President, Vice President and Prime Minister and held discussions with Raksha Mantri and Ministers of State for External Affairs, Commerce and Power. An agreement establishing an Indo-Russian joint Commission and another agreement on trade and economic cooperation were signed during the visit.

The high point of Parliamentary contacts between Russia and India was the visit of a Russian Parliamentary delegation led by the Supreme Soviet Chairman, Mr Ruslan Khasbulatov, to India in August 1992. Apart from discussions with the Honourable Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and Members of Parliament, Speaker Khasbulatov also called on the President and the Prime Minister. He spoke warmly of the historical legacy of Indo-Russian relations and the need to sustain and deepen them.

Raksha Mantri, Shri Sharad Pawar, paid an official visit to Moscow in September 1992. Substantive discussions were held with acting Prime Minister, Mr Gaidar, and Defence Minister, Gen Grachev, apart from other Russian dignitaries. Raksha Mantri discussed with his host bilateral and international security issues and continuing military-technical cooperation between India and Russia. The Chiefs of the Air and Naval Staff of the Indian Armed Forces also paid goodwill visits to Russia in October and November 1992 respectively.

President Yeltsin visited India from 27 to 29 January 1993. He was accompanied by the first Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Mr Shumeiko, Foreign Minister, Defence Minister, Minister of Security and Minister of External Economic Relations, among others. President Yeltsin had meetings with the President and Prime Minister. The Ministers accompanying him had separate bilateral discussions.

During the visit of President Yeltsin, a treaty of friendship and cooperation and agreements on Rupee-Rouble exchange rate, on defence cooperation, on Indo-Russian consultations, on cultural and scientific cooperation, on information, on combating illicit traffic in narcotics and on cooperation between the Ministry of Home Affairs of India and the Russian Security Ministry, and an MOU on science and technology were signed. Four letters were also exchanged on trade and related matters.

The visit laid a durable foundation for future friendship and close interaction between India and the Russian Federation. President Yeltsin indicated Russia's desire to build a dynamic growth-oriented multi- faceted relationship with India and stated that a friendly and stable relationship between two big Asian powers like Russia and India will contribute to the cause of regional stability and peace. The convergence of views on issues of mutual interest and common concern would enable fruitful and purposeful cooperation between the two countries both bilaterally and in the multilateral context. In effect, following President Yeltsin's visit a new chapter has opened in Indo-Russian relations - a chapter that takes into account the changed global context as also the changes that have taken place in both the countries.

India and Russia have cooperated fruitfully in international organizations including the UN. India supported the UN General Assembly resolution (based on the joint Russo-Afghan Declaration of 14 May 1992) appealing to the Governments of Afghanistan and Russia to start talks on the humanitarian question of the return and accounting of POWs and MIAs.

The first meeting of the Indo-Russian joint Commission is expected to be held in the near future.

Three important issues merit mention in relations with the Ukraine. The most important is the rapid development of bilateral relations, starting with the visit in January 1992 of a team of Secretaries, including Foreign Secretary, which laid the foundation for further high-level contacts and establishment of diplomatic relations. Foreign Secretary was received by President Kravchuk, who expressed his keenness to continue the close relations that existed between the former USSR and India.

President Kravchuk subsequently visited India in March 1992 during which four important agreements were signed. Prime Minister and President Kravchuk signed the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation on 27 March 1992 which was subsequently ratified and Instruments of Ratification were exchanged in November 1992 in Kiev. The other agreements were : (i) Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation; (ii) Agreement on cooperation in fields of Science and Technology; and (iii) Agreement on Cooperation in the spheres of Culture, Arts, Education, Tourism, Sports and Mass Media.

In October 1992, Raksha Mantri, Shri Sharad Pawar, visited Kiev, during which he had meetings with President Kravchuk, Defence Minister Morozov, Foreign Minister Zlenko and Minister for Heavy Industry and Conversion Antonov. This visit served to continue the high-level dialogue between the two countries and determined the method of payments settlements to be used in selected sectors of trade between the two countries.

The Indian Embassy was opened in Kiev on 7 May 1992, the first among the new CIS Republics. Since then, the Ambassador has joined and more officials are expected to join shortly. The Ukrainian Embassy in Delhi is due to open shortly and their Ambassador has been chosen.

A number of draft agreements were exchanged and official level visits have also taken place, aimed principally at working out the details of the agreements and understandings reached at the political level. A number of public sector and private business persons have visited Kiev and other important cities. In this connection, the Indian Exhibition organized by Indian Trade Promotion Organization (ITPO) in Kiev in September 1992 gave Ukrainian officials and the emerging private sector a comprehensive idea of the potential of India as a trade partner. Earlier, in August, the Indo-CIS Chamber of Commerce had organized a successful exhibition in Kiev.

After recognizing the sovereignty and independence of the Republic of Belarus in December 1991, Protocols establishing diplomatic and consular relations at Resident Mission level were signed on 17 April 1992 at Minsk. A new Embassy of India in Minsk was opened on 14 May 1992 and is functional since then. Prime Minister has invited Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus and Chairman of the Council of Ministers to visit India and the timing of these visits is under discussion. To maintain and expand traditional bonds of friendship and cooperation with Belarus a number of agreements on political, economic, commercial, cultural, science and technology cooperation, etc are at various stages of negotiation.

Prime Minister met the Presidents of all the three Baltic Republics at Rio de Janeiro on 13 June 1992. He recalled that India had established diplomatic relations with all the three Republics and, in due course, would open Missions in their capitals.

The process of interchange, in particular in the commercial and cultural sectors, has been initiated. Proposals of technical assistance under the ITEC programme are also under consideration.

with Armenia, Georgia and Moldova in the commercial and cultural sectors as also in the matter of technical assistance under ITEC have been initiated. The President of Moldova is expected to visit India during 1993.

Relations with Hungary continued to develop with a series of working level visits. Official consultations on foreign policy were held in Budapest in October during the visit of Secretary (West), Shri K Srinivasan. The Science and Technical Cooperation Agreement was renewed for a further period of five years in December 1992 when the Hungarian Minister without portfolio, Prof Erno Pungor visited India. A bilateral agreement on tourism was signed earlier in October between Secretary (Tourism) and the visiting Hungarian Chairman of the Tourism Board, Mr Kazmir Kardos. On the cultural side, the State Secretary for Culture, Mr Elemer Biszterszky visited India in February 1992 and following his discussions with Secretary (Culture), the two sides agreed on an implementation plan for the Cultural Exchange Programme which had been renewed the previous year.

The trade picture during the year reflected both the opportunities and challenges resulting from the changes in the economic and commercial field in the two countries. Keeping in mind the growing importance of consumer goods in India's exports to Hungary, India was selected as the Chief Guest -65> for the Budapest International Autumn Trade Fair. The Indian participation at the Europa'92 Telecommunication Exhibition in Budapest was also in high profile. In the field of joint ventures and collaborations, efforts were underway on both sides to take advantage of economic liberalisation programmes in India.

Important Indian visitors to Hungary during the year were the Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission, the Chairman of the Indian Trade Promotion Organization, Chairman of the Telecommunications Commission, the Maharashtra Minister of Industries and a delegation from the Ministry of Industry to study the labour situation in Hungary.

1992 was also an active year for cultural activities. The 100th death anniversary of the famous Hungarian Indologist Alexander Choma de Korosi was commemorated by a series of events both in India and Hungary. Among them was the dedication of a stupa by His Holiness Dalai Lama during his visit to Budapest. Noted artistes like sitarist Shahid Parvez Khan and the Kathak group led by Rohini Bhate visited Hungary and the Hungarian Choral Quintet performed in several cities in India.

At the political level, preparations are underway for a meeting of the Indo-Hungarian Joint Commission. A Parliamentary delegation from Hungary led by the Speaker is expected to visit India in the summer of 1993. The State Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Mr Janos Martonyi, is also expected in India to continue the practice of regular bilateral official consultations. High level state visits to and from Hungary are also under consideration for 1993.

Poland continued its march towards marketisation of its industry, trade, commerce and economic structures in spite of certain hardships in transition and maintained the on-going process of integration with European institutions. Following the privatisation of foreign trade in Poland and the changes in economic policies in both countries, the process of direct contact between Indian and newly emerging Polish businessmen accelerated during the year.

Consultations at the level of Foreign Ministries of both countries were held in Warsaw in October 1992. Secretary (West) and Under Secretary of State of Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs led their teams. It was found that a basis for further strengthening of Indo-Polish relations continues to exist.

A Polish Parliamentary delegation led by the Chairman of the Sejm visited India in December 1992 at the invitation of the Indian Parliament. The visit permitted an extensive and frank exchange of views between Indian -66> parliamentarians and freely elected Polish parliamentarians. The delegation also called on the President and the Vice President.

It is anticipated that President Walesa will pay a visit to India in 1993. It is expected that in early 1993 an agreement on cooperation in the field of science and technology, a programme of cooperation for 1993-94 in the field of science and technology and a cultural exchange programme between India and Poland would be signed.

India's relations with the Czech & Slovak Federal Republic continue to be close and friendly despite its preoccupation since June 1992 with the impending break-up into two independent States, Czech Republic and Slovakia on 31 December 1992.

The 45th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations between India and CSFR was marked by exchange of messages in November 1992 at the Foreign Minister/Minister of State level. The death in November 1992 of Alexander Dubcek, the hero of the 1968 'Prague Spring' movement was condoled. Prime Minister sent a special message of condolence.

The six day visit of the Slovak Minister for International Relations to India in April 1992 preceded by two weeks President Havel's transit through New Delhi. During his visit to Prague in October 1992, Shri K Srinivasan, Secretary (West), had bilateral talks with the Federal First Deputy Foreign Minister.

A reference has already been made above to India's recognition of the two new States that have emerged from the division of the CSFR. Prime Minister sent messages of congratulations to both the Prime Ministers of the Czech and Slovak Republics in which he recalled, inter alia, the tradition of friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation in the commercial, economic, scientific, defence, cultural and other spheres. He also conveyed that Government of India would endeavour to strengthen this tradition with both the Czech and Slovak Republics for mutual benefit. Trade Agreements with both the new Republics, providing for commerce in convertible currency, are being negotiated.

Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia, paid an official visit to Poland on 9 and 10 February, Slovak Republic from 11 to 13 February, Czech Republic from 14 to 16 February and Hungary on 17 and 18 February 1993. Besides meeting with the Foreign Ministers in these countries and discussing bilateral matters and issues of common concern, he called on the Heads of State or Government. The purpose of the visit was to maintain the close political, economic and defence relations that India enjoys with these countries and to study ways for developing new relationships in the light of far-reaching changes taking place in these countries.

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia officially passed into history on 27 April 1992 with the adoption by the SFRY Parliament of the Constitution of the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia comprising Serbia and Montenegro. Elections to the new FRY Parliament were held on 31 May 1992. The Parliament approved Dr Dobrica Cosic as the first President of the FRY and Milan Panic as its first Prime Minister. Subsequently, a further round of elections were held on 20 December 1992 in the FRY for various posts. In the meanwhile, the UN had adopted comprehensive mandatory sanctions against Yugoslavia on 30 May 1992. These sanctions were further intensified in November 1992. The sanctions were imposed for alleged involvement of Serbia in the continuing war in Bosnia- Herzegovina and for non-cooperation by Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina and in UNPAs. The situation in Kosovo in the Republic of Serbia continued to be tense with total non-cooperation by the ethnic Albanians with the Federal and Serbian authorities. Long term CSCE Missions were sent to Serbian provinces of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Sandzak.

After recognition by the EC and a large number of countries, after 15 January, Croatia was admitted as a UN member in May 1992. Elections were held in Croatia on 2 August. President Franjo Tudjman was re-elected and the ruling Croatian Democratic Union Party was once again elected to power. Barring the situation in the UNPAs and the Pink Zones, the situation in Croatia returned rapidly to normal.

Slovenia was admitted to the UN in May 1992. It had also been recognized by a large number of countries after 15 January 1992. Elections were held in Slovenia on 6 December 1992. President Milan Kucan was re- elected and the Liberal Democratic Party emerged as the single largest party in Parliament. The situation in Slovenia was stable throughout the year.

Following Greek protests over the use of the name Macedonia, the EC and most other nations in the region withheld their recognition. Macedonia was recognized only by nine countries. To overcome the problem of recognition, Macedonia decided to seek admission into the UN. A decision by the UN is awaited. Due to the growth of tension in Macedonia, the Security Council approved the deployment of UNPKF along Macedonia's borders with both Serbia and Albania as a preventive measure.

The situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina continued to pre-occupy the attention of the international community throughout the year. The recognition of the Bosnia-Herzegovina Government by the EC and a large section of the international community saw civil war break out in the Republic due to the objection to international recognition by the Serbs in that Republic. The cost of this civil war has been considerable in terms of damage to men and material and loss of human lives. The UN Protection Force was deployed in Bosnia-Herzegovina in August 1992 and a large number of UN Resolutions adopted related to the situation in this Republic, especially with the humanitarian aspects of peace-keeping and on no-fly zone.

The EC Conference on Yugoslavia was transformed into a larger International Conference on Former Yugoslavia (ICFY), with the active involvement of the UN, based in Geneva, with two British and American Co-Chairmen representing the UN Secretary General.

The Security Council passed twenty Resolutions on the former Yugoslavia from April to December 1992. These were in addition to the six Resolutions adopted in 1991-92. The Resolutions, inter alia, related to deployment of UNPROFOR in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Macedonia; sanctions against Yugoslavia; the situation in UNPAs and Pink Zones in Croatia; conveying humanitarian assistance to Bosnia-Herzegovina; monitoring of airports and declaration of no-fly zone over Bosnia- Herzegovina; detention camps in Bosnia-Herzegovina; violation of human rights; war crimes and also that relating to Yugoslavia's membership in the UN. The General Assembly passed two Resolutions on the situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina and one on Yugoslavia's membership.

India abstained on 3 Resolutions of the Security Council and 2 Resolutions of the General Assembly. The overall Force Commander of UN Forces in former Yugoslavia is a serving Indian Army officer, Lt Gen Satish Nambiar.

Besides the UN and EC, other international organizations which debated the situation on Yugoslavia, included the CSCE, the G-7, the OIC, NATO, WEU and NAM. Yugoslavia's membership of several organizations, including the UN, NAM and G-15 was placed in suspense.

Yugoslavia was Chairman of NAM during the conflict with in it. The NCB Meeting in Bali and the NAM Summit in Jakarta devoted sometime over the situation in Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia handed over the Chairmanship of NAM to Indonesia on the eve of the Summit through a letter at the Ministerial Meeting. Croatia was admitted as an Observer in NAM and Bosnia-Herzegovina and Slovenia as Guests. Macedonia showed an interest to join the movement.

India and Bulgaria continued to maintain traditionally close and friendly relations in the political and cultural fields. In the cultural field, several Indian Professors visited Bulgaria and a Kathak dance troupe led by Rohini Bhate participated in the Bourgas International Dance Festival and gave performances in Sofia and Veliko Turnovo. Secretary (Culture), Ministry of Human Resource Development, visited Bulgaria at the invitation of the Minister of Culture of Bulgaria to review Indo-Bulgarian cultural relations.

Bulgaria's first post-1945 non-communist Government led by Prime Minister Filip Dimitrov's Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) having 110 seats of 240 lost the confidence of the National Assembly in November 1992 when the 24-member ethnic Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF) withdrew its support. After the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) was unable to select an acceptable candidate for Prime Minister, the MRF nominated, Prof Lyuben Berov, Economic Adviser to the President, who with the support of BSP received on 30 December the Assembly's approval for a new non-party Cabinet.

Indo-Romanian ties continued to develop. The holding of elections in Romania in October 1992 contributed to the growth of pluralist democracy in that country.

Secretary (West) visited Bucharest in August 1992 for Foreign Office consultations and it is expected that a Parliamentary delegation from India will visit Romania during 1993.

A draft Cultural Exchange Programme is presently under discussions and once signed would lead to closer people to people contact.

The Rupee clearing arrangement which was to end on 31 December 1992 has been extended till 31 March 1993 after which it is expected that all commercial transactions would be in freely convertible currencies. An Indo-Romanian Chamber of Commerce was set up in India in October and the Romanian side. have indicated that they will set up a similar body soon in Romania.

A Civil Aviation Agreement was signed with Romania in August 1992 in New Delhi which allows for three Romanian Airlines flights per week to India and vice versa.
Western Europe
During the year, India's initiatives on forging closer relations with countries in Western Europe were given sharper focus. Government took into account impending changes across the European continent in light of the Maastricht Treaty which aims at economic, monetary and political union of the EC member countries, as well as the entering into effect of a Single European Market by January 1993.

The Annual Indo-EC Troika-level talks were held in Delhi in March 1992. The Foreign Ministers of Portugal, UK and the Netherlands visited India for the talks. The Troika Foreign Ministers reassured India that the current preoccupations of the European Community with developments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Republics of the former Soviet Union should not be seen as a disinclination of their interest in the developing world, especially India. A new framework cooperation agreement between India and the EC was initialled in December 1992, which recognizes India as a major partner and paves the way for expansion and diversification of Indo-EC cooperation in the fields of trade, investment, technological and scientific exchanges, and cultural cooperation.

Substantial progress was made during the year in intensifying the already close relations with the UK. The groundwork was laid during the visit of the British Foreign Secretary in January 1992, when it was agreed that a regular bilateral dialogue would be maintained at various levels and would also be institutionalised between the two Foreign Offices. Pursuant to this decision, a number of high-level visits were exchanged during the year. The visit of the Prince of Wales to India in February 1992 was yet another milestone in the growing friendly relations between India and the UK.

On 22 September 1992, India and the UK signed an Extradition Treaty and an Agreement concerning the Investigation and Prosecution of Crime and the Tracing, Restraint and Confiscation of the Proceeds and Instruments of Crime (including crime involving currency transfers) and Terrorist Funds. These two agreements were of historic and pathbreaking importance and strengthened the commitment of both countries to work together in combating terrorism. The Agreements are expected to become effective in early 1993 after completion of ratification procedures.

British Prime Minister, Mr John Major, visited India from 23 to 28 January 1993. He was the first British Prime Minister to be invited since Independence to be Chief Guest on the Republic Day. His visit marked the culmination of a process of high level exchanges initiated in January 1992 and symbolised the maturity of Indo-British relations which now stand firmly placed in a modern, forward-looking context. Mr Major was accompanied by a high level business delegation. The British Prime Minister reaffirmed the UK's commitment to close cooperation with India in combating terrorism. He also expressed support for India's secular and democratic traditions as well as economic reforms. The visit of Mr Major provided a strong impetus to bilateral trade as well as investment and joint ventures, availing of the opportunities opened up by India's economic liberalisation programme.

India has traditionally enjoyed close relations with France, to which we attach importance in both the European and the global contexts. Prime Minister's official visit to France from 28 to 30 September 1992 served to consolidate these relations. Both sides confirmed their desire to impart new dimensions and depth to bilateral relations, in particular in the areas of investment, technology and trade. In order to build on the impetus provided by Prime Minister's visit, a number of Ministerial visits were exchanged with France and a regular dialogue at the level of Foreign Secretaries was also institutionalised.

The Festival of India in Germany, which concluded in July 1992, was widely acknowledged as a great success and played an important role in bringing the peoples of India and Germany closer together. The first meeting of the Indo-German Consultative Group, set up by the Prime Minister and the German Chancellor, was held in Bonn on 16 September 1992. This Group recommended a number of measures for strengthening bilateral cooperation in various fields. Actions were initiated to implement these recommendations. German Chancellor, Mr Helmut Kohl, visited India from 18 to 22 February 1993. The Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding was conferred upon him on 19 February 1993. This Award symbolised not only the high esteem in which the Chancellor is held in India for his personal contributions to the cause of world peace and development, but also the cordiality and closeness of bilateral relations to which both countries attach great importance.

Germany is already India's leading partner in Western Europe in terms of trade, investment and technology transfer, aid and S & T cooperation. The German Chancellor's visit provided an opportunity to further consolidate these relations. During the year, a number of Ministerial visits were also exchanged between India and Germany and a dialogue at the level of Foreign Secretaries was initiated.

The State visit of the President of Portugal to India from 26 January to 4 February 1992 marked a high point in Indo-Portuguese relations. Prime Minister also paid a transit visit to Lisbon on 15 June 1992. Government approved a Portuguese proposal for the setting up of a Consulate General of Portugal in Goa.

Prime Minister paid a transit visit to Madrid on 10 June 1992. The Spanish Prime Minister paid an official visit to India from 7 to 10 February 1993 during which a number of important bilateral agreements were concluded. Relations with Spain, particularly in the areas of trade and economic relations, continued 'to expand.

India's trade and economic relations with Italy also continued to grow. The Bologna University in Italy organized a major Symposium on India from 17 to 20 September 1992 to which a large number of scholars, scientists and historians were invited. Government were represented at the Symposium by Shri Madhavrao Scindia, the then Minister of Civil Aviation and Tourism.

The Austrian Minister for Economy, Mr Walter Schussel, visited India from 13 to 18 October 1992. His visit coincided with that of an Austrian business delegation, indicating the growing interest on both sides in establishing joint ventures and collaborations taking advantage of the favourable investment climate resulting from India's economic reforms.

During the year, Foreign Secretary/Secretary level consultations between Foreign Offices were also held with Greece, Italy, Spain and Sweden.

In addition to making concerted efforts to expand relations with West European countries in the fields of trade, investment and technology transfer, Indian Missions faced the challenging task of responding to public concerns in Europe on areas ranging from human rights to the environment. There was a growing tendency among certain countries of Western Europe to lay emphasis on human rights issues and establish linkages to developmental assistance. The projection of India's commitment to democracy, human rights and the rule of law was vigorously undertaken by Indian Missions, generally with a considerable measure of success.

As a result of India's active diplomacy, Governmental reactions on the Ayodhya incident in most of the West European countries tended to be favourable. Official Statements by the British Government and the EC showed an understanding and support for Government's action to restore calm and emphasise the continuity of the secular and democratic traditions of India.

The European Parliament also passed a supportive and balanced resolution on Ayodhya. Indian Missions continued to be engaged in the task of ensuring that there were no setbacks as a result of the Ayodhya incident to the growing relations between India and Western Europe in the economic arena.

8 The Americas

on shared democratic values and traditions. The changes in the international environment brought about by the end of the Cold War have provided both the countries with an opportunity to re-evaluate bilateral relations. The past year has been marked by increased diversification of India's bilateral ties, an intensification in the pace of exchanges between the two countries and greater political appreciation of each other's perspectives on various issues, important differences in the positions of the two countries on these issues notwithstanding.

Important American personalities who visited India during the year included Senators David Boren, Claiborne Pell, Carl Levin, Howard Metzenbaum, Paul Simon, Daniel P Moynihan, Representative Jim McDermott and Mr Kurt Schmoke, Mayor of Baltimore. From Indian side, Minister of State for Commerce visited Chicago to participate in the COMDEX Spring '92 Exhibition and Raksha Mantri undertook an official visit to the US.

At the official level, there were visits by Ambassador Peter Burleigh, Counter Terrorism Coordinator, Mr Melvyn Levitsky, Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics Matters, Mr James Lilley, Assistant Secretary of Defence, Ms Teresita Schaffer, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Near East and South Asia, Mr Sichan Siv, Deputy Assistant Secretary for South Asia, Mr R Grant Smith, Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Narcotics Matters and Mr Vincent Decain, Assistant Director of the US Arms Control & Disarmament Agency. Important visits at the official level from India to the US included those by Foreign Secretary and Defence Secretary.

The election of Mr Bill Clinton as the 42nd President of the United States, and the induction of the Democratic Administration has opened new vistas for enhancing relations with the United States. Although President Clinton has not articulated his Administration's policies towards India in any detail, he made several positive references to India during the campaign.

An MEA delegation which attended the second round of Indo-US bilateral talks in Washington in November 1992 also visited the Democratic campaign headquarters in Little Rock, Arkansas, to meet members of President Clinton's Transition Team. This initiative, the first by any foreign country since Mr Clinton's election, was designed to establish initial contact with the new Administration. It is Government's expectation that interaction with the new Administration will not only consolidate the basic continuity, in Indo-US relations but help in building a more meaningful and mature relationship based on mutual understanding and trust.

The US remained India's largest trading partner as well as the biggest foreign investor in India. Total trade turnover during 1991-1992 was around US $ 4.91 billion. India had a favourable balance of trade with the US, with imports amounting to US $ 1.99 billion and exports US $ 2.92 billion.

The US has welcomed the recent economic liberalisation measures taken by India, has encouraged this process and supported India's request for loans in multilateral financial institutions. US companies accounted for nearly 30 per cent of all Indian joint ventures with foreign companies. Investment from the US increased from Rs 344.8 million in 1990 to Rs 1858 million in 1991 and by 31 October 1992 had touched Rs 10073 million.

The US-India Business Council and the Indo-US joint Business Council met in a joint session on 7 and 8 December 1992 at the US Chamber of Commerce in Washington. The JBC meeting discussed issues relating to intellectual property rights, technology transfer, trade and environment and financial services.

After some initial difficulties, subsidies under the US's Export Enhancement Programme were also extended to India and India contracted the purchase of 1.5 million metric tonnes of wheat from the US.

The issue of protection of Intellectual Property Rights continued to remain a major trade-related irritant in bilateral ties. High level consultations have narrowed the gap on copyrights, trademarks and access to US motion pictures, but differences continue to persist on patents, especially in relation to food, pharmaceuticals and chemicals. On 29 April 1992, the US withdrew GSP concessions on specified imports of drugs and chemicals from India as a retaliatory measure. India has also been redesignated a "priority foreign country" under the Special 301 provisions. India has expressed her disappointment and regret on this unilateral move since these issues are under discussion at the Uruguay Round of the GATT multilateral trade negotiations.

High technology transfers from the US had emerged as an important facet of bilateral interaction. The Cray XMP-14 Supercomputer at the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting in New Delhi was upgraded to a Cray XMP-216 under a bilateral agreement. However, due to increased proliferation concerns heightened by the Gulf War, the US has of late been more stringent in releasing dual-use high-technology items, including spare-parts. Negotiations for a second Supercomputer for the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, did not fructify because of US insistence on intrusive and restrictive security and end-use conditions. The US attitude has adversely affected a number of Indian programmes, particularly in the Department of Space. On 11 May 1992, the US annuounced the imposition of a two year ban on American trade and technology transfers with and to ISRO and Glavkosmos of Russia over a deal for the supply of cryogenic rocket engines which the US regards as being violative of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR).

On 16 June 1992, the US Department of Commerce amended Export Administration Regulations by notifying a list of countries to which no American Company can export any product without licence if it has reason to believe that the product will be used for missile design, development, production and use. The list includes India and specifically mentions the Agni and Prithvi projects and the SLV, ASLV, PSLV and GSLV programmes. India has conveyed her concern to the US to name her civilian space programme in the notification as it has no connection with her missile programme. The US policy of linking technology transfers to nonproliferation objectives is a negative trend in the bilateral ties.

To enable a better appreciation of each other's perspectives, India has initiated a bilateral dialogue with the US on disarmament, non- proliferation and regional security issues. Two rounds of discussions have been held so far, covering the entire range of global arms control trends, regional security issues and initiatives, designed to promote stability and confidence building. These talks have facilitated a better understanding of each other's position.

Human rights has become a priority issue for both the US Administration and Congress. Pakistan-supported Kashmiri groups and proponents of "Khalistan" have joined hands and have employed professional lobbyists to intensify their propaganda compaign against India in the US. As a result of this lobbying and the one-sided reports by international human rights organizations, some US congressmen were influenced to introduce anti-India bills relating to human rights. Attempts were also made to cut the meagre US developmental aid to India over alleged human rights violations in Punjab and Kashmir, though eventually no bills or amendments specifically targetting India were adopted. The US Administration has also expressed concern, from time to time, about the human rights situation in Kashmir and Punjab. At the same time the Administration has showed an understanding of the extraordinary situation in these two states created on account of cross-border terrorism. The US Government has implicitly acknowledged Pakistan's involvement in training and arming of terrorists in Kashmir and Punjab. US officials have indicated to Indian officials that they have taken this up strongly with Pakistan. The provisions of US law require a determination to be made about countries sponsoring terrorism. This is reported to be under consideration with respect to Pakistan.


Bilateral defence cooperation has been proceeding satisfactorily in a structured manner, aided by frequent exchanges of high level visits. A number of senior US military officers have visited India including Admiral Kelso, US Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Larson, CINCPAC, Gen Sullivan, Chief of Staff, US Army, Lt General Corns, USARPAC, Vice Admiral Arthur, former Commander of the Seventh Fleet, and his successor, Vice Admiral Timothy Wright.

Raksha Mantri visited the USA from 5 to 9 April 1992 at the invitation of US Defence Secretary. The Chief of Naval Staff and Chief of Air Staff also visited the US during 1992. Despite intensified defence cooperation, procurement of defence items from the US is limited to commercial purchases in small amounts.

For the first time Indo-US Joint Naval exercises were held off the Western seaboard on 29, May 1992. Four warships, two from each side, participated in the 24 hour exercises. These exercises were held in the wider context of India's desire to strengthen professional contacts between the Indian Navy and navies of other friendly countries. The Indian Army co-hosted the XVII Pacific Armies Management Seminar in Delhi jointly with the US Army Pacific (USARPAC) in January 1993 within the framework of Indo-US Army-to-Army cooperation.

Under the aegis of the Indo-US Joint Commission, specific projects in the agriculture and health sciences are underway. An important on-going project is the Indo-US Vaccine Action Programme. Funding problems in the future are anticipated because of the depletion in the corpus of the United States India Rupee Fund (USIF-the PL-480 Funds) which will run out by 1997.

The budgetary situation in the US has led to a decline in dollar funding of bilateral exchanges and projects. In science and technology collaborative projects, the US has introduced issue of intellectual property rights thereby hindering further intensification of cooperation in an area long considered to be of mutual benefit. This has led to projects being restricted to basic research rather than applied R & D which would involve sharing of IPR.

A major aid package for population control in Uttar Pradesh has been worked out for which around US $ 225 million will be made available by USAID over a period of 10 years.

India and the US have been cooperating fruitfully in the area of narcotics control.

Under an agreement signed on 25 September 1992, the US will provide $ 45,000 to the Narcotics Control Bureau for buying equipment which will help in narcotics control at Bombay airport.

Government accord high priority to the strengthening of Indo-US relations within the framework of shared interests through a process of dialogue. India's endeavour is to narrow differences where they exist and expand cooperation in a substantive manner in areas of mutual benefit. The overall ambience of Indo-US relations has improved qualitatively although certain irritants in bilateral relations remain.

Founded on historical and shared ties of the Commonwealth, Indo-Canadian relations have been traditionally friendly.

Canada has welcomed India's new economic policies. There are at present 70 joint ventures and technical collaborations between India and Canada in areas such as telecommunications, mining equipment and surface and air transportation. More than half of these were finalised since the initiation of the economic reforms programme.

Canada has been supportive of India in multilateral financial institutions. Canadian aid to India during 1992 amounted to approximately C $ 100 million. Total bilateral trade for the year 1991- 92 was of the order of Rs 1070 crores. India's adverse balance of trade with Canada was reduced from Rs 278 crores in 1990-91 to Rs 62 crores in 1991-92. Canadian exports to India in 1992-93 have registered a substantial increase because of the purchase of wheat by India.

The on-going operational cooperation between India and Canada to combat terrorism and other criminal activities has been fruitful.

The Vice President of India delivered the inaugural Lal Bahadur Shastri Memorial Lecture to launch the silver jubilee celebrations of the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute (SICI) which has been instrumental in promoting educational exchanges.

A Canadian Parliamentary delegation, led by the Speaker of the House of Commons, Mr John Fraser, visited India in January, 1993. The Rt Hon Charles Joseph Clark, President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada and Minister Responsible for Constitutional Affairs, visited India in March, 1993 for high-level bilateral consultations.
Central and South America and the Caribbean
During the period under review, India's relations with the Latin American countries and the Caribbean witnessed a definite improvement. Interactions at the highest political levels, conclusion of a number of important bilateral agreements and a stream of visitors to India towards the latter half of the year, were some indications of the renewed intensity in India's relations with this important region of the world.

The Prime Minister attended the UN Convention on Environment and Development (UNCED), popularly called the 'Earth Summit' at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3 to 14 June 1992. He was accompanied, amongst others, by the Ministers of State for External Affairs and Environment & Forests. He had bilateral meetings with President F Collor of Brazil and President Salinas of Mexico.

During the NAM Summit from 1 to 6 September 1992 in Jakarta, Prime Minister had a meeting with the Foreign Minister of Venezuela. Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia, had a meeting with the Foreign Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, and the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, informally met the Foreign Minister of Suriname, which holds an observer's status in the NAM.

Shri Eduardo Falerio undertook a tour of three important Caribbean countries, namely, Suriname from 19 to 22 September, Trinidad from 1 to 4 October and Jamaica from 5 to 7 October. This was the first bilateral visit to the region since Vice President's visit in 1988. The tour provided an opportunity to further strengthen and consolidate the already strong historical and traditional links with these countries. A genuine effort was made to harness the vast trade potential flowing from a growing appreciation in these countries of India's achievements in science and technology and other related fields. Besides having a fruitful exchange of views on various matters of mutual interest with the Governments of the three countries, the visit enabled both the sides to identify areas for mutual cooperation in trade, investment, culture, technical and economic exchanges. It was decided to establish a Joint Commission between India and Suriname.

A delegation, led by former. President of the Federation of Indian Export Organization (FIEO), undertook a trade promotion tour of Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela from 5 to 18 July. This visit was a follow up of the visit of a FIEO delegation which accompanied Prime Minister to Caracas in November 1991 to participate in the parallel meeting of Businessmen 'from the G-15 countries. This visit closely followed on the heels of a visit by another high-level delegation from the Associated Chambers of Commerce (ASSOCHAM) to Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico in May 1992. Both the delegations had the opportunity to study the structural reforms and the new macro-economic policies being followed by these countries in order to learn from their experiences.

The Cuban Government deeply appreciated India's decision to sell 10,000 tonnes of rice to them on credit. The decision was taken keeping in view the policy of expanding trade with friendly countries in the region. India also voted in favour of the resolution moved by Cuba in the UN General Assembly on the US economic embargo against Cuba.

In order to meet the cultural needs of the people of Indian origin which constitute a major percentage of the total population in the Caribbean, India decided to establish Cultural Centre in a permanent building in Suriname. For this a plot of land has been given. The Cultural Centre has been running since 1981. Cultural agreements were also signed with the Governments of Suriname and Jamaica.

Mr Maxmilliano Cox, a senior official in the Chilean Agricultural Ministry, visited New Delhi on 7 and 8 October. In his meeting with the Minister of State for Agriculture, promotion of exchanges in the fields of agriculture and forestry between the two countries was discussed.

Mr Harold Pollack, Minister of Natural Resources of Suriname, visited India from 20 to 22 October. He held meetings with Minister of State for External Affairs and Minister of state for Mines. Possibilities of cooperation in the mining sector and of India assisting Suriname in exploiting its water resources were discussed.

To mark the 500th anniversary of the arrival of Columbus in America, the Diplomatic Missions from the Latin American countries organized an -81> exhibition-cum-seminar at the Centre of Spanish Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University.

The Adviser to President Dr Cheddi Jagan of Guyana, Mr Vikrarn Oditt, called on the then Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, and handed over a written message from his President addressed to Prime Minister. The Adviser was in New Delhi also to attend a UNIDO- sponsored Conference held in November 1992. During the visit, several broad areas were identified for mutual cooperation.

At the third G-15 Summit in Dakar, Senegal, held in November 1992, Prime Minister had an opportunity again to interact with the leaders from the Latin American and the Caribbean Countries who are members of the Group.

As part of economy drive, after much deliberation, it was decided to close down Indian Missions in Kingston and Bogota. Efforts would be made to see that bilateral relations with these countries are not affected.
9 United Nations and International Conferences
THE YEAR UNDER REVIEW MARKED A SIGNIFICANT MILESTONE IN THE ACTIVITIES OF the UN. A reinvigorating UN with a more sharply focussed agenda was increasingly perceived as having moved to centrestage and as having assumed an increasingly significant role in directly or indirectly shaping events the world over. These ranged from the situation in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia/Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Middle East Peace Process, the humanitarian crisis in Somalia to the United Nations Transitional Authority on Cambodia (UNTAC) supervised settlement in Cambodia, etc. In addition, the UN continued to medicate on issues ranging from Central America and Cyprus to Mozambique and issues relating to Commonwealth of Independent States.

The UN also focussed on issues such as environment, human rights, economic issues, drug abuse control, emergency humanitarian assistance and the restructuring and revitalisation of the UN including the question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council.

India's traditional commitment to multilateralism, as also her important role in international affairs, were highlighted by her membership of the Security Council, where India played an innovative, moderating and pragmatic role on a whole range of issues. India's two-year term in the Security Council came to an end on 31 December 1992. India held the Presidency of the Council in December.
The Security Council continued to monitor the follow up on decisions on the destruction of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, compensation for individuals and organizations which had suffered losses as a result of the invasion of Kuwait and the demarcation of the Iraq-Kuwait boundary. The Iraq-Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission completed its work this year. India joined other members of the Council in endorsing its work.

India maintained her consistent position that while Iraq would have to comply with the mandatory resolutions of the Security Council, the Council should give serious consideration to the possibility of relaxing the sanctions regime in view of the humanitarian crisis. India also supported Security Council Resolution 778 which permitted certain categories of frozen Iraqi assets to be released to the UN for humanitarian and compensation purposes.

The question of Palestine remained a major issue in 1992. India joined two historic consensus resolutions adopted by the Security Council on the forced deportation of Palestinians from the Occupied Territories. India maintained its consistent support for the peace process in West Asia. India's Permanent Representative to the UN Shri C R Gharekhan was appointed by the Secretary General as his Special Representative for West Asia beginning 1993. This appointment has been welcomed by all the States in the Middle East Peace Process.

In 1992, the situation in the former Yugoslavia was the focus of attention in the Security Council and the General Assembly. India co- sponsored the Resolution in the UN for the admission of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina as members of the UN and joined in Security Council Resolutions imposing sanctions on FRY in an attempt to ensure that FRY adopted a more supportive role in bringing peace to Bosnia-Herzegovina.

India fully supported the Security Council Resolutions aimed at resolving the conflicts in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. However, India abstained on Resolutions permitting the use of force for protection of humanitarian convoys on the grounds that this was contrary to her principled position that all use of force sanctioned by the UN must remain under full UN command and control. India also abstained on the Resolution denying FRY's right to participate in the General Assembly.

The efforts of UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR), the UN operations in former Yugoslavia under the command of an Indian national, Lt General Satish Nambiar, received universal appreciation.

India joined other members of the Security Council in approving the deployment of a UN battalion in Macedonia, which though still unrecognised as a member State of the UN, had requested for a UN presence on its territory in view of the perceived threat from its neighbours.

The tragic situation in Somalia was the focus of Security Council's attention, particularly in the second half of 1992. India supported the UN action in rushing humanitarian assistance to Somalia and has participated in this operation. In addition, the remaining assets from the AFRICA Fund, after it had been wound up, as mandated by the Tenth NAM Summit in Jakarta in September 1992, were released for relief efforts in Somalia.

UNTAC, the UN operation in Cambodia, initiated measures to organize elections to a Constituent Assembly in Cambodia by May 1993. India has welcomed the progress achieved so far by UNTAC and has contributed civilian-and military personnel to these UN operations.

UN operations in other parts of the world met with success and setbacks during 1992. The successful completion of the UN operation in El Salvador was welcomed by India. Similarly, UN operations in Angola were successful in organizing Presidential and Legislative elections in Angola in late September. India participated in both the operations. India maintained her traditional support for the efforts to resolve the long-standing problem of Cyprus, with a view to endorsing the latter's sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity. India also supported the establishment of a new major UN operation in Mozambique to oversee the implementation of the peace accords signed between the Government and RENAMO. India also supported Security Council action in sending UN observers to South Africa to monitor developments after the Boipatong massacre and to assist in the resumption of negotiations on political reform. Several issues relating to the Commonwealth of Independent States were also the subject of deliberations in the Security Council including the situation in Nagorno Karabakh. India welcomed the applications for UN membership of new States that had emerged following the break-up of the Soviet Union and fully supported the. efforts to bring peace to the region.

A major Indian initiative in 1992 was the tabling of a Resolution at the 47th General Assembly on the question of equitable representation and increase in membership of the Security Council. The Resolution was tabled after extensive consultations with a representative cross-section of countries and was adopted by consensus. In its statement India emphasised the need to apply the principle of democracy within the UN itself and underlined that if the Security Council was to represent the collective will of the international community and ensure its moral sanction, the members of the UN must have a wider representation on the Security Council.

In response to a call made at the Security Council Summit held in 1992, the UN Secretary General had put forward a report entitled "An Agenda for Peace" on preventive diplomacy and peace-making and peace-keeping. This was the subject of extensive consultations and deliberations during the year both in the Security Council and the General Assembly. India played an important role in ensuring that respect for the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity of nations was maintained. She also played a critical role in ensuring that when sanctions are imposed by the Security Council the special economic problems faced by other countries are sympathetically considered.

India also participated actively in the high-level group under the aegis of NAM on the restructuring of the UN. India's active involvement at every stage ensured that NAM proposals took into account her sensitivities.

The Special Committee of the UN on Peace Keeping Operations held two meetings in 1992 to prepare a comprehensive report on UN peace-keeping operations and to consider the Secretary General's report - An Agenda for Peace. India played an active role in ensuring that the report incorporated the principle of consent of the host nation and approval of all concerned parties before such peace-keeping operations could be undertaken. She also took a principled stand on the need for the member States to pay their dues and put peace-keeping operations on a durable and stable financial footing.

As rapporteur of the Special Committee Against Apartheid, India played an important role in drafting of the Resolutions on South Africa and the preparation of the annual report of this Committee. India played its- traditionally active moderating role in the UN Decolonisation Committee, particularly on the issue of UN-supervised referendum on self-determination in Western Sahara.

The 47th General Assembly adopted after a vote a resolution on "Implementation of the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace", with India voting in favour. The Ad Hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean is to hold a ten day session in 1993 and would submit recommendations for consideration by the 48th General Assembly. As early as possible thereafter, the Conference on the Indian Ocean is to be convened at Colombo with the participation of the permanent members of the Security Council and the major maritime users of the Indian Ocean.

During 1992, a series of meetings under the aegis of the Antarctica Treaty System were held including the first meeting of experts on Antarctic Environment which was held in Buenos Aires in June 1992 and the XVII Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting held in Venice in November 1992. India participated actively to ensure that her concerns were fully reflected -86> in the deliberations and outcome of these meetings. In the General Assembly, in a departure from previous practice, the two traditional resolutions on Antarctica were amalgamated. As a result, India joined other members of the Antarctica Treaty Consultative Parties in the non- participation in the vote on the Resolution but made an explanation of the position on the question of South African participation in the Antarctica Treaty.
Through 1992, India continued to play its traditionally leading role in the three main multilateral disarmament fora, viz, the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, the UN Disarmament Commission and the First Committee of the UN General Assembly in New York.

India's approach to disarmament has continued to be guided by the basic philosophy that in the nuclear age, disarmament measures, specially nuclear disarmament, should be undertaken in a time bound manner to ensure the survival of mankind. India continues to maintain that the priorities for disarmament which are postulated in the consensus final document of the First Special Session of the UN General Assembly devoted to Disarmament are relevant. India's approach to general and complete disarmament has been best elaborated in the Action Plan for a Nuclear Weapon Free and Non-Violent World Order tabled at the Third Special Session of the UN General Assembly devoted to disarmament in 1988.

In the Conference on Disarmament (CD), which is the sole multilateral negotiating body, India played a leading role in the group of neutral and non-aligned countries, otherwise known as G-21. The G-21 worked closely with delegations from other member countries to unanimously conclude a historic draft text on a Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The CWC is comprehensive, non-discriminatory and has universal application. It seeks to eliminate an entire class of weapons of mass destruction. The CWC takes into account the concerns, of developing countries in regard to their economic and technological development. India has also ensured for itself a seat on the Executive Council based on industrial criteria.

The Indian delegation was appointed as Special Coordinator to seek agreement on an organizational arrangement for a crucial agenda item "Nuclear Test Ban" for which an ad-hoc group is sought to be set up in 1993. India continued to highlight the urgent need for commencing negotiations for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, stressing that its scope should be consistent with the preamble of the Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963 that seeks to achieve a total ban on all tests of nuclear weapons in all environments and for all time. India also took part in the meeting of the ad-hoc Group of Governmental Experts on Verification, established by a decision of the Third Review Conference of the Parties to the BW Convention.

At the UN Disarmament Commission, consideration of the agenda item "objective information on military matters" was completed. The Commission also adopted by consensus the draft resoultion on the "Report of the Disarmament Commission".

The outstanding achievement at the 47th session of the UN General Assembly was the unanimous commendation by member States of the CWC for signature and ratification. The CWC is the first multilaterally negotiated, comprehensive and verifiable disarmament agreement, which India hopes would become a model for other disarmament agreements. India played a leading role in the formal establishment of the UN Register of Conventional Arms. India had also participated in the Panel of Governmental Experts that worked out the details of the Register. On the issue of the 1995 Conference on the NPT, India called for a reconsideration and amendment of the Treaty's provisions to make it into a universal and non-discriminatory regime for non-proliferation. India introduced two resolutions entitled "Scientific and Technological Developments and their Impact on International Security" which received 128 votes in support and the "Convention of Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons" which was passed with an overwhelming majority.

Bilateral discussions with the USA on regional security and non- proliferation issues continued in 1992. The Foreign Secretary visited Washington from 9 to 11 March 1992, where he held wide ranging discussions with a number of US officials. India's position on signing the NPT was reaffirmed. India also highlighted its position that regional security cannot be confined to an artificially demarcated zone. In June, a US delegation led by Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Ms Teresita. Schaffer, held discussions in New Delhi on issues concerning non-proliferation and disarmament. India's security concerns in the context of the changing global environment were explained and it was emphasized that a regional security paradigm must encompass the security concerns of all states of the region. As a follow up to the visit of the US delegation, another round of bilateral talks were held in Washington on 12 and 13 November 1992. Global security issues including US-Russian arms reduction agreements, the Chemical Weapons Convention and developments in the West Asia were discussed. Bilateral discussions on disarmament and non-proliferation issues were held with the United Kingdom during the year.

Outside the three main multilateral disarmament fora, India continued to provide support to disarmament initiatives taken by non-governmental organizations and actively participated in meetings organized by them.
In 1992, the major economic issues considered by the General Assembly were environment and sustainable development, the triennial review of operational activities and the restructuring of the UN in economic and social spheres. While the deliberations in the UN on environment and development flowed from the outcome of the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in June, the issues of restructuring of the UN and the triennial review of operational activities assumed a high profile, overshadowing the more traditional resolutions on issues such as debt, net transfer of resources, AIDS, privatisation and poverty.

The UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 marked a major milestone in the evolution of an international consensus on development and environment related issues. At this Summit, a detailed programme of action - Agenda 21 and a Statement of Principles on Forests was adopted. Two important- Conventions were opened for signatures at UNCED - a Framework Convention on Climate Change and Convention on Bio-diversity- both of which were signed by India at Rio. The Indian delegation to the UNCED Summit was led by the Prime Minister who was the first to address its Summit level segment. Prime Minister emphasised that we cannot have conservation of the environment without the promise of development even as we cannot have sustained development without the preservation of the environment. India played an active role in the preparatory process for and at the UNCED Summit, emphasising the close interlinkage between economic development issues and protection of the environment.

During the 47th General Assembly, several Resolutions were adopted as a follow-up of the decision taken at UNCED. These included a Resolution launching negotiations on a Convention to control Drought and Desertification, a Resolution to prepare for a Conference on small island developing states, a Conference on highly migratory fish stocks and a Resolution on the establishment of a high-level Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). The CSD will be a 53-member functional Commission of ECOSOC and will monitor and review the implementation of Agenda 21. During the 47th General Assembly too India played an active role in emphasising the linkage between environment and development and in ensuring that the focus on the CSD included a provision of new and additional resources for developing countries as well as the promotion and monitoring of transfer of technologies to developing countries on concessional and preferential terms.

At the 47th General Assembly, it was also decided that the second UN Conference on Human Settlement would be held in Turkey in 1997. India played a major role in the establishment of the preparatory process for this meeting. On other traditional economic issues such as trade, finance, investment and technology, India continued to play an important role in galvanising the opinion of like-minded developing countries.

In 1992, a triennial review of operational activities of the UN was undertaken. India played a major role in formulation of the draft Resolution and in ensuring that coordination and execution of operational activities would remain the national responsibility and in ensuring that the Resident Coordinator's mandate is confined to development activities.

As a follow-up of Resolution 46/182 which was adopted at the last General Assembly in 1992, the General Assembly considered the question of emergency humanitarian assistance. India played an active role in ensuring that the principle that it is the primary responsibility of the concerned State to provide for such assistance and that whenever and wherever UN undertakes coordination of humanitarian assistance, it is done with full involvement of the recipient Government at all stages.

The Summit Level Group on South-South Consultation and Cooperation (G- 15) is an important global institution for furthering measures aimed at developing concrete programmes of South-South cooperation and indentifying and articulating global economic issues of common concern to the developing countries with a view to initiating a North-South dialogue thereon. India has made important contributions to the G-15 process and in 1992, these activities were further strengthened.

Under the programme of South-South cooperation, further progress was made with regard to the specific projects identified at the First and Second Summits of the G-15 which were held in Kuala Lumpur and Caracas in 1990 and in 1991 respectively. It may be recalled that the G-15 Heads of State/Government had mandated India to develop projects on the establishment of Gene Banks for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and also on Solar Energy Applications.

Under the project for the establishment of Gene Banks for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, the first meeting of the Regional Coordinators and the Scientific Advisory Committee was held in New Delhi from 24 to 26 June 1992. Likewise, the meeting of G-15 experts on Solar Energy Application was convened in New Delhi from 2 to 5 September 1992. The Expert Committees, during these meetings, drew up a concrete plan of action in order to identify priorities and implement the agreed measures.

The Third Summit meeting of the G-15 was held in Dakar, Senegal, from 21 to 23 November 1992. India was represented at the Summit meeting by Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao. The Third Summit was noteworthy in respect of the many new cooperation projects which were tabled and approved for further action. India's contribution in respect of Solar Energy Applications and Gene Banks was appreciated. India, furthermore, offered additional projects, viz Vocational Training Centre to be established in Africa and Computer Training Centre in New Delhi. These new Indian offers were warmly received in the Summit meeting and approved for implementation.

The Third G-15 Summit meeting emphasised the need to foster South-South contacts at the level of business leaders, technical experts and institutions dealing with trade, technology, banking and industry in the countries of the South. The Summit also felt that a constructive North- South dialogue, free from rhetoric and ideological rigidities of the past, would enable better management of the interdependent global economy and mutual benefits to the countries of the North as well as the South.

With the conclusion of the Dakar Summit, the chairmanship of G-15 devolves of India as she would be hosting the Fourth Summit which tentatively is scheduled to be held in New Delhi in the latter half of November 1993.

The Summit meeting of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), met on 27 and 28 January 1992, approved India as a Sectoral Dialogue Partner. The sectoral dialogue will concentrate on trade, technology, tourism and human resource development. The sectoral dialogue would facilitate development of braod-based ties between India and the ASEAN countries.

On global economic issues, the major focus remained on the future of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. The future of the Uruguay Round had been cast into doubt following the inability of some of the major industrialised countries to agree on a package of reforms in the agriculture sector. Apart from the impasse over agriculture, in many of the so-called new areas, viz, trade related intellectual property rights (TRIPs) and world trade in services, a consensus proved elusive. There are apprehensions that any further delay in concluding the Uruguay Round would. lead to a breakdown of genuinely multilateral world trading system into regional groupings and an increasing resort to unilateral and bilateral measures. Towards the end of the year, however, with a resolution of the vexed agriculture issue in sight, the hopes of early completion of the Round were revived.
India continued to play an active role in the consideration by UN bodies such as the General Assembly, ECOSOC and the Commission on Human Rights, of social and humanitarian issues. India's stand on such issues was based on its principled stand on matters pertaining to human rights and social justice and its deep and abiding Commitment to the protection and promotion of human rights. India participated in the deliberations of the UN Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities held in August 1992. India has repeatedly emphasised that human rights are indivisible and that while democracy was the best guarantor of human rights, there would be no realisation of human rights without economic development or enjoyment of human rights. India also highlighted the threat to human rights posed by the phenomenon of extra- territorially sponsored terrorism.

India was also active in the preparatory meetings for the World Conference on Human Rights which is to be held in June 1993. India is the Vice Chairman of the Asian group in the Bureau of the Preparatory Committee.

Human rights continued to be the primary focus of the Third Committee of the General Assembly at which other issues including self-determination, narcotic drugs, social development, etc were also debated.

India effectively rebutted Pakistani allegations of human rights violations by India. The incidents at Ayodhya were also raised by Pakistan and certain other countries in the Third Committee under the cluster of items on human rights. While effectively rebutting Pakistani allegations, India's response highlighted the prompt and comprehensive action taken by the Government of India in connection with the Ayodhya incident.
The Indian delegation continued to play an active role in the deliberations of the Fifth Committee. A major issue this year was the establishment of a Peace-keeping Reserve Fund of US $ 150 million for the financing of peace-keeping operations. India was supportive of this proposal.
India was elected to the Council of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and to the UN Board of Auditors. India was also re- elected to the UN Human Rights Commission and to the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ) for a three-year term.

India's Permanent Representative to the UN was appointed as Secretary General's Special Representative to the multilateral track of the Middle East Peace Process with the rank of Under Secretary General. Similarly, Shri Nitin Desai was appointed as Head of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, with the rank of Under Secretary General of the UN.
In the run up to the Tenth NAM Summit, a series of meetings were held during the year. Prime Minister led the Indian delegation to the Tenth NAM Summit. His speech at the inaugural session set the tone of the deliberations. The Tenth NAM Summit reaffirmed the relevance of the Movement and prioritised its agenda for the future which would include issues such as development, disarmament, decolonisation, environment, human rights and restructuring of the UN.

the UN, India consulted closely with other Non-Aligned members of the NAM caucus in the Security Council and played an active role in the Non- Aligned Coordinating Bureau. India is a member of the high level NAM Working Group on Restructuring of the UN and the NAM Task Force on Somalia. Throughout the year, India was instrumental in forging common Non-Aligned positions on a range of issues under consideration in the UN.
India participated actively in the Commonwealth meetings held during the year including the Meeting of the Working Group of Senior Officials of the -93> Commonwealth High-level Appraisal, Group, held in September, and the Commonwealth Senior Officials Meeting held in Kampuchea in November 1992. These meetings reviewed the follow up action flowing from the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting held in Harare in October 1991. India also participated in the Commonwealth Observer Group constituted to monitor the violence in South Africa.
Conference Division is entrusted with the responsibility of providing the logistical support and managerial assistance in the organisation of international conferences convened by the Ministry of External Affairs and other Ministries/ Departments of Government of India. During 1992, 22 International Conferences/Meetings were successfully organized by this Division, prominent amongst which were:

(i) SAARC Environment Ministers' Conference: This Conference was held in New Delhi from 8 to 10 April, 1992, and was attended by Environment Ministers of all SAARC countries.

(ii) The Second Meeting of Independent South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation: The Commission held its second meeting under the Chairmanship of the former Prime Minister of Nepal, HE Mr K P Bhattarai, in New Delhi from 27 to 29 May 1992. Delegates from SAARC countries and the SAARC Secretary General participated in the meeting. The Prime Minister's Office was also associated with the Conference.

(iii) The Meeting of Scientific Advisory Committee and Regional Coordinators of G-15 Countries on Gene Banks for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: This meeting was held from 24 to 26 June, 1992 in New Delhi. The meeting, attended by experts from India and other G-15 countries, was convened to finalise the report for presentation at the G-15 Summit on the subject.

(iv) SAARC Meeting of Experts on Joint Promotion of SAARC Countries as a Tourist Destination: This meeting was held in Goa from 18 to 20 August, 1992, to evolve ways and means to promote SAARC region as a tourist destination jointly.

(v) Meeting of Experts of G-15 Countries on Solar Energy Projects: This meeting was held in New Delhi from 2 to 5 September 1992 to finalise its report for presentation at the G-15 Summit. -94>

(vi) SAARC Cultural Festival: This was held from 9 to 24 October 1992. The Cultural/Education Ministers of all the SAARC Countries who came to attend this Festival, which was inaugurated by the Prime Minister in New Delhi, were taken to different cities in India, where they were Chief Guests and inaugurated various functions connected with this Festival.

(vii) Third Meeting of SAARC Committee on Economic Cooperation: This meeting was held in New Delhi on 2 and 3 November, 1992, to evolve methodology for economic cooperation amongst SAARC countries.

(viii) Meeting of Steering Group of ESCAP Committee on Regional Economic Cooperation: The Meeting was held in New Delhi from 24 to 27 November 1992.

This Division continued to render advice to other Ministries/Departments and autonomous organizations.

An illustrative list of the Conferences/functions arranged by this Division is given in Appendix VI.
At its 47th Session, the Sixth Committee (Legal Committee) of the United Nations General Assembly considered 14 Agenda items during its deliberations from 18 September to 25 November 1992. The major Agenda items among these related to the work of the International Law Commission (ILC), the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the United Nations Special Committee on the Charter and the strengthening of the role of the Organization, protection of the environment in times of armed conflict, draft convention on jurisdictional immunites of states and their property and the United Nations Decade of International Law. The Indian delegation commented on the progress made by the ILC at its 44th Session in the areas of draft Code of Crimes against the peace and security of mankind, particularly the question of establishment of an international criminal court, state responsibility and the international liability for injurious consequences arising out of acts not prohibited under international law. The Indian delegation participated actively in the Committee's deliberations on other items, including its consultations on several matters. At this Session, the General Assembly also decided to include on its agenda for the 48th Session a new item regarding seeking of an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on abductions abroad.

The UNCITRAL held its 25th Session in May 1992 in New York. During the Session, the draft Model Law on International Credit Transfers was finalised and submitted to General Assembly for its recommendations. During the Annual Session, the Commission held the Congress on International Trade Law in the context of its successful completion of 25th year. Several delegates from different countries participated in the Congress and appreciated the work done by UNCITRAL in the field of international trade law.

The Legal Sub-Committee of the UN Commitee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space held its 31st Session in Geneva from 23 March to 10 April 1992. The substantive issues discussed during the Session related to draft principles of nuclear power sources in Outer Space, definition and delimitation of Outer Space, character and utilisation of the geostationary orbit, and legal aspects related to the Outer Space benefits taking into account the needs of the developing countries. The Sub-Committee registered substantial progress on the draft principles concerning the nuclear power sources and the agreed principles were approved by the UN General Assembly at its regular 47th Session in December 1992. On other matters the discussions held have yet to achieve agreement.

The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) held the second technical conference on the establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, at Rome in July 1992. The aim of the draft convention prepared by the FAO and negotiated by the member states of the FAO during the conference was to achieve optimum utilisation of highly migratory fish, particularly tuna, in the Indian Ocean. The conference concluded its work successfully by adopting the draft convention and recommending it for its final adoption by the Governing Council of the FAO.

The 8th Session of the Governing Council of the UN Compensation Commission (UNCC) was held in Geneva from 14 to 18 December 1992. India is a member of the Governing Council by virtue of its membership of the Security Council. It is the function of the UNCC to implement the Security Council's Resolution 687 in respect of compensation for the claims arising out of the Iraqi war. Some of the issues discussed were business losses including claims based on deferred payment agreements with Iraq, establishment of criteria for priority for payments for the individual category claims, contribution of Iraq to the Compensation Fund and the establishment of a Budgetary Committee of the Governing Council.

The 31st Annual Session of the Asian African Legal Consultative Committee (AALCC) was held in Islamabad from 25 January to 1 February 1992. The Session provided a forum for the legal experts of countries from Asia and Africa to come together for an exchange of views on several contemporary international legal issues such as environment and development, the UN Decade of International Law, status and treatment of refugees, Law of the Sea, definition of terrorism and distinguishing it from struggles for national liberation, and the Geneva Conventions on Law of War and deportation of the Palestinians. Views were also exchanged on legal issues concerning International Trade Law being discussed in the UNCITRAL and other fora.

As in the past years, the Ministry undertook negotiations, and processed for signature and ratification/accession of several multilateral and bilateral treaties involving India. The bilateral treaties which India entered into with other countries includes the Extradition Treaty and Agreement on Confiscation of the Proceeds and Instruments of Crime, etc with the United Kingdom.

The Extradition Treaty provides for extradition of persons, disallowing the plea of political offence in case of specified serious crimes, assumption of jurisdiction in respect of certain of these offences even when they were committed outside the territory of the state, possibility of extradition of a person situated within one state but guilty of committing crimes through others in the affected states. The Confiscation Agreement provides for tracing, restraint and confiscation of proceeds and instruments of crime both in case of drugs trafficking and terrorism, mutual judicial assistance for search and seizure of documents and material including the recording of evidence.

India became a party to the multilateral conventions on the rights of the child, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer and the Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movement of hazardous waste and the disposal including the convention on biological diversity and convention on climate change. A list of treaties entered into by India during the year is placed at Appendix II.
10 Foreign Economic Relations
DURING THE YEAR, THE ECONOMIC DIVISION PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE furtherance of India's economic and commercial interests abroad. Steps were undertaken to reorient the functioning of Indian Missions so that they could play more active role in promotion of India's exports both in terms of commodities and projects. Special emphasis has been given on promoting exports in extreme focus areas. Regular and close liaison was maintained with the trade and industry organizations to make the Economic Division's functioning more responsive to the country's economic needs. All Missions were asked to prepare comprehensive economic and commercial notes on countries of their accreditation, which were passed on to the trade and industry associations for dissemination among the business community. Commercial queries and information on tenders and projects were also conveyed to concerned parties and trade promotion bodies in India.

Action has been initiated to create a comprehensive data bank on bilateral economic relations with India's important trading partners so that useful input could be provided for economic policy decisions. To assist the commercial representatives in Indian Missions, the Economic Division brought out the third edition of the Trade Directory containing useful information on export promotion bodies, commodity boards, important public sector organizations, trade and industry bodies, institutions dealing with credit and finance besides references of Government officials dealing with trade promotion and investment issues. The Division also initiated an action programme for update of directories published by trade promotion bodies and trade and industry bodies and even by private commercial firms so that these could be made available to the Indian commercial representatives abroad for wider dissemination of commercial information.

The Economic Division also assisted in mobilising foreign participants and visitors to trade fairs in India. Trade and industry delegations visiting abroad were extended all possible assistance to make their visits productive and useful. The Division was also instrumental in activating the joint Business Councils and promoting them as forums for furthering India's economic interests through participation of private entrepreneurs and business and industry organizations.

In close cooperation with the Inter-Ministerial Committee on joint Ventures abroad, Indian Missions have been asked by the Economic Division to monitor the performance of Indian Joint Ventures abroad. An appropriate mechanism for such monitoring is presently under finalisation.

The Economic Division also oversees the operation of the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Programme and the Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme (SCAAP). The Programmes have been suitably reoriented to meet the requirements of South-South cooperation as well as for supporting Indian economic and commercial interest abroad. The Programmes have also been extended to cover countries in Eastern Europe and Latin America.

Human resource development forms a basic element of the Programmes. During the year, over 900 foreign ' nominees were imparted specialised training in India. New courses in frontier technologies such as computer hardware and software were introduced. Special training modules in diplomacy, banking, foreign trade, entrepreneurship, etc, were organized for nominees from Central Asian countries.

During the year an average of 40 experts were on deputation under the ITEC programme in various countries. Indian experts for the first time were deputed to the Central Asian countries. The major beneficiaries have been Afghanistan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles, Uganda, Yemen and Zambia.

Nearly 500 military personnel from about 30 countries attended Army/Navy/Air Force courses of instructions in India. A large number of the trainees came from South Asian and African countries. Considerable interest exists among their countries in availing of training facilities in Indian military institutions.

Emergency relief assistance has been extended to Afghanistan, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Kyrghyzstan, Madagascar, Mozambique, Mongolia, Namibia, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Zambia and Zimbabwe. These countries have suffered from natural disasters. Assistance provided to them included baby food, milk powder, blankets, medicines, etc.

The major projects undertaken during the year under ITEC assistance included the Indira Gandhi International Child Hospital (IGICH) Expansion Project in Afghanistan, the 7th phase of the Angkor Vat Restoration Project in Cambodia, the Hand Tool Manufacturing and Demonstration Centre in the Philippines, and the Court House Project in Mauritius. In addition, a number of feasibility studies and pilot projects have been undertaken or initiated under the programme. Some of these are to be undertaken in the Central Asian countries.

The visit of a delegation from Cambodia comprising two Senior Archaeologists took place under the ITEC Programme in September 1992 for archaeological study and conservation of monuments.

A study visit from Mexico took place in November 1992. The visitors were exposed to a vast range of Indian industry. They also visited the India International Trade Fair (IITF) in New Delhi. Cooperation in the Small Scale Sectors was identified for future collaboration. Like in the previous year, 15 September was celebrated as the 'ITEC Day' by select Missions abroad. The occasion was utilised to maintain and strengthen contact with former ITEC alumni and was also utilised for forming ITEC alumni associations. A documentary produced by XP Division entitled 'Building Bridges' on the ITEC Programme was also arranged to be telecast locally by the Indian Missions.

In the context of India's liberalised economic policies and the consequent emphasis on expanding trade, investment and technology flows, Ministry of External Affairs has worked through its Missions and Posts abroad in giving priority to India's economic and commercial interests. In the period under review, the activities of the Economic Coordination Unit (ECU) have reflected the growing focus on economic and commercial issues.

ECU has given special attention to the requirement of external economic publicity in the context of the need to effectively disseminate information about the economic reform programme to the international business community. The composite media package aimed at projecting India as an attractive investment destination that was prepared by ECU was comprehensively updated in April 1992 and further revisions are underway. The floppy diskette entitled 'Doing Business with India' which was introduced last year as an innovative way of disseminating information about policies and procedures for investors has been regularly updated during the current year.

Apart from preparing this promotional material which was intended primarily for use by Indian Missions abroad but has also been in demand from the major economic Ministries when they have sent delegations abroad or when foreign business delegations have come to India, ECU has also been playing a more direct role in the country's efforts to attract investment. It has been directly involved in arranging programmes for visiting business delegations, facilitating their interaction with concerned Ministries and business entities and organizing investment promotion events in target countries. Two of the important events coordinated by ECU were investment promotion seminars organized in Los Angeles and the West Coast of the USA in April 1992, and in Taiwan in October 1992. It also helped with the Business International Round Table in Delhi in May 1992. In addition, ECU has also provided back-up support to the promotional events organized by a number of Indian Missions including those in Bonn, Brussels, The Hague, Singapore, etc. Recognising the importance of following up on the leads established at these various investment promotion events, it has been specially active in ensuring timely and close coordination between potential investors and the concerned Ministries and organizations in India.

Another important aspect of ECU's investment promotion efforts has been its interactions with the economic Ministries with the purpose of keeping Indian Missions, especially those in target countries informed on a regular and immediate basis of the on-going changes in India's economic policies. It has also instituted a system of obtaining regular feedback from Missions on responses/reactions to India's economic reform programme among the industrialised countries in general and the international business community in particular. This feedback has formed the basis of periodic reports that this Ministry has sent to the Foreign Investment Promotion Board on on-going investment promotion efforts and on the bottlenecks that still remain to be removed to facilitate significant inflows of foreign capital.

Finally, as a natural corollary to these activities, ECU has liaised closely with apex industry organizations, business houses, concerned Ministries and State Governments on ways and means of facilitating investment procedures and improving the overall quality of investment promotion efforts. The attempt here has been to focus on specific projects and specific issues. One of the results of such interaction was the preparation of a shelf of projects that could be offered for equity participation to potential investors from Gulf region. This initiative was taken by way of specific follow-up action to the interest expressed by the UAE President in obtaining specific project profiles for investment during the course of his visit to India in April and it culminated in the visit of a business delegation to Abu Dhabi in November with the objective of discussing investment proposals in areas in which UAE had expressed a preliminary interest.
11 Policy Planning And Research
THE POLICY PLANNING WING WAS ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN PREPARING BRIEFS AND background notes on issues concerning India's foreign policy in the rapidly evolving international situation.

It is also the nodal point for interaction with joint Intelligence Committee, the University Grants Commission and its affiliated Area Study Centres attached to various Universities. These activities were strengthened during the year.

It has also given financial assistance for Seminars and Conferences on international issues. The Wing has also financed study and research projects undertaken by scholars and academic organizations on subjects relevant to Ministry of External Affairs.

The Research Wing rendered all possible help to the Territorial Divisions as well as Indian Missions abroad on India's international boundary problems or whenever any specific information or documents on international relations were required.

The Research Wing examined the incorrect depiction of India's international boundaries in maps printed in foreign publications, both official and private. The matter of incorrect maps was then taken up with the concerned Government or the publishers through Indian Missions abroad for necessary corrective measures. It coordinated the accord of approval to new Survey of India maps depicting international boundaries of India. It also coordinated with the Survey of India and the Ministry of Defence the supply of mapsheets to various Government and semi- Government agencies for use in their official work.

The Research Wing dealt with the requests from research scholars in consultation with the concerned Territorial Division for access to the records of the Ministry relating to the restricted areas or the closed period as laid down in the Access Rules. It also scrutinised the excerpts of the closed period records submitted by the research scholars for clearance in consultation with the concerned Territorial Divisions.

An important task of the Wing is to edit and supervise printing of the Annual Report of the Ministry on the basis of the material prepared by the various Divisions.

The Printing of Old Records (POR) Unit of the Research Wing edited and printed selected old policy files of the Ministry. The POR Unit also undertook the review/weeding of old files in the Record Management Section of the Ministry and also advised the Missions abroad in the same work. Similarly, the Unit reviewed old records of the Ministry which were transferred to the National Archives of India in the past.

The Research Section of the Wing coordinated the distribution of periodical reports received from Indian Missions abroad.

To support the research efforts, a library equipped with modern facilities and large resource material is maintained with over one hundred thousand books and documents in its collection. During last year, 1255 books, 32 maps, 450 pamphlets, and 36 reels of microfilm were added. The Library subscribes to 600 periodical titles.

The Library is equipped with in-house computer system with 9 terminals, two of which support data entry and retrieval in Indian languages, a microfilm/fiche reader printer and a plain paper photocopier.

Documentation/Bibliographic Services as well as other library operations and services were computerised using an integrated software package developed in India. ' Information about books and selected periodical articles received in Library since 1986 is available on-line through each terminal. All new documents received in Library-books, maps, microfilms, selected articles from periodicals, etc-are being fed into the in-house computer system to create Database on Foreign Affairs. Using this Database, the Library provides Current Awareness Service and Bibliographical Services. In addition, the Library regularly issued a monthly Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin and an annotated monthly list of recent additions to the Library.

Library users including research scholars can access on-line computer- based information held in Library in different databases through Foreign Affairs Information Retrieval System (FAIRS). Photocopying and computer print-out facilities are also available to all Library users including research scholars.
12 External Publicity
DURING THE YEAR UNDER REVIEW, THE EXTERNAL PUBLICITY DIVISION WAS actively engaged in discharging its responsibility of projecting India's position on various issues and developments in India as well as countering propaganda directed against India. Simultaneously, due, emphasis was given to dissemination of credible information relating to the positive aspects of India's economic, scientific and technological progress and underlining the sustained march of Indian democracy.

A thrust was given to the wide publicity on the new policy initiative undertaken by the present Government, particularly, the drive for economic liberalisation including the country's concerted efforts to attract foreign investment. This was done through the publication of a number of booklets, including the "New Economic Policies"; in various languages. Over 6,000 copies of a package, consisting of a diskette and four brochures on "Doing Business with India", were distributed world- wide.

The External Publicity Division continued to assist Indian Missions/Posts abroad with publicity material in different languages for distribution to local dignitaries, prominent persons, opinion-makers and academic institutions, etc. The important new publications included "India-A Democracy on the Move", "Muslims in India", and a set of media kits and tourist literature. These publications depict India's achievements in the fields of foreign policy, science and technology, agriculture and rural development, education and poverty alleviation as well as our social and cultural norms and values and the secular and democratic set-up of the country. These publications have been especially designed with the objective of acquainting foreign audiences with the multi-faceted nature of the Indian polity and the sustained progress of independent India.

"India Perspectives", which is now being published in 10 languages with the launch of the German edition in October 1992 has emerged as a major component in publicity efforts. The magazine widened the scope of its readers and feedback from Indian Missions was encouraging. However, while the total requirement of the Missions for "India Perspectives" works out to be more than 56,000 copies per month, only 51,000 copies were printed because of paucity of funds.

The Division continued to regularly brief the foreign and Indian Press about India's policy on various issues. Government's swift response on the Ayodhya issue and all steps taken to counter communal forces were disseminated to all the Missions abroad in order to enable them to present India's point of view to foreign officials, foreign governments as well as Media, opinion makers and others. During the period under review almost daily press briefings were held for the media and press releases issued. In all, more than 596 Official Spokesman's statements/press releases were issued. The policy of offering hospitality to select mediamen from abroad and rendering assistance in their travel within the country to enable them to meet a cross section of the Indian people was also continued. The Indian Missions abroad, too, kept in regular touch with the foreign media to brief them about the current developments in India and provide them with factual material on matters of current interest. This was facilitated by transmission of twice-daily bulletins to 71 Missions abroad. Besides, 40 Missions received bi-weekly bulletins while 32 Missions, identified as "Core- Missions", received clippings from the Indian Press/Press Summary on a daily basis.

A special emphasis has been placed on the circulation of audio-visual material to Indian Missions abroad which have been equipped with TV sets and VCRs. The Missions are regularly supplied with video news cassettes, capsules of "India Magazine" as well as documentaries on diverse subjects relating to India. Various sources including Doordarshan, Films Division and private producers have been tapped in this regard. A number of Missions have also been authorised to install dish antennae to enable them keep in touch with the latest developments and to tune into programmes of Doordarshan, wherever possible.

The anti-India campaign, launched by Pakistan, is being countered on all fronts. The XP Division countered this through briefings to foreign Journalists and supply of material giving facts of the situation to Indian Missions abroad. Publicity material on the activities of the militants and Pakistan's clandestine support to the terrorists was widely distributed to foreign governments as well as opinion-makers, officials, media persons and others. This multi-pronged approach led to an understanding of India's point of view in many circles. Countering malicious and mischievous anti-India campaign by Pakistan is an on-going process in the Division. Important news items, relating to Punjab and Kashmir, are regularly sent to Indian Missions abroad for further dissemination. Fact sheets, made available by the Ministry of Home Affairs, relating to alleged human-rights violations in India, are sent to some of the Missions to enable them counter these allegations.

The XP Division continued to make available feature articles from Indian News Agencies to the Indian Missions abroad. Special articles were also commissioned on the occasion of Republic Day and the Independence Day for highlighting India's multi-dimensional achievements in diverse fields. This facilitated efforts of the Missions to bring out special supplements in foreign newspapers on these two occasions. Two feature articles titled "India and NAM" and "NAM Summit in Jakarta" were commissioned on a special basis and distributed to Indian Mission in Jakarta on the eve of the 10th NAM Summit. Several feature articles were commissioned by PTI and sent to all the Missions abroad for use as special supplement on the occasion of the Republic Day in 1993.

The audio-visual arm of the Division completed/produced several films during the period including "Axis-Mundi" (on restoration work at Angkor Vat), "Continuity in Change" (on the life, culture, history and essence of India) and "Building, Bridges" (on the ITEC Programme). These have been distributed to all Missions after duplication and conversion into various colour systems/schemes. Some of these have also been telecast at various places abroad on suitable occasions. Meanwhile, a documentary on contemporary Indian art, featuring two Indian painters, has recently been completed. Several other films are in advance stages of production.

A number of retrospectives of the late Shri Satyajit Ray have been held in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Singapore, Muscat, Canada, UK, Phillipines, Chile, Argentina, Trinidad and Tobago and other places and are scheduled in several others. Telecasts of Indian films abroad either on a commercial or non-commercial basis have also been arranged by the Division and Indian Missions abroad. A major Indian participation in the Tashkent Film Festival was organized and a Raj Kapoor package, which later travelled to other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) cities, was also arranged in coordination with the Directorate of Film Festivals (DFF). Offers to coordinate and promote, commercially and culturally, Indian films abroad are being made in conjunction with NFDC, Doordarshan, Films Division and DFF.

The Division hosted 7 journalists from abroad during the period and committed itself to visits of 9 more foreign journalists. So far mediamen from China, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Israel, Turkey, Malaysia and Austria have visited India under this programme. Pursuant to Prime Minister's directive of inviting economic journalists to enable them have first- hand information about the economic changes in India, core Missions in selected countries were asked to extend invitations to prominent economic journalists. Feedback received by the Division suggests that such visits have succeeded in generating goodwill and promoting the cause of favourable projection of India's views and concerns on international issues.

XP Division looked after logistics/media arrangements for VVIP visits abroad. During the period under review, the Division has handled media arrangements and logistics for journalists accompanying the Vice President to North Korea and Mongolia, the President to China and the Prime Minister to Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro, Madrid, Lisbon, Jakarta, Paris, Kathmandu, Tunis and Dakar.

The Division facilitated media arrangements for the foreign journalists accompanying the VVIPs on their visits to India. Liaison Officers from XPR Section was attached with each visiting delegation. The following VVIPs visited India during the period:

The Thai Crown Prince, the UN Secretary General, the President of Turkmenistan, the President of UAE, the Russian State Secretary, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, the President of Mauritius, the General Secretary of Vietnam, the Sultan of Brunei, the President of Sri Lanka, the President of Uganda, the Prince & Princess of Japan and the Aga Khan.

XPR Section also arranged the media coverage for the incoming visits of 12 Foreign Ministers from different countries and 4 other VIP and Parliamentary delegations.
13 Protocol
DURING THE YEAR 1992-93, HEADS OF MISSION OF THE FOLLOWING EIGHTEEN countries left India on completion of their terms:

1 Bangladesh

2 Zambia

3 Trinidad & Tobago

4 Bulgaria


6 Pakistan

7 Iraq

8 Hungary

9 Indonesia

10 Sudan

11 Singapore

12 Venezuela

13 Malaysia

14 Iran

15 Laos

16 New Zealand

17 Portugal

18 Lebanon

During the same period, Heads of Mission of the following seventeen countries presented their Credentials to the President of India:

1 Jordan

2 Myanmar

3 Thailand

4 Tanzania

5 Panama

6 Ethiopia

7 Bangladesh

8 Zambia


10 Algeria

11 Hungary

12 Pakistan

13 Peru

14 Angola

15 Israel

16 Sudan

17 Iran

Israel, Brunei Darussalam and Angola opened their first Resident Missions in India. The Consulate General of Pakistan started functioning in Bombay.

A list containing names of foreign dignitaries who visited India during the year, alongwith dates of such visits, as also a list containing information about visits by Indian dignitaries to foreign countries, are at Appendices XVI & XVII.
14 Passport and Consular Services and Indians Overseas
THE PRESSURE OF HEAVY DEMAND FOR PASSPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES at the Passport Offices in India continued in 1992 with the receipt of 24,72,428 applications for fresh passports.

The output of the Passport Offices went up considerably with the issue of 22,68,425 fresh passports representing an increase of 40.4%. Detailed input and output figures regarding fresh passport and miscellaneous services are at Appendix VII.

The main areas of focus during the past financial year were the further improvement and simplification of passport services for which purpose the following measures were introduced:

(a) With effect from 1 November 1992, passport application forms started being sold by select head and sub-post offices throughout India. A total of almost 2000 new outlets for passport application forms were thereby created. In view of this, as required by the Department of Posts, the acceptance of passport application forms printed by travel agents was discontinued from 31 March 1993 after an overlap period of five months to enable them to use up their stocks.

(b) A major difficulty faced by Indian nationals related to issue of duplicate passports in lieu of lost or damaged passports. The entire system has been rationalised and simplified so that an Indian who has genuinely lost or damaged his passport is not deprived of a passport for urgent travel, while necessary investigations and clearances are obtained. Some exceptions to this facility have, however, been made in certain cases in order to prevent abuse of this facility.

(c) Specified miscellaneous services, such as addition/deletion of children's names, extra visa pages, etc can be granted by any Passport Office. -110>

In the case of renewal of passports, issue of police clearance certificates and change of address, name or date of birth, the applicant, if in India, should normally approach the original Passport Issuing Authority (PIA). In an emergency, these services can be granted by any Passport Office, after obtaining clearance from the original PIA. A Mission abroad can grant these services after checking with the original PIA.

(d) With effect from July 1992, the system of recognising Travel Agents for dealing with Passport Offices was dispensed with. Now all Travel Agents are free to deal with Passport Offices without having to go through any formality of recognition or payment of fee and the public accordingly has a much greater choice instead of the limited number of Travel Agents who had hitherto been recognised.

(e) It was found that several passport applications were being received in the name of non-existent persons at non-existent addresses, or persons already outside India. In order to prevent passports from falling into the hands of unauthorised people, w.e.f. July 1992, passports in the case of first time applicants,- started being delivered to the applicants themselves or posted to them. For all other cases, such as renewal of passports, issue of passports after the expiry of the full validity of the 10-year old passport and miscellaneous services, any authorised person including any Travel Agent may deal with the Passport Offices on behalf of the applicants and receive the completed passport on the basis of a letter of authority from the applicant.

(f) The Consular, Passport and Visa (CPV) Division has a computerised system of monitoring complaints received from the public both with regard to delays in the issue of passports as well as complaints against officials. The Divisions monitors the complaints and its intervention has helped in the resolution of several cases. At the same time, wherever a complaint gives reason to suspect malafide behaviour on the part of any passport official or staff member, the CPV Division undertakes investigation of the concerned case and action against the erring official is taken, based on the investigation. Nine officials were placed under suspension on various charges, sanction for prosecution issued in respect of three and Departmental action taken against twelve.

(g)Passports are normally to be issued on a first-come-first- served basis with reference to the date of application. All Passport Offices have been instructed that when the applicant's turn comes up, if the police report has not been received and a period of four weeks has elapsed, the passport should be issued if the application is otherwise in order. Notwithstanding the above, in genuine cases of emergency supported by satisfactory documentation to establish the urgency, passports are issued on a priority basis. Such cases cover exporters and businessmen with firm commitments, persons requiring to go abroad urgently for medical treatment, people with valid employment offers from other countries, officials and private individuals required to go abroad to attend seminars and conferences, etc as well as students with admission abroad in recognised universities or those appearing for entrance examinations of foreign universities. Valid supporting documentation is a must to ensure that this facility is not misused as it has been found that a single passport issued out of turn delays several other cases.

Several administrative measures were also taken to increase the output of the Passport Offices. These were particularly critical as a major backlog got generated in 1991 with the unexpectedly high receipt of 24.03 lakh applications for fresh passports whereas issues were 16.15 lakhs with a supply of 16.43 lakh blank passport booklets used for both fresh passports and miscellaneous services. These measures were:

(a) Urgent steps were taken to work out a schedule of enhanced deliveries with the India Security Press (ISP), Nasik which prints the booklets. For 1993-94, ISP has committed itself to a supply of 40 lakh booklets which should ensure that there is no shortfall vis-a-vis the anticipated demand for passports. The Ministry has also welcomed a Finance Ministry proposal for the establishment of a second passport printing facility.

(b) The cadre strength of Central Passport Organization existing in 1991-92 was sanctioned in 1980 based on an inflow of about 13 lakh applications for fresh passports received in 1979 in the then 18 Passport Offices. Since then the number of Passport Offices has increased with no additional sanctioned strength and work has grown tremendously. The cadre strength was clearly inadequate to handle the increasing number of applications. In order to remedy this situation, Government have sanctioned 400 additional posts in the Central Passport Organization. The necessary formalities to fill these posts are in the process of being completed.

(c) Delhi Passport Office has been partially computerised: details of all passport applications received in the past two years are on a computerised database. The computerisation of CPV Division is underway and a number of software programmes relating to countrywide data on passport receipts and issues, miscellaneous services granted by the Passport Offices, cases of lost and damaged passports, complaints and grievances and data on Indians arrested abroad or who have died abroad as well as foreigners arrested in India or who have died in India, are available on the database. The necessary sanctions for computerisation of the Regional Passport Office, Bombay and for the extension of computerisation in CPV Division have been issued. The work has thus far been entrusted to the National Informatics Centre (NIC) which is in the process of acquiring the necessary hardware.

The experience of computerisation thus far has been limited but extremely useful, since it has established that mere computerisation, without a review and streamlining of procedures for passport issue, would not result in meeting the objective of reducing delays in the issue of passports. Accordingly, the' Government has initiated an exercise to examine the entire system of issue of passports with a view to tightening procedures and reducing delays without sacrificing security considerations.

(d) Passport fraud continues to be a problem. An inter-Ministerial group is examining methods to make the passport booklet more secure and resistant to tampering besides working out the plans for making the passport booklets compatible with agreed international standards for machine readability.

To facilitate travel of Members of Parliament, Supreme Court Judges, Heads of National Academic Institutions, their spouses and dependent children under 18 years within the SAARC countries, SAARC stickers enabling visa-free entry into all SAARC member countries were introduced with effect from I March 1992. implementation of this scheme is handled by the PV II Section of the CPV Division.

A Bill to amend the Passports Act, 1967 has been passed by Parliament it was passed by the Lok Sabha in December 1992 and by the Rajya Sabha during the Budget Session, 1993. The Bill inter alia aims to allow the Government to fix the fees for passport services commensurate with the cost of such services and to increase the penalties for violations of the Act.

The CPV Division did 1,60,401 attestations in 1992. The matter of charging a fee for attestation is under active consideration.
-113> During 1992, several consular cases were handled with reference to problem of Indian nationals abroad. Figures regarding various categories of cases may be seen at Appendix IX There are at present nine active extradition requests from foreign countries and ten requests by India being handled by the Division.

The responsibilities of the Division were expanded from facilitating travel abroad by Indian nationals through the issue of passports and providing consular assistance wherever necessary to coordinating other aspects of dealings with Indians overseas. It is estimated that at present there are about 10 million persons of Indian origin residing in different parts of the world. This figure includes those who continue to hold Indian citizenship and are the responsibility of the Government of India.

Overseas Indians are increasingly being recognised as a valuable asset for India and as a useful bridge between India and the country of their domicile. It is the policy of the Government of India that persons of Indian origin who have taken foreign nationality should identify themselves with and integrate into the mainstream of life in their country of adoption. The Government, however, remains alive to their general welfare and, in particular, to their cultural and economic interest in India.

Indian Missions abroad maintain close contacts with overseas Indians in a wide variety of fields and render them all possible assistance with the CPV & OI Division acting as a nodal point in India.
15 Administration and Organization
SHRI DINESH SINGH ASSUMED CHARGE AS MINISTER OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS ON 17 January 1993. Earlier, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki demitted charge on 31 March 1992, In the intervening period, Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, held charge of the Ministry of External Affairs. Shri R L Bhatia joined as Minister of State for External Affairs on 2 July 1992. Shri Eduardo Faleiro, who took over as Minister of State for External Affairs on 24 June 1991, demitted charge on 17 January 1993. Shri Salman Khursheed took over as Minister of State in this Ministry on the same date.

Following Government's directive on economy, it was decided that Indian Embassies in Malawi, Zaire and Colombia may be closed down. This would also help offset part of the expenditure incurred on the new Missions established in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus and Israel and the new Consulates in Shanghai in China and St. Petersberg and Vladivostok in Russia. In addition, the Consulate in Tashkent, capital of Uzbekistan, has been upgraded to an Embassy.

The Ministry, therefore, now has 144 Resident Missions/Posts aborad including the three slated for closure.

There has been a major reorganization and streamlining of the work at Headquarters to reflect the changes in the global scenario. Some Territorial Divisions have been merged to ensure better coordination of policies in the concerned area. New Divisions have also been created to enable the Ministry to focus more closely on developments within the region. For work of specialised nature, separate Units have been set up where required. The list of Divisions is given at Appendix XVIII.

A regular time schedule is being adhered to for holding the meetings of the various Boards which recommend postings and transfers of officials at all levels. Greater transparency has been introduced in the posting procedures and the available posts are circulated well in advance to all concerned officials at headquarters and abroad.

The Departmental Promotion Committees to consider promotion to various grades are being convened with minimum possible delay.

The meetings of the Joint Consultative Machinery for redressal of staff grievances are also being held regularly.

55 vacancies of Heads of Missions which arose from time to time have been filled since July 1991 and periods for which Missions functioned without a Head was kept to the absolute minimum.

The total strength of IFS and IFS(B) at Headquarters and Indian Missions and Posts abroad is 3396. This includes certain posts borne on the budget of Ministry of Commerce but excludes ex-cadred posts and those held in abeyance. In addition, 9 posts are held by ex-cadre HOMs. The cadre-wise strength is at Appendix X. The list of officers qualified in various foreign languages is at Appendix XII.

The Ministry continued its efforts for acquisition of properties and construction of buildings for Indian Missions abroad particularly in those cities where real estate market was favourable. Purchase of five apartments in Washington for Indian Embassy officers was finalised.

The Regional Passport Office, Delhi, is to move to Bhikaji Cama Place, on acquisition of space in that building complex.

Construction work in the Chancery-cum-Residence projects at Dubai and Kuwait was completed during the year. Construction work in the Chancerycum-Residence projects at Kuala Lumpur and New York would also be completed during the year.

Tenders for construction of Chancery-cum-Residence projects at Riyadh have been floated and the tender documents for Indira Gandhi Centre for Indian Culture at Port Louis are being finalised. Pre-construction planning for projects at Abu Dhabi, Beijing, Islamabad Phase II, Kathmandu, Kiev, Moscow, Muscat and Tashkent is on hand.

Administrative inspections of Indian Missions in Dhaka, Canberra, Sydney, Wellington, Bangkok, Cairo and Nairobi were carried out by the Foreign Service Inspectors (FSIs) with the objective of reviewing and improving the functioning of these Missions. Soon after the establishment of formal diplomatic relations with Israel, the FSIs visited Tel Aviv to set up the new Indian Mission.

Computers have been supplied to several more Divisions in the Ministry and in Missions abroad with a view to increasing efficiency.
16 Foreign Service Training Institute.
THE FOREIGN SERVICE TRAINING INSTITUTE INTRODUCED CHANGES IN EMPHASIS which included the re-modelling of programmes to acquaint participants with the new economic policies, and the introduction of language courses in the Basic Professional Courses which are held several times every year. It also gave a thrust to inter-institutional interaction, and held special programmes for diplomats from friendly foreign countries requesting for training here.

As a result, 13 diplomats from 6 newly independent Central Asian countries attended the first such professional course from 30 September to 30 November 1992. The programme for these diplomats included the study of diplomatic practice and protocol, international law, formulation and implementation of foreign policy, training in computer skills, effective communication and representational skills. In their efforts to set up their diplomatic services, these newly independent countries had projected their requirements to the Institute or the Government of India. The second professional course for diplomats commenced on 18 January 1993 and had 15 diplomats from the ANC, and 11 others from Hungary, Romania, Kyrghyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Zambia. The training was adjusted to meet the needs of these countries, as appropriate.

Another feature was the holding of an orientation-cum-briefing programme for Heads of Indian Missions and Posts. The first such programme took place from 30 March to 10 April 1992. In this programme, emphasis was given to the new economic policies of Government. Such programmes are being planned for the future also.

In keeping with the idea of improving FSTI's contacts with similar institutes abroad, the Dean visited Mexico from 23 to 25 September 1992 to attend the meeting of Association of Directors of Diplomatic Academies & Institutes of International Relations (ADDAIIR). To further this effort, delegations from Zimbabwe, Sierra Leone and Malaysia visited the Institute during the period. Efforts are being made to widen inter-institutional interaction.

The language laboratory was set-up and made functional. It has been widely used this year.

Under a UNDP Project, one Foreign Service Officer was sent for M A Degree Course in international law, diplomacy and international economics to Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, for the academic year 1992-93 which commenced from September 1992.

Apart from these features, the basic functions of the FSTI continued with the training of IFS Probationers and of members of staff posted abroad, etc. There had been a special thrust in respect of the latter towards area and language orientation, as also familiarity with operating computers for word processing and Electronic Mail. A list of programmes conducted is as follows:

(i) Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for IFS Probationers (1991 batch) (15 participants)*

(ii) Orientation-cum-Briefing Programme for HOM/HOPs (24 participants)

(iii) "Introduction to India"-Third Familiarisation Programme for Diplomats (23 participants)

(iv) Sixth Orientation Programme for Spouses (13 participants)

(v) Professional Course for Diplomats from Central Asian countries (13 participants)

(vi) 31st, 32nd and 33rd Basic Professional Courses for IFS (B) personnel being posted abroad (36, 49, and 49 participants respectively) *In the initial part of this course, some trainees from friendly foreign countries were also present.
17 Implementation of Official Language Policy and Propagation of Hindi Abroad
UNLIKE OTHER MINISTRIES/DEPARTMENTS, THIS MINISTRY HAS MULTIPLE responsibilities: implementation of Official Language Policy of the Union of India at Headquarters, Regional Passport Offices located in India and Indian Missions/Posts abroad, and propagation of Hindi abroad through Indian Missions and Posts. The whole set of work is accomplished by the Hindi Section of the Ministry. In addition, Hindi Section also caters to the entire translation work from English to Hindi and vice- versa of the Ministry, Passport Offices and Indian Missions/Posts abroad.

To facilitate the use of Hindi in the Ministry, its Passport offices and Indian Missions abroad and also to provide guidance, where necessary, there is a Hindi Advisory Committee in the Ministry. The Official Language Implementation Committee, headed by Joint Secretary (Admn), is working to oversee the progressive use of Hindi in the official work.

The Ministry continued with various Hindi Schemes. Workshops were organized for those having working knowledge in Hindi in order to remove their hesitation in doing their official work in Hindi. A Hindi Module for IFS probationers of 1991 batch was also organized. A phased programme has also been chalked out to organize similar workshops in various Passport Offices in, India!

During the year under review, Hindi Week was observed and various Competitions were organized at the Headquarters, in some of the Indian Missions abroad and also in some of the Passport Offices located in India with a view to create an atmosphere conducive to use of Hindi in these offices.

The Ministry has purchased 50 Devanagari Typewriters with a view to achieving the target set in the annual programme regarding implementation of the Official Language Policy of the Government for the year 1992-93. Passport Office, Hyderabad, whereof 80% staff possesses working knowledge of Hindi, has been notified under Rule 10(4) of the Official Languages Rules 1976 thereby increasing the number of notified Passport Offices under this Rule to 7. Computer Cell of the Ministry has also chalked out a phased programme of introducing bilingual capacity in the computers installed in the Ministry.

With a view to assessing the progress in implementation of Official Language Policy of the Union in the Passport Offices, Officers from Hindi Section have inspected Passport Offices located at Bhubaneshwar, Patna, Calcutta, Cochin, Trivandrum, Bangalore, Madras, Calicut and Tiruchirapalli. Committee of Parliament on Official Language also inspected the Passport Offices in Hyderabad and Madras with the same objective.

This year too, the Ministry continued with the Rajbhasha Running Shield scheme for its Passport Offices located in India to encourage them to do their maximum work in Hindi. As a result, Passport Offices at Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Delhi and Lucknow gave good account of themselves in this field.

As regards propagation of Hindi abroad, sets of standard Hindi literature were sent to Indian Missions abroad this year also. We received demands for Hindi teaching material, Hindi books for research scholars, Hindi magazines, typewriters, etc from a number of our Missions abroad and requisite material was supplied to them.

Indian Embassy in Seoul assisted the Hangkuk University in organizing a Hindi essay elocution competition in which Korean Students of Hindi participated with great enthusiasm. The Ministry extended help in sending gift items and books for the function. Similar function was organized by Indian Embassy in Paramaribo (Suriname) for which gift items were again sent by the Ministry. On the special demand of Indian High Commission in Georgetown books worth over Rs 2 lakh were sent to it for donation to local organizations engaged in teaching of Hindi.

The Ministry liaised between Indian Missions and the Department of Education and Central Hindi Institute to ensure coordination and smooth and timely execution of work related to the nomination, travel and enrolments of foreign students coming to India on Government of India scholarship to study Hindi at the Central Hindi Institute.

Classes for the children of the officials of the Missions and members of staff of other offices of Central Government located abroad continued to be held by Indian Missions for which all suitable help was accorded.

An encouraging picture is emerging as a result of the efforts of the Ministry to propagate Hindi abroad and it is hoped that more will be accomplished through sustained efforts in this direction.
18 Cultural Relations
THE INDIAN COUNCIL FOR CULTURAL RELATIONS, FOUNDED IN 1950 WITH THE objective of establishing and strengthening cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries of the world, has been steadfastly working towards this direction.

One of the major highlights of this year was the organization of First South Asian Festival of SAARC countries. The Festival was planned in the spirit of SAARC, as a people-to-people event, aimed at enhancing the interaction and affinities among the people of SAARC countries.

The Festival was inaugurated on 9 October 1992 at Teen Murti House Lawns by Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, and continued till 24 October 1992. All the seven countries of the region participated. The delegation from each country was led by a Minister. The closing event of. the Festival was held in Trivandrum on 24 October 1992. Vice President, Shri K R Narayanan, was the chief guest at the closing event.

The Festival had several components as detailed below:

1. Performing Arts The best traditions of the performing arts from each of the seven SAARC countries with the focus on the people, on folk music and dance were presented. More than 300 artistes took part in various performances.

2. Exhibitions

(a) Masterpieces of Classical Art Unique exhibits highlighting the 5000 years of civilization and heritage of SAARC countries including the original pieces from Taxila, Mohenjodaro, Harappa and the Gandhara period were shown.

(b) Masters of Contemporary Art Consisted of works by Zainul Abedin (Bangladesh), Sanjay Dorji (Bhutan), Satish Gujral (India), Ahmed Abbas (Maldives), MAR Chughtai (Pakistan) and George Keyt (Sri Lanka).

(c) Young, Contemporary Artists from SAARC countries

(d) Crafts with Craftsmen in Action

(e) Exhibition of Children's Paintings

(f) Exhibition of Photographs on the Theme 'My Land My People'

3. Seminars

(a) Future Potential for Cultural and Educational Links and Interaction among SAARC countries

(b) Contemporary Literary Scene: A Search for Roots ?

(c) SAARC Media Dialogue

4. SAARC Film Festival

Events of the Festival were held in the Union Territories of Delhi and Chandigarh and in other 30 cities and towns in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

To coordinate the various components of the Festival a National Organizing Committee was constituted. Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, was the Patron of the Organizing Committee. Shri Eduardo Faleiro (the then Minister of State for External Affairs) and Shri R L Bhatia (Minister of State for External Affairs) were its Co-Chairmen.

Another significant event of this year was the Festival of China in India. The Festival of China in India was jointly announced in December 1991 by the Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, and the Chinese Premier, Mr Li Peng, during the latter's visit to India. India was the first country to which China sent a major cultural festival. The festival consisted of exhibitions, seminars and talks, performing arts events, TV films and film festival. It opened on 2 December 1992 at Siri Fort Auditorium with a Performance by the Shandong Peking Opera. Over 80 performers visited India during the festival. Apart from the Opera, a major presentation of Acrobatics was held in a number of cities in India. The third major performing art event was the presentation by 15- member Puppet Art Ensemble. The Painting Exhibition, displayed at the National Gallery of Modem Art in Delhi, consisted of 60 oil paintings, 30 traditional style paintings and 21 works of calligraphy. The exhibition also travelled to Bombay. Apart from this, two other exhibitions namely that of photographs entitled "'China in Prosperity" consisting of 150 photographs and of Chinese handicrafts were also on view.

Other major performances organized by the Council were as follows:
1 4-member Musical Group 'Southern Crossings' (Australia).

2 8-member Philippe Genty Group (France).

3 6-member Musical Group 'Sextet' (Egypt).

4 15-member Theatre Group 'Tarnima' (Egypt).

5 El Cuarteto Musical Group (Venezuela).

6 12-member Kustbandet Jazz Group (Sweden).

7 5-member Johnson Mountain Boys Group (USA).

8 5-member Mimi Lorenzini Jazz Group (France).

9 6-member Clarian Fracture Zone Jazz Group (Australia).

10 3-member Brahm. Trio Salzburg Group (Austria).

11 21-member Century Theatre (UK).

12 22-member Philippines Ballet Group (Philippines).

13 Kanze School of NOH Theatre (Japan).

The 1991 Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Memorial Lecture was delivered by former President of India, Shri R Venkataraman, on 7 May 1992 at Parliament House Annexe. The theme of the lecture was "Maulana. Azad and the Unity of India".

The 1991 Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding was conferred on Smt Aruna Asaf Ali, the veteran freedom fighter and social worker. The function was held on 14 November 1992 at Ashok Hall, Rashtrapati Bhavan.

During the period under review, the Council sponsored 61 performing cultural troupes to participate in important international festivals as well as to give individual performances at the invitation of foreign governments and institutions abroad. The artists and troupes sent abroad included:
1 20-member Dance group of Dr (Mrs) Kanak Rele (visited North Korea and Singapore).

2 Ms Naina. Devi (visited USA).

3 27-Member Chorus Repertory Theatre Group led by Shri Rattan Thiyam (visited Japan).

4 9-member Bharatanatyam troupe led by Ms Saroja Vaidyanathan (visited Nepal).

5 5-member Kathak dance troupe led by Ms Uma Sharma (visited Canada).

6 7-member Bharatanatyam troupe led by Dr Padma Subrahmanyam (visited Indonesia).

7 8-member Odissi dance troupe led by Ms Sanjukta Panigrahi (visited France and USA).

8 Shri T N Krishnan, Violinist (visited Sri Lanka).

9 Pt Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Flutist and Mr M S Gopalakrishnan, Violinist (visited South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique).

10 5-member Penaaz Masani group (visited Mauritius, Seychelles and Kenya).

11 5-member Kathak dance troupe of Kumkum Dhar (visited Pakistan).

12 4-member Shovana Narayan troupe (visited Bangladesh).

13 11-member Malika Sarabhai troupe (visited Mexico and Peru).

14 Pt Jasraj with 5 accompanists (visited Pakistan).

15 Dagar Brothers with 4 accompanists (visited France and Hungary).

The Council also sponsored the visit of various scholars, intellectuals, journalists abroad. The total number of such visits was 74 and some of the prominent persons were:

1 Dr Raja Ramanna, former Minister (visited Mauritius).

2 Prof Andre Beteille, Professor of Sociology (visited USA).

3 Prof Upendra Baxi, Vice-Chancellor, University of Delhi (visited USA).

4 Shri Basu Bhattacharyya, Film Director (visited Canada).

5 Dr Karan Singh, former Minister (visited China, Mongolia and Hong Kong).

6 Justice C Mohan, Supreme Court of India (visited Israel).

7 Shri Mulk Raj Anand, Writer (visited China).

8 Shri B R Nanda, former Director, Nehru Memorial Museum (visited Mauritius).

Besides, a 13-member delegation headed by Dr Kapila Vatsyayan was sponsored to Indonesia to participate in the 9th International Ramayana Conference. Council also received 36 visitors from various countries of the world.

During this period the Council sent 26 visiting professors of Indian studies to the following countries:

1 Afghanistan (Sanskrit & Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology).

2 Bulgaria (Hindi).

3 Belgium (Hindi).

4 China (Hindi).

5 Cuba (Hindi).

6 Czech and Slovak Federal Republics (Sanskrit/Hindi).

7 Finland (Hindi).

8 Germany (Hindi).

9 Guyana (History, Hindi).

10 Hungary (Hindi).

11 Indonesia (Sanskrit, Tamil, History, Archaeology).

12 Iran (Sanskrit).

13 Korea-South (Hindi).

14 Laos (Asian Civilization).

15 Lebanon (Indian Philosophy & Comparative Religion, Management Studies).

16 Mexico (Hindi, History, Sociology, Sanskrit).

17 Poland (Hindi, Tamil).

18 Romania (Hindi).

19 Senegal (Dravidian Linguistics).

20 Singapore (Indian Studies).

21 Suriname (Hindi).

22 Trinidad & Tobago (History, Sociology, Hindi).

23 Thailand (Sanskrit, Indian Philosophy).

24 Turkey (Hindi/Sanskrit).

25 Russia (Hindi).

26 Yugoslavia (Hindi).

Council is also responsible for the welfare of foreign students studying in India. Council arranged admission of 550 students including 133 in engineering, 10 in medical, 6 in Pharmacologic. During the year, Council has also been entrusted with administering SAARC Scholarship/Fellowship Scheme. A meeting of the Foreign Students Advisors was also held during the year in which about 60 Advisors from various Indian Universities including a few Vice-Chancellors were present. Important policy decisions to streamline the placement of students, counselling and accommodation were taken in this meeting.

Apart from publishing the six quarterly journals in English, Hindi, French, Spanish and Arabic, the Council also published two volumes on 'Science: A Supra National Activity' by Andrew Huxley and the 'Maulana Azad and the Unity of India' by Shri R Venkataraman.

The Council also participated in the 44th Frankfurt Book Fair through National Book Trust.

A Joint Meeting of the Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education and Culture was held in India in February 1992 to review the Sub-Commissions activities over the last 18 years and to discuss the future programmes in such a way which would further strengthen the points between the world's two largest democracies. Under the auspices of the Indo-US Sub- Commission, two workshops were organized, namely Indo-US Music Workshop and Indo-US Writers' Workshop. The Music Workshop was held in Delhi, Madras and Bombay. The Writers' Workshop was held in Delhi and Bombay.

So far as the Library of the Council is concerned valuable material of Maulana Azad collection is being documented. The first phase of the bibliography is nearing completion in which publications in English, Hindi and Urdu are being covered. In the second phase of documentation, books and manuscripts in Arabic and Persian will be undertaken. Besides this, 150 books have been purchased during the year.

Presently the Council maintains 8 cultural centres in different parts of the world, namely, Cairo (Egypt), Berlin (Germany), Georgetown (Guyana), Jakarta (Indonesia), London (UK), Moscow (Russia), Port Louis (Mauritius), Paramaribo (Suriname). The Council has 8 regional offices located at Bangalore, Bombay, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Madras and Trivandrum.
APPENDIX - I Division-wise List of Countries
Ministry of External Affairs-Division-wise List of Countries and

1 Angola 16 Gambia 30 Nigeria
2 Benin 17 Ghana 31 Rwanda
3 Botswana 18 Guinea 32 Sao Tome &
4 Burkina Faso 19 Guinea Bissau  
5 Burundi 20 Kenya 33 Senegal
6 Cameroon 21 Lesotho 34 Seychelles
7 Cape Verde Islands 22 Liberia 35 Sierra Leone
8 Central African Republic 23 Madagascar 36 South Africa
9 Chad 24 Malawi 37 Swaziland
10 Comoros 25 Mali 38 Tanzania
11 Congo 26 Mauritius 39 Togo
12 Cote d'Ivoire 27 Mozambique 40 Uganda
13 Equatorial Guinea 28 Namibia 41 Zaire
14 Ethiopia 29 Niger 42 Zambia
15 Gabon   43 Zimbabwe
1 Canada 2 United States of 3 The Bahamas
1 Brunei 3 Malaysia 5 Singapore
2 Indonesia 4 Philippines 6 Thailand
1 Australia 7 Marshall Islands 14 Society Islands
2 Cook Islands 8 Nauru 15 Tonga
3 Democratic People's 9 New Zealand 16 Tuvalu
  Republic of Korea 10 New Caledonia 17 UN Trust Territories in
4 Fiji 11 Papua New Guinea South Pacific
5 Japan 12 Republic of Korea 18 Vanuatu
6 Kiribati 13 Solomon Islands 19 Western Samoa
1 Bangladesh 3 Maldives 5 Sri Lanka
2 Indian Ocean 4 Myanmar  
1 Azerbaijan 4 Tajikistan 6 Turkmenistan
2 Kazakhstan 5 Turkey 7 Uzbekistan
3 Kyrghyzstan    
1 Albania 8 Estonia 15 Romania
2 Armenia 9 Georgia 16 Russia
3 Belarus 10 Hungary 17 Slovak Republic
4 Bosnia-Herzegovina 11 Latvia 18 Slovenia
5 Bulgaria 12 Lithuania 19 Ukraine
6 Croatia 13 Moldova 20 Yugos1avia (FRY-
7 Czech Republic 14 Poland Serbia and Montenegro)
1 Austria 2 Belgium 3 Cyprus
4 Denmark 12 Ireland 20 Portugal
5 Finland 13 Italy 21 San Marino
6 France 14 Liechtenstein 22 Spain
7 Germany, Federal 15 Luxembourg 23 Sweden
 Republic of    
8 Gibraltar 16 Malta 24 Switzerland
9 Greece 17 Monaco 25 United Kingdom of
10 Holy See, The 18 Netherlands Great Britain and
11 Iceland 19 Norway Northern Ireland
1 Bahrain 4 Oman 7 Saudi Arabia
2 Iraq 5 Qatar 8 United Arab Emirates
3 Kuwait 6 Republic of Yemen  
1 Afghanistan 2 Iran 3 Pakistan
1 Antigua & Barbuda 12 Dominican Rebublic 23 Panama
2 Argentina 13 Ecuador 24 Paraguay
3 Barbados 14 El Salvador 25 Peru
4 Belize 15 Grenada 26 St Christopher
     and Nevis
5 Bolivia 16 Guatemala 27 St Lucia
6 Brazil 17 Guyana 28 St Vincent and
     the Grenadines
7 Chile 18 Haiti  
8 Colombia 19 Honduras 29 Suriname
9 Costa Rica 20 Jamaica 30 Trinidad &
10 Cuba 21 Mexico 31 Uruguay
11 Commonwealth of 22 Nicaragua 32 Venezuela
1 Bhutan 3 Hong Kong 5 Nepal
2 China 4 Mongolia 6 Taiwan
1 Cambodia 2 Laos 3 Vietnam
1 Algeria 8 Libya 14 Sudan
2 Djibouti 9 Mauritania 15 Syria
3 Egypt 10 Morocco 16 Tunisia
4 Israel 11 Palestine  
5 Jordan 12 SADR (Sahrawi Arab  
   Democratic Republic)  
6 League of Arab States    
7 Lebanon 13 Somalia  

APPENDIX - II Treaties/Conventions/Agreements
Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India with other
countries in 1992,
1    Protocol relating to an     25.10.1990  10.6.1992 
     amendment to Article 50 
     (a)of the Convention on 
     International Civil 
2    Protocol relating to an     6.10.1989  11.8.1992 
     amendment to Article 56 
     of the Convention on 
     International Civil 
3    Montreal Protocol on        16.9.1987  4.6.1992     1.1.1989 
     Substances that 
     Deplete the Ozone Layer 
4    Extension of the            27.9.1991  17.8.1992    1.10.1992 
     International Coffee 
     Agreement, 1983, till 30 
     September 1993 
5    Convention concerning       25.6.1985  20.2.1992    1.4.1993 
     Labour Statistics 
     (Convention 160) 
6    Agreement on the Network    8.11.1988  9.4.1992 
     of Aquaculture Centres in 
     Asia and the      Pacific 
7    Basel Convention on the     15.3.1990  11.6.1992 
     Control of Trans-boundary 
     Movement of Hazardous 
     Wastes and their Disposal 
8    Convention on the Rights    20.11.1989 2.12.1992    2.9.1990 
     of Child 
9    Agreement between the       31.7.1992               31.7.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and Export 
     Finance and Insurance 
     Corporation, Australia for 
     Aeromagnetic Survey as 
     part of an Integrated 
     Study for the Exploration 
     and Management of 
     Groundwater Resources in 
10   Convention between         27.8.1991  25.5.1992 
     Government of the Rep- 
     ublic of India and the 
     Government of People's 
     Republic of Bangladesh  
     For the Avoidance of Do- 
     uble Taxation and Preve- 
     ntion of Fiscal Evasion  
     with respect to Taxes  
     and Income 
11   Cultural and Academic      27.5.1992 
     Exchange Programme (CAEP) 
     between the Republic of 
     India and the People's 
      Republic of Bangladesh for 
     the years      1993, 1994 and 
12   Consular Convention        13.12.1991 15.1.1992    30.10.1992 
     between the Governments of 
     the Republic of India and 
     the People's Republic of 
     Great Britain 
13   Extradition Treaty between 22.9.1992 
     the Government of the 
     Republic of India and the 
     Government of the United 
     Kingdom of Great Britain 
     and Northern Ireland 
14   Agreement between the      22.9.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the 
     Government of the United 
     Kingdom of Great Britain 
     and Northern Ireland 
     concerning the 
     Investigation and 
     Prosecution of Crimes and 
     Tracing, Restraint Ind 
     Confiscation of the 
     Proceeds an Instruments of 
     Crimes (including crimes 
     involving currency 
     transfers) and Terrorist 
15   Cultural Agreement         5.10.1992 
     between the Government of 
     Jamaica and the Government 
     of the Republic of India 
16   Exchange of Notes between  22.6.1992                22.6.1992 
     the Government of the 
     Republic of India and the 
     Government of Japan for 
     extension of the following 
     Japanese assistance to 
     (i) Grant Aid of 992 
     million Yen for import of 
     Simulators for Nautical 
     and Marine Engineering 
     Education in the Lal 
     Bahadur Shastri Nautical 
     and Engineering College 
     (ii) Debt Relief Grant Aid 
     of 315,567 million Yen for 
     the period (1.4.92 to 
     (iii) Grant Aid of 600 
     million Yen for Increasing 
     Food Production (for 
     import of fertilisers) 
17   Loan Agreement for         9.1.1992                 9.1.1992 
     Afforestation Project in 
     Aravalli Hills between the 
     Overseas Economic 
     Cooperation Fund, Japan 
     and the President of India 
18   Loan Agreement for Gandhar 9.1.1992                 9.1.1992 
     Gas Based Combined Cycle 
     Power Project (II) between 
     the Overseas Economic 
     Cooperation Fund, Japan 
     and the President of India 
19   Loan Agreement for         9.1.1992                 9.1.1992 
     National Highway-2 
     Improvement Project 
     between the Overseas 
     Economic Cooperation Fund, 
     Japan and the President of 
20   Loan Agreement for Urban   9.1.1992                 9.1.1992 
     City Water Supply Project 
     between the Overseas 
     Economic Cooperation Fund, 
     Japan and the President of 
21   Loan Agreement for         9.1.1992                 9.1.1992 
     Ajanta-Ellora Conservation 
     and Tourism Development 
     Project between the 
     Overseas Economic 
     Cooperation Fund, Japan 
     and the President of India 
22   Exchange of Notes between  27.10.1992               27.10.1992 
     the Government of the 
     Republic of India 
     and the Government of 
     Japan for the following 
     OECF assisted projects: 
     (i) Loan of 17,173 million 
     Yen for Yamuna Action Plan 
     (ii) Loan of 3,806 million 
     Yen for Srisailam Power 
     Transmission System 
     (iii) Loan of 13,224 
     million Yen for Anpara B 
     Thermal Power Station 
     Construction Project (IV) 
     (iv) Loan of 19,538 
     million Yen for Gandhar 
     Gas Based Combined Cycle 
     Power Project (III) 
     (v) Loan of 24,428 million 
     Yen for Udyogmandal 
     Ammonia Plant Replacement 
23   Exchange of Notes between  3.12.1992                3.12.1992 
     the Government of the 
     Republic of India and 
     the Government of Japan 
     for extension of the 
     following Japanese 
     assistance to India: 
     (i) Grant of 1.005 million 
     Yen for exploitation of 
     Ground Water Stage-II 
     (ii) Grant of 947 million 
     Yen for supply of fishing 
     vessels for deep sea and 
     offshore fisheries 
     (iii) Debt Relief Grant 
     Aid of 289.015 million 
24   Protocol between the       3.4.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the 
     Government of the Republic 
     of Kazakhstan on Trade 
     Turnover and payments in 
25   Cooperation Agreement      15.2.1992 
     between the Government of 
     the Republic of India and 
     the Government of the 
     State of Kuwait 
26   Memorandum of              19.2.1992 
     Understanding between the 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the 
     Government of State of 
     Kuwait on Cooperation in 
     the field of 
27   Agreement between the      2.11.1992                2.11.1992 
     Governments of the 
     Republic of India and the 
     Republic of Malaysia on 
     the Establishment of Joint 
     Commission for Bilateral 
28   Agreement between the      14.1.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the 
     Government of Malta on 
     Economic, Industrial, 
     Scientific and 
     Technological Cooperation 
29   Cultural Agreement between 14.1.1992  27.7.1992 
     the Government of the 
     Republic of India and the 
     Government of Malta 
30   Memorandum of Understanding   17.8.1992 
     between the Government 
     of the Republic of India 
     and the Government of the 
     Republic of Namibia on 
     Technical Cooperation 
     between the Postal and 
     Telecommunication Agencies 
31   Cultural and Educational   3.8.1991   20.2.1992    28.4.1992 
     Cooperation between the 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the 
     Government of Sultanate of 
32   Agreement between India    6.4.1991   9.8.1991     19.8.1992 
     and Pakistan on Prevention 
     of Air Space Violations 
     and for permitting 
     overflights and landings 
     by Military Aircraft 
33   Agreement between India    6.4.1991   9.8.1991     19.8.1992 
     and Pakistan on Advance No- 
     tice of Military Exercises, 
     Manoeuvres and Troop 
34   Joint Declaration by the   19.8.1992               19.8.1992 
     Republic of India and the 
     Islamic Republic of 
     Pakistan on Complete 
     Prohibition of Chemical 
35   Code of Conduct for        19.8.1992               19.8.1992 
     Treatment of 
     Personnel in India and 
36   Accord on Cooperation in   2.2.1992                2.2.1992 
     the field of Peaceful Uses 
     of Nuclear Energy between 
     the Atomic Energy 
     Commission of India and 
     the Peruvian Institute of 
     Nuclear Energy. 
37   Agreement between the      29.4.1991  18.6.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the 
     Government of the Republic 
     of Philippines for 
     Cooperation for the 
     Utilisation of Atomic 
     Energy for Peaceful 
38   Agreed minutes between     10.4.1992 
     the Government of the Rep- 
     ublic of India and the Re- 
     public of Poland on the 
     Liquidation of the 
     Non-Convertible Rupee 
     Russian Federation 
39   Protocol between the       22.2.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the Government 
     of Russian Federation on 
     the Trade Turnover and 
     Payments in 1992 
40   Agreement between the      4.5.1992                4.5.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and Government of 
     Russian Federation on the 
     Commission on Trade, 
     Economic, Scientific and 
     Technological Cooperation 
41   Cultural Agreement between 22.9.1992 
     the Government of the 
     Republic of India and the 
     Government of the Republic 
     of Suriname 
42   Agreement between the      29.7.1992               1.5.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and Government of 
     Syrian Arab Republic for 
     Cooperation for Utilisation 
     of Atomic Energy for 
     Peaceful Purposes 
43   Agreement on Mutual        18.7.1988  12.11,1992 
     Judicial Assistance in 
     Civil and Commercial 
     Matters between the 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the Government 
     of the Republic of Turkey 
44   Agreement on Mutual        18.7.1988  12.11.1992 
     Assistance in Criminal 
     Matters between the 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the Government 
     of the Republic of Turkey 
45   Agreement between the      20.4.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the 
     Governments of Turkmenistan 
     on Trade and Economic 
46   Treaty on Friendship and   27.3.1992  28.9.1992 
     Cooperation between the 
     Governments of the Republic 
     of India and Ukraine 
47   Protocol on the            17.1.1992               17.1.1992 
     Establishment of Consular 
     Relations between the 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the Government 
     of Ukraine 
48   Agreement between the      14.1.1992               14.1.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the United 
     Nations Development 
     Programme regarding Project 
     No. IND/91/029/A/01/99 on 
     Application of Automative 
     Techniques in Remote Sensing 
     for Land Resource 
49   Agreement between the      17.1.1992               17.1.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the United 
     Nations Development 
     Programme regarding Project 
     No. IND/91/103 on 
     Establishment of Technology 
     Base for Powerline 
50   Agreement between the      17.1.1992               17.1.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the United 
     Nations Development 
     Programme regarding Project 
     No. IND/91/093/A/01/87 on 
     Establishment of an 
     unit for Manufacturing 
     Super Purity Aluminium and 
     Condenser Foil from 
     it-Feasibility Study 
51   Agreement between the      13.2.1992               13.2.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the United 
     Nations Development 
     Programme regarding Project 
     No. IND/91/011 on 
     Engineering of Structures 
     for Mitigating Damage due 
     to Cyclones 
52   Agreement between the      10.6.1992               10.6.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the United 
     Nations Development 
     Programme regarding Project 
     No. IND/92/033/A/01/89 on 
     jute Sector Programme 
53   Agreement between the      28.5.1992               28.5.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and the United 
     Nations Development 
     Programme regarding Project 
     No. IND/92/007/A/01/99: 
     Strengthening Wildlife 
     Management and 
     Eco-development Planning 
54   Agreement between India    4.9.1992                4.9.1992 
     and UNDP regarding Project  
     No. IND/92/038: Strengthe- 
     ning and Developing the  
     Indian Council of Forestry 
     Research and Education 
55   Agreement between the      27.10.1992              16.11.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and United Nations 
     Development Programme 
     regarding Project No. 
     IND/91/015/A/91/99 on 
     Applications in 
56   Agreement between the      9.1.1992                9.1.1992 
     Government of the Republic 
     of India and United Nations 
     Development Programme 
     regarding Project No. 
     IND/91/100 on Monitoring 
     and Analyses of Human 
     Development Judicators 
Full Powers issued during 1992. 
S NO      CONVENTION/TREATY                         DATE OF FULL POWER 
1    Full Powers in favour of Shri Kamaluddin 
     Ahmed, Minister for State for Civil Supplies, 
     Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution for 
     (i) The Protocol on the Establishment of             24.2.1992 
     Diplomatic Relations. between the Governments 
     of the Republic of India and the Republic of 
     Azerbaijan; and 
     (ii) The Protocol on the Establishment of 
     Consular Relations between the Governments of 
     the Republic of India and Azerbaijan 
2    Full Powers in favour of Shri Abid Hussain,         28.4.1992 
     Ambassador of India to the United States of 
     America to sign the Protocol on Environmental 
     Protection to the Antarctic Treaty 
3    Full Powers in favour of Dr Manmohan Singh to       28.4.1992 
     sign the Agreement between the Government of 
     the Republic of India and the Government of 
     United Arab Emirates for the Avoidance of 
     Double Taxation and the prevention of Fiscal 
     Evasion with respect to Taxes and Income and 
     on Capital 
4    Full Powers in favour of Shri Kamal Nath,           28.5.1992 
     Minister of State for Environment and Forests, 
     to sign the convention on Biological 
5    Full Powers in favour of Shri Kamal Nath,           28.5.1992 
     Minister of State for Environment and 
     Forests, to sign Framework Convention on 
     Climate Change 
6    Full Powers in favour of Shri Ravinder Gupta,       11.6.1992 
     Joint Secretary, Department of Civil Aviation 
     to sign the Agreement between the Government 
     of the Republic of India and the Government 
     of the People's Republic of Bulgaria relating 
     to Air Services 
7    Full Powers in favour of Shri B K Goswami,          8.9.1992 
     Secretary, Department of Tourism to sign the 
     Agreement on Cooperation in the field of 
     Tourism between the      Government of the Republic 
     of India and the Government of the Republic of 
8    Full Powers in favour of Shri Montek Singh          27.9.1992 
     Ahluwalia, Secretary, Ministry of Finance, 
     Department of Economic Affairs to sign the 
     Convention between the Government of the 
     Republic of India and the Government of 
     French Republic for the avoidance of Double 
     Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion 
     with respect to Taxes on      Income and on 
9    Full Powers in favour of Shri P K Banerji,          29.9.1992 
     Joint Secretary, Department of Civil Aviation 
     to sign the Agreement regarding amending of 
     the Air Services Agreement between      the 
     Government of the Republic of India and the 
      Government of Saudi Arabia 

APPENDIX-III Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars
Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc organized by
Inter-Governmental Organizations at which Government of India was
represented in 1992.
1  4th Prepcom of the United Nations  New York 2 March to 3 April 1992
      Conference on Environment and                        
2  Informal Consultations of Bureau Paris 15 to 17 April 1992
      Member of Inter-Governmental                          
      Negotiating Committee for Framework 
      Convention on Climate Change 
3     4th ILTP Joint Council Meeting Moscow 15 to 21 April 1992
4     Bureau Meeting and the 5th Revised New York 29 April to 9 May 1992
      Session of the     Inter-Governmental                 
      Negotiating Committee for a Framework 
      Convention on Climate Change 
5     Conference on "Shelter, Women and       Michigan 7 to 9 may 1992
      Child Development"                                      
6     NAM Coordinating Bureau Meeting at      Bali 12 to 15 May 1992
      Ministerial Level                                       
7     Nordic UN Project Meeting: UN Reform  Helsinki 18 to 20 May 1992
      Issues in the Economic and Social                       
8     ADB Regional Seminar on Project    Mani1a 18 to 29 May 1992
      Implementation Management                               
9     United Nations Conference on  Rio de Janerio 1 to 14 June 1992
      Environment & Development                              
10    Conference on Solar Energy        Florida 13 to 18 June 1992
11    World Congress on Solar Cooking   California  19 to 20 June 1992
12    11th Meeting of the SAARC Technical Colombo 19 to 20 June 1992
      Committee on Transport                                 
13    Workshop on the State of Urbanisation Chiang Mai 6 to 11 July 1992
      in the Asia, Pacific Region                         
14    6th Meeting of UN Committee on   Geneva     6 to 17 July 1992
      Transport of Dangerous Goods                          
15    First Asian Regional Human Resource Azul Cavite 12 to 17 July 1992
      Development meeting of the                            
      UNDP/World Bank 
16    International Seminar on Rural  Tehran 28 July to 4 August 1992
      Centre and Settlements Planning-ESCAP                      
17    Negotiations for ADBTA No. 1402 Manila   10 to 14 August 1992
      regarding Pavement Management Study                 
      and National Highways 
18    Tenth Conference of Heads of State or Jakarta 1 to 6 September 
      Government of Non-Aligned Countries              1992
19    Legal issues in Water Supply    Rome  14 to 16 September 1992
20    World Renewable  University of Readin19 to 23 September 1992
             Energy Congress                                      
21    Urban Environmental Workshop  Bangkok  21 to 24 September 1992
      on the Role of the City in Environmental                
22    Inter Regional Workshop on  Bangkok 21 to 25 September 1992
       Testing of Training Modules on Water Supply and             
23    SAARC Course on Highway  New Delhi 21 September to  
       and Bridge Engineering             7 October 1992                   
24    Meeting of Experts of G-15  New Delhi 23 to 25 September 
      Project on Solar Energy Applications            1992            
25    Meeting of the Working Group of   London 28 and 29 September  
      Senior Officials of the Commonwealth            1992  
      High Level Appraisal Group 
26    Symposium on Development of Real Beijing 18 to 28 October 
      Estate Industry                                     1992
27    Meeting on Cooperation between  The Hague  2 to 6 November 
      Governments and Non-Governmental                   1992
      Organizations (UNCHS and Government of 
28    Technical Advisory Group Meeting  Paris  2 to 6 November 1992
29    Fifth International Conference on New Delhi 2 to 6 November 1992
30    Expert Group Meeting on Bio-Energy Bangalore 2 to 6 November 1992
31    Senior Level Policy Seminar   Colombo  10 to 14 November 1992
      organized by UNCHS                                 
32Commonwealth Senior Officials Meeting Kampala 16 to 18 November 1992
33    Third Summit Meeting of G-15            Dakar 21 to 23 November 1992
34    Technical Advisory Group Meeting Kuala Lumpur 23 to 27 November 1992
      and Workshop on Small/Mini                    
      Hydro-power Policy 
35    International Workshop on               Kandy 2 to 7 December 1992
      Commercialisation of Woodstoves                    
36    Meeting of the Global Environment  Abidjan   3 to 5 December 1992
37    6th Session of the Inter-Governmental Geneva  7 to 10 December 1992
      Negotiating Committee for a Framework             
      Convention on Climate Change 
38    Meeting of the Expert Panel to  Nairobi  10 to 14 December 1992
      follow up the Convention on                        
      Biological Diversity 

APPENDIX-IV Major International Conferences/Meetings/
Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars organized by Non-
Governmental Organizations in which Indian Experts participated in their
personal capacity with Government assistance in 1992.

1    14th Congress of International New Delhi     1 to 6 March 1992
     Association for Bridge and                              
     Structural Engineering 
2    WEDC Conference on Water Environment Kathmandu 30 August to 
     and Management                                 3 September 1992     
3    6th Indian Road Federation   Phoenix,Arizona   8 to 20 November 1992 

APPENDIX-V Miscellaneous Major International Conferences
Miscellaneous Major International Conferences, etc in 1992 at which
Government of India was represented or in which Indian Experts
participated with Government of India's assistance in their personal
1  4th International Symposium on    Stockholm   8 to 12 June 1992 
   Protection against Chemical Warfare     
2  7th World Conference on Titanium  San Diego,  29 June to 2 July 1992 
3  13th International Conference on  Rome     6 to 10 July 1992
   Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics                    
4  International Symposium on Tritium,  Surrey   19 to 21 July 1992 
   Synthesis, NMR and Applications                        
5  Workshop on BDO and BOT Projects  Washington  20 to 31 July 1992
6  International Seminar on Flame    Novosibirsk    18 to 22 August 1992 
7  The IMACS/SICE International   Kobe     16 to 20 September 1992
   Symposium on Robotics, Mechatronics         
      and Manufacturing Systems 
8  3rd International Conference on   Calcutta    2 to 4 December 1992
   Electromagnetic Interference and                
      Compatibility (INCEMIC) 
9  International Convention of Surface  Bangalore   9 to 11 December 1992
10 17th International Conference on    Los Angeles  14 to 18 December 1992
   Infrared and Millimeter Wave                       
11 IEE Conference         Tucson,    16 to 18 December 1992


APPENDIX-VI International Conferences/Meetings and Functions arranged
International Conferences/Meetings and Functions arranged during the
year 1992 with the assistance of the Conference Division, Ministry of
External Affairs.
1  Press Conference by His Excellency Mr      21 January 1992 
   Yasser Arafat, President of the State 
   of Palestine 
2  NAM Meeting of Experts on Standardisation,    20 to 23 January 1992 
   Measurement and Quality Control      
3  21st FAO Regional Conference on Asia and the  10 to 14 February 1992
4  VI International Photovoltaic Science and     10 to 14 February 1992 
   Engineering Conference                        
5  VIII Third World Insurance Congress     17 to 21 February 1992 
6  Indo-EC Troika Meeting               4 and 5 March 1992
7  Indira Gandhi Memorial Lecture       14 March 1992 
8  Conference of HOMs                30 March to 10 April 1992
9  SAARC Ministers Meeting on Environment     8 to 10 April 1992 
10 Meeting of the Inter-Governmental  4 and 5 May 1992 
   Group on Trade Liberalisation (SAARC Countries)
11 2nd Meeting of Independent South 27 to 29 May 1992 
   Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation
12 Meeting of Scientific Advisory Committee  24 to 26 June 1992
   & Regional Co-ordination of G-15 Countrie
   on Gene Banks for
	  Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 
13 Workshop on Tenth NAM Summit            11 and 12 July 1992
14 Inter-country Consultations on Trade    11 and 12 August 1992 
15 SAARC Meeting of Experts on "Joint Promotion of  18 to 20 August 1992
   SAARC Countries as a Tourist Destination"      
16 Meeting of Experts of G-15 Countries on Solar    2 to 5 September 1992
   Energy Projects (Department of Non-Conventional 
   Energy Sources) 
17 Indo-German Consultative Group Meeting of India     8 September 1992 
18 Visit of SAARC Cultural Ministers to attend the  9 to 11 October 1992 
   inaugural function of SAARC Cultural Festival  
19 Seminar on 'India and ASEAN'               20 October 1992 
20 3rd Meeting of SAARC Committee on Economic Co-   2 and 3 November 1992
21 ESCAP Meeting on Regional Economic Cooperation   24 to 27 November 1992 
22 HOMs Conference                         7 and 8 December 1992
APPENDIX-VII Statement showing the number of Fresh and Miscellaneous applications

Statement showing the number of Fresh and Miscellaneous applications received and services granted in each Passport Office during the year 1992.
1 AHMEDABAD 133283 125321 60928 61149
2 BANGALORE 104871 123150 45363 43738
3 BAREILLY 75484 71685 21900 23740
4 BHOPAL 27713 27426 10786 10796
5 BHUBANESHWAR 12808 9894 2411 2419
6 BOMBAY 259374 280822 181697 182764
7 CALCUTTA 60319 47119 31971 31972
8 CHANDIGARH 100565 76463 35027 35653
9 COCHIN 179871 260359 59522 62808
10 DELHI 143812 113409 69348 68252
11 GOA 20137 20821 18104 18062
12 GUWAHATI 8175 6511 2065 2021
13 HYDERABAD 212635 264131 91357 91766
14 JAIPUR 109886 119876 31344 31680
15 JALANDHAR 112179 73891 28712 30295
16 KOZHIKODE 235223 168151 69699 70849
17 LUCKNOW 130861 111719 20260 21165
18 MADRAS 141194 118872 54586 53551
19 NAGPUR 13893 13731 2839 2824
20 PATNA 51614 36400 8372 8026
21 TRICHY 181215 127168 97127 96753
22 TRIVANDRUM 157316 71506 50662 50326
  GRAND TOTAL 2472428 2268425 994080 1000609

APPENDIX-VIII Statement showing the Revenue earned and the Expenditure incurred by
Statement showing the Revenue earned and the Expenditure incurred by
each Passport Office during the year 1992.
1 AHMEDABAD 11669654.85 4644795.00
2 BANGALORE 11951571.00 4725664.00
3 BAREILLY 8670598.00 3426146.00
4 BHOPAL 2931560.00 1154947.00
5 BHUBANESHWAR 1034772.00 623239.00
6 BOMBAY 26551815.00 10702296.00
7 CALCUTTA 6806556.00 2471174.00
8 CHANDIGARH 7163056.00 3998675.00
9 COCHIN 14536587.00 6998950.00
10 DELHI 13094345.00 6059219.00
11 GOA 1601091.00 929827.00
12 GUWAHATI 846738.00 778150.00
13 HYDERABAD 19151541.00 5482217.00
14 JAIPUR 5832088.50 2643780.00
15 JALANDHAR 9440637.00 3242183.00
16 KOZHIKODE 17753705.00 3409790.00
17 LUCKNOW 10720507.00 5128734.00
18 MADRAS 13600839.00 5119507.00
19 NAGPUR 1241978.00 858439.00
20 PATNA 4663707.00 2218619.00
21 TRICHY 17347714.00 3014492.00
22 TRIVANDRUM 12173785.00 3270720.00
  TOTAL 218784845.35 80901563.00

APPENDIX-IX Consular Data For 1992
  Consular Data For 1992.  
1 Number of Attestations 1,60,401
2 Number of Indians repatriated at Government cost 198
3 Number of Indians arrested abroad 3,576
4 Number of Indians died abroad 305
5 Number of foreigners arrested in India 1,065
6 Number of foreigners died in India 179
7 (a) Extradition requests from Indian Government to  
  foreign Governments 9
  (b) Extradition requests to Indian Government from  
  foreign Governments 10
8 Number of lost and damaged passport cases received 10,100*
 (*) Figures provisional  

APPENDIX-X Cadre Strength at Headquarters and 144 Missions/Posts abroad
Cadre Strength at Headquarters and 144 Missions/Posts abroad during
1992-93 (including posts budgeted by Ministry of Commerce and excluding
posts held in abeyance/ex-cadred).

1 Grade I 4 17 21
2 Grade II 3 25 28
3 Grade III 24 92 116
4 Grade IV 25 82 107
5 junior Administrative      
 Cadre/Senior Scale 52 182 234
6 junior Scale 3 30 33
7 Training Reserve      
 (Prob) junior Scale 27   27
8 Training Reserve for      
 all Grades 10   10
9 Leave Reserve 19   19
10 Deputation Reserve 20   20
 IFS (B)      
1 Grade I 25 100 125
2 Grade II/III 171 153 324
3 Grade IV 367 355 722
4 Grade V/VI 459 134 593
5 Grade II of Cypher Sub      
 Cadre 81 123 204
6 Principal Private      
 Secretary Grade of      
 Stenographer Cadre 3 18 21
7 Grade I of Stenographer      
 Cadre (including the      
 erstwhile Selection      
 Grade) 32 176 208
8 Grade II of      
 Stenographers Cadre 212 177 389
9 Grade III of      
 Stenographers Cadre 42 77 119
 Combined Research Cadre 22 2 24
 Interpretes Cadre 14 21 35
 L & T Cadre 16 1 17
 TOTAL 1631 1765 3396

APPENDIX-XI Names of Ambassadors/High Commissioners of India abroad
Names of Ambassadors/High Commissioners of India abroad who have taken
charge from 1.1.92 to 31.12.92.


1 Lebanon Beirut S Sivaswami 10.1.1992
2 Pakistan lslamabad S K Lambah 13.1.1992
3 Seychelles Mahe C R Balachandra 9.2.1992
4 Iraq Baghdad R S Kalha 4.3.1992
5 Ghana Accra D S Pannun 5.3.1992
6 Bhutan Thimphu P Johari 6.3.1992
7 Denmark Copenhagen K M Lal 21.3.1992
8 Uganda Kampala K H Patel 2.4.1992
9 Norway Oslo S R Chaudhury 13.4.1992
10 Bangladesh Dhaka K Raghunath 19.4.1992
11 Kenya Nairobi K Doshi 4.5.1992
12 Malta Valetta P K Gupta (AHC) 13.5.1992
 (High Commissioner resident in Tripoli)   
13 Indonesia Jakarta Vinay Verma 22.5.1992
14 Germany Bonn K K S Rana 25.5.1992
15 Syria Damascus R M Abbyankar 25.5.1992
16 Netherlands The Hague I P Khosla 8.6.1992
17 Thailand Bangkok A N Ram 26.6.1992
18 Czech and      
 Republics Prague D C Manners 4.7.1992
19 Korea      
 (South) Seoul B M Oza 16.7.1992
20 Jordan Amman A K Budhiraja 17.7.1992
21 Turkey Ankara K Gajendra Singh 2.8.1992
22 Hungary Budapest L T Pudaite 5.8.1992
23 Argentina Buenos Aires M K Khisha 7.8.1992
24 Ukrain Kiev S T Devare 12.8.1992
25 Vietnam Hanoi S L Malik 19.8.1992
26 Egypt Cairo Kum A Ghosh 23.8.1992
27 Sweden Stockholm P S Sahai 6.9.1992
28 Kazhakhstan Alma Ata Kamalesh Sharma 10.9.1992
29 Tunisia Tunis Nigam Prakash 28.9.1992
30 Mexico Mexico City P A Nazareth 30.9.1992
31 Israel Tel Aviv P K Singh 1.10.1992
32 Greece Athens Aftab Seth 5.10.1992
33 Russia Moscow R Sen 7.10.1992
34 Japan Tokyo Prakash Shah 28.10.1992
35 United      
 States of      
 America Washington S S Ray 29.10.1992
36 Ireland Dublin S N Puri 2.11.1992
37 Canada Ottawa P K Budhwar 4.11.1992
38 Sudan Khartoum R K Rai 5.11.1992
39 Laos Vientiane Dr G S Rajhans 10.11.1992
40 Philippines Manila Smt S B Cowsik 12.11.1992
41 Myanmar Yangon G Parthasarthy 12.11.1992
42 Qatar Doha K P Fabian 18.11.1992
43 Venezuela Caracas P L Santoshi 24.11.1992
44 Yemen Sana'a M Venkataraman 28.11.1992
45 Guyana Georgetown P L Goyal 29.11.1992
46 Finland Helsinki P R Sood 30.11.1992
47 Panama Panama P Rath 3.12.1992
48 Ethiopia Addis Ababa Gurcharan Singh 8.12.1992
49 Mauritius Port Louis Shyam Saran 9.12.1992
50 Brazil Brasilia G S Bedi 10.12.1992
51 Uzbekistan Tashkent Dalip Mehta 22.12.1992
52 Afghanistan Kabul Arif Qamarain 26.12.1992
53 France Paris (UNESCO) Smt Nina Sibal 9.10.1992
54 Switzerland Geneva Satish Chandra 17.10.1992

APPENDIX-XII Foreign Language Chart.
Foreign Language Chart.
1 Arabic 82
2 Bahasa Indonesia 9
3 Bulgarian 1
4 Burmese 1
5 Chinese 45
6 Dutch 1
7 French 83
8 German 42
9 Gorkhali/Nepali 5
10 Hungarian 1
11 Italian 5
12 Japanese 27
13 Kishwahili 10
14 Laotian -
15 Malay 1
16 Persian 18
17 Polish 1
18 Portuguese 14
19 Russian 68
20 Serbo-Croatian 3
21 Sinhalese 3
22 Spanish 49
23 Swedish 1
24 Thai 2
25 Tibetan 3
26 Turkish 2
27 Vietnamese 2
  TOTAL 479
APPENDIX-XIII Statement showing the number of app. (both by direct recruitment and promotion)
Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitm-
ent and promotion) made in various groups in the Ministry of External
Affairs and reserved vacancies filled by scheduled caste/scheduled tr-
ibes during the year 1992.
TOTAL NO                           NUMBER OF VACANCIES 
OF VACANCIES                                       DE-RESERVED DUE TO 
                    NUMBER OF      NUMBER OF       NON-AVAILABILITY OF 
                    SC        ST     SC      ST         SC        ST 
Group 'A'  37        6        3      6       1 
Group 'B'  152       42       32     43      17         1         3 
Group 'C'  121       38       23     33      16 
Group 'D'  39        8        5      14      5 

APPENDIX-XIV Revenue Expenditure of the MEA
Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry of External Affairs during the
Financial Year 1992-93.
                                             REVISED ESTIMATES 1992-93 
                                                 (IN CRORES OF RUPEES) 
Headquarters                                                     62.04 
Missions/Posts abroad                                           262.51 
Contribution to International Organizations (Including UN)       16.24 
Central Passport Organization                                    29.13 
Special Diplomatic Expenditure                                  108.30 
Grants-in-Aid to ICCR                                            14.55 
Other miscellaneous items                                        16.24 
Payment to Indian Airlines for charter operations                 1.36 
between Madras-Port Blair 
Aid to Bangladesh                                                 6.55 
Aid to Bhutan                                                    65.00 
Aid to Nepal                                                     16.68 
Aid to Sri Lanka                                                  4.50 
Aid to Maldives                                                  10.24 
Aid to Cambodia                                                   2.80 
Aid to other developing countries                                33.63 
Aid under AFRICA Fund                                             6.86 
TOTAL REVENUE EXPENDITURE:                                      656.63 
APPENDIX-XV Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters

Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters of the Ministry of External Affairs in 1992-93.

The estimated expenditure on the Headquarters Organization of the Ministry during the Current Financial Year (1992-93) is expected to be Rs 62.04 crores which is 9.45% of the total estimated revenue expenditure of this Ministry. Out of this, Rs 10.78 crores will be on Salaries and Wages, Rs 6.00 crores on Travel Expenses, Rs 36.93 crores on Office Expenses, Rs 4.00 crores on Publicity and Rs 3.52 crores on Rent and Maintenance.

The total estimated expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad is expected to be Rs 262.51 crores during the Current Financial year which works out to 39.98% of the total estimated Revenue Expenditure of this Ministry. Out of this, an amount of Rs 114.16 crores is for Salaries (including Foreign Allowance), OTA and Wages, Rs 30.98 crores for Travel Expenses (Transfer Passages/Home Leave Passages and Local Tours), Rs 53.25 crores for Office Expenses and Rs 64.12 crores for Rent, Rates and Taxes as well as for Repairs and Maintenance of Government owned/rented accommodation in Missions abroad. Average expenditure per Mission abroad (including Publicity) works out to Rs 1.82 crores.

The remaining 50.57% of the Estimated Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry is being incurred on various Aid Programmes for neighbouring and other developing countries including ITEC Programmes, Aid under AFRICA Fund, SAARC and SCAAP Programmes, contribution to United Nations Organization and other international bodies, Passport Organization, Hospitality, Grants-in-Aid to Indian Council for Cultural Relations and other miscellaneous items.

APPENDIX-XVI VVIPs Visits to India
VVIPs Visits to India during 1992.
S NO     NAME OF VISITOR                      DATE 
1 His Royal Highness Maha Vajiralongkorn  to 21 April 1992 
  Crown Prince of Thailand  
2 His Excellency Mr S A Niyazov President of  18 to 20 April 1992
3    His Highness Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan  28 to 30 April 1992
     Al-Nahayan-President of United Arab Emirates
4    Her Excellency Begum Khaleda Zia   26 to 28 May 1992
     Prime Minister of the People's Republic
     of Bangladesh 
5    His Excellency Sir Veerasamy 27 May to 5 June 1992
     Ringadoo President       
     of the Republic of Mauritius and Lady Ringadoo
6    Her Majesty Queen Aishwarya Rajya    22 to 26 June 1992
     Laxmi Devi Shah of Nepal [Private Visit]
7    Her Majesty Queen Aishwarya Rajya     13 to 22 July 1992
     Laxmi Devi Shah of Nepal [Private Visit]
8    His Majesty King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah    17 to 22 July 1992
     of Nepal [Private Visit] 
9    Transit Visit of Dr Burhanuddin Rabbani   30 August 1992 
     President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan 
10   Transit visit of the Vice President of Syria  31 August 1992 
11   Transit visit of the Vice President of Syria   September 1992 
12   Transit visit of Dr Burhanuddin Rabbani  5 September 1992
     President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan                
13   His Majesty Haji Hassanaj Bolkian Sultan  15 to 18 September 1992
     and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam                
     and Her Royal Highness Penigran Isteri                       
     Hajah Mariam Binti Haji Abdul Aziz 
14   His Excellency Mr Ranasinghe Premadasa President 1 to 3 October 1992
     Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and 
     Madam Premadasa 
15   His Excellency Mr Yoweri K Museveni  12 to 14 October 1992
     President of the Republic of Uganda and 
     Mrs Janet Museveni 
16   His Highness The Aga Khan       9 to 24 November 1992
17   Their Imperial Highnesses Prince   12 to 20 November 1992
     and Princess Akishino of Japan  
18   His Majesty King Birendra Bir Bikram 30 November to 7 December 1992
     Shah of Nepal [Private Visit]                      
1    His Excellency Mr Boutros Boutros Ghali    21 to 24 April 1992
     Secretary General of the UN and   
     Mrs Boutros Ghali
2    His Excellency Dr G E Burboulis Secretary   3 to 6 May 1992
     of State of the Russian Federation  
3    His Excellency Dr Dimitrij Rupel  18 to 20 May 1992
     Foreign Minister of Republic of Slovania
4    His Excellency Dr Ali Akbar Velayati Foreign  18 & 19 May 1992
     Minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran 
5    Rt Hon Don McKinnon Deputy Prime Minister 5 to 9 June 1992
     and Minister for Foreign Relations and Trade of 
     New Zealand 
6    His Excellency Mr Ali Alatas Foreign   5 to 7 July 1992 
     Minister of Republic of Indonesia
7    The Hon'ble Paul Raymond Berenger    5 to 12 August 1992 
     Minister of External Affairs of Mauritius 
     and Mrs Arline Berenger 
8    Mr Shaharyar M Khan Foreign Secretary    16 to 21 August 1992
     of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Mrs Khan  
9    His Excellency Mr Habib Ben Yahia Minister of  25 to 28 August 1992
     Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Tunisia            
10   His Excellency Dr Pascoal M Mocumbi    25 to 27 August 1992
     Minister of Foreign Affairs of Mozambique             
11   His Excellency Mr Do Muoi General Secretary   8 to 13 September 1992
     of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of
12   His Excellency Dr Ali Akbar Velayati     9 to 11 November 1992
     Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic
     Republic of Iran 
13   His Excellency Mr Seyoum Mesfin Minister   14 to 17 December 1992
     of Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia 

APPENDIX-XVII Visits abroad of the President, VP and PM
Visits abroad of the President, Vice President and Prime Minister of
India during 1992. 
1    Visit of the Vice President to the Democratic  13 to 21 April 1992
     People's Republic of Korea and Mongolia  
2    Visit of the President to People's Republic  17 to 23 May 1992
            of China   
3    Visit of the Prime Minister to Spain,      10 to 16 June 1992
     Brazil and Portugal 
4    Visit of the Prime Minister to Japan   22 to 26 June 1992
5    Visit of the Prime Minister to Indonesia to  31 August to 6 
     attend NAM Summit                               September 1992 
6    Visit of the Prime Minister to France    28 September to  
                                               1 October 1992   
7    Visit of the Prime Minister to Nepal  19 to 21 October 1992
8    Visit of the Prime Minister to Tunisia  20 to 22 November 1992
     [Transit Visit] and to Senegal to attend G-15       


APPENDIX-XVIII List of Divisions
Ministry of External Affairs-List of Divisions.


1 Administration Division

2 Establishment Division

3 Bureau of Security

4 Coordination Division

5 Economic Division

6 External Publicity Division

7 Foreign Service Institute

8 Policy Planning and Research Division

9 Legal & Treaties Division

10 CPV & OI Division

11 Special Kuwait Cell

12 Protocol (including Conference Division)

13 International Organization Division

14 Disarmament and International Security Affairs Division

15 Economic Coordination Unit


1 Africa Division

2 AMS Division

3 Asia Pacific Division

4 ASEAN Division

5 BSM Division

6 Central Asia Division

7 Europe East Division

8 Europe West Division

9 Gulf Division

10 IPA Division

11 LAC Division

12 North East Division

13 South East Asia Division

14 WANA Division
MEAs App twitter Facebook Google plus YouTube flickr