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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1993-94

1. India's Neighbours 1
2.South-East Asia and the Pacific 12
3.East Asia 19
4. Central Asia 26
5.The Gulf, West Asia & North Africa 31
6. Africa (South of the Sahara) 45
7. Europe 52
 Eastern Europe 52
 Western Europe 65
8.The Americas 69
 North America 69
 Central and South America and the Caribbean 74
9. United Nations and International Conferences 79
 Disarmament and International Security82
 Human Rights 85
 Economic, Social and Humanitarian Issues 86
 Administrative and Budgetary Issues 90
 Elections/ Appointments 90
 Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement 90
 Commonwealth 91
 Conferences 92
 International Law: Developments and Activities 93
10. Foreign Economic Relations 97
11.Trade and Investment Promotion 105
 Trade Promotion 106
 Investment Promotion 107
 Back-up Support to Missions and Posts 108
 World Economic Forum 109
12.Policy Planning and Research 111
13. External Publicity 114
14. Protocol 119
15. Passport and Consular Services and Indians Overseas 121
16.Administration and Organization 126
17.Foreign Service Institute 128
18. Implementation of Official Language Policy and Propagation of Hindi Abroad 131
19.Cultural Relations 133
20.International Assistance for Maharashtra Earthquake Victims 141




THE Ministry of External Affairs, as the introduction to the report for 1992-93 stated, was engaged in adjusting to the changes and uncertainties which characterised the international situation at that point of time. The current year 1993-94 was characterised by more complexities in which India's Joreign policy had to be fashioned and. implemented.

The year commenced in an atmosphere of challenge for India's foreign relations. The destruction of the disputed structure in Ayodhya and the subsequent communal disturbances generated international doubts about our future. The bomb blasts in Bombay perpetrated by criminal elements,' supported by Pakistani intelligence agencies, struck at the economic capital of India to generate doubts about the continuity of our economic policies and the stability of our economy. India's foreign policy therefore had to meet the external ramifications of these serious and volatile events, while, at the same time addressing the problems and issues generated by external events, emerging inter-state equations of important countries, and their attitudes towards issues affecting India's basic concerns and interests.

The macro-level issues which India had to deal with were:

(a) The increasing and collective pressure on non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament issues.

(b) International trends generated by some countries to control, and to the extent possible, deny access to sophisticated technologies in the spheres of space exploration and satellite development and other civilian end-uses.

(c) To adjust to emerging new global regimes affecting international trade, trans-border movement of technologies and those related to environment.

(d) First to assess and define, and then to acquire an appropriate role for India in relation to the various regional groupings, in a manner which will subserve India's interests.

(e) To establish a pattern Of relationship and equation with countries in the region, as well as those which are further distant, which would ensure a safe security environment for India.

(f) To ensure projection of India's economic potential and capacity in a manner, where the necessary external contributions to Indian economy would continue, safeguarding the socio-economic well-being of the people and improvements in. their quality of life.

Issues of more immediate concern, on which attention had to be fiocussed in terms of India's foreign policy, were:

(a) Managing the persistently adversorial relationship with Pakistan.

(b) The pressure mounted on India by some countries, on the human rights issues.
(c) The encouragement of centrifugal tendencies by external entities and their agencies.

(d) Stabilising India's relations with her other neighbours despite inevitable problems affecting relations between countries in geographical proximity.

(e) Dealing with multilateral issues on which international attention was focussed, like establishment of new international trading arrangements under the Uruguay Round, the restructuring and reform of the UN system, fashioning appropriate policies and responses to numerous suggestions and proposals put forward by different countries in discussions on disarmament and security arrangements, arranging for India's diplomatic presence in different countries, responding to the emergence of new states on the international scene.

The conduct of India's foreign relations was characterised by flexibility, a clear perception of India's national interests and a measured, down to earth, approach in meeting these interests.

India's relations with the major countries in the international community were maintained on a stable pattern despite the fluctuations in the attitudes and policies of some. US policy did not attach high priority to India,- US concerns being Euro-centric, specially in relation to East Europe and its Asian attention concentrating mostly on China and Japan. Russia was largely pre-occupied with its internal issues. Despite these limitations, India's relations with these two countries remained on an even keel in the substantial spheres of economic, commercial and technological interaction responsive to India's requirements. Hopes for an incremental relationship were not fully achieved, not because of any lacuna in India's policies towards these countries, but because of their perceptions and limitations of policies and India's firmness in safeguarding her own interests on matters on which there were differences of approach with them.

With China, Japan and major European countries, relations were positive, demonstrating an increase in the content and range of bilateral relations.

India's relations with her immediate neighbours in the South Asian region continued to receive primary attention. While relations with Pakistan remained uneven due to Pakistan's intrusive and adversary attitude, the Indian endeavour was to prevent the relationship from degenerating into any adventurist or conflict situation. In this, India succeeded without compromising her interests in any manner. Our relations with Bangladesh, barring on issues related to the sharing of water resources, are stable and developing on practical lines. The positive patterns of relationship established with Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka were given adequate momentum.

India played an active role in encouraging the consolidation of cooperation in the SAARC region through the institutional mechanisms of the SAARC.

Despite the upheavals in Afghanistan, India maintained contacts with all important political leaders and factions of the country. The traditionally friendly relations with Maldives continued to develop, and a constructive equation has been established with Myanmar.

President's visit to Iran in July 1993 in transit and the Prime Minister's visit to Tehran in September 1993 forged positive links with this important neighbour. The foundation for a multifaceted and positive relationship with Iran was laid during Prime Minister's visit.

As far as East and South-East Asia are concerned, the Prime Minister's visit to Beijing and Seoul in early September 1993 and his visit to Thailand in April 1993 were important landmarks. The signing of the Sino-Indian Agreement on Maintaining Peace and Tranquillity on the Line of Actual Control between the borders of the two countries was an important step forward towards normalising bilateral relations and developing them on positive lines. The Prime Minister's visit to South Korea was the first ever by an Indian Prime Minister, opening significant new avenues of co-operation. Prime Minister's visit to Bangkok and his meetings with the President of Indonesia and the Prime Ministers of Malaysia and Singapore galvanised the on-going process of India's efforts to establish close links with the ASEAN region.

India signed the Third Generation Agreement on Economic Cooperation with the European Community and issued a joint statement on political cooperation between the Community and India in December 1993. This was a step in the right direction to establish a steady relationship ensuring continuity in our interaction with the important countries of Europe. The visit to India of President Yeltsin, Prime Minister john Major and Chancellor Kohl, in quick succession in the first quarter of 1993 on the one hand indicated mutuality of interests, on which close and incremental relationships are being established with the UK, Germany and the Russian Federation, important entities in the European area. On the other our President's visit to Ukraine, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom in the late summer of 1993 created an additional dimension to India's relations with the European continent.

Responding to new developments in West Asia and South Africa, India continued to expand relations with South Africa and Israel, at the same time expanding the economic, cultural and commercial content of our relations with the Arab countries. The visits of Foreign Ministers of South Africa and Israel to India during 1993 constituted the beginning of high-level political contacts between these two countries and India.

Prime Minister's visit to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan completed the initial cycle of highest level political visits between the leaders of Central Asian Republics and India. The objective was to work out long- term plans for political and economic contacts with our Central Asian partners.

India has always been an active participant in the proceedings of the United Nations and all its specialised agencies. India effectively countered efforts by Pakistan to get the UN and its agencies to pass resolutions against India on issues of human rights and Kashmir. India, along with Turkey, successfully co-sponsored a resolution against terrorism at the UN General Assembly in 1993. India also co-sponsored the important resolutions on disarmament-related to comprehensive test ban treaty and control of fissile material, which were passed at the General Assembly. India's approach to issues before the United Nations was structured to meet her concerns and interests. India actively participates in the discussions in the working group meeting dealing with the restructuring and democratisation of the UN.

The Prime Minister led the Indian delegation to the SAARC Summit in April 1993. External Affairs Minister, Shri Dinesh Singh, led the Indian delegation to the SAARC Foreign Ministers' meeting in December 1993. India played an active role in promoting the project for a South Asia Preferential Trade Arrangement. India was asked to be the host for the next SAARC Summit which will be held in late 1994 or early 1995. India commenced her formal relationship with ASEAN by participating in the first sectoral dialogue with the ASEAN countries at the meeting held in Bali (Indonesia) in january 1994.

Responding to the requirement of added and focussed publicity efforts to counter pressures related to issues like human rights, Kashmir etc, a decision was taken by the Government to create a separate publicity wing under the charge of an officer of the rank of Secretary to the Government. This unit was established in 1993 and is now operational.

In overall terms, the Ministry of External Affairs met the difficulties, faced the challenges and utilised the opportunities affecting international relations in a manner which safeguard India's interests.



1. India's Neighbours


RELATIONS between India and Nepal have traditionally been close and friendly. India has an open border with Nepal and shares strong ties based on history, geography, culture and religion.

During the year under review, the traditionally close and friendly relations with Nepal continued to develop. The King of Nepal, His Majesty King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah, paid a State visit to India in May 1993. The visit was a symbol of the close links between the two countries at the highest level, since the King as constitutional Monarch is the Head of State of Nepal.

India's economic co-operation programme with Nepal continued to bear fruit. An industrial estate at Rajbiraj and a telephone exchange at Rangeli in Nepal were successfully commissioned during the year. Government of India also made available ten thousand tonnes of rice and corrugated sheets for the flood affected people of Nepal.

Under the new trade regime which came into force in April 1993 access to the Indian market free of customs duty for manufactured articles was improved to. include articles containing not less than 50% of Nepalese materials and labour. Several procedural simplifications were introduced and it is hoped that these, along with the growth in the Indian and Nepalese economies, will lead to further growth in bilateral trade.

The presence of approximately 100,000 Bhupali refugees in Nepal was a sensitive issue between two friendly neighbours of India. A joint Nepal-Bhutan Ministerial Committee consisting of three members from each side was established and met in October 1993 in Kathmandu. Both sides agreed on a categorisation of refugees. India hopes that Nepal and Bhutan will arrive at an amicable settlement of the issue.

The warm, close and friendly relations between India and Bhutan were further strengthened during the year. His Majesty King Jigme Singye Wangchuck visited India from 4 to 7 January 1993 and held discussions with the President, Prime Minister and other senior Ministers of the Government of India on issues of mutual interest. The Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, paid a goodwill visit to Bhutan on 21 and 22 August 1993. The visit was fruitful and helped to advance co-operation in several on-going projects in Bhutan. At the talks, both India and Bhutan resolved to expand their traditionally strong, warm and cordial ties. Close and regular exchanges at all levels continued with the visits of the Bhutanese Planning Minister, Minister for Trade and Industry, Foreign Minister and Finance Minister. The Minister of External Affairs and Secretary (Power) of India also visited Bhutan.

Bhutan's 7th Five Year Plan (1992-97) was launched in July 1992. The total Indian assistance for Bhutan's 7th Plan would be Rs 750 crores. The close economic co-operation which has been steadily increasing right from 1961 when India fully funded Bhutan's Ist Five Year Plan has been intensified during the 7th Five Year Plan. The Annual Plan talks were held in February 1993 in New Delhi and review of the Plan was done in September 1993 in Thimphu.

Work on several major projects began during the financial year including an airport terminal building at Paro, Kurichu Hydel Project in Eastern Bhutan, hospitals, schools, roads and bridges, transmission lines and substations, rural electrification, survey projects, etc. The long co- operation between India and Bhutan in the power sector was further strengthened in January 1993 with the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between India and Bhutan for a multipurpose project on Sankosh river with an estimated capacity of 1525 MW of power and is expected to irrigate half a million acre of land downstream in India. India also provided assistance for rehabilitation of mini hydel projects.

India continued to offer Bhutanese students opportunities for secondary as well as higher education and training in various fields like survey sector, road sector, etc. Co-operation in the educational and cultural fields continued to be close.

During the year 1993, the level of interaction with the Government of Bangladesh continued to remain high despite differences of opinion on some important bilateral issues such as the sharing of river waters, repatriation of Chakma refugees to Bangladesh and illegal immigration from Bangladesh.

Prime Minister visited Dhaka on 10 and 11 April 1993 to attend the 7th SAARC Summit. During a bilateral meeting with the Prime Minister of Bangladesh on 11 April 1993, SAARC-related matters, bilateral issues such as the sharing of river waters, demarcation of Indo-Bangladesh Land Boundary and Maritime Boundary, transit facilities and economic co- operation were discussed.

Minister of External Affairs paid visits to Dhaka from 7 to 11 April 1993 to attend the 7th SAARC Summit and from 1 to 5 December 1993 to participate in the 13th Session of the Council of Ministers from SAARC countries. During these visits, he had bilateral meetings with the Foreign Minister of Bangladesh.

The goodwill generated by these visits was further enhanced by the visits to Delhi of the Bangladesh Ministers for Communications from 2 to 9 May 1993 and Foreign Affairs from 11 to 13 June 1993 and the Bangladesh Army Chief from 10 to 16 May 1993, and the visit to Dhaka by the Home Secretary from 7 to 9 October 1993.

However, there were some setbacks to the relationship due to a critical statement by Bangladesh on the River Water question in the United Nations General Assembly on 1 October 1993. It was alleged that the economic structure of Bangladesh was facing disaster as a consequence of the Farakka Barrage which had created unimaginable adverse effects on their economy and environment.

In a statement issued on 8 October 1993, India noted with considerable regret that Bangladesh thought it fit to raise the bilateral issue of river waters at UN General Assembly. References to the Farakka Barrage and related issues neither did justice to the documented facts nor referred to the understanding in May 1992 between the two Prime Ministers on the principles and framework of a solution. India remains committed to devising "an equitable, long-term and comprehensive arrangement" on water sharing with Bangladesh through bilateral discussions.

Despite the understanding reached between India and Bangladesh on the repatriation of Chakma and other tribal refugees now in Tripura during the visits of the Bangladesh Minister for Communications and of the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid, to Tripura on 8 and 9 May 1993, the repatriation did not take off on 9 June 1993 as refugees remained largely unconvinced about the assurances given by the Government of Bangladesh about their security and safety in Bangladesh and also about the rehabilitation package offered. During the visit of the Home Secretary to Dhaka in October 1993, it was agreed to continue efforts to remove the negative factors in connection with the repatriation.

The first meeting of the Indo-Bangladesh joint Business Council was held in New Delhi on 5 July 1993.

India's exports to Bangladesh in 1992-93 were valued at Rs 1,031 crores whereas imports from Bangladesh were Rs 35 crores.

As the internal situation in Myanmar improved following the policies of liberalisation introduced by the SLORC, India developed a better working relationship with the Myanmar Government. Simultaneously, India continued to support the restoration of democratic government in Myanmar.

An Indian delegation led by Foreign Secretary visited Myanmar from 29 to 31 March 1993. The two sides held wide-ranging discussions on bilateral issues such as insurgency, drug trafficking, trade, contacts between civilian and military authorities in the border regions of the two. countries to prevent illegal activities, etc. An agreement on Prevention of Drug Abuse and Trafficking was signed during the visit. Discussions held during the visit included negotiations on a Border Trade Agreement and a Memorandum of Understanding on co-operation between civilian border authorities of the two countries. A Tripartite Maritime Agreement determining T-Point in the Andaman Seas between India, Myanmar and Thailand was signed on 27 October 1993.

An Indian delegation led by Surveyor General of India successfully visited Myanmar during September 1993 and worked out a schedule for joint inspection, repair and maintenance of boundary pillars.

Deputy Foreign Minister of Myanmar, U Nyunt Swe, paid an official visit to India from 19 to 24 January 1994 at the invitation of the Foreign Secretary. He was accompanied by a six-member Inter-Ministerial Delegation. Delegation level talks took place on 20 and 21 January 1994 which covered the entire gamut of bilateral relationship. The Indian delegation was led by Foreign Secretary. A Memorandum of Understanding on Co-operation between Civilian Border Authorities and a Border Trade Agreement we're signed during the visit. The Deputy Foreign Minister of Myanmar called on External Affairs Minister, Commerce Minister and Ministers of State for External Affairs, Home Affairs and Defence during his visit.

The assassination of President Premadasa of Sri Lanka by the forces of violence on 1 May 1993, was a grave loss not only for Sri Lanka, but for the entire SAARC region, as President Premadasa had played an active and significant role in promoting regional co-operation under the auspices of the SAARC. As a mark of respect to the departed leader, the Government of India declared a three-day State mourning. India's delegation for the State funeral of President Premadasa was led by the Vice President and included the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia.

The new Government in Sri Lanka under President D B Wijetunga shares India's desire to continue the process of further strengthening the friendly relations between the two countries. The visit of the new Prime Minister, Mr Ranil Wickremesinghe, to India in June 1993, shortly after his assumption of office, provided a very useful opportunity for interaction at the highest level. The Sri Lankan Prime Minister conveyed to Prime Minister and other Indian leaders his Government's desire to further expand bilateral co-operation for mutual benefit in various areas. The Prime Minister conveyed to the Sri Lankan Prime Minister that India fully favoured the strengthening of economic and commercial co- operation between the two countries. It was agreed that the second session of the Indo-Sri Lanka joint Commission co-chaired by the Foreign Ministers would be held shortly to identify further possibilities of co- operation.

In pursuance of the above decision, official level discussions preparatory to the joint Commission were held in Colombo in November 1993. Besides reviewing progress on various proposals at these talks, the officials prepared a set of recommendations for the consideration of the joint Commission at the level of Foreign Ministers.

India continued to favour a peaceful solution to the ethnic crisis in Sri Lanka within the framework of the unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Sri Lanka, through negotiations involving all those parties which have eschewed the path of violence.

The successful completion of the resumed phase from 12 April to 6 September 1993, of the voluntary repatriation of Sri Lankan refugees to their country, has been a matter of satisfaction for both countries. During this phase, nearly 7,000 refugees returned to Sri Lanka; the total number of refugees who have returned so far is about 36,000.

The problems pertaining to fishermen from both countries straying into each other's waters and related matters continue to be a subject of consultations between India and Sri Lanka. The Government of India strongly conveyed its concerns to the Government of Sri Lanka in the wake of reports of attacks on Indian fishermen in the Palk Straits in September/October 1993 and the proclamation by Sri Lanka Government in September 1993 of a "prohibited zone" in Sri Lankan territorial waters. Talks were held at the Foreign Secretaries level in New Delhi on 15 October 1993. Both sides agreed on the need for effective measures to prevent such incidents in future. Further discussions continued on the subject.

During the year 1993, there was active interaction between the two
countries in economic, commercial and technical areas. The meetings of the Sub-Commissions on Science & Technology, and on Social, Educational and Cultural matters, were held in Delhi in the first quarter of the year 1993. The Joint Business Council met in Colombo in March 1993. Among notable bilateral proposals/exchanges were the visits by the Chairman and other officials from National Dairy Development Board to Colombo for co-operation in dairy development sector; official level discussions on civil aviation matters and on co-operation in the tea sector; visit of a team of experts to Sri Lanka to prepare a blue print for the proposed setting up of an Institute of Technology and Management in Sri Lanka; gifting of Radiosonde equipment to Sri Lanka; and setting up of a joint venture in Sri Lanka for the manufacture of automotive tyres.

India's traditionally close and friendly relations with Maldives were
further consolidated by high-level meetings and consultations during the year / 1993. Both countries looked forward to furthering bilateral co- operation in mutually identified areas during the fourth term of office of President Gayoom, to which he was re-elected on the basis of a referendum held in October 1993. The Indian Government was represented by the Railway Minister at the inaugural ceremonies of President Gayoom's fresh term.

The visit of the Foreign Minister of Maldives, Mr Fathulla Jameel, to India in May 1993, provided a very useful forum for discussions. Besides calling on the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs, Mr Jameel held discussions with the Ministers of State for External Affairs, Surface Transport and Commerce. The Foreign Minister of Maldives interacted with a wide cross-section of Indian business community during his stay in Bombay and Delhi and discussed ways, and means for promoting bilateral economic and commercial co-operation.

The Minister of Justice and Islamic Affairs of the Government of Maldives visited New Delhi in October 1993. The Maldivian Minister called on Prime Minister and held discussions with the Minister of State for Law, justice and Company Affairs.

During the SAARC Ministerial meeting held in Dhaka in December 1993, the Foreign Minister of Maldives called on the Minister of External Affairs. The two Ministers held wide ranging discussions on matters of mutual interest.

During the year 1993, the Indian Government made vigorous efforts to complete the Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital at Male, which is a major landmark of India-Maldives friendship and co-operation. Senior officials from the Indian side visited Male to monitor the works-in-progress in coordination with their Maldivian counterparts. The hospital is expected to be handed over to the Government of Maldives shortly and is due for commissioning during 1994.

India-Pakistan relations continued to show a negative trend. Pakistan's support to terrorism directed against India and its proclivity to interfere in India's internal affairs was manifest in the bomb blasts in Bombay in March 1993. Pakistan's aid to and abetment of terrorism directed against India in the States of Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab and other parts of the country vitiated the atmosphere and has had a negative impact on bilateral relations.

Pakistan's complicity in the planning and execution of the bomb blasts in Bombay resulted in an increased perception of the public in India of Pakistan's designs to interfere in India's internal affairs and to engineer conditions of instability. This issue was firmly taken up by the Prime Minister in his meeting with Mr Nawaz Sharif, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, in April in Dhaka during the SAARC Summit. In spite of Pakistani assurances of co-operation in locating, apprehending and returning to India the members of the Memon family, prime suspects in the incident of the bomb blasts in Bombay, there has been no positive response from Pakistan.

Internal political developments in Pakistan including frequent changes in Government through most of the year also precluded any meaningful interaction between the two Governments.

In his congratulatory message to Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto on 19 October, Prime Minister offered wide ranging and sustained bilateral discussions at the earliest to progressively normalise the relations. Foreign Secretary level talks were announced on 24 November and were held in Islamabad from 1 to 3 January 1994.

Earlier, Pakistan indulged in a spate of false propaganda in reaction to the incident at Hazratbal with a view to arousing communal feelings and further encouraging extremist elements. Pakistan's efforts to introduce a resolution on the human rights situation in Jammu & Kashmir at the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly Session did not fructify. Meanwhile, Pakistan has been sending delegations and addressing special messages to a number of countries with a view to furthering its designs on Jammu & Kashmir. The views of the Government of India were made known to all, concerned.

India has consistently held the view that the only logical and rational approach is harmonious co-existence based on the fundamental principle of non-interference in each other's internal affairs as enshrined in the Simla Agreement. This approach requires an equal commitment on behalf of Pakistan.

The seventh round of Foreign Secretary level talks between India and Pakistan took place in Islamabad from I to 3 January 1994. Foreign Secretary called on the President, Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Pakistan. There were four rounds of delegation-level talks. The discussions were intensive and wide ranging and both sides reiterated the need to engage in a meaningful dialogue with a view to addressing all outstanding problems.

As indicated during the Seventh Round of Foreign Secretary level talks, India handed over to Pakistan on 24 January 1994 six non-papers on Siachen, Sir Creek, a proposed agreement on maintaining peace and stability on Line of Control, Tulbal Navigation Project, Additional Confidence Building Measures and the Indo-Pak joint Commission.

The continuing instability in Afghanistan was a major impediment in the continuance of traditional programmes of co-operation between India and Afghanistan. Owing to a serious deterioration in the security situation, the Indian Mission in Kabul had to be temporarily closed down in February 1993. The Mission was reopened in September 1993. India maintained useful official exchanges with the Afghan leadership. The Foreign Minister of Afghanistan, Mr Hidayat Amin Arsala, visited New Delhi in July 1993. As a humanitarian gesture to the people of Afghanistan, India donated Rs 1.4 crore worth of medicines and tea to Afghanistan under the UN's assistance programme.

The climate of uncertainty, instability and conflict which has characterised the situation in Afghanistan since April 1992 has continued. India has stood for a sovereign, independent, non-aligned and united Afghanistan. The Government believes that a political settlement taking into account the wishes of all sections of the Afghan people should be arrived at by the Afghans themselves without any form of external interference.

The holding of the Seventh SAARC Summit in Dhaka on 10 and 11 April 1993 was a major event. On the conclusion of the Summit, the Dhaka Declaration was adopted unanimously on 11 April 1993. The SAARC leaders also agreed on setting up of the SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA).

The Seventh SAARC Summit welcomed the Report of the Independent South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation which had been established at the Colombo Summit. The Heads of State/Government committed their Governments to the eradication of poverty in South Asia preferably by 2002 AD through an Agenda of Action, which embodies a strategy of social mobilisation, decentralised agricultural development, small scale labour intensive industrialisation and human development policies with a priority focus on the rights to work and to primary education. A basic nutritional or "dal-bhat" approach has been advocated.

Another notable event has been the enactment by the Government of India of enabling legislation to implement the SAARC Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism. The necessary legislation in this regard has been passed by both Houses of Parliament and has become an Act of Parliament after receiving the assent of the President of India on 26 April, 1993.

India ratified the SAARC Convention on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in August 1993 and the Convention came into force with effect from 15 September 1993 after being ratified by all the SAARC member States.

The SAARC leaders at their Seventh SAARC Summit endorsed the "Colombo Resolution on Children" adopted by the Second SAARC Ministerial Conference on Children held at Colombo in September 1992. The "illustrative goals" contained in the Colombo Resolution on Children have been incorporated as intermediate goals in the Indian National Plan of Action on Children.

The SAARC leaders welcomed the decisions to institutionalise co- operation in core areas. They further underlined the critical importance of urgently promoting intra-regional co-operation, particularly in the area of manufactures in order to enhance the productive capacity of the member countries, and to promote sustained growth and development to prevent the marginalization of South Asia's trade interest in the larger global context.

One of the major achievements of the Seventh SAARC Summit was the signing of the SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA), which is a concrete step in the direction of trade liberalisation in the SAARC region. The Third Meeting of the Inter-Governmental Group on Trade Liberalisation was held in November in Colombo and after that the Fourth Meeting of the Committee on Economic Co-operation was held in Dhaka on 21 and 22 November 1993. The lists of items for seeking tariff concession have been exchanged and negotiations being held on the subject. At the Council of Ministers Meeting held in Dhaka on 4 and 5 December 1993, the Council strongly urged member States to complete all formalities to put into operation the SAPTA latest by 1995.

The meetings of the 13th Session of the Programming Committee, 18th Session of the Standing Committee and 13th Session of the Council of Ministers were held at Dhaka between 30 November and 5 December 1993. In her inaugural address at the 13th Session of the Council of Ministers, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh and Chairperson of the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation, emphasised that the SAARC activities must keep pace with the preparations being made by the international community for the World Conference on Population and Women in 1994, the World Social Summit in 1995 and the Habitat-IIts in 1996. The Council of Ministers welcomed India's offer to host two Workshops in 1994 with a view to evolving a collective position by SAARC member States for the World Summit for Social Development to be held in Copenhagen in 1995 and the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction in 1994. India has also offered to host in February 1994 a Workshop of the representatives of the non-govern mental organizations active in the field of girl-child combinid with the preparatory meeting for the 4th World Women's Conference.

In accordance with the decision of the Seventh SAARC Summit, a SAARC Ministerial Conference on Women and Family Health was held in Kathmandu from 21 to 23 November 1993. The Ministers adopted a Kathmandu Resolution on Women and Family Health and resolved that the text of the Kathmandu Resolution may be forwarded to the International Conference on Population and Development Secretariat at New York as the input of SAARC member countries to facilitate preparatory work of the Conference on Population and Development.

Under the aegis of SAARC, so far approximately 66 activities have been held in 1993 out of which 15 were held in India. These include training courses, seminars, workshops, technical studies, etc.

The Eighth SAARC Summit will be held in India in late 1994 or early

India values SAARC co-operation as a complementary dimension of her bilateral relationship with the neighbouring countries and continues to play an active role with the view to achieve and promote the objectives enshrined in the SAARC Charter.

2. South-East Asia and the Pacific


INDIA'S traditionally close and friendly relations with member countries of Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and with countries in Indo-China were further strengthened by numerous high level contacts during 1993-94. The special policy focus continued on forging close economic ties with 'the ASEAN countries.

Traditional ties with Thailand were revitalised with the visit of Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao, to Thailand in April 1993. The two Prime Ministers agreed on the need for high level political direction to augment bilateral trade and commerce by at least 20% each year. Specific areas such as fisheries, aquaculture, tourism, agriculture, and science & technology including peaceful uses of atomic energy were identified for time-bound co-operation.

Subsequent to the Prime Minister's visit, two rounds of talks on fisheries co-operation have already been held. India, Thailand and Myanmar signed the Trilateral Maritime Boundary Agreement, along with an Indo-Thai Bilateral Maritime Boundary Agreement in New Delhi in October 1993.

The Second India-Thailand joint Commission Session held in New Delhi from 2 to 5 November 1993, co-chaired by the Thai Foreign Minister, Sqn Ldr Prasong Soonsiri and the Minister of External Affairs, Shri Dinesh Singh, reviewed follow-up action to Prime Minister's visit to Thailand. Both sides agreed to take specific action to augment. trade and expand economic relations between the two countries. The two sides exchanged views on the positive. trends in bilateral relations on regional issues such as SAARC,. ASEAN, ARF and APEC and on

international issues such as human rights, cross border terrorism and disarmament.

The Singapore industry and corporate sector is displaying a high level of interest in India, particularly in the wake of India's economic liberalisation and her attempt to integrate with the global economy. Several India-Singapore Joint ventures in the field of information technology, an integrated complex of hotels, shopping arcades, etc are already in the pipeline. A Software Technology Park is being planned in Bangalore by the Karnataka Government in collaboration with Singapore companies and the Tatas.

At the political level, Singapore has consistently signalled its desire to bring about a qualitative upgradation in the bilateral relations. Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr Goh Chok Tong, visited India from 23 to 30 January 1994 as the Chief Guest for the Republic Day celebrations this year. He led a delegation comprising Foreign Minister, Minister of Trade and Industry, CEOs of 36 major business houses, senior civil servants and a large media team. Apart from ceremonial attendance at Republic Day celeberations, his programme in Delhi consisted of meetings with President, Vice President, Prime Minis ter, Finance Minister, and, Ministers of Surface Transport, Communications and Environment. He also addressed about a 100 strong gathering of captains of Indian industry at a Round Table Conference organized by CII He laid the foundation stone in Bangalore of an Information Technology Park, a Rs 150 crores joint venture project between private companies in India and Singapore and the State of Karnataka in the fields of computer software and electronics. In Bombay, he inaugurated the representative office of Development Bank of Singapore. His visit was aimed towards forging a strategic economic alliance with India for coordinated action by the Governments and business in both countries to enhance joint ventures in diverse areas such as tourism, civil aviation, telecommunications, real estate and highways, financial services, ports and shipping, warehousing and information exchange.

Relations with Malaysia continued to be close. The Malaysian Prime Minister, Dr Mahathir Mohammad, visited India in December 1993 during the G-15 meeting and had bilateral discussions with the Indian leadership on issues of mutual interest. Six Memorandums of Understanding were signed during this visit in various fields with Indian private/ public firms. The Malaysian Minister for Energy, Telecommunication and Posts visited India in April 1993 and held discussions with his counterparts.

As a result of the recent Supreme Court judgement about admissions to professional colleges, Malaysian students may not be able to pursue medical education in India as in the past.

Philippines Agriculture Minister, Mr Roberto Sebastian, visited India in August 1993 and held discussions with his counterpart, Shri Balram jakhar, on enhancing co-operation with the Philippines, particularly in the livestock sector. The Agriculture Minister also paid an official visit to the Philippines in September 1993 and held discussions on matters of bilateral interest.

A Memorandum of Understanding was signed with the Philippines firm Autocorp in August 1993 for the assembly and sale of Tata trucks. Discussions are going on with the Philippines authorities for collaboration in various sectors including power projects.

The Indonesian President, Mr Suharto, visited India in December 1993 for discussions on bilateral and multilateral issues with the President and the Prime Minister. President Suharto also participated in the "Education for All" Summit meeting in New Delhi. Earlier, Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia, had visited Indonesia in May 1993 for the NAM Ministerial meeting and subsequently in September as Special Envoy of Prime Minister carrying a letter of invitation for President Suharto for the G-15 Summit. Shri Bhatia had meetings with Indonesian Foreign Minister, Mr Ali Alatas, and called on President Suharto. The latter was also invited for an official visit to India. These visits have helped both the countries in getting a better idea of each other's viewpoints on various issues of mutual concern.

The political co-operation between the two countries has been enhanced. Regular discussions and consultations are being held in the context of the Non-Aligned Movement, G-15, GATT and on human rights.

The meeting of the Indo-ASEAN Sectoral Dialogue took place in January 1994 in Jakarta. Bilateral trade is on the increase. More Indian companies are in the process of setting up joint ventures in Indonesia. Some Indonesian firms are also investing in joint ventures in India in the field of palm oil and other projects. The India-Indonesia joint Business Council meeting was held in Delhi in November 1993.

The close and friendly relations with Vietnam were given a further boost by exchange of high-level visits. Shri Salman Khurshid, Minister of State for External Affairs, visited Vietnam in February 1993. Many

areas for economic co-operation between India and Vietnam were identified. Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas, Capt Satish Sharma, visited Vietnam in July 1993, to review the progress of the off- shore exploration project of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (Videsh Ltd) in southern Vietnam and discuss about other areas of co-operation. Vice President, Shri K R Narayanan, accompanied by his wife, paid a good-will visit to Vietnam from 22 to 28 September 1993. The visit provided an opportunity for an exchange of views with the Vietnamese leadership. Both sides felt the need to enhance the economic co- operation to make it commensurate with the excellent political relations existing between India and Vietnam.

The Vietnamese Vice-Minister of Finance, Mr Pham Van Trong, visited India in October 1993 for discussions on Indo-Vietnamese economic relations and the forthcoming joint Commission meeting to be held in Hanoi in early 1994.

A number of Indian companies are, in the, process of setting up projects in Vietnam. KCP of Madras has signed an agreement with a Vietnamese company for setting up a sugar plant. Another Indian company, Harrison Malayalam, is setting up a rubber plantation and processing project in Vietnam.

Through agreement on recycling of the credit of Rs 390 million to Vietnam, continued economic co-operation between the two countries was spurred. An agreement on air services between India and Vietnam was signed in May 1993, opening up opportunities for direct air services between India and Vietnam.

The close and cordial relations between India and Cambodia were further strengthened. The 1,800 strong Indian contingent under United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) made significant contribution to the UN efforts towards the establishment of peace in Cambodia and in the electoral process. The UNTAC authorities gave fulsome praise for the peace-keeping role and the civic action programme of the Indian contingent. The Prime Minister, Prince Ranariddh, also expressed his appreciation for the contributions of the Indian contingent.

On completion of their 7-year project for restoration of the Angkor Vat Temple in Cambodia, the Archaeological Survey of India team returned to India in May 1993. The Indian contribution has been appreciated by various Cambodian leaders.

India sent a consignment of 2,000 tonnes of rice to Cambodia in May 1993. Cambodian trainees continued to be offered facilities for various technical courses in India under Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation Programme.

The traditionally friendly relations with Laos were maintained. A 2- member delegation of the Lao PDR National Assembly led by Dr Khamlieng Pholsena, member of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly And Head of the National Assembly Foreign Affairs Commission,, visited India in April 1993 to attend the 89th Inter Parliamentary Congress held in New Delhi.

Bilateral relations with Australia continued to be cordial. The Prime Minister in his message of greetings to Prime Minister Paul Keating on his re-election as Prime Minister also invited him to visit India. Visits during the year included that of Minister of State for Waste Land Development, Col Rao Ram Singh, to Western Australia from 13 to 18 June 1993 at the invitation of the Deputy Prime Minister of Western Australia, Mr, Hendy Cowan, to study the development of Wastelands. In turn, Mr Hendy Cowan visited India at the invitation of Minister of State for Commerce, Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed, from 14 to 24 November 1993 to explore the possibilities of joint ventures with India. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shri Shivraj Patil, accompanied by the Leader of the Opposition, Shri A B Vajpayee, visited Canberra from 10 to 18 September 1993, to participate in the IPU Conference. The Deputy Speaker, of Lok Sabha, Shri S Mallikarjunaiah, attended the 5th Commonwealth Parliamentary Seminar in Perth in May 1993. An Australian Parliamentary delegation led by the Deputy Speaker, Mr Henry Jenkins, visited India from 21 to 27 November 1993.

The Bilateral Official Consultations with Australia took place on 2 and 3 February 1994. Secretary (East) led the talks from Indian side and was accompanied by joint Secretary (AP).

Exchanges on defence and related fields were another feature of India- Australia relations. Vice Admiral, IDG MacDougall, Chief of Naval Staff of Australia, visited India from 9 to 16 May 1993 at the invitation of Chief of the Naval Staff of India. An NDC Team from India visited Australia from 20 June to 4 July 1993. A senior officer also participated at a Conference on "Australia's Maritime Bridge into Asia" in November 1993. A senior official from the Australian Foreign Office visited New Delhi in November 1993 for discussions and to brief India on Australia's views on CTBT.

Bilateral trade with Australia, which has been growing steadily over, the years, reached a total of Rs 31084.77 crores in 1992-93 reflecting an increase of 102% compared to the bilateral trade in 1987-88. However, Australia continued to enjoy a trade surplus, which stood at Rs 1,737 crores in 1992-93 mainly on account of Australia's supplies of coal and wool to India. The India-Australia joint Working Group in Power met in New Delhi in March 1993. The Seventh India-Australia joint Business Council (JBC) met in New Delhi in February 1993.

The India-Australia joint Ministerial Committee had its 3rd meeting in Sydney on 4 February 1994. The Indian delegation was led by Minister of State for Commerce, Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed.

Bilateral relations with New Zealand continued to be friendly and cordial. The general elections in New Zealand on 6 November 1993 resulted in the ruling National Party returning to power with a wafer- thin majority winning 50 of the 99 seats and enabling Prime Minister Jim Bolger to form the Government again. Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, sent a message of congratulations to Prime Minister Bolger.

The Bilateral Official Consultations with New Zealand took place on 7 and 8 February 1994 in Wellington. joint Secretary (AP) led the Indian side.

Trade continued to be the focal point in India's relations with New Zealand. Exports from India in 1992-93 stood at Rs 93 crores against the imports from New Zealand of Rs 177 crores. The India-New Zealand joint Business Council met in New Zealand on 4 August 1993. A Punjab Government delegation visited New Zealand in March 1993 and a delegation from the Gujarat Chamber of Commerce and Industry visited New Zealand from 9 to 14 October 1991 New Zealand participated in the 89th Inter Parliamentarians Congress held in New Delhi from 9 to 17 April 1993. The first India-New Zealand joint naval exercises took place off Bombay from 27 to 29 July 1993 during the visit of the two New Zealand warships to India. Former Prime Minister of New Zealand, Mr David Lange, visited New Delhi twice during the period under review.

The situation in Fiji continued to receive India's attention. Following the Fiji Parliament's rejection of the Budget on 29 November 1993, Prime Minister Sitiveni Rabuka dissolved the Parliament and called for elections now scheduled to be held in February 1994. Earlier, in response

to persistent demands, the Fijian Parliament had under the terms of reference called for the setting up of a Constitutional Review Commission. The ban on economic, technical and commercial co-operation with Fiji continued to remain in force. Scholarships however continued to be given to deserving Fijian students.

The President of Nauru, Mr Bernard Dowiyogo, visited India on 10 and 11 June 1993 to sign the agreement for sale of the equity held by Nauru in Paradeep Phosphates Ltd. India acquired the equity share of Nauru in PPL for Australian S 63.8 million (Rs 135.745 crores).

The Speaker of the Lok Sabha visited Papua New Guinea in connection with the Conference of Commonwealth Speakers and Presiding Officers held there in January 1994. High Commissioner of India, Kuala Lumpur, will concurrently be accredited to Papua New Guinea.

3. East Asia


THE momentum of high-level political dialogue and steady improvement in India-China relations was maintained during 1993-94 as Government continued their efforts to work towards the goal of establishing a long- term,, stable and good neighbourly relationship with China. It was recognised by the two countries that in a rapidly changing international situation where developing nations were being subjected to new pressures, countries like India and China must maintain substantive contacts and that a constructive engagement between them would not only conform to their mutual interests but would also be conducive to peace, stability and development in Asia and the world.

The visit of Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, to China in September 1993 reinforced the positive trend in bilateral relations. The most significant outcome of the visit was the signing of the Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border. Areas. It is an enabling agreement which lays down the framework for ensuring peace and harmony along the Line of Actual Control (LAC). Under it, India and China have agreed to observe the LAC without prejudice to their positions on the boundary question. Experts from both sides would jointly check and determine the LAC in those segments where there were differences. The two countries have also agreed to put in place several other measures, including redeployment of forces in border areas.

The India-China Expert Group, set up to assist the joint Working Group (JWG) in implementation of the agreement, had its first meeting

in New Delhi, in February 1994. It is Government's expectation that the implementation of this agreement would strengthen the likelihood that peace and tranquillity would continue to be maintained along the India- China border, thus creating a tension-free atmosphere in which the two countries could address the larger issue of boundary settlement.

India and China persevered in their efforts in the JWG to seek a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement of the boundary question. The sixth meeting of the India-China JWG was held in New Delhi in June 1993. Apart from continuing their useful dialogue on the boundary question in an atmosphere free of rancour, the two sides also made significant progress in their discussions on concrete steps that could be taken by them to enhance mutual confidence and harmony in border areas.

As part of the process of generating mutual trust, defence exchanges between India and China were carried forward. The visit of the Chinese Naval ship 'Zheng He' to Bombay in November 1993 was the first visit by a Chinese warship to an Indian port.

India and China continued their efforts to expand the dialogue and exchanges between their parliamentary institutions. In November 1993, Mr Li Ruihuan, Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and a top-ranking leader of the, Chinese Communist Party, led a high-level delegation to India at the invitation of the Vice- President.

Bilateral trade and economic co-operation showed signs of modest increase. A positive development was the approval given for the setting up of several Chinese joint ventures in India and the agreement on the establishment of the first-ever Indian joint venture in China. Recognising, however, that the present level of bilateral economic interaction remained inadequate, the two countries agreed during Prime Minister Rao's visit to make special efforts to enlarge their economic links. New ideas were also explored during the visit of Commerce Minister, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, to China in June 1993 and, later, during the visit of the Chinese Vice-Premier, Mr Li Lanqing, to India in December 1993. During the Prime Minister's visit, a Protocol extending border trade to Shipki Pass, on, Himachal Pradesh-Tibet border was signed.

There was also a marked increase in functional exchanges between India and China in 1993-94, based on the logic of mutual co-operation for mutual benefit. A Festival of India would be mounted in China in

May-June 1 994; a Chinese cultural festival had earlier been organized in India in December 1992.

On the whole, it was possible for India and China to steadily improve their relations in all spheres of state-to-state and people-to-people interactions. The peace and tranquillity agreement in particular reflected the determination of the two countries to overcome past differences and seek durable relationship on the basis of mutuality of interests.

The Asia-Pacific region emerged as the focus of global attention during the year, particularly in the context of rapid evolution of the Asia- Pacific economic co-operation. This region, in India's immediate neighbourhood, is one of great importance, and India continued to sustain her close and cordial relations with the countries in the region.

The momentum in India's relations with Japan generated by Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao's visit to Japan and the visit of Prince Akishino to India in 1992 was maintained during the year under review. Parliamentary Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan,, Mr Shozo Azuma, paid an official visit to India in January 1994. Important visitors to Japan included Finance Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, who visited Japan between 27 and 30 June 1993 as the Special Envoy of the Prime Minister in his capacity as Chairman of G-15 carrying a message from Prime Minister to the then Japanese Prime Minister, Mr Kiichi Miyazawa, who had assumed Chairmanship of G-7. He also met Foreign Minister Kabun Muto and Finance Minister Yoshiro Hayashi to discuss bilateral matters particularly the economic reforms. Minister of Power, Shri N K P Salve, visited Japan from 15 to 17 June 1993 to attract Japanese investment in the power sector in India. Minister of State for Petroleum, Shri Satish Sharma, visited Japan in April 1993 to promote Japanese interest in the hydro-carbon sector.

At the official level, contacts between India and Japan were intensified. The Annual Foreign Office Bilateral Consultative Talks held in New Delhi on 1 and 2 April 1993 covered a wide-range of issues including non-proliferation in the Indian sub-continent. As a follow-up to the understanding reached between Prime Minister and the then Prime Minister of Japan, Mr Kiichi Miyazawa, in June 1992, the first ever official level talks on Non-Proliferation and Nuclear-issues were held in New Delhi on 11 and 12 March 1993. The discussions afforded the two sides a better understanding of each others respective positions on non- proliferation and related matters. Other official meetings that took

place during the year were Annual Consultations on the Bilateral Assistance Programme, the Trade Talks and the Railway Working Group. For the first time a Vice-Minister from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan visited New Delhi in March 1992 for discussions with senior Government officials.

Japan's interest and continuing support for India's restructuring of the economy was reflected in tangible ways. It retained its primary position in the list of donor nations pledging Yen 119.64 billion as Official Development Assistance (ODA) for 1993-94, a 7% increase over 1992-93. The six projects selected included three in the power sector, two in the transport/infrastructure sector and one in the small scale sector. Additionally, Japan extended Grant-in-Aid for Small Scale, Health, Education and Social Welfare Projects and technical training. The Japan International Co-operation Agency JICA) set up an independent Resident Office in New Delhi. Japan Interntional Co-operation Agency President, K Yanagiya, visited India in December 1993. Government of India accepted the recommendation of the Japan International Co-operation Agency Expert Team for Gurgaon as the first priority site for an Industrial Model Town (IMT) in India. While Japanese Official Development Assistance increased, investment figures showed a decline. Investment from Japan to India which had shown a dramatic increase and was the third highest in 1992 at Rs 610.23 crores, fell sharply in 1993 to Rs 257.43 crores. Government of Japan, as a follow up to the Economic Mission sent in January 1992, led by Mr R Ishikawa, stated its intention to send a second high level Economic Mission in March 1994 to follow up and see the progress in Indian economic reforms. Japan continued to remain one of India's largest trade partners though India's share in Japan's total trade remained miniscule at less than 1 per cent. In terms of volume, bilateral trade which has shown consistent growth registered a total of Rs 8,213.77 crores in 1992-93. In the first six months of fiscal year 1993-94 1 e from April to September 1993, the trade turnover with Japan stood at Rs 4,484.82 crores.

At the non-government level too, exchanges and interaction continued. Extensive and fruitful discussions on wide range of issues were covered at the 23rd joint Meeting of the India-Japan Standing Committee (IJSC) held in Tokyo on 7 and 8 October 1993 led by Shri Vasant Sathe, on the Indian side and former Prime Minister of Japan, Mr Toshiki Kaifu, the Hony Chairman, on the Japanese side. The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) sent several delegations to Japan including its second Economic Mission from 16 to 20 October 1993 and also participated at the Global Business Opportunities Convention (GBOC) in Osaka. The India- Japan Business Co-operation Committees met in Japan on 22 and 23 April 1993 at Urabandai, Fukushima Prefecture. The 16th Standing Committee of the India-Japan Business Co-operation Committee (IJBCC) which met in New Delhi on 25 and 26 November 1993 concentrated on sectoral discussions on financial services, power and telecommunications. In response to an Indian initiative, a Study Mission from the power sector of Japan representing both business and industry and government officials of Japan visited India from 12 to 18 December 1993 to examine prospects for investment in the power sector in India. From India other delegations to Japan included those from the forgings & castings, cashew, spice, tea, electronics and computer software, sericulture, leather, coir and marine products sectors.

In the cultural field co-operation continued apace. The Japan Foundation opened an office in India. The Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development was awarded to Dr Saburo Okita, eminent economist and former Japanese Foreign' Minister, posthumously, for his contribution to the economic development of Japan and for enhancing India-Japan relations.

The enhanced importance that India and the Republic of Korea placed in each other's bilateral relations saw the visit of Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, to the Republic of Korea from 9 to 11 September 1993 at the invitation of President Kim Young Sam. The visit was the first ever by an Indian Head of Government to the Republic of Korea. In addition to the Summit Meeting with the President, Prime Minister also met Prime Minister Hwang In Sung, and Foreign Minister Han Sung Joo. Prime Minister's visit laid a firm foundation for mutual efforts to upgrade and diversify India-Republic of Korea exchanges at all levels-political, economic and cultural. President Kim Young Sam undertook to provide positive encouragement to the Republic of Korea's private sector to extend trade investment and joint ventures with India. Three documents were signed during the visit, namely, an Agreement on Tourism Co- operation, the Cultural Exchange Programme (CEP) for 1993-95 and a Protocol on Science and Technology Co-operation. Other high level visits to the Republic of Korea included that of Shri Satish Sharma, Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas, to Seoul on 6 and 7 April 1993 to attract South Korean participation in the field of oil and natural gas and Shri jagdish Tytler, Minister of

State for Surface Transport, from 3 to 6 June 1993 for discussions with the major Korean ship-builders. Exchanges at the official level also took place. In addition, a Korean National Defence delegation visited India on a study tour in October 1993, while a Naval training squadron from the Republic of Korea paid a goodwill visit to Bombay the same month..

The India-Korea joint Business Council held its annual meeting when the Prime Minister was in Seoul and undertook to double India-Republic of Korea trade within three years from the present figure of about US $ 1 billion. Several delegations from India visited Republic of Korea including those dealing with leather exports, deoiled cakes, jute manufacture, plastics, cashew and shellac. In turn, South Korea's businessmen too came on exploratory missions. The Republic of Korea's participation and presence in Indian off-shore projects continued to remain substantial. Direct bi-weekly flights between Seoul and Bombay were begun during the year under review. Co-operation in the cultural field continued apace with a special interest being shown by South Korean Buddhist groups for increased interaction with India.

Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, addressed a meeting of Indian Heads of Mission stationed in North East Asia in Seoul in September 1993. The meeting examined inter alia recent developments in the region as also security and economic issues in the Asia Pacific.

Relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea remained friendly. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea Vice President, Mr Li Jong Ok, visited India as Special Envoy of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea President on 25 and 26 March 1993 and met the Prime Minister, where he explained his country's position on nuclear issue. Democratic People's Republic of Korea Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs Song Won Ho also visited India. Shri K P Singh Deo, Minister for Information & Broadcasting, visited Pyongyang from 14 to 17 June to attend the COMINAC-IV. From the Democratic People's Republic of Korea a delegation of the Socialist Democratic Party of Korea led by Chairman, Mr Kim Byong Sik, visited India and called on the Prime Minister and other high dignitaries. Contacts at the party to party and people to people level were also maintained. A Cultural Exchange Programme for 1993-95 was signed in April 1993.

The year under review witnessed further consolidation of traditionally friendly relations between India and Mongolia.

Mr J Choinkhor, Deputy Minister for External Relations of Mongolia, paid a visit to India in February 1993. During the visit, a number of Working Programmes and Protocols were signed to enhance bilateral co-operation in the field of science and technology. Government of India also agreed to make available to Mongolia a line of credit upto an amount of Rs 5 crores to help set up oil extraction, traditional medicine and mini cement plants, for which an Agreement was signed between the two countries in April 1993.

Secretary (East) visited Mongolia in June 1993 for bilateral discussions with his counterpart. He called on the President and Foreign Minister of Mongolia during the visit.

Kum Selja, Deputy Minister of Culture, Ministry of Human Resource Development, visited Mongolia in September 1993 in connection with the first-ever exhibition of Buddha relics in Ulan Bator which was very successfully organized by the Government of India.

The President of Mongolia will be paying a State visit to India in February 1994 during which a number of bilateral agreements are expected to be signed.

4. Central Asia


INDIA lays great emphasis on the development of her relations withcountries of Central Asia, with whom she has historical associations.As neighbours, the security and stability of Central Asia is of vital importance to India.

As in 1992-93, the current year was also marked by many high level exchanges between India and the Central Asian countries which were undertaken to further develop the multifaceted and mutually beneficial relationship with these countries. It was decided to open resident diplomatic missions in the capitals of Kyrghyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan in addition to the Embassies in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, which are already functional. The Embassies are expected to open before the end of 1994. Similarly, Kazakhstan and Kyrghyzstan have opened resident missions in New Delhi and it is expected that other countries will do so in the near future. The Ambassador of Kazakhstan presented his credentials to President on 12 November 1993 and became the first resident Ambassador from a Central Asian country.

Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao, visited Uzbekistan from 23 to 25 May 1993. During the visit a treaty on the principles of inter-state relations and co-operation between the two countries was signed by the Prime Minister and President of Uzbekistan. This agreement sets out the principles for bilateral relations by promising to develop relations in political, economic, trade, science & technology, cultural, exchange of information and other fields. During this visit the Prime Minister announced the decision to set up an Indian Cultural Centre at Tashkent for which preparatory work has since been concluded. The Prime Minister

also announced the setting up of an India Chair in the World University of Economics and Diplomacy. He announced a gift of medicines to be used by the people of the ecologically damaged area near Aral Sea. These medicines have since been sent. The Prime Minister and the President of Uzbekistan agreed that programmes supplied to Uzbek TV would be broadcast for viewing in Uzbekistan. The technical work for reception of these broadcasts is being conducted at present. The Prime 'Minister agreed to an increase in the Indian Technical and Economic Co-operation (ITEC) slots available to Uzbekistan by 50 and also agreed to the extension of second instalment of credit of US 10 million after the Uzbek side complete the utilisation of the current line of credit of US $ 10 million for development of capital projects.

The first meeting of the Indo-Uzbek joint Commission was held in New Delhi on 27 and 28 July 1993. The Indian Co-Chairman was Minister of External Affairs, Shri Dinesh Singh, and the Uzbek Co-Chairman was Deputy Prime Minister, Mr T M Miryakubov. The Joint Commission identified areas of technical co-operation on which follow-up action is being taken up by the specialised Ministries and Departments of the Government of India.

President Karimov paid a State visit to India from 3 to 5 January 1994, this being his first visit to India as President of sovereign Uzbekistan. An early return visit by President of Uzbekistan to the visit of Prime Minsiter in May 1993 is a reflection of their reciprocating India's desire to strengthen bilateral relations with this neighbouring country in a region of considerable interest to India. President Karimov had discussions with President, and had two rounds of discussions with Prime Minister: he also received Commerce Minister and Finance Minister and the Minister of State for External Affairs. During these high level interactions, views were exchanged about extending bilateral co-operation in different sectors. President Karimov Was awarded an honorary degree by Jawaharlal Nehru University and had an exchange of views with a representative cross-section of Indian business leaders. The members of the Uzbek delegation, representing the key Uzbek business and production establishments, also interacted with various business groups here. During the visit, President Karimov and Prime Minister signed an agreement on comprehensive economic co-operation. Besides, the Instruments of Ratification of the Indo-Uzbek Treaty on Principles of Inter-State Relations and Co-operation were exchanged and agreements on cultural co-operation, scientific co-operation, postal co- operation and co-operation in the telecom sector were signed.

As part of the preparation for the visit of President Karimov and also for exchange of views on international relations, the Uzbek Foreign Minister, Mr S Saidkassim, visited India from 1 to 4 December 1993. He had detailed exchange of views with the Minister of External Affairs. He also called on Prime Minister, Finance Minister and the Commerce Minister.

At an international meet in Tashkent on 12 and 13 January 1994, convened by the Government of Uzbekistan to seek international assistance to alleviate the crisis in the social sector in that country, Indian Government pledged US $ 500,000 in rupee equivalent over the current and the next financial year.

Prime Minister visited Kazakhstan on 25 and 26 May 1993. The Prime Minister announced the setting up of a Cultural Centre at Almaty for which preparations have since been completed. Prime Minister also announced the increase in ITEC slots available to Kazakhstan by 50 from the existing number. He also announced the extension of a second instalment of credit of US $ 10 million ' to be used by Kazakhstan after the utillsation of the first instalment of credit for the same amount announced earlier.

The first meeting of the Indo-Kazakh joint Commision was held in New Delhi from 21 to 23 July 1993, Shri Balram Jakhar, Minister for Agriculture, was the Indian Co-Chairman and Mr G A Abilsyitov, Dy Prime Minister and Minister for Science & New Technologies, was the Kazakh Co- Chairman. The Joint Commission identified several areas of co-operation which are to be studied further through exchange of specialist delegations.

President Nazarbaev stopped over in Delhi during a visit abroad on 20 July 1993 and had an exchange of views with Prime Minister.

The Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Kazakhstan visited India from 1 to 5 December 1993. In addition to an exchange of views with the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the distinguished visitor called on the President and the Prime Minister.

Foreign Minister, Mr E O Karabaev, of Kyrghyzstan visited India from 4 to 6 August 1993.

The Prime Minister of Tajikistan, Mr Abdumalik Abdullogjanov Abdullajanov, visited India from -14 to 18 February 1993. With the

establishment of the resident Indian Mission in the Tajik capital Dushanbe it is expected that contacts between the two countries will increase significantly.

The relations between India and Turkey were strengthened further as a result of the visit of the President and Smt Vimala Sharma from 16 to 19 July 1993, at the invitation of President of Turkey, Mr Suleyman Demirel-the first ever visit by President of India. Our two countries, founded on the principles of secularism and democracy, have friendly relations with the visit providing opportunity for high level exchange of views on matters of vital concern to both countries. During his stay, President had exchanges of views with President Demirel, Prime Minister, Prof Tansu Ciller, Deputy Prime Minister and other dignitaries; he also addressed leading businessmen of Turkey in Istanbul and had a free exchange of views on increasing the bilateral economic co-operation. Mister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia, who was the Minister-in-waiting, had detailed discussions with the Turkish Foreign Minister, Mr Hikmet Cetin, on international issues and on closer collaboration between the two Foreign Ministries. Understanding was reached between the two sides for closer coordination in international fora. 'The Indian and Turkish delegations collaborated at the UN on resolution on terrorism. The Turkish leadership expressed keen interest in India's economic liberalisation successes with a view to sharing this experience. During the course of the President's visit, with the exchange of instruments of ratification, the Indo-Turkish agreement on mutual assistance in criminal matters and the Indo-Turkish agreement on mutual judicial assistance in civil and criminal matters came into force. India took part in the Izmir Trade Fair from 8 to 20 September 1993 and considered it to be a successful participation.

Amongst other important visits, Minister, of State for Defence, Shri Mallikarjun, paid a visit to Turkey in September 1993. Minister for Tourism and Civil Aviation, Shri Gulam Nabi Azad, represented India at the funeral of late President Turgut Ozal in April 1993.

President conveyed his congratulations to President Haider Aliyev of Azerbaijan on his election.

The Government is opening resident missions in Ashkabad (the capital of Turkmenistan), Dushanbe (the capital of Tajikistan) and Bishkek (the capital of Kyrghyzstan) and a Consulate General of India in Istanbul. Indian Ambassador in Ankara has been concurrently accredited to the Azerbaijan Republic.

Kazakhstan has opened its diplomatic mission, headed by an Ambassodar, and Kyrghyzstan and Uzbekistan have opened their diplomatic missions at the level of Charge d'Affaires in New Delhi.

Minister of External Affairs, Shri Dinesh Singh, and Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid, had bilateral consultations with foreign ministers and other senior leaders of the countries of the region during the United Nations General Assembly.

5. The Gulf, West Asia and North Africa


INDIA'S bilateral relations with the Gulf countries are marked by growing cordiality and friendship. The year 1993-94 saw further development in India's relations with the Gulf There are an estimated 2 million Indians resident in the Gulf and inward remittances are of the order of over Rs 7,800 crores annually. The Gulf countries account for approximately two-thirds of India's oil imports. The Gulf countries thus have a significant economic profile from India's point of view. By July 1993, the Gulf countries had invested over Rs 10.4 crores in India. During the year 1992-93 India's total trade with the Gulf region was Rs.16,610 crores of which about Rs 4,584 crores represented India's exports. India's new trade policies have led to expansion and diversification in bilateral trade with countries in the Gulf

India considers peace, security and stability in the Gulf region as of great importance and her endeavour has been to further strengthen ties with each of the Gulf countries. 1993 was marked by further development in India's relations with the Gulf countries and by a number of important visits.

Shri Shivraj V Patil, the Speaker of Lok Sabha, visited Bahrain in September 1993.

An Iraqi delegation led by their Foreign Ministry Permanent Undersecretary for Political Affairs, Mr Abdul Jabbar Omar al-Douri, paid an official visit to India in September 1993. This first bilateral talks at

such level for over two years was aimed at exchange of views and to resolve long-pending bilateral economic matters.

The Kuwaiti Deputy Premier and Foreign Minister, Mr Sheikh Sabah Al- Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, paid an official visit to India in February 1993 to thank India for her support to the Kuwaiti cause especially during her membership of UN Security Council. A Kuwaiti Parliamentary delegation led by Mr Ahmed Abdul Aziz Al-Sadoun, Speaker of the National Assembly, paid an official visit in October 1993 at the invitation of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

The Prime Minister, accompanied by a high level delegation paid an official visit to the Sultanate of Oman. He was accompanied by Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed, Minister of State for Commerce, and other high ranking officials. Prime Minister's talks with Sultan Qaboos were held in an Ambience marked with cordiality and keenness to promote bilateral economic co-operation. During the visit, three important agreements concerning bilateral economic co-operation in the areas of trade, hydrocarbons and fertilizers were signed.

Earlier in March 1993, during a visit to Oman by Captain Satish Sharma, Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas, two Memorandums of Understanding were signed. These concerned laying a US $ 4.5 billion 1,450 kin sub-sea gas pipeline from Oman to India and the setting up of two oil refineries in India. Omani Minister of Petroleum and Minerals visited India in September.

Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs, participated in the inaugural function of INDEXPO and inaugurated India Trade Centre in Muscat in November 1993.

The first ever Indo-Omani joint Naval Exercises took place off the coast of Oman in January 1993. The then Chief of Naval, Staff, Admiral L Ram Das, visited Oman in May. The Indian Navy has bagged a contract for hydrographic survey in Oman. Air Vice Marshal Mohammed bin Mahfudh bin Sa'ad Al Ardi, the Commander of the Royal Air Force of Oman, visited India in December to hold talks with his Indian counterpart.

Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs visited Oman and the UAE in May 1993 and held extensive discussion with his counterparts. Shri N K P Salve, Minister of Power, also visited these

two countries in July to explore private sector and NRI participation in power projects in India.

Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed, Minister of State for Commerce, visited Qatar and the UAE in April to further explore possibilities of increasing India's trade with these countries.

A 19-Member Haj delegation led by Shri P M Sayyed, Minister of State for Home Affairs, visited Saudi Arabia in May 1993.

A pattern of bilateral Foreign Office consultations at Secretary level With the Gulf countries has become a regular feature of Indian diplomacy. During the year such consultations were held with Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Yemen.

In December, 3 Indian naval vessels paid three week goodwill visit to Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar.

The Sixth and Seventh Sessions of the Indo-UAE joint Commission were held in Abu Dhabi in June 1993 and in New Delhi in January 1994 at Foreign Ministry Secretaries level. The Commission reviewed the bilateral economic ties.

Mr Mohammed Abdulla Ali Al Shami, Yemeni Deputy Minister of Education, visited India in October. Possibilities of Indian co-operation in the primary and secondary education under a World Bank assisted project were discussed. Mr Ahmed Dhiaifullah Al-Ozaib, Permanent Under Secretary for Political Affairs of the Republic of Yemen, visited India in May 1993 and held Foreign Office level talks with Secretary in the Ministry.

While India's bilateral relations with the Gulf countries are problem- free, domestic developments in India and Pakistan's activism in the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) do sometimes affect their stances in international forums.

The Islamic Foreign Minister's Conference and the OIC adopted resolutions and issued statements concerning Kashmir and Hazratbal incident. These were appropriately rebutted by the official spokesman.

The Special Kuwait Cell is handling the Gulf War claims of Indian nationals, Indian companies and Government of India. The A, B, C, and D claims numbering about 1,40,900 till December 1993 valued at $ 1874.5 million and about 100'E'claims of about S 1360 million have

been forwarded to the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC), Geneva.

After eliminating the duplicate/ multiple applications and claims found ineligible, the Ministry is still saddled with about 32,000 A, B, C, and D claims mainly due to the deficiencies in the claim applications. Individual letters were sent to these 32,000 claimants asking them to remove the deficiencies by furnishing full Information as per UNCC requirements. This was followed up by deputing Ministry of External Affairs officers to some States, namely, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, to educate the claimants for supplying the missing information. Subsequently, a public notice was published advising all the defaulters to expedite their replies to the Special Kuwait Cell.

The UNCC Secretariat notified vide its note verbale of 26 April 1993 that claims within each category would be processed in the order in which they were received by it. This procedure of "first come first served" was considered detrimental to India's interests as she started forwarding her claims to Geneva later than some countries though the percentage of total number of claims lodged with the UNCC upto June 1993 by India was comparatively higher. India therefore suggested to the UNCC that each batch of claims which UNCC Secretariat processes must comprise a proportionate number of claims of that category from every concerned, country. Secretary (West), joint Secretary (SKC) and Director (L&T) visited Geneva to actively lobby with members of the Governing Council and despite stiff opposition succeeded in persuading the UNCC to agree to compose batches of "A" category claims on proportionate basis with some due weightage to the chronological order of claims.

Most of the 126 "E" claims received from Indian companies, on preliminary scrutiny, were found to be incomplete/defective. The representatives from about 20 companies were called in February 1993 and advised to improve the presentation of their claims. In addition, letters were sent to more than 100 companies advising them to resubmit their claims in accordance with UNCC regulations. In September 1993, an Inter-departmental Committee was constituted and letters were again sent to 105 Indian Companies requesting them to send representatives to appear before the Committee; but only 56 companies cared to appear. However, when all efforts of Special Kuwait Cell failed to get all the claims completed/rectified as per UNCC requirements, it was decided to forward all the pending "E" claims to the UNCC.

Although acknowledgements to most of the claimants whose claims had been forwarded to the UNCC were issued by end July 1993, many claimants who had returned to Kuwait had not received them due to postal delays, change of address or other reasons. A team of two officers of the Special Kuwait Cell visited Kuwait from 7 to 12 August 1993 to answer queries from Indian claimants in Kuwait and inform them about the status
of their claims.

The "F" claim of the Government of India is under compilation and is expected to be finalised soon.

The last date for filing A, B, C & D claims with the UNCC, Geneva was originally 1 July .1993 which has now been extended to 1 January 1994. Extended deadlines for filing "E" and "F" claims are 1 April 1994 and 1 May 1994 respectively.

As regards payment, the UNCC is the sole authority to scrutinise and evaluate the claims, evolve the payment procedure and deliver the awarded compensation to the eligible claimants for payment through respective national governments. For the convenience of the public, it has been agreed in principle to utilise the services of some nationalised Indian banks to disburse the compensation as and when received.

The efforts initiated in recent years to develop a multi-faceted relationship of mutual advantage with Iran were pursued with vigour and purpose. There was a significant step-up in high-level exchanges which contributed to expansion and diversification of bilateral co-operation in several areas.

President, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, was in transit in Tehran on 13 July 1993. The opportunity was used for fruitful discussions with the Iranian President, Mr Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.

Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, paid an official visit to Iran from 20 to 23 September 1993 for wide ranging discussions with the Iranian leadership on bilateral, regional and international issues of mutual concern. This was the first Prime Ministerial visit from India to Iran after the Islamic Revolution of 1979, and was characterised by President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani as "a turning point" in bilateral relations. A joint communique was issued and two Memorandums of Understanding, on Co-operation in Science & Technology, and on Co- operation in Surface Transport and Transit Facilities, concluded during Prime Minister's visit.

Several Ministerial level visits also took place during the period under review: (i) the Union Minister of State for Labour, Shri P A Sangama, visited Iran from 21 to 23 April 1993; (ii) the Iranian Minister for Heavy Industries, Mr Nejad Hosseinian, visited India from 16 to 23 April 1993; (iii) Capt Satish Sharma, Union Minister for Petroleum & Natural Gas, visited Tehran on 5 and 6 July 1993; (iv) the Iranian Minister for Co-operation, Mr Gholam Raza Shafiee, visited India from 23 to 28 September 1993; (v) Shri C K Jaffer Sharief, Union Minister for Railways, visited Iran from 6 to 9 November 1993; and (vi) the Iranian Oil Minister, Mr Gholam Raza Aqazadeh, visited India from 15 to .18
November 1993.

In addition, several delegations were exchanged at the level of senior officials. The Foreign Offices of the two countries also maintained regular high-level contact on bilateral, regional and multi-lateral issues of common concern.

With the exchange of Ministerial level delegations, co-operation in the petroleum sector was sought to be expanded beyond India's on-going purchase of crude petroleum from Iran. Technical studies were initiated to examine the feasibility of setting up a pipeline to transport Iran's natural gas to India. It is also envisaged that Indian involvement in exploration and drilling, as well as in downstream activities in Iran would be expanded.

In the steel sector, the public sector Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd (KIOCL) expanded its iron ore exports to Iran and entered into arrangements for provision of consultancy services to some steel plants in Iran. As a result of exchange of senior level delegations, co- operation in the steel, mining and metullurgy sector is poised for further expansion and diversification.

A joint venture fertilizer project in the Qeshm Island was the subject of active discussions in the period under review. It was expected that given India's large requirements of fertilizer " and Iran's abundant natural gas reserves, the proposed project would be of considerable mutual benefit.

Increased inter-Governmental exchanges also facilitated greater interaction between business and industry of the two countries. Several Indian businesses actively pursued opportunities in the heavy engineering, automobiles, machine tools, power and cement sectors in Iran. Indian

companies also actively sought contracts in the consultancy and services sector in Iran.

During the period under review, India's relations with the countries of West Asia and North Africa were characterised by a spirit of traditional understanding and co-operation. Countries like Algeria, Egypt and Tunisia expressed concern about the growing danger arising out of religious extremism and terrorism and threat to regional stability. The high level contacts and exchange of visits contributed to further strengthening of ties between India and the WANA countries

The signing of the Declaration of Principles between the PLO and Israel, preceded by the mutual recognition of Israel and the PLO, was a major breakthrough in the Middle East Peace Process. India welcomed it and hoped that this notable first step would lead to a comprehensive settlement in the Middle East which would restore the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people. India actively participated in the third and fourth round of the Working Group Meetings of the multilateral track of the Middle East Peace Process held in April/May and October/November 1993 respectively. India pledged at the Donors Conference in Washington on 1 October 1993 an amount of US $ 1 million for assistance in kind to the Palestinian people in Gaza and West Bank, offered training slots for the Palestinian para-medical staff in the occupied territories, proposed to set up a Technical Training Centre in Gaza/Jericho, and indicated her willingness to host a Workshop in early 1994 in New Delhi as part of the on-going activities under the multilateral Working Group on Arms Control and Regional Security of the Middle East Peace Process.

India and Algeria continued to maintain high level contacts. The Minister of State for External Affairs and Special Envoy of the Prime Minister, Shri R L Bhatia, visited Algeria on 11 and 12 October 1993. He called on Mr Ali Kafi, President of the High Committee of State (HCE), and conveyed an invitation from the Prime Minister for attending the G- 15 Summit in New Delhi. He briefed President Ali Kafi about Pakistan's continued support to terrorism in India and interference in India's internal affairs.

The fifth session of the Indo-Algerian joint Commission was held in Algiers from 5 to 8 June 1993. The Indian delegation was led by Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed, Minister of State for Commerce and the Algerian delegation by Mr M Mustafa Mokraoui, Minister of State for

Commerce. The joint Commission decisions covered a number of sectors for bilateral co-operation including trade, agriculture, industry, health, education and scientific research, transportation and culture.

A 3-member Algerian agricultural delegation visited India from 30 June to 8 July 1993. Agreed Minutes signed during the visit covered specific areas of co-operation in the field of agriculture.

An EXIM Bank Line of Credit of US $ 50 million was utilised by Algeria for import of goods and equipment from India.

India noted with appreciation Algeria's continued constructive and positive stance on the Kashmir issue specially at the OIC meetings.

During the Foreign Office level consultation between Secretary (West) and his counterpart held in Djibouti in September 1993, the two sides discussed regional and international issues of mutual interest. Djibouti, which is a current member of the Security Council, OIC and the Arab League, expressed its desire to work with India in the UN on major international issues concerning the two countries and the developing world. Secretary (West) briefed his counterpart about Pakistan's interference in Kashmir and Punjab. He expressed India's distress at criticism of India in every OIC meeting and hoped that Djibouti would use its good offices to stop Pakistan's insidious campaign against India in OIC forums. The Djibouti side conveyed that it considers the Simla Agreement as the right forum for solving Indo-Pak differences. Secretary (West) also called on the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister and offered India's assistance under ITEC.

Relations between India and Egypt remained close. The Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia, paid a visit to Egypt in October 1993 as the Special Envoy of the Prime Minister to convey invitations for G-15 and Education For All (EFA) Summits to President Mubarak. He also conveyed congratulatory messages from President, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, to President Mubarak for his re-election for the third consecutive term. President Mubarak indicated his keenness to strengthen the traditional relationship existing between the two countries. The Deputy Chairperson of Rajya Sabha, Dr Najma Heptulla, visited Cairo to attend the Conference "On the Contribution of Islam to Civilization" in August 1993. She called on President Mubarak and conveyed a message from President Shanker Dayal Sharma. The Chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt, Mr Awad Mohamed El-Mor, paid a 7-day visit from 11 to 17 April 1993 to India

at the invitation of the Chief justice of India. justice Mohamed Said Ashmawy, Chief justice of the Higher State Security and Criminal Court, paid a 13-day visit from 4 to 16 December 1993 at the invitation of ICCR to deliver the Azad Memorial Lecture.

The quantum of bilateral trade for the period April-September 1993 was 20% higher in dollar terms than that for the same period in 1992. Four Indian Companies won orders worth US dollars 33.975 million. A breakthrough was also achieved in the field of industrial collaboration when an Indian Company signed a joint venture agreement with an Egyptian Company worth US $ 40 million for production of carbon 'black.

Secretary (Culture) accompanied by Director General (ICCR) paid a 5-day official visit to Egypt for discussing ways and means to implement the existing provisions of the Cultural Exchange Programme (CEP). He also inaugurated the new Library in the Maulana Azad Centre for Indian Culture in Cairo.

There has been a number of visits at' official and ministerial levels between India and Israel. The visit of Israeli Foreign Minister, Mr Shimon Peres, in May 1993 was the first ever important political visit from that country to India after the establishment of diplomatic relations in January 1992. Foreign Minister Peres called on the Prime Minister and the President and held discussions with Ministers of External Affairs, Human Resource Development, Finance, Agriculture and Ministers of State for External Affairs and Commerce. Three Agreements on Science & Technology, Culture and Tourism, a Memorandum of Understanding on Economic Co-operation and an Agreed Minutes for consultation between the two Foreign Offices were signed during the visit. Shri Sharad Pawar, Chief Minister of Maharashtra, led a high level delegation to the Agricultural Exhibition (AGRITECH) held in Israel 'in the first week of May 1993. The Minister of State for Tourism, Smt Sukhbans Kaur, visited Israel in June 1993 and the Agriculture Minister, Shri Balram jakhar, paid a visit to Israel in July 1993. The Chief Minister of Gujarat, Shri Chimanbhai Patel, also visited Israel from 5 to 10 September 1993. Consultations at the Foreign Secretary level were conducted in Tel Aviv in March 1993.

Agriculture and related areas, water management, solar energy, tourism, culture and trade have emerged as promising areas for bilateral co- operation with Israel.

An Agreement for co-operation in the field of agriculture was signed during the visit of Israeli Agriculture Minister to India from 17 to 24 December 1993. The Israeli Airlines EL-AL started its flights to Bombay from 10 December 1993. An Air Services Agreement is also likely to be signed during the visit of the Israeli Transport Minister in the first quarter of 1994.

India welcomed the signing of Common Agenda for Peace between Jordan and Israel on 14 September 1993.

The 6th Session of the Indo-Jordan Trade and Economic joint Committee was held in New Delhi from 13 to 15 December 1993. The Jordanian delegation was led by its Secretary-General in the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Mr Marwan Awad. Both sides felt that considerable scope exists for further stepping up of export of Indian goods to Jordan like leather, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, rice, sorgum and soyabean meal. The Indian side responded favourably to the Jordanian request for preparing a software package for equipment maintenance and material management system for 4 major plants in Jordan-Arab Potash Company, Jordan Phosphate Mines Company, Jordan Cement Company and Jordan Petroleum Refinery Company. Both sides also agreed to a Round Table meet in Jordan during the second quarter of 1994 to continue mutual efforts towards broadening of co-operation in various fields such as industrial joint ventures,' exchange of technical knowhow, training of scholars, banking services/investment, shipping and transport.

Relations between India and Lebanon showed signs of considerable improvement. Secretary (West) visited Lebanon in September 1993. This was the first-ever consultation at Secretary level after the signing of the Taif Agreement. Secretary (West) called on the Lebanese Foreign Minister. Bilateral, regional and multilateral issues of mutual interest were discussed.

Lebanon showed interest in India's participation in the reconstruction of Lebanon and revamping its transport system, both civil and air.

A major part of outstanding dues owed to Indian companies by Libya was recovered in December 1992 and January 1993 through oil payments. Efforts have continued since then to recover the remaining dues after adjusting the income-tax liabilities, etc of the Indian companies.

The Foreign Minister and Special Envoy of Col Gadaffi, Mr Omar Mustafa Al Muntasser, visited India from 29 to 30 April 1993. He called on the President, the Prime Minister and held discussions with the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bliatia. He briefed the Indian leadership on the Lockerbie issue, discussed bilateral relations and said that Libya wanted the Kashmir problem to be resolved through negotiations between India and Pakistan on the basis of the Simla Agreement. It was agreed to hold a technical level official meeting prior to the meeting of the Indo-Libyan joint Commission which last met in New Delhi in July 1986. This meeting took place in New Delhi from j5 to 17 December 1993.

Stalemate on the Lockerbie issue continued and Libya remained under UN sanctions, which have been further strengthened with effect fiom 1 December 1993 with the imposition of additional sanctions which include freezing of Libyan financial assets abroad and a ban on export of oil equipment to Libya. India has indicated that she favours continuation of political dialogue to resolve the dispute and feels that indefinite continuation or further extension of sanctions is inappropriate to the issues involved.

India's Ambassador in Dakar, Senegal, was earlier concurrently accredited to Mauritania. A decision has now been taken for logistical reasons to change the concurrent accreditation from the Indian Embassy in Dakar to the Indian Embassy in Algiers. It is in the process ofbeing implemented.

India's relations with Morocco received impetus when the Vice President of India visited Morocco from 30 June to 3 July 1993 in response to an invitation from the Moroccan Prime Minister. The Vice President was received in audience by King Hassan II. He handed over an invitation from the President of India to King Hassan 11 to pay a State visit to India. Invitations were also extended to the Prime Minister and the Crown Prince of Morocco to visit India at their convenience. The discussions mainly focussed on bilateral relations and international issues, in particular, the situation in Maghreb countries and the Middle East Peace Process. This was the first high level visit to Morocco since the restoration of diplomatic relations in 1988. It was described by the Moroccan Prime Minister as a turning point in Indo-Moroccan relations. Invitations were also extended to the Ministers of External Trade, Commerce, and Mines by the Minister of State for Chemicals and Fertilisers, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, who accompanied the Vice President to Morocco.

India's relations with the PLO continued to be marked by close understanding and exchange of views. Consultations were held on major developments concerning the Middle East Peace Process (MEPP) and other issues relevant to each other.

Foreign Minister Faroukh Kaddoumi paid a visit to India in April 1993 as Chairman Arafat's Special Envoy to brief the Prime Minister on expulsion of 415 Palestinians by the Israeli authorities as well as the outcome of rounds of discussions of the bilateral track of the Middle East Peace Process which were held in Washington. India expressed her continuing and deep concern at the expulsion and urged the Government of Israel to withdraw the expulsion order and to implement Resolution 799 of the Security Council which was piloted by India as the then President of the Security Council. Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs, visited Tunis in May 1993 as the Prime Minister's Special Envoy to brief Chairman Arafat on issues concerning India and the PLO and to reassure India's continued support to the Palestinian cause.

In a message issued on the occasion of the Observance of the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian people, Prime Minister reiterated India's continued support for the Palestinian cause. The External Affairs Minister in his speech during the function organized to observe the Palestine Day indicated India's resolve to continue to extend moral, material and technical assistance to the Palestinian people.

With regard to Saharwi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), Indiajoined others in the Fourth Committee of the UN in a consensus statement which authorised the UN Secretary General to continue the dialogue between Polisario and Morocco for finding an amicable settlement to the Western Sahara Question.

In response to a request from the UN, India sent approximately 5000 troops to Somalia to join UNOSOM-11. Earher, India had sent two naval ships to assist UNITAF operations in Somalia. The role of the Indian troops has won praise from the UN as well as the local population. India has also decided to distribute relief supplies worth Rs 5 lakhs through the Indian contingent stationed in Somalia.

Both India and Syria made efforts towards strengthening of bilateral relations between the two countries. In this context, Secretary (West) visited Syria in September 1993 for conducting Foreign Office level

dialogue. Syria indicated that it is against mixing religion with politics and would not like fora such as OIC to be utilised to discuss bilateral issues. It expressed its opposition in principle to tabling of various Resolutions on Jammu & Kashmir by Pakistan in OIC and other international organizations.

A 3-member Syrian delegation led by the Vice Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Mr Issa Ibrahim, visited India during October 1993. Possibilities of further expanding bilateral co-operation in various fields were,discussed. The Syrian side expressed its interest to export yock phosphate to India.

A Work Plan Agreement (1993-94) for co-operation in the field of agriculture and allied sectors between the two countries was also signed in Damascus in September 1993. The Work Plan calls for exchange of germ- plasma in respect of field of forage crops. India also participated in specialised international Fair for Textile, Garment and Machinery, Damascus, in May 1993.

The largest exhibition of work ofcontemporary Indian painters organized by the National Gallery of Modern Art in co-operation with the Syrian Ministry of Culture was opened by the Syrian Minister of Culture, Dr Nazah Al-Attar, at the Syrian National Museum on 8 December 1993 for a duration of 3 weeks in which paintings of world-known Indian painters like M F Hussein, Satish Gujral, Souza and others were exhibited.

A Memorandum of Understanding on co-operation in the peaceful application of remote sensing was signed on 8 December 1993 between the Department of Space, Government of India, and the General Organization of Remote Sensing of Syria.

Kum Selja, Deputy Minister for Education and Culture, paid an official visit to Damascus from 22 to 31 December 1993. A Protocol for Cultural Exchange Programme for the years 1994-96 was signed during the visit.

His Eminence Dr Sheikh Ahmed Kiftaro, the Grand Mufti of Syria, paid a visit to India from 17 to 24 January 1994 at the invitation of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations, New Delhi, under its distinguished visitors programme. The Grand Mufti called on the President, the External Affairs Minister, the Deputy Chairman of Ra . ya Sabha and the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bliatia. He also held meetings with prominent Islamic scholars. He visted the Aligarh

Muslim University and met the Vice-Chancellor as well as other senior Professors.

The Sixth Session of the Indo-Tunisian joint Committee was held in Tunis from 10 to 12 June 1993. The decisions covered a number of areas of bilateral co-operation including trade and economy, scientific research, agriculture, culture, tourism and handicrafts. Minister of State for External Affairs and Special Envoy of Prime Minister, Shri R L Bhatia, during his visit to Tunis from 26 to 28 May 1993 met the Tunisian acting Foreign Minister, Mr Sayed Bin Mustafa, and exchanged views on bilateral relations and international issues of mutual interest.

6. Africa (South of the Sahara)


AFRICA, like the rest of the world, is in the midst of change, political as well as economic. The emerging trend towards a democratic and multi-party system is progressively taking shape although the transformation is uneven. The reform process in South Africa has now become irreversible and India looks forward to the formation of a representative and non-racial Government after the elections in April 1994.

India welcomes the move towards multi-party democracy in Africa. In the first multi-party elections in Kenya, President Daniel T Arap. Moi, was re-elected. In its transition to multi-party system, several political parties have been registered with the National Election Commission in Tanzania where elections are slated for 1995. Prof Zafy Albert was elected President of Madagascar in February 1993. President Rene was elected in Seychelles in July 1993 in its first multi-party elections. In Gabon and Equatorial Guinea elections were held. In Nigeria, the transition however received a set back. In Mozambique, the peace process is holding and is moving towards the establishment of a multi-party system. In Angola, the situation still remains fragile.

Significant changes are being effected in Sub-Saharan Africa.. However, it is still not free from conflicts and trouble spots. The African Governments have decided to evolve a mechanism for conflict prevention, management and resolution under the OAU umbrella. At the mini OAU Summit in Cairo in December 1993, the actual mechanism including an OAU Peace Fund was established. The members resolved that the new mechanism should operate within a framework acceptable to all

the parties of the conflict. India welcomes this important African initiative to sort out its own affairs. Such initiatives can have useful effects over other parts of the world as well.

The socio-economic situation in the continent remains in a precarious state. Poverty, deterioration of terms of trade, plummeting prices of primary commodities, high external indebtedness -and a resultant reverse flow of resources have undermined the ability of African countries to face ecbnomic changes. M6st of the countries had to accept the Structural AdJustment,Programme as a major means of their economic recovery, even though the conditionalities involve a lot of sacrifice. The basic responsibility for development rests with individual countries, yet regional co-operation is an important factor to strengthen national efforts. Therefore, economic groupings like ECOWAS, SADC, PTA as also the recently established COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa) and the revived East African Community are expected to play a greater role in the economic integration and develop- rent of Africa.

These changes taking place in Africa have a bearing on India's relations with the continent. With the political independence of all African countries and the prospect of reform within South Africa, the struggle against colonialism and institutionalised racialism is moving towards a successful conclusion. In future, new relationship based on concrete economic, commercial, technological and educational co-operation will assume enhanced significance. India is ready to co-operate in the setting up of mutually beneficial projects. India is also ready to assist them in their human resource development.

India attaches special significance to her relations with Africa. She has had close political relations with the countries of Africa and is now in the process of concretising that close relationship into mutually beneficial economic co-operation.puring 1993, India had intense interaction with countries in Southern Africa, Eastern Africd, Western Africa as also countries of the Indian Ocean. From Southern Africa- there were State visits from Zambia and Zimbabwe. From Eastern Africa there was the State visit from Tanzania. Similarly from Western Africa, India had the first ever State visit from Burkina Faso. From the Indian Ocean area came President Cassim Uteem of Mauritius. In addition, there was also intensified interaction with countries of Southern Africa. Mr R F Botha, Foreign Minister of South Africa, visited India in November. From Eastern Africa India received the First Deputy Prime Minister.of Uganda.

A major development in India's relations with South Africa was the restoration of diplomatic and consular relations on 22 November 1993 (which were severed way back in 1954 on account of the apartheid policies pursued by the Government of South Africa). Protocols to this effect were signed during the visit to India of South African Foreign Minister, Mr R F Botha, on 21 and 22 November 1993. Trade links were earlier restored on 25 September 1993 in response to the progress in Sofith Africa towards the establishment of transitional mechanisms to oversee the first multi-racial elections scheduled for April 1994. Shipping and air links were also restored. Indian Cultural Centre in Johannesburg, which was set up in May 1993, has now been upgraded into a Consulate General. The South African Representative Office in New Delhi has been upgraded into a full-fledged Embassy.

While the foundation has been laid, further progress in bilateral relations is expected to come into full play once the new government comes to power on the basis of 27 April 1994 elections. South Africa is seen as an important market and gateway to other neighbouring African countries. It has the infrastructure to, service the entire Sub-Saharan Africa and provides a mid-way base for trade with Latin America. The presence of more than a million strong Indian ethnic community in South Africa provides a continuing link between the two countries.

While further strengthening the traditional relations with ANC, India was able to establish contact with the South African Government as also various other parties. The centenary of Mahatma Gandhi's arrival in South Africa was celebrated which happily coincides with the dismantling of the structure of apartheid in that country.

The success of the negotiating process in South Africa has led to the establishment of the Transitional Executive Council (TEC) and the adoption of the draft Interim Constitution. These represent important steps forward in the evolution of a democratic and non-racial South Africa. India views that the political process in South Africa has now become irreversible.

Despite the postponement of the G-15 Summit, President Mugabe of Zimbabwe decided to stick to his programme of visit to India, demonstrating his commitment to G-15 and South-South co-operation as well as his regard for India. The visit offered excellent opportunities for exchange of views on bilateral, international and multilateral issues. Zimbabwe expressed its keen desire to enhance bilateral co- operation specially in the economic, 'transport and small scale sectors with special emphasis on rural development.

President Chiluba's visit to India emphasised that Zambia and India continued to enjoy close relations after political changes in Zambia following introduction of multi-party democracy. President Chiluba's visit as well as the joint Commission meeting held in Lusaka clearly underlined the importance which Zambia attaches to its relations with India, with special emphasis on co-operation in the field of industry, transport, human resource development, small scale industries, railways, food processing and rural development. Shri Salman Khurshid, Minister of State for External Affairs, led the Indian Delegation to the second Indo-Zambian joint Commission.

The UN imposed an embargo on supply of arms and petroleum products against UNITA in Angola in September. Of late, there have been a series of meetings between UNITA and MPLA in Lusaka. The situation, however, remains uncertain.

Despite some difficulties in implementation of the peace accord in Mozambique the situation is settling down. It is expected that the peace process will hold and elections would take place in October 1994 as scheduled. India has contributed a contingent of about 900 Indian troops for UN Peace Keeping Operations in Mozambique (ONUMOZ).

India's relations with Namibia and Botswana continued to be intensified in the economic and commercial fields. The Indian Mission in Malawi was closed down in 1993 for financial reasons. India maintains cordial and friendly relations with these countries.

Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid, visited four countries of Southern Africa from 11 to 24 January 1994, namely, South Africa (Durban), Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Botswana. In Durban, the Minister of State for External Affairs met leaders of all major parties across the political spectrum of South Africa including the ruling National Party, ANC, Inkatha and the Natal Indian Congress. The meetings helped in strengthening existing ties and in establishing new links with various parties at a time when the country's first ever multi-racial elections are round the corner in April 1994. He also delivered a keynote address 'at a function well attended by members of Indian community to mark Swami Vivekananda's birthday on 14 January. Minister of State for External Affairs also met members of the business

community of Durban and expressed confidence that economic relations between the two countries would grow.

In his discussions with the leaders of Mozambique, the focus was 'on the peace process there and India's assistance in the forthcoming multiparty elections and in national reconstruction. Both the sides stressed the need to tap and maximise benefits from the prevailing business climate in the two countries characterised by economic liberalisation. Three ambulances donated by India to Mozambique were also handed over. Co- operation in the health sector was also explored.

Minister of State for External Affairs visited and addressed the Indian contingent at the United Nations Observer Mission in Mozambique.

During his visit to Zimbabwe, meetings with the Zimbabwean leadership focussed on bilateral ties as well as on the international situation particularly in the context of recent developments in Southern Africa. The Zimbabwean side expressed interest in intensified co-operation with India in the field of small scale industies. The two sides reiterated the importance of greater interaction between the respective business communities to take advantage of economic liberalisation measures in both the countries with a view to increasing trade and setting up joint ventures etc. The Zimbabwean side also sought India's assistance in setting up projects in the agriculture and allied sector.

At various meetings with his counterparts in Botswana, talks focussed on ways and means to strengthen and diversify bilateral relations, and the role of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

Overall, the visit was successful as it helped strengthen and renew contacts with the leadership of four important countries of the Southern African region.

President Cassem Uteem of Mauritius visited India in July 1993. This was his first official visit abroad after taking over as President of Mauritius. There were also exchanges of a number of visits at ministerial level reflecting India's close relationship with Mauritius.

India's relationship with Mauritius has been further strengthened iii the commercial, economic and cultural fields. There have been high level exchanges of business delegations as also a further increase in trade between the two countries. A number of joint ventures in diverse fields also appear to be on the anvil. The Fourth World Hindi Conference

was successfully held in Mauritius in December 1993 further strengthening linguistic ties between the two countries. The Indo- Mauritius joint Commission was held in Delhi in January 1994. The Mauritius delegation was led by the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economic Planning and Development.

Seychelles held its first multi-party elections and President Rene was re-elected. The Indo-Seychelles joint Commission meeting was held during 1993 and it reviewed various areas of co-operation.

President Mwinyi's visit in May 1993, while reaffirming the existing close and friendly relations between India and Tanzania, offered opportunity to exchange views at the highest level and gave a concrete thrust to strengthening of commercial and economic relations, especially in the field of agriculture, industry and human resource development.

The visit of Shri Salman Khurshid, Minister of State for External Affairs, to Kenya in September 1993 offered an opportunity to exchange views with the Kenyan leadership at the highest level. In view of the drought situation, it was decided to give to Kenya food aid amounting to Rs 50 lakhs.

As a follow up of President Museveni's visit to India in October 1992, several technical teams visited Uganda for feasibility studies, for example, in the fields of phosphatic fertilizers, hydro-electric power, etc to assess the possibility of co-operation in these fields. The visit of Mr Eriya Kategaya, First Deputy Prime Minister of Uganda, further emphasised close relations between the two countries.

The first meeting of Indo-Ugandan joint Committee was held in Kampala in January 1994. The meeting reviewed the extent and scope of existing relations between the two countries and considered several proposals as well as ways and means to further strengthen bilateral relations.

Following exchange of visits by Minister of State for External Affairs and Ethiopian Foreign Minister in 1992, a technical team visited Ethiopia to assess co-operation in the fields of rural technology particularly agroindustries, small scale industries and human resource development.

In Nigeria, the Presidential elections held in June 1993 were annulled. After a brief interlude by a nominated government, a military government headed by General Sani Abacha took over the reigns of the country in

November 1993. India's economic and commercial relations with Nigeria, however, continued to show an upward swing.

After a long struggle, Eritrea achieved independence in May 1993. India immediately recognised the Provisional Government of Eritrea. She has also signed protocols establishing diplomatic and consular relations with Eritrea.

India had the first ever State visit from Burkina Faso. It was decided to gift grinding mills, Bajaj three wheelers and a drilling rig to Burkina Faso which would assist in their development plans and introduce Indian products to Burkina Faso. It was also decided in principle to establish a joint Commission.

Relations with Ghana also were further strengthened resulting in a substantial increase of exports. India's relations with Western Africa generally continued to develop satisfactorily.

The civil war i ' n Liberia finally came to an end with warring factions signing a peace accord in July 1993 and setting up of an interim government. The accord provides for elections in February 1994.

In Senegal, though President Diouf was re-elected, the deteriorating economic situation is a cause of concern and was a factor in the inability of the President to attend the G-15 Summit.

President Felix Houphouet Boigny of Ivory Coast died after being in power since independence for the last 33 years. He was regarded as a magisterial figure who spearheaded his country's freedom struggle and proved a powerful spokesman for Africa.

In the course of the year, India closed down the Mission in Zaire due to financial considerations, while maintaining traditional friendly relations.

7. Europe


Eastern Europe

#INDIA'S relations with countries of the former USSR and Eastern Europe during 1993-94 were characterised by the continuation of efforts to reinvigorate the relationships taking into account the changes underway in the region. The effort to build a new structure of relations was predicated on the assumption that it is in the interest of all parties that those elements of the earlier relationship which continue to be relevant be retained. At the same time, new opportunities to expand and strengthen ties were taken advantage of and challenges posed by the transition processes in Eastern Europe met.

The multifaceted changes underway in Russia continued into 1993. Internal political events were a factor which had to be taken into account by the entire world. India shares with other major countries the desire that Russia remain stable and strong even as it continues its transition to political pluralism and economic reform. Therefore, the political impasse between the President and the Parliament in the middle of 1993 leading to armed clashes later aroused concern.

The consolidation of democracy and pluralism among the countries that emerged from the former USSR and in East Europe was a welcome development. It was the Indian endeavour to express support for the positive direction of change. Offers of assistance were made in areas where it was felt that the Indian experience could be of value to the countries concerned. Exchanges between political, economic and commercial institutions, the establishment of new trade arrangements and the offer of training facilities were relevant in this context.

Political and strategic developments in the region during the year were significant and are expected to impact seriously on the evolution of European politics, economic and security structures and on the new international order. This axiomatically is of substantial concern and interest to India. Noteworthy among these developments were Russian foreign policy pronouncements emphasising the legitimacy of its security interests in the countries which constituted the former USSR. The slow evolution and expansion of the Commonwealth of Independent States as a regional organization, t he ratification of the CIS Collective Security Treaty by its six members, and the undertaking of peace-keeping operations in, the framework of the CIS is to be noted. The position taken by Russia that it does not envisage its efforts of peacekeeping in the former USSR within the framework of the CIS to be replaced by any other organization has a significant bearing on the emergence of a regional security mechanism in that part of the world.

The announcement of a new Russian military doctrine in November 1993 was reflective of the changing internal and regional security perceptions. The salient features of the new doctrine were:

(a) The sources of military danger are identified as direct threat of armed aggression against Russia, armed conflicts caused by aggressive nationalism and religious intolerance, territorial claims by other states, local wars and armed conflicts proximate to Russia, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their nonsanctioned use, upsetting of strategic stability, expansion of military alliances damaging to Russian security, suppression of rights of Russian citizens in foreign states and attacks on Russian forces and installations abroad.

(b) The principal way of ensuring military security of Russia is seen in the maintenance of stability in regions adjoining Russia, controlling the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and promoting co- operation with foreign states, primarily with CIS members and countries of Central-East-Europe.

(c) Local wars and conflicts are regarded as the main threat to stability and peace and internal conflicts as endangering the vitally important interests of Russia and liable to be exploited by other States.

(d) The emphasis in building up the armed forces is on the creation of mobile forces. This is related to the task of assisting internal security forces to maintain law and order.

(e) The stationing of Russian troops and facilities outside its territory is envisaged, with such troops constituting part of either joint or Russian grouping.

(f) The use of nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear state is envisaged in contingencies where the latter is part of an agreement or alliance with a nuclear weapon state and commits aggression against Russia or its allies.

The military doctrine appears to reflect a continued aspiration to retain Great Power status and a determination to defend basic security interests as defined by Russia.

The political changes in Eastern Europe and the Baltics reflected some of the difficulties in the transition from a socialist system to democratic pluralism accompanied by free market economics. The accession to the power of leftist political parties in Lithuania and Poland was indicative of the need for greater social security at a time of economic hardship. The growing acceptance of pluralist political processes in the region was a welcome development in so far as India was concerned.

At a strategic level, the proposed eastward expansion of the NATO appeared to stir a controversy vis-a-vis security concerns expressed by Russia. It was Russia's position that it would not object to the expansion of NATO provided this was viewed 'in perspective, aimed at all European integration, and was not contrary to the interests of other states including Russia. This led to the US proposal of "Partnership for Peace" which envisages bilateral NATO agreements with individual countries providing for joint training, manoeuvre and exercises and exchange of information but stopping short of extending security guarantees. The approach to NATO expansion will inevitably have an impact on the evolution of European security structures and constitutes a matter of global concern as it could lead to a revival of tension and rivalries which have only recently abated.

The NATO Summit in Brussels on 10 and 11 January 1994 addressed the question of the eastward expansion of the alliance. The declaration issued at its conclusion specified that the consolidation and preservation throughout Europe of democratic societies and their freedom from any form of coercion or intimidation was of direct concern to the NATO. It was stressed that the Russian Government's firm commitment to democratic and market reform and to a reformist foreign policy was

important for the security and stability in Europe. The Summit agreed that the alliance remained open to the membership of other European countries and adopted the US sponsored Partnership for Peace proposal. This proposal envisages NATO expansion as an evolutionary process taking into account political and security developments in the whole of Europe. It invites States participating in the NACC and other CSCE countries to join the Partnership for Peace. The criteria for subscribing to the Partnership include openness in national defence planning and budgeting, ensuring democratic control of defence forces, and developing co- operative military relations with NATO. NATO will consult with any active participant in the Partnership if that partner receives a direct threat to its territorial integrity, political independence or security. The potential entrants to the Partnership are required to provide NATO with presentation documents identifying steps they will take to achieve the political goals of the Partnership as well as military and other assets which might be used for Partnership activities. Each subscribing State will develop with NATO an individual Partnership.

The Partnership for Peace-proposal was discussed by President Clinton during his visit after the NATO Summit to Prague where he met the Presidents of the Visegard countries. It was also the subject matter of discussions during his visit to Moscow from 12 to 15 January 1994. The Russian-US Moscow Declaration on the visit states that the two Presidents agreed that the concept of the Partnership is an important element of an emerging new European security architecture. President Yeltsin stated Russia's intention to participate actively in the Partnership and conclude substantive agreements opening the way for broad and intensive co-operation between Russia and NATO as a partner. President Clinton welcomed the prospect of Russia's active participation in the Partnership. The two Presidents also agreed on the need to create an inclusive and non-discriminatory new European security order that is focussed on practical political and security co-operation.

The Russian-American Summit at the Presidential level in January 1994 was a significant development with respect to the global strategic situation. At the end of the Summit, the two Presidents issued the Moscow Declaration as well as a joint Statement on Non-Proliferation of weapons of mass-destruction and the means to their delivery, a joint Statement on human rights, a statement on the Middle-East and a Memorandum on Co-operation in the field of export control. The Moscow Declaration reaffirmed the fundamental importance of

Russian-US co-operation which was described as a strategic partnership. It called for enhancement of transparency and responsibility in, the transfers of conventional arms and sensitive dual use of technology. With regard to nuclear issues, it supported the early completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban (CTB) Agreement, for a cut-off of production of fissible materials and considered new measures to strengthen strategic stability. In terms of bilateral co-operation, the, declaration reaffirms support for the rapid growth of bilateral trade and investment as a special priority. Co-operation in space was described as a key expression of the relationship. The Russian President affirmed the irreversibility of the transition to a market economy and emphasised the requirement to address social needs associated with this transition. From the US side, it was recognised that social issues could be a new and promising area for co-operation. On European security, in addition to the Partnership for Peace proposal, the two Presidents agreed on making the CSCE a key mechanism for international co-operation in Europe. They spoke of a new agenda whose priorities were preventive diplomacy, peacekeeping, protection of human rights and rights of national and other minorities. They condemned aggressive nationalism, violation of human rights and religious intolerance of any kind including antisemitism. The two countries also stated that they would intensify their coordination within the framework of UN and CSCE to promote conflict resolution on the basis of respect for the independence, sovereignty and existing borders of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) States.

The US-Russian joint statement on non-proliferation stressed the resolve of the two countries to co-operate actively and closely to prevent and reduce this threat to international security. It called for the indefinite extension of the NPT and the expeditious conclusion of a CTB agreement. A verifiable ban on production of fissile materials for nuclear purposes was deemed important for non-proliferation.

The two countries agreed to review strengthening security assurances to those states that renounced the possession of nuclear weapons and complied with their non-proliferation obligation. They also urged effective implementation of the principle of full scope safeguards as a condition for nuclear and dual use material export. The two Presidents expressed their determination to prevent the proliferation of missiles capable of carrying weapons of mass-destruction. The need for close co- operation to develop policies on non-proliferation applicable to specific regions was stated and references made to the situation in the Korean peninsula and in South Asia. With respect to the latter, both US and Russia expressed support for efforts to reach agreement on the establishment of a multilateral forum to consider measures in the field of arms control in non-proliferation and called on India and Pakistan to join negotiations and become signatories to the treaty banning nuclear weapon test explosions, to the convention to ban production of fissile material for nuclear explosives and to refrain from deploying ballistic missiles capable of delivering weapons of mass-destruction to each others' territories.

Responding to the joint statement on non-proliferation, spokesman of the Government of India noted that the basic orientation of the declaration echoes the objectives emphasised by India in the 1989 Special Session on Disarmament and the views expressed by the Prime Minister at the special Summit of the UN Security Council in January 1992. India views the suggestions in the Declaration in the context of its deep and abiding commitment to general and complete disarmament particularly nuclear disarmament. India believes that the objectives of comprehensive test ban, initially controlling the production and dissemination of fissile material and ultimately banning its production should be pursued expeditiously within a specific time frame applicable to all members of the international community. It is with this purpose in view that India pursues confidence building measures with its neighbours and has participated in a series of bilateral discussions with different countries. It is India's expectation that these efforts would further the cause in view. As for the suggestion that the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty should be extended indefinitely and unconditionally in its present form, India's view that the Treaty in its present form is discriminatory is well known. Hence, there is need to alter the NPT on non-discriminatory lines, taking into account international developments over the last three decades and the imperative necessity for general and complete disarmament to end all weapons of mass-destruction.

During President Clinton's visit to Moscow, Russia, the US and Ukraine signed a tripartite agreement for the elimination of nuclear weapons on the territory of Ukraine. The agreement reaffirmed-.- the non-nuclear status of Ukraine and provided for the withdrawal of nuclear warheads from its territory to Russia. Russia and the US jointly guaranteed Ukraine's security as a non-nuclear State in the context of the processes envisaged in the agreement.

The NATO Summit, the Clinton-Yeltsin meeting and the tripartite agreement are significant moves in the process of evolution of new European and Trans Atlantic security structures. The outcome of these efforts will also have an impact on the process of European integration and other related issues.

A disturbing aspect of the transition processes in Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union following the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Former Soviet Union is the rise of ethnic nationalism and the resurfacing of traditional rivalries. The conflicts in Nagorno- Karabakh, in Abkhazia, in the Trans-Dneister region, in southern Russia and in its most extreme form in the countries of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia are a matter of concern for the international community for their conflagrative potential. India believes that the break up of the former SFRY is the outcome of an intensely ethnoreligious exercise compounded by considerations of power politics in the Balkans in which external powers have had their own defined interest. The handling by the international community of the consequences of the break up of the SFRY is a matter of great concern. India has taken the position in favour of a political solution to the crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina without resort to threat of force or violence. India is also committed to the principle that an eventual settlement has to be patently fair, reasonable and acceptable to the three. communities concerned. India has consistently and forcefully condemned atrocities committed in Bosnia-Herzegovina and believes that practices such as ethnic-cleansing and use of systematic rape as a political weapon is unacceptable irrespective of the party which commits them. As regards the several territorial and succession issues that have arisen following the dissolution of the USSR, it is India's position that all concerned would work towards an early, peaceful and mutually acceptable settlement without resort to threats or use of force or violence. Apart from discussions among concerned parties, it is noted that the UN and CSCE are involved in the process of bringing about peaceful settlements. The escalation of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh has been a matter of particular concern and the Government expressed its position in a statement on 7 September 1993 which recalled the December 1991 Alma Ata Declaration with its provisions of respecting territorial integrity, inviolability of borders and the rejection of use and threat of force and economic and other pressures. The Governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan were urged to resolve their differences through early peaceful negotiations.

The conclusion of agreements with Russia as part of the disaggregation of relations with the countries of the former Soviet Union was a notable feature of the development of relations during the year. The Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation between India and Russia was ratified in Moscow on 11 October 1993 through an exchange of instruments of ratification. The Rupee-Rouble Agreement was also ratified through an exchange of notes between the two Governments in April 1993 and came into effect on 11 May 1993. An ambitious Indo-Russian Cultural Exchange Programme for the period 1993-95 was signed in Moscow during the visit of Secretary, Department of Culture, on 16 September 1993. A Protocol on Co-operation in Medical Sciences and Public Health was concluded during the visit to Russia of Secretary, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, from 12 to 18 September 1993. A meeting of the ILTP joint Council on Science & Technology took place in New Delhi in November 1993 along with the first session of the Indo-Russian Working Group on Science & Technology. Civil aviation talks between India and the Russian Federation took place in Moscow on 6 and 7 September 1993. It is expected that talks, on the conclusion of a Shipping Agreement with Russia would take place in the near future.

A visit by the Russian co-chairman of the Inter-governmental Commission to India at the invitation of his Indian counterpart is scheduled for the near future. The Commission will review issues of succession as a result of the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and define new growth areas in the bilateral relationship. On the economic side, notable developments in 1993 were the extension of a swing credit of Rs 3 billion to Russia by India and the promotion of direct ties between the business and industry sectors of the two countries.

The Russian Minister of Internal Affairs, General V F Yerin, visited India from 16 to 20 October 1993. He held discussions with the Home Minister and signed an Agreement on Co-operation between the Russian Ministry of Interior and India's Ministry of Home Affairs. This framework agreement deals with combating terrorism, trafficking in illegal narcotics and international crime.

The Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism, Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad, visited Russia from 5 to 8 September 1993 and held discussions on the possibilities of expanding tourism between the two countries.

Official bilateral talks took place in Moscow during the visit of Foreign Secretary from 10 to 12 October 1993. Foreign Secretary met First

Deputy Prime Minister Shumeiko, First Deputy Defence Minister Kakoshin and Deputy Foreign Minister Lavrov. The development of bilateral relations and concrete steps to be taken to expand co-operation in various fields including defence were discussed during the visit. Regional concerns and positions on important international issues were also covered during the official discussion.

A significant development, in Indo-Russian relations during the year was the decision of the Russian Government, conveyed on 16 July 1993, to invoke the force majeure clause to state that Glavkosmos found itself in a situation of not being able to fulfil all its obligations under the January 1991 agreement with ISRO on the development of cryogenic stage for GSLV. Russia justified its decision on the grounds that some elements of the contract were inconsistent with the new Russian export control regime with respect to technologies, materials and equipment dealing with rocket engines. The Government of India's regret at this decision was stated by official spokesman on 17 July 1993. Further consultations between ISRO and Glavkosmos were held in India in December 1993.

The President of India, Dr S D Sharma, paid a State visit to Ukraine from 13 to 16 July 1993. He held talks with President Kravchuk on the development of bilateral relations and exchanged views on regional and international issues. President received Prime Minister Kuchma, Deputy Prime Minister Zhulinsky, Foreign Minister Zlenko and Foreign Economic Relations Minister Gertz during the visit. He addressed the people of Ukraine on national television and was conferred an honorary doctorate by the University of Kiev.

The development of relations with Ukraine during the year was encouraging reflecting the potential for further growth. Exchanges in the field of trade and commerce continued to expand. A long term programme of co-operation in science & technology was signed during the visit of Secretary, Department of Science & Technology to Kiev on 7 June 1993. Secretary, Ministry of Surface Transport visited Kiev on 11 and 12 October 1993 and held discussions on the conclusion of a shipping agreement. The early conclusion of an Agreement on the establishment of an Inter-governmental Commission, a Protocol on Foreign Office Consultations, an Agreement on Double Taxation Avoidance, a Technical and Economic Co-operation Agreement and Agreement on Civil Aviation is envisaged with Ukraine.

The Chairman of the Belarus Council of Ministers,. Mr V F Kebich, visited India from 12 to 15 May 1993 leading a high level delegation. Seven agreements which constitute the framework for the bilateral relationship were signed during the visit: a Declaration of Principles and Directions for Co-operation; an Agreement for Co-operation in the field of Science & Technology; an Agreement on Co-operation in the spheres of Culture, Arts, Education, Mass Media, Sports and Tourism; an Agreement on Co-operation in Tourism; a Trade and Economic Co-operation Agreement; i Memorandum of Understanding on Defence related Technical Co-operation and an Agreement on Visa-free Travel of Diplomatic/Official Passport Holders.

Taking note of the considerable interaction between India and Belarus when the latter was a constituent of the USSR, it is India's expectation that the bilateral co-operation particularly in the economic, commercial and science & technology fields is likely to expand in the years to come. Agreements on the establishment of an Inter-governmental Commission and Double Taxation Avoidance are likely to be concluded shortly. A joint Business Council is also in the process of creation.

The President of Moldova, Mr M I Snegur, paid a State visit to India from 17 to 19 March 1993. The Moldovan President called on President and held talks with Prime Minister. A Declaration on Principles and Directions of Co-operation, a Protocol on Foreign Office Consultation, a Technical and Economic Co-operation Agreement, a Cultural Agreement, a Science & Technology Co-operation Agreement and a Trade and Economic Co- operation Agreement were signed during the visit. External Affairs Minister, Commerce Minister and Defence Secretary called on President Snegur while the accompanying Moldovan Ministers held discussions with the Indian Ministers of Health & Family Welfare and Agriculture.

A Moldovan trade delegation led by Deputy Prime Minister Mihai Coscodan visited India from 13 September to 2 October 1993. The delegation called on the Minister of Human Resource Development and held meetings with the Indo-CIS Chamber of Commerce. The accompanying Deputy Foreign Minister reviewed the development of bilateral relations with the Ministry of External Affairs.

India announced the gifting of medicines of Rs 50 lakhs each to Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova during the year. The medicines to Ukraine and Belarus were to be used by those affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

Deputy Foreign Minister Navasardyan of Armenia visited India from 10 to 12 March 1993 and held discussions with Secretary (West). He also called on External Affairs Minister, Foreign Secretary and Defence Secretary. During the visit an Agreement on Trade and Economic Co-operation and a Protocol on Foreign Office Consultations were signed.

An Indian official delegation visited Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia from 24 June to 2 July 1993. It held discussions with senior officials and Ministers in the three countries and initialled a Trade and Economic Co- operation Agreement with Estonia and Latvia and signed it with Lithuania. Memorandums of Understanding on counter trade were also initialled with Estonia and Latvia.

Estonian Foreign Minister, Mr Trivimi Velliste paid a visit to India from 14 to 17 October 1993. He held talks with External Affairs Minister and called on President and Prime Minister. He also met the Commerce Minister and Minister for Human Resource Development. Secretary (West) called on the Minister and discussed bilateral and international issues of mutual interest. During the visit, a Declaration on Principles and Directions of Co-operation, an Agreement on Trade and Economic Co- operation, an Agreement on Technical and Economic Co-operation and a Cultural, Educational and Scientific Co-operation Agreement were signed. Indian interest in expanding trade, economic and cultural ties with the Baltics and exploring their role as transit points with respect to regional commerce was conveyed.

The Cultural Exchange Programme for 1993-95 with Poland was renewed in June 1993 in Warsaw. the Krakow University organized an international conference on Sanskrit and related studies to commemorate the centenary of its Sanskrit Chair. On the commercial side, the Indo-Polish joint Business Council held its meeting in Warsaw in October 1993.

The Foreign Minister of the Czech Republic, Mr Josef Zieleniec, visited India on 21 June 1993. He held discussions with External Affairs Minister and Minister of State for External Affairs. The visiting Minister called on the President. The Czech Minister for Industry and Trade signed an Agreement on Trade and Economic Co-operation during his visit to India in March 1993. He had meetings with Commerce Minister and Ministers of State for Petroleum & Natural Gas and Steel. A significant development in the commercial field was the awarding of the IOC Kandla-Bhatinda pipeline contract to the Czech company, Skoda Export.

The President of the Czech Republic, Mr Vaclav Havel, paid a State visit to India from 7 to 11 February 1994. The President was accompanied by Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister, and the Foreign Minis ' ter of the Czech Republic. President Havel received the 1993 Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development.

The Slovak Minister of Economy, Mr J Kubecha, visited India in May 1993 and signed an Agreement on Trade and Economic Co-operation. He called on Commerce Minister, Railway Minister and Ministers of State for Steel, Defence and Industry.

The President of India, Dr S D Sharma, visited Hungary from 20 to' 22 July 1993. President had extended discussions with President Arpad Goncz and received the Foreign Minister and Minister for International Economic Relations. He was presented with the Golden Key to the City of Budapest.

Minister of State for Defence, Shri Mallikarjun, led a delegation to Hungary in October 1993 to discuss further prospects for co-operation in defence between the two coutries.

The 9th Session of the Indo-Hungarian joint Commission was held in October 1993 in Budapest. A meeting of the joint Business Council also took place at the same time.

The 'Days of Indian Culture' was celebrated in Hungary in April 1993 with facets of culture portrayed through dance and music performances, film festivals, exhibitions of bronzes and odhnis, a book exhibition and a writers workshop.

An Indian Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of Lok Sabha visited Romania from 4 to 9 June 1993. The delegation met the Speaker of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies and the Chairman of the Senate as well as the President and Prime Minister of Romania. A Romanian Parliamentary delegation led by the Vice President of the Senate, Mr D I Taracila, paid a return visit to India from 5 to 11 August 1993.

Bilateral official talks were held in New Delhi during the visit of the Romanian State Secretary G Tinca. In addition to the talks with the Indian delegation led by Secretary (West), the State Secretary called on External Affairs Minister and Minister of State for External Affairs. A Protocol on Foreign Office Consultations was signed during the visit. A Romanian Ministry of Defence Delegation visited India in October 1993 for discussions on possible co-operation arrangements.

Bilateral agreements signed with Romania during the year included an Agreement on Science & Technology Co-operation in October 1993 and an Air Services Agreement in December 1993. , The traditionally friendly relations with Bulgaria were strengthened by the visit of the Indian Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of Lok Sabha from 9 to 15 June 1993. The delegation was received by the President of Bulgaria.

A Memorandum of Understanding on Defence Co-operation was signed during the visit of Minister of State for Defence, Shri Mallikarjun, to Bulgaria from 13 to 15 July 1993. Bilateral consultations between the Foreign Ministries of the two countries was held in New Delhi on 28 and 29 September 1993. The Indian delegation was led by Secretary (West) and the Bulgarian by Deputy Foreign Minister Ikonomov.

The Indo-Bulgarian joint Commission met in Sofia from 1 to 3 February 1994. Agriculture Minister, who is the Indian Co-chairman of the joint Commission, led the Indian delegation. The joint Commission reviewed the state of bilateral co-operation in the context of the changes which have taken place since its last meeting in 1988.

India has not recognised any of the republics of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) as successor state. India continues to scrupulously implement sanctions under the relevant UN Security Council Resolution on former SFRY/FRY.

The FRY Foreign Minister, Mr V Jovanovic, paid an official visit to India on 29 and 30 November 1993 and held discussions with External Affairs Minister. He called on President, Prime Minister, the Speaker and Commerce Minister. The talks focussed on the continuing crisis in the countries of the former SFRY. Government of India stated its position that the development of normal relations with FRY would have to await a political settlement of the crisis and the lifting of UN sanctions.

India provided humanitarian relief worth Rs 10 lakhs in medical supplies to the ICRC in Yugoslavia in June 1993.

The Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Economic Relations of Slovenia, Dr D Kracun, visited India in December 1993. An Agreement on Trade and Economic Co-operation and a Memorandum of Understanding on Science & Technology were signed during the visit.
Western Europe


Despite problems and delays, progress towards the European Union continued apace. The Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November 1993, thereby creating an entity committed to a Monetary Union, a Common Foreign and Security Policy and greater coordination in internal affairs. In order to interact more effectively with the European Union (EU), steps were taken to institutionalise multi-sectoral co-operation between India and the EU. A new Third Generation Indo-EU Co-operation Agreement on Partnership and Development was signed on 20 December 1993, providing for substantially enhanced levels of co-operation in economic, scientific, technical and agricultural fields. The Agreement was designed to build up India's economic capability to interact more effectively with the EU. A joint Statement on Political Dialogue between India and the EU was also issued on 20 December 1993, institutionalising dialogue at ministerial level between India and the EU Troika and affirming their mutual resolve to reinforce and intensify Indo-EU relations. The Co-operation Agreement and joint Statement symbolised the high importance attached by both sides to seek a substantial enhancement and expansion of mutually beneficial co-operation between the European Union and India. They also reflected the EU's recognition of the fact that India's economic reforms, along-with a shared commitment to democratic principles, provided the underpinnings of a close relationship with vast future potential.

While upgrading links with the EU, concerted efforts were also undertaken by the Ministry to strengthen bilateral relations with countries in Western Europe, particularly in the areas of trade, investment, technology transfer and joint ventures.

As a result of initiatives taken by the Ministry to intensify contacts at various levels and to promote bilateral relations with all the key partners in Western Europe, considerable success was achieved in projecting developments in India in their proper perspective as well as India's regional concerns. India was thereby able to ensure that there was no setback to her expanding relations with Western Europe in the key areas of trade and investment. Vigorous efforts were also undertaken to counter Pakistani propaganda on alleged human rights violations in Jammu & Kashmir, while projecting India's concerns regarding crossborder support for terrorism in Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab. In general, in the statements of the European Union as well as those of individual West European countries, there was widespread appreciation of India's secular and democratic traditions as well as ample recognition of the vast potential for enhancement of economic relations.

Indian Missions in Western Europe also continued to be engaged in projecting India's economic reforms, commitment to democracy and the rule of law and her concerns related to terrorism, while at the same time addressing concerns voiced in European public, press and parliamentary opinion on a variety of areas ranging from the environment to human rights and non-proliferation.

The visit of British Prime Minister, Mr John Major, in January 1993 was an important milestone in Indo-British relations, signifying the desire of both countries to carry forward their relations and co-operation in a modern context, taking full advantage of shared historical contacts and affinities. An industry-led Indo-British Partnership Initiative (IBPI) was launched during Mr Major's visit. During the course of 1993, IBPI achieved considerable success in promoting India as an attractive investment destination in the UK and projecting the UK as a suitable partner for joint ventures and technology transfer. Foreign direct investment approvals from the UK registered a sharp rise in 1993, as did bilateral trade.

The tempo of high level interaction, which has paid rich dividends to Indo-UK relations in recent years, was maintained during 1993. The Vice President visited the UK in May 1993. This was followed by a visit by the President in July 1993 and by the Minister of External Affairs in August 1993. The British Foreign Secretary, Mr Douglas Hurd, visited India on 15 and 16 November 1993. Instruments of Ratification of the Indo-UK Extradition Treaty were exchanged, bringing it into immediate effect. This step symbolised the continuing resolve of the two countries to stand together in the defence of democratic values against the menace of terrorism. Foreign Secretary level talks with the UK were held in July 1993, Secretary level talks in April 1993 and the Second Round of bilateral talks on Disarmament, Non-Proliferation and International Security Issues in December 1993. These exchanges raised mutual understanding on issues of interest and concern to both countries to qualitatively higher levels. On issues such as Kashmir and human rights, the UK continued to follow a constructive and balanced approach which showed sensitivity towards India's concerns.

The forward momentum imparted by Chancellor Kohl's visit in February 1993 was also maintained in Indo-German relations. Germany, India's leading economic partner in the EU, attached new importance to relations with India in the context of its increasing focus on Asia, given the shared democratic values and prospects for wider co-operation opened up by India's economic reforms. A German Parliamentary Delegation led by Dr Rita Sussemuth, the President of the Bundestag, visited India on 8 and 9 October 1993. It was agreed that Parliamentary visits and contacts between the two countries should be further expanded. The Second Meeting of the Indo-German Consultative Group (IGCG) was held in New Delhi on 9 and 10 October 1993. The IGCG, comprising of eminent personalities from both countries, submitted a number of recommendations to the two Governments to strengthen bilateral co-operation in the political, media, cultural, science & technology and economic fields. A bilateral dialogue was initiated with Germany on multilateral issues, including disarmament.

At the invitation of Chancellor Kohl, Prime Minister paid a return visit to Germany from 2 to 5 February 1994. Prospects for enhancing bilateral relations and evolving a long-term Indo-German partnership were given a further strong impetus by the visit. An Indo-German Economic Conference held during the visit also provided further momentum to bilateral economic relations in the areas of investment, technology transfer and joint ventures. Germany's new "Concept on Asia" policy identified India as an Asian country with which Germany desires closer political and economic links.

The President of Ireland paid a State visit to India from 26 September to 3 October 1993, marking the beginning of a new phase in Indo-Irish relations. A Communique signed during the visit provided for annual consultations between the Foreign Offices of the two countries. An Irish business delegation also visited India during the visit of the Irish President, and an agreement on expanding commercial and economic relations was concluded between the Confederation of Indian Industry and the Irish Trade Board.

King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, accompanied by Queen Silvia, paid a State visit to India from 10 to 18 October 1993, The visit marked the first high level exchange between the two countries in five years.

The Swedish Royal Couple was accompanied by Foreign Minister Margaretha of Ugglas, Telecommunications Minister Mats Odell and a high ranking business delegation. As a result of interaction between the Swedish business delegation and their Indian counterparts, prospects for enhancing bilateral economic and 'commercial relations were given a strong impulse.

The Prime Minister of Netherlands, Mr R F M Lubbers, accompanied by Foreign Minister Peter Kooijmans and a 21-member high-level business delegation, visited India from 26 to 28 October 1993. The main focus of the visit was on intensification of ecoriomic relations. The Dutch Prime Minister and accompanying businessmen welcomed the liberalisation and de-regulation of the Indian economy and conveyed their serious intent to expand Dutch presence in the Indian market by exploiting new opportunities opened up by India's economic reforms., Relations with Italy continued to expand during the year, with India's exports continuing to increase resulting in a substantial trade balance in India's favour. The first meeting of the Indo-Italian Industrial Forum (IIIF), set up to promote interaction between business representatives and increased awareness of opportunities, was held in Venice on 8 June 1993. A large number of businessmen, bankers and industrialists from both countries participated. Finance Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, addressed the IIIF at its inaugural session. Other ministerial visits exchanged during the year included those of the Italian Minister for Foreign Trade, Senator Claudio Vitalone, in February 1993, Defence Minister Fabio Fabbri in September 1993 and Foreign Minister Beniamino Andreatta in January 1994.

The Danish Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Business Affairs, Mrs Mimi Jakobsen, as well as Finance Minister, Mr Lykketoft, visited India in January 1994 accompanying a high level Danish business delegation. The visit signified the increasing interest among countries of Western Europe in business and investment opportunities in India aroused by India's economic liberalisation programme.

During the year, Foreign Secretary level consultations were held with the UK, Germany, France, Spain, Greece and Cyprus.

8. The Americas


North America

INDO-US relations have been marked by dichotomous trends during 1993. On the one hand were the more positive and tangible aspects underpinned by the fact that encouraging results were seen in the domain of commercial and economic interaction between the two countries. The US remained the single largest country for bilateral trade, the single most important source of direct foreign investment and an important source of high technology imports. On the other hand fundamental differences persisted in areas such as human rights, non-proliferation and trade policy.

The first high-level contact with the Clinton Administration was initiated by the Foreign Secretary's visit to Washington for bilateral consultations from 25 to 27 August 1993, at the invitation of his counterpart, the US Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs. Discussions were indicative of the mutual desire to hold substantive and actionoriented dialogue on all issues of concern to the two countries.

A notable feature in Indo-US relations relates to trade and investment. Trends in bilateral trade for 1993 indicate that total trade turnover is set to reach US S 7 billion as against US $ 5.69 billion during 1992. US investments in India during the year registered a quantum jump (approved investment amounted to Rs 3209 crores during the period January--October 1993) and exceeded the cumulative US investment in India from 1947 to mid-1991 (Rs 2416 crores).

A high-powered FICCI delegation led by the Organization's President visited USA under a US Aid Project from 21 June to 1 July 1993. The Indo-US joint Business Council (JBC) held its 16th meeting in Delhi on 9 and 10 November 1993.

Bilateral negotiations were successful in narrowing the gap on the issues of copyrights, trade marks and entry of US motion pictures, though differences on the issue of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) continued in the area of patents, especially in food, pharmaceutical and chemical sectors. With the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, a framework has been accepted multilaterally to resolve these issues.

The US showed an increasing tendency to link technology transfers to non-proliferation objectives and to deny exports of dual-use items and technologies to India. India and the US are currently considering a new draft agreement on science and technology and a bilateral review of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), which was signed in 1984, is also expected to take place in 1994.

Differences with respect to the approaches to achieve non-proliferation persist. While the US seeks universal and indefinite extension of the NPT, India's long-standing position has been that this treaty is discriminatory in character and the issue of non-proliferation can only be addressed through measures which are comprehensive, universal, non- discriminatory and verifiable.

US policy on non-proliferation seeks to cap, roll back and eventually' eliminate the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan. Some emerging elements of US policy are indicative of being more accommodative towards Pakistan. The discussion draft of the Foreign Assistance Act submitted by the US Government to the US Congress contained provisions, subsequently withdrawan, which could have led to the repeal of the so- called Pressler Amendment.

Three US Senators, Thad Cochran, Larry Pressler and Hank Brown, visited India from 9 to 13 December 1993 for discussions with Government on security related issues.

The Indo-US Agreement for Peaceful Nuclear Co-operation of 1963, under which the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) was set up, expired on 24 October 199.3. India voluntarily extended existing IAEA safeguards on TAPS, a step that was welcomed by the US. The need that TAPS should continue to function for its useful life of 10-15 years was appreciated by the US side and discussions will continue on ways to overcome the problem of fuel for TAPS.

US Government's policy towards the Kashmir issue evolved gradually from the stance since 1947 to a more recent reiteration that "for more than four decades the consistent US position has been that the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir is disputed territory" and that "the US view is that negotiations between Governments of India and Pakistan, as envisaged by Simla Agreement, provide best means for resolving dispute over Kashmir. As a practical matter, US believes this process of bilateral negotiation needs to take into account wishes of Kashmiri people". President Clinton's remark in his speech to the 48th UN General Assembly equating Kashmir with Angola and the Caucasus as a place where bloody, ethnic, religious and civil wars rage, also pointed to the increasingly higher profile being imparted by the US to the Kashmir issue in the international arena.

India made known her position during exchanges that she would not brook any outside interference from any quarter over Kashmir and will only discuss the Kashmir issue bilaterally with Pakistan within the framework of Simla Agreement.

Despite overwhelming evidence of Pakistan's continuing support to terrorism in India, the US Government announced in July 1993 that listing of Pakistan as a state sponsor of terrorism was not warranted.

Bilateral ties continued to be vitiated over the issue of alleged human rights violations by Indian security forces in Kashmir and Punjab due to the anti-Indian propaganda and lobbying by "Khalistan" and pro-pak, Kashmiri groups. President Clinton's letters of 27 December 1993 to the anti-Indian Kashmir American Council and to Congressman Gary Condit on the Punjab issue are cases in point. The US President's formulations came in the wake of a series of negative pronouncements by US officials on issues such as Kashmir, human rights and Punjab. Government has reiterated that India's commitment to human rights and democracy is axiomatic to India's existence and no external prescriptions would be accepted in this regard. The Government has also conveyed that such official pronouncements by the US Government, including at the highest level, cannot but have a negative impact on Indo-US bilateral relations. Government of India expressed the hope that the US, as another democracy, would make more positive moves in the context of bilateral relations.

India has always maintained that her system of Parliamentary democracy offers constitutional remedies against human rights abuses, which are also safeguarded by the free press and an independent judiciary in India. The National Human Rights Commission has been set up as an additional mechanism and contacts have been established with international human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

Indian and US Armed Forces continued limited interaction in the fields of training, seminars and joint exercises. The fourth Indo-US Strategic Symposium was held in Jaipur from 20 to 23 September 1993. Indo-US co- operation on the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) project continues under the aegis of the MOU implemented by means of a special Agreement.

The fourth meeting of Indo-US joint Working Group (JWG) on Narcotics was held in February 1993 in Washington. Narcotics control has become an important issue in bilateral relations. The bilateral discussions sought to ensure the continuation of the preferential access arrangements that India has for licit opium to the US market and ways and means to combat trafficking in illegal drugs.

A delegation comprising of seven American judges from the US Supreme Court and Circuit Courts and five lawyers visited India from 24 January to 4 February 1994.

The existing bilateral Textile Agreement between India and the US expired on 31 December 1993. The matter of extending the arrangements under this Agreement is Presently being considered by both countries.

Fundamental differences notwithstanding, Government accord high priority to the improvement of relations with the US. Government has pursued a policy of dialogue to promote, in a substantive manner, areas of mutual benefit such as trade and investment while persisting with the on-going efforts to narrow down existing differences of perception over the issue of human rights, non-proliferation and trade practices.

Based on shared historical ties of the Commonwealth, Indo-Canadian relations have traditionally been warm and friendly. Both countries share common features of being multi-racial, multi-ethnic societies with Westminster style democratic systems of Government.

The economic liberalisation underway in India has been welcomed by Canada. Indo-Canadian trade jumped to C$ 788.4 million in 1992 mainly on account of large wheat imports by India. In the first 8 months of 1993, India's exports to Canada increased by 23.8% to reach C$ 232.86 million while imports plummeted by about 30% to reach C$ 180.877 million. There is also considerable potential for joint ventures and technical collaboration between the two countries.

India his expressed concern over the fact that extremist elements among the Sikhs in Canada interact with their counterparts in India and are an important source of financial and other assistance for their violent activities. These groups also indulge in anti-Indian propaganda. In Canada's liberal polity there is a degree of indulgence and freedom of expression. India has continued to stress concern over the fact that extremist elements continue to use Canadian soil for sponsoring acts of terrorism against India. Pakistan has continued to act as the meeting ground and facilitator between extremist elements from Canada and India. India has also conveyed concern about some Canadian politicians making political capital out of the problems in Punjab in the name of human rights for garnering support from their Punjab-origin constituents.

India and Canada are currently negotiating a Treaty on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters. The blowing up of Air India's Kanishka aircraft in 1985 resulted in greater Canadian interest in the area of security co- operation. This sense of urgency was lacking earlier despite repeated Indian requests that extremist groups were active in Canada and were promoting terrorism in Punjab. The Indo-Canadian Extradition Treaty signed in October 1987 marked the culmination of closer co-operation to combat terrorism.

Bilateral visits during the year included the visit to Canada of Shri Kamal Nath, Minister of State for Environment and Forests, to attend the 9th Executive Committee Meeting of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol from 8 to 10 March 1993. Mr Charles Joseph Joe) Clark, the then Minister for Constitutional Affairs, visited India from 16 to 19 March 1993. A three-member delegation led by the Assistant Deputy Minister for Political and International Security Issues, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, visited Delhi on 22 and 23 April 1993 for bilateral discussions. Shri Jagdish Tytler, Minister of State for Surface Transport, visited Canada from 7 to 11 June 1993. Director General, Asia Pacific Bureau, Canadian Foreign Office held discussions with Ministry of External Affairs officials in Delhi on 26 November 1993 on bilateral and multilateral issues of concern to both sides.

The Indo-Canada Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Textiles expired in end 1993. It was extended by mutual agreement uptill 31 January 1994 pending negotiations for the signing of a new MOU.

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), a trade-bloc bringing together the advanced economies of the USA and Canada with the developing one of Mexico, had a rough passage through the US Congress, which finally approved the Agreement in November 1993. The Agreement will be implemented once it has been ratified by Canada and Mexico.

NAFTA opens the door to great increases in trade and investment flows between the participating countries through the elimination of trade barriers and the facilitation of cross-border movement of goods and services. NAFTA brings together a market of approximately 360 million consumers and trade and investment, flows which are already of the order of US $ 500 billion.

The implications of NAFTA for India are mainly in the areas of its trade displacing effect, its provision of a fillip to investment in Mexico and its strengthening of global trends towards regional and sub-regional economic groupings.
Central and South America and the Caribbean


Latin America and the Caribbean region consists of more than 35 countries and territories. It has a population of about 450 million. Almost all the countries in the region, including Cuba, have liberalised their economies, inter-alia, by privatising Government undertakings and facilitating foreign investment. The results of economic restructuring have been generally positive although social conditions in many countries have deteriorated. The democratic process which began about four years back seems to have firmed up, with representative democracies throughout the region, except Cuba and Haiti. Regional organizations such as the Rio Group and OAS have played a pivotal role in ensuring democratisation.

Another noticeable trend in the area is the growing tendency towards closer economic integration. Caricom, Andean Group, Mercosur, NAFTA, etc are being given added importance and relied upon as means of promoting free trade among the member States, besides arriving at consensus on various issues. Therefore, there prevails a very favourable atmosphere for India to react more vigorously with the countries of the LAC region.

India maintains 12 Missions in the region. As a measure of economy, the Embassy in Colombia was closed down during the year. However, there are proposals to strengthen commercial wings in a select number of Indian Missions in the region, in view of increased prospects of commercial and technical exchanges between India and the countries concerned.

The official visit of the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid, with,a business delegation, to six of the LAC region countries in September 1993, followed by visit to Guyana and Cuba in November 1993, and that of Secretary (East) in the Ministry of External Affairs to Peru, Venezuela and Guyana constituted major steps towards intensification of India's ties with the area, particularly with regard to trade and joint ventures. India's exports to the region meanwhile continued to grow steadily. Exports during 1992-93 stood. at Rs 356 crores, compared to Rs 305 crores in 1991-92. Exports from India were merely Rs 118 crores in 1988-89. During the first six months of the current year, total exports increased to Rs 381 crores from Rs 216 crores during the same period last year., Trade balance, however, still remains against India. As a result of Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid's visit and several visits by Indian business delegations and holding of buyer-seller meets, trade is bound to be boosted up further, as specific measures identified for the purpose get implemented.

Parliamentary delegations from several countries of the region participated in the Inter-Parliamentary Union Conference held in New Delhi early in the year.

Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid, visited Argentina and had fruitful discussions with the leaders of the Argentina Government and private sector. Agreements on issue of long-term visas to each other's businessmen and on bilateral political consultations were signed. The Minister also inaugurated the Office of Indo-Argentine Chamber of Commerce meant to devote itself to bilateral trade promotion, including presentation of Argentina by it in the India International Trade Fair 1994. Argentina showed interest in co-operating in high-tech areas such as space, satellite communications and defence-related computer software. The level of the joint Trade Committee was raised to joint Commission. During the year, a buyer-seller meet by Apparel Export Promotion Council was held and action was initiated to focus on promoting identified products in the Argentine markets, besides joint ventures.
-75> India's interaction with Brazil was reflected in (a) policy level consultations in New Delhi with' the Brazilian Under Secretary General of Foreign Affairs and (b) visit by Shri Salman Khurshid, Minister of State for External Affairs, to Brazil (Brasilia, Rio and Sao Paulo), both in September 1993. During Shri Salman Khurshid's visit, an agreement for co-operation in railways was signed and several measures to boost trade and commercial exchanges were identified for implementation. An Indian pharmaceutical company opened its office in Sao Paulo to augment its product exports to Latin America. The Brazilian side showed keen desire to collaborate closely with India at the UN and to seek co-operation in space, telecommunication, etc. It was agreed to consider setting up a joint Commission between the two countries.

With a spectacular growth registered by the Chilean economy in recent years, the already existing friendly relations between the two countries were given a more substantive turn towards enhancing interaction in trade, technology and joint ventures, having regard to the complementarities existing between India and Chile. Official discussions focussed on these lines during Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid's visit to Santiago in September 1993. The Chilean Foreign Minister's visit to New Delhi for the G-15 Summit subsequently was utilised for discussing bilateral issues of mutual concern. A cultural agreement between the two countries was concluded.

The Deputy Foreign Minister of Cuba, Mr Mario Rodriquez's visit to New Delhi, followed by Shri Salman Khurshid's visit to Havana in November 1993, enabled both sides to discuss new areas of economic and technical co-operation, besides allowing discussions on ways in which past debts from India could be liquidated. Fisheries, tourism, agricultural machinery, pharmaceuticals and auto-sector were some of the areas agreed to be pursued for mutual co-operation. India decided to increase technical assistance to Cuba under the ITEC Programme. The next meeting of the joint Commission was slated to be conveyed early next year.

The last general elections (1992) in Guyana brought to power President Jagan and his party (PPP), for the first time. A Special Envoy of President Jagan was sent to New Delhi to discuss an increased level of economic and technical assistance from India. President jagan, at the invitation of the Prime Minister, visited India from 24 to 31 December 1993. He was accompanied by a high-level delegation, consisting among others, of the Foreign Minister, Mr Clement Rohee. He held wide-ranging talks with the Prime Minister, besides calling on the President. India agreed to extend a government line of credit and an EXIM Bank loan for the rehabilitation of the sugar industry. Government of India also agreed to send experts in small scale industries, rice cultivation, etc and to gift a pilot project to Guyana. India would also continue with the existing assistance being given under the Indian Technical and Economic Co-operation Programme (ITEC). During the visit of President Jagan, the following agreements were signed :

(a) on co-operation between Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India and Institute of Applied Science and Technology of Guyana;

(b) waiver of visa requirements for holders of diplomatic and official passports; and

(c) a Cultural Exchange Programme.

An informal meeting of India-Guyana joint Business Council also took place during the visit of President Jagan.

Mexico emerged as India's leading trade and economic partner in the region, with promising start in investment in each other's country. From India, Ministers of State for Steel, Welfare and External Affairs, visited Mexico during the year. The Fisheries Minister of Mexico, on the other hand, visited India. Another event of significance was the second session of the Indo-Mexican joint Commission held in New Delhi in November 1993, after a considerable gap. Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan set up its Mexico Branch in September 1993 which is expected to further promote the cultural relations between the two countries. Mexico acquired importance for India because its membership of the North American Free Trade Agreement with USA and Canada. With this in view, Indian industrialists and EPCs were encouraged to visit Mexico for greater interaction with their Mexican counterparts. A number of agreements were finalised for formal signing at the time of the proposed visit of the Mexican President. The postponed visit is likely to take place early next year when these agreements may be signed.

Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid, visited Peru briefly and handed over Prime Minister's formal invitation to the President of Peru for the G-15 Summit. He also held discussions on bilateral relations with his counterpart in the Peruvian Foreign Office. Secretary (East) also visited Lima for annual political consultations. Efforts 'were made to ensure better utilisation of the EXIM Bank credit to the Andean Group countries. Ashok Leyland achieved a breakthrough by contracting to supply a number of its buses to a Peruvian company.

Bilateral relations with Suriname were strengthened. The Surinamese Public Works Minister visited New Delhi and finalised with BEML a contract worth Rs 5 crores for purchase of earth-moving equipment. The Speaker of the National Assembly paid a bilateral visit to India when substantive discussions for enhancing relations in different areas were held during his meetings with the President, Prime Minister, External Affairs Minister and several public and private sector undertakings. Proposals to organize the first meeting of the Joint Commission and an official visit of the Surinamese Vice President to India were pursued further.

Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid, visited Venezuela in September 1993 and had detailed talks with leaders of the Government and business on increasing economic and commercial co- operation in diamond mining, agriculture and tourism. It was also decided to have formal linkage between the apex trade bodies and to constitute a joint trade and economic committee between India and Venezuela.

9. United Nations and International Conferences


INDIA played a significant role in the continuing evolution of the United Nations in the post-Cold War, era. A reinvigorated UN with a more focussed agenda has been increasingly perceived as having moved to centrestage and as having assumed an increasingly significant role in directly or indirectly shaping events the world over. Acting in the conviction that the principles of the United Nations Charter have stood the test of time for nearly half a century, India succeeded in moderating the enthusiasm on the part of certain countries to extend the jurisdiction and the authority of the UN into new areas of activity. At the same time, India helped the restructuring process with a view to making the Organization responsive to the challenges and demands of the times.

Human Rights issues remained on the top of the international agenda. In addition to the Agenda for Peace and the Restructuring of the UN, the UN also focussed on issues such as environment, peace-keeping and preparations for major international conferences like the Conference on Population and Development (Cairo 1994), the World Summit on Social Development (Copenhagen 1995) and the International Conference on Women (Beijing 1995).

The most important negotiations in the UN during the current year were on the Secretary General's proposals in "An Agenda for Peace" submitted at the request of the Security Council Summit of 1991. The new horizons in preventive diplomacy, peace-making, peace-keeping and peace-building envisaged in the Report went beyond the traditional role of the UN in these areas. India, together with a large number of other Non-Aligned countries, ensured that these proposals were tempered to the extent necessary in order to safeguard the principles such as national sovereignty, territorial integrity and domestic jurisdiction of States which have suitably been reflected in the resolution. While the enhanced role of the UN in the domain of preventive diplomacy etc was acknowledged, it was stressed that this should be on a case by case basis and with the consent of the State(s) concerned. Sufficient safeguards were included in the relevant resolution to take care of the interests of the vast majority of member States.

The peace-keeping activities of the UN witnessed a dramatic increase during the year in terms not only of size but also of complexity. As a member of the Special Committee on Peace-keeping Operations, India contributed actively to the discussions on peace-keeping and ensured that these operations did not become a means for intervention. Her efforts resulted in a clear recognition that peace-keeping operations should observe the principles of UN Charter and follow the scheme envisaged for them in Charter provisions. The importance of command and control by the United Nations of peace-keeping operations was emphasised and effective participation by troop contributing countries in decision making was achieved.

The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) successfully completed its task with the holding of elections. India has contributed to this successful operation by providing about 1300 troops of all ranks, which included an Infantry Battalion, Field Ambulance, an Engineers Team, Military Observers, Military Police and Staff Officers & Clerks. India also contributed around 400 civilian Police Monitors for this operation. The Special Representative of UNSG for UNTAC formally acknowledged and appreciated the conduct and performance of Indian troops. .

The year also witnessed the United Nations operations in Somalia (UNOSOM-II). This had been preceded by the establishment of the United Task Force (UNITAF) by a Security Council Resolution and where USA took the primary responsibility for establishing a secured environment in Somalia. India joined the international effort and contributed two naval vessels: one Corvette and one Landed Ship Tank (LST). At the request of the United Nations, India also contributed a Brigade for UNOSOM-II of about 5000 men of all ranks. The contingent consists of 3 infantry Battalions, a Mechanised Infantry Battalion (less one company), an Armoured Squadron, an Engineer Company, Air Force Missile Directorate and support elements. UNOSOM-II is the first UN operation under Chapter VII of the Charter for peace enforcement. 29 countries have contributed 29,284 troops for UNOSOM-II. However, some of these countries have announced withdrawal of their contingents.
-80> India also contributed troops for the UN operations in Mozambique (ONUMOZ), numbering about 973 men of all ranks. Military observers were also deputed to the UN operations in Liberia, Angola etc.

Of about 80,000 civilian and military personnel that now serve in 17 UN Peace-keeping Operations across the world, India has provided around 6,000 personnel. The cost of peace-keeping missions is expected to rise from $ 1.4 billion in 1992 to an estimated $ 3.6 billion by the end of 1993, which is an indication of the increased involvement of UN in peace-keeping operations. India has been making a mandatory contribution to the UN Peace-keeping Budget and has continued her tradition of consistently and substantially contributing, both in terms of personnel and financial obligation, to the UN's effort in peace-keeping.

India participated actively in the discussions among the various delegations during the 48th General Assembly on the reform of the Security Council including its expansion. India started the process of informal discussions at the start of the Session and participated in all the subsequent drafting exercises which finally led to the adoption of a General Assembly Resolution in December 1993. This resolution set up a working group under the Chairmanship of the President of the General Assembly to consider all aspects of the question of equitable representation in and the reform of the Council. The working group is to commence its work by the end of January 1994 and is to submit its report to the General Assembly by the end of 1994.

Earlier, in pursuance of Resolution 47/62, India forwarded her written comments to the UN Secretary General on the question of "equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council". Responses from 65 other member States were also received by the Secretary General. Most member States have supported the need for Security Council's expansion in the light of changed circumstances including a large increase in the membership of the UN which now stands at 184 as compared to 51 when it was established in 1945.

India was also instrumental in securing an enhanced role for the General Assembly in the negotiations leading to the revitalisation of its work. Apart from reducing the number of Main Committees by merging the Special Political Committee with the Fourth, the relevant resolution emphasised the strengthening of co-operation and coordination among the principal organs of the UN and an effective role for the General Assembly in accordance with the UN Charter.

India, being the Rapporteur for the Special Committee against Apartheid, played an important role in the functioning of the Committee. India also chaired the drafting group for the Annual Report of the Special Committee against Apartheid. In the latter capacity, India was able to ensure that the Annual Report of the Special Committee further dilutes its rhetoric and addresses itself to the practical and realistic issues of encouraging the peaceful political processes in South Africa towards establishment of a united democratic and non-racial South Africa. As a result of India's efforts, balanced and realistic resolutions were worked out. ' Emphasis was put on the positive developments such as the emergence of several democratic structures including the International Investive Council, the Electoral Bill and other developments like the announcement of the first non-racial elections on 27 April 1994 for the establishment of an interim government.

India continued her principled support for resolutions on the Middle East in the 48th UNGA. India. supported the resolutions on Middle East Peace Process, Jerusalem and the Syrian Golan. India also supported seven resolutions dealing with the work of the UN Relief and Works Agency which included resolutions on Palestine refugees, return of population and refugees displaced since 1967, etc. As a member of the Committee on the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people, India contributed towards formulation of balanced resolutions.

The Co-ordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement in New York was extremely active during the year in pursuance of the decision taken at the Jakarta Summit. The Coordinating Bureau set up Working Groups to deal with the restructuring of the UN, human rights, Somalia and peace- keeping., India participated actively in these groups.
Disarmament and International Security


The period under review witnessed some remarkable developments in the field of disarmament. With the end of the Cold War, positive developments took place in a number of areas in which initiatives had been announced by India decades ago. India continued to play a leading role in the various multilateral disarmament fora-the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, the UN Disarmament Commission and the First Committee of the UN General Assembly.
-82> In January 1993, the Chemical Weapons Convention was opened for signature. India, along with 131 countries, became an original signatory to this Convention. India had played a key role in the successful conclusion of the negotiations that have resulted in a unique multilateral disarmament agreement, which is comprehensive and non- discriminatory. Its universality is evident in the fact that there are today more than 150 signatories to the Chemical Weapons Convention. The Indian delegation, supported by experts, are currently engaged in preparatory processes to ensure that the Convention enters into force in early 1995.

India's approach on the subject of nuclear disarmament continues to be guided by the philosophy that a commitment to the elimination of nuclear weapons in a time-bound, manner is essential. In this context, India has called for a ban on testing of nuclear weapons, a freeze in the production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons purposes, a convention prohibiting the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons and multilateral negotiations involving all nuclear weapon states aimed at reducing and then eliminating nuclear weapons under an international verification regime.

Positive developments have been registered in some of these areas. With the change in position among nuclear weapon states, for the first time the UN General Assembly was able to adopt a consensus resolution urging negotiations to be undertaken by the Conference on Disarmament for a universal treaty banning all nuclear weapon tests and explosions. 152 countries including India co-sponsored the resolution. Positive development was also registered on the subject of a ban on production of fissile materials intended for nuclear weapons and explosive devices. A resolution calling for negotiations for such a convention that would be multilateral and non-discriminatory, co-sponsored by 27 countries including India, was adopted by consensus. It is hoped that these negotiations can commence shortly.

India also tabled resolutions on the subject of a Convention on the prohibition of use and threat of use of Nuclear Weapons. Unfortunately, a number of nuclear weapon states and their allies continue to oppose this initiative though more than 125 countries supported it in the UN General Assembly. Another initiative by India is aimed at stemming the qualitative arms race by promoting greater sensitisation to the role of scientific research and development in the field of designing new weapon systems. India had brought this item on the international agenda in 1988 and has played a key role in the on-going deliberations on this subject in the UN Disarmament Commission.
-83> A beginning was made in the development of norms of transparency with the coming into being of the UN Arms Register. The first report by the UN Secretary General for 1992 indicates that more than 80 countries, including India, have given information on their arms imports and exports in an attempt to build confidence and in turn encourage restraint by nations, thus reducing misunderstandings and misperceptions. India had played an important role in the development of this Register.

In keeping with her efforts to promote peace and security, India played a constructive role through her participation in regional security initiatives and dialogues such as those conducted by the UN Regional Centre in Kathmandu and the initiative launched by President Nazarbaev of Kazakhstan. Bilateral dialogues on disarmament, non-proliferation and security-related issues were held with the US, UK, Japan, Germany, France and Russia. These dialogues are aimed at developing a better understanding of each other's security concerns in the context of the changing international security environment. During these dialogues, India has projected that her security concerns cannot be addressed in the narrow framework of India-Pakistan but a regional security paradigm must be developed that can adequately address the security concerns of the states belonging to the Asia and Pacific regions.

The General Assembly adopted a resolution on Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. The resolution recalled the declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace of December 1971. It also requested the Ad Hoc Committee to continue consideration of new alternate approaches. It called upon the Permanent Members of the Security Council and the major maritime users of the Indian Ocean to participate in the work of the Ad Hoc Committee. It invited the member States to submit to the Secretary General by 31 May 1994, their views on new alternate approaches. The Secretary General will submit a report by 30 June 1994.

The question of Antarctica once again came up in the General Assembly. As during the last Session, the two traditional resolutions on the subject were combined into one resolution. India did not participate in the vote on the resolution along with the other Antarctica Treaty Parties.
Human Rights


Increasing importance being attached to the question of promotion and protection of human rights manifested in the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna from 14 to 22 June 1993. India was active both in the preparatory phase of the Conference and at the Conference. The Conference was preceded by four meetings of the Preparatory Committee and three regional meetings including the Asian regional meeting in Bangkok. A high level Indian delegation, led by Finance Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, participated in the World Conference.

The World Conference on Human Rights at Vienna reaffirmed the commitment to the purposes and principles contained in the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. At the end of the Conference, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action was adopted. Its significant features are as follows:

(a) The World Conference recognised acts, methods and practices of terrorism as activities aimed at destruction of human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity and security of States, and destabilising legitimately constituted governments. The Vienna Declaration called upon the international community to take the necessary steps to enhance co-operation to prevent and combat terrorism.

(b) It reaffirmed the right to development as a universal and inalienable right and an integral part of fundamental human rights.

(c) The Vienna Declaration called for 48th Session of the UNGA to begin consideration of the proposal for creation of the post of High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Pakistan's attempt to introduce a country-specific resolution against India on the situation in Jammu & Kashmir, coupled with sustained propaganda on human rights violations in Jammu & Kashmir, dominated the meetings of the Commission on Human Rights in Geneva and the Third Committee in New York. Kashmir was raised by Pakistan in all possible forums, including the Security Council, but on account of the efforts made by India, at headquarters as well as in Missions abroad, no resolution was tabled. A vast majority of the States urged direct dialogue between India and Pakistan and refused to take sides on the issue. Pakistan also raised the Kashmir issue in meetings of other UN bodies and agencies including ECOSOC, UNESCO, ILO and UNDP.

The unanimous adoption of a resolution on terrorism as an obstacle to human rights at the 48th UNGA, co-sponsored by India, was another achievement of Indian diplomacy during the year. The resolution unequivocally condemned acts, methods and practice of terrorism as activities aimed at the destruction of human rights and fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity and security of States and destabilising legitimately constituted governments. It called upon all States to take effective measures and prevent, combat and eliminate terrorism. Pakistan's efforts to amend the resolution to exclude the struggle for self-determination from terrorism found no support in the Committee. Earlier, the Commission on Human Rights and the Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities also adopted resolutions against. Terrorism. The resolutions reflect growing awareness of terrorism as a violation of human rights.

India succeeded in shelving a proposal made by Liechtenstein for self- determination through autonomy because of its implications on multiethnic societies such as India.

India also played a prominent role in the negotiations on the mandate of the post of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and ensured that his mandate would not be intrusive, but would respect the UN Charter and the sovereignty, territorial integrity and domestic jurisdiction of States.

India acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on Elimination of Discrimination against Women during 1993.
Economic, Social and Humanitarian Issues


India maintained her active role in the Economic and Social Council, the governing councils of specialised agencies, various environmental forums and the Second Committee. India has sought to ensure that the developmental issues were given due emphasis in the activities of the United Nations, and that the United Nations' "Agenda for Development" is not overlooked in the current emphasis on security issues and intrusive diplomacy under the guise of the so-called "Agenda for Peace".

A Meeting of the High Level Segment of the ECOSOC was held in June-July 1993. The Meeting focussed on the forthcoming Summit on Social Development, important developments in the world economy and international economic co-operation, and coordination of the policies and activities of the specialised agencies of the United Nations. Agreement was reached on the restructuring of the ECOSOC and the composition of the Executive Boards of operational activities in a manner that safeguards the interests of the developing countries. With regard to the Secretary General's proposals for integrated offices, India played a major role in ensuring that the execution of operational activities would remain the national responsibility and that disbursement of developmental resources was not made conditional on political or any other extraneous considerations.

While the work of the Second Committee continued to focus on the traditional issues such as debt, the financing of development, transfer of resources, poverty and human development, there was an increased emphasis on issues pertaining to the environmental, social and humanitarian concerns.

During the year, India actively participated in activities connected with the implementation of the agreements reached at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 and related follow-up action. The specific areas of activity are given below:

(a) India is an elected member of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) which has been set up as a 53-member functional commission of the ECOSOC. CSD held its first substantive session from 14 to 25 June 1993. The Indian delegation was led by the Minister of State for Environment and Forests, Shri Kamal Nath. It adopted a thematic programme of work for the next three years. It has also laid down guidelines for the organizing of information to be supplied by Governments on the plans and reports of implementation of Agenda 21 including problems faced over such matters as transfer of financial resources and technology. The CSD also seeks to set up two open-ended expert groups on the transfer of technology and transfer of financial resources for the implementation of Agenda 21. A high level advisory board on sustainable development was also set up. justice R S Pathak of India is a member of this Board.

(b) In pursuance of Resolution 47/188, work has begun on the elabora- tion of an international convention to combat desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa. India participated in the first two sessions of the inter-governmental negotiating committee.

(c) The UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks was held in July 1993. This Conference was aimed at promoting the effective implementation of the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea on such Fish Stocks. This would need to be done through setting up of conservation and management measures and through co- operation between coastal States and distant water fishing States. India participated in this Conference as an important coastal State.

(d) The Inter-governmental Negotiating Committee on the Framework Convention on Climate Change (INC-FCCC) held its Eighth Session in August 1993. The meeting was preparatory in nature in view of the first Conference of Parties (COP) to be held in early 1995. This meeting was useful in clarifying certain issues and. concepts in the Convention. India worked actively to strengthen the provisions of the Convention relating in particular to policy guidelines, Joint implementation and incremental costs.

(e) The Inter-governmental Committee on Convention on Biodiversity (ICCBD) held its first session to prepare for the Conference of Parties (COP), expected to be held at the end of 1994. India was elected to the Bureau of the ICCBD. As Chairman of the Asian Group, India ensured that the essential provisions of the Convention were enforced.

(f) There were also inter-governmental meetings during the year under review of the World Climate Programme (organized by World Meteorological Organization), Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Basel Convention on Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. India participated actively in these meetings.

(g) India attended the meetings held during the year on possible restructuring of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) to reflect the concerns of the developing countries. After the last round held in Cartagena, no agreement emerged on the issue.

Consistent with the United Nations' renewed emphasis on social and humanitarian issues, a number of new initiatives and programmes were undertaken during the year under review. Preparations for a number of important global summits were taken on hand. These include: (i) The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), which is scheduled to be held in Cairo in 1994, will be the third in a series of UN sponsored global population conferences. Earlier conferences were held in Bucharest (1974) and Mexico City (1984).

The second meeting of the ICPD Preparatory Commission was held during 1993. In addition, Indonesia, as Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement, constituted a meeting of Ministers of Non-Aligned member States in order to prepare the NAM position in advance of the Cairo Ministerial Meeting.

India has participated actively in all the preparatory meetings for the ICPD 1994. She has sought to evolve a global consensus on the need to limit the population growth rates and to obtain commensurate resources from the donor community in order to meet targeted reductions in population growth rates. India has sought, furthermore, to ensure that the emphasis on population and development is not diluted.

(ii) The World Summit on Social Development is to be convened in Copenhagen in 1995. The Social Development Summit will focus on means and methodology necessary to promote human centered development. Important aspects of the work programme pertain to integration of socially disadvantaged groups into the economic mainstream, improving literacy and human skills necessary for gainful economic employment, and economic productivity through enhanced skills, training and wider employment opportunities.

India has considerable experience in issues that would be dealt within the purview of the Social Development Summit. Government of India is in the process of constituting the National Committee for India which would coordinate inputs and prepare the national report for India in respect of the forthcoming Summit.

(iii) The World Conference on Women is another important international meeting scheduled to be held in Beijing in 1995., The aim of the meeting is to focus world attention on women's issues, particularly the need to raise the status of women in society. The empowerment and equal dignity of women in the society has been a long cherished objective of Indian domestic policy and she has been playing an active role in the preparations for the World Women's Conference. A large number of non-governmental organizations who are active in this field are working along with official agencies and concerned government departments.
Administrative and Budgetary Issues


India participated actively in the work of the Fifth Committee. Since her election to the Board of Auditors, India made efforts to ensure that the role of the Board was strengthened and that necessary resources were provided to it. India's efforts in the budgetary process were to ensure that the priority activities of the. Organization, including economic development, were provided with adequate resources. During the discussions on the scale of assessments for contributions to the regular budget, India made every effort to modify the scale methodology so that it reflected 'the capacity to pay' of Member States.
Elections And Appointments


India was elected to the following bodies during 1993 by election/consensus:

1 World Food Council
2 International Maritime Council

3 World Tourism Organization

4 UNESCO Executive Board

5 UNESCO Inter-governmental Bodies:

(i) IIP (Inter-governmental. Informatics Programme)

(ii) IPDC (International Programme for the Development of communications)

6 Commission on Sustainable Development

7 Expert Committee on Natural Resources

8 Programme Committee of FAO

9 FAO Council

10 Chairman, Committee on Programme and Coordination

11 Industrial Development Board of UNIDO

12 Programme and Budget Committee of UNIDO.

Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement


The Coordinating Bureau of NAM met in New York from time to time and played an active role in contributing to discussions and resolutions in the General Assembly and other bodies of UN on various matters of interest to the Non-Aligned members. The Ministerial Meeting of the NAM was held in New York on 4 October 1993. Shri S Khurshid, Minister of State for External Affairs, attended the Meeting.

The continued relevance and importance of NAM in global affairs was evident from the new applications for joining the movement in 1993. Thailand And Honduras were admitted as new members. Macedonia and Slovakia were admitted as guests. Kyrghyzstan was admitted as an observer.

The NAM Coordinating Bureau had set up working groups to deal with the restructuring of UN, human rights, Somalia and peace-keeping. NAM had contributed to the UN resolutions on the Agenda for Peace and revitalisation of the UN General Assembly and in the discussions on South Africa and Palestine issues. NAM had advocated that UN should pay more attention to the promotion of economic and social development. The NAM Ministerial Meeting emphasised the importance of reviving the North- South dialogue.

Two Ministerial Meetings were convened during the year by Indonesia as Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement. The Standing Ministerial Committee (SMC) meeting held in Bali in May 1993, emphasised the importance of reviving the North-South dialogue. In November 1993, the NAM Ministerial Meeting on Population was held to forge a common position among NAM member States in advance of the International Conference on Population and Development scheduled for 1994. The NAM Meeting of Population Ministers revealed the considerable consensus and broad unanimity that exists in NAM member States on the need to curb population growth rates.

India had taken initiatives and played a key role within the NAM in evolving a constructive and balanced approach to the various issues and particularly in the case of sensitive issues such as human rights.


The Summit meeting of Commonwealth Heads of Government (CHOGM) was held at Limassol, Cyprus from 21 to 215 October 1993. 47 countries participated, of which 36 were represented by Heads of State or Government. The Indian delegation was led by Finance Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh.

The Indian delegation participated actively in the Cyprus CHOGM and contributed to its major decisions and outcome. India's conviction that the Commonwealth should concentrate on expanding co-operation in areas of social and economic development and refrain from involvement in controversial or divisive issues that would have a detrimental I , Impact on the Commonwealth as a whole was reaffirmed. The Cyprus Communique preserved the balance struck at the Harare CHOGM in October 1991 between Commonwealth activities in the field of social and economic development and the promotion of its fundamental political values. At the behest of the Indian delegation, the Communique recognised terrorism as one of the most pernicious threats to stability and human rights. The results of the Cyprus CHOGM also reflected a greater desire on the part of Commonwealth member States to take the lead in setting the priorities and agenda of this voluntary association of sovereign states.


Protocol-Conference Cell of the Ministry of External Affairs is responsible for providing logistical support and managerial assistance in the organization of international conferences convened by the Ministry as also certain others organized by other 'Ministries/Departments of Government of India. In this financial year till date the following international conferences/ meetings, etc were organized:

(i) The former Tanzanian President Julius Nyrere's visit from 27 March to 1 April 1993.

(ii) The meeting of Personal Representatives. of Heads of State/ Government of G-15 countries which was held in New Delhi on 18 and 19 April 1993.

(iii) Indo-Nepal Border Talks, held from 26 to 29 April 1993, the logistical arrangements for which were taken care of by this Cell.

(iv) The logistical support for the talks on India-Hong Kong Extradition Arrangements, held in New Delhi from 13 to 16 july 1993, was provided.

(v) The Seminar on Business Opportunities for Indian Companies in Sub- Saharan Africa held in New Delhi on 23 and 24 july 19931.

(vi) The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources was assisted in convening the meeting on the G-15 Project on Solar Energy Applications, in New Delhi from 27 September to 1 October 1993.

(vii) Assistance for organizing the 4th Indira Gandhi Conference in New Delhi from 19 to 23 November 1993 was provided.

(viii) The Association of Indian Diplomats was helped in organizing the Indira Gandhi Memorial Lecture which was held on 26 November 1993.

(ix) A major conference for which extensive arrangements were made was the fourth Summit Level Meeting of Heads of State/ Government of G-15 countries which was to be held from 13 to 15 December 1993. The Summit was postponed; however, the G-15 Conference was held at Personal Representatives and Ministerial Level from 8 to 11 December 1993.

(x) The Ministry of Human Resource Development was helped in organizing the Education for All Summit (E-9) in New Delhi on 1.6 December 1993.
International Law: Developments and Activities


At the 48th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Sixth (Legal) Committee considered 14 agenda items during its deliberations from 24 September to 26 November 1993. The main agenda items related to the work of the International Law Commission (ILC), the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organization, measures to eliminate international terrorism, draft convention on jurisdictional immunities of States and their property, responsibility for attacks on United Nations and associated personnel, the United Nations Decade of International Law and the question of seeking an advisory opinion of the International Court of justice on abductions abroad.

The Indian delegation participated actively in the Committee's deliberations, including its consultations on several matters and commented on the progress made by the ILC at its 45th Session particularly on the question of preparation of a draft statute for an international criminal court, international rivers, State responsibility and the question of international liability for injurious consequences arising out of activities not prohibited by international law. Further, on India's initiative, the General Assembly decided to seek the views of Member States on practical measures to eliminate acts of terrorism, on ways and means of enhancing the role of the United Nations and the relevant Specialised Agencies in combating international terrorism' and on ways to consider this question within the Sixth Committee.

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law held its 26th session. in Vienna from 5 to 23 July 1993 and adopted the Model Law on Procurement for Submission to the United National General Assembly (UNGA). The Model Law would serve as a model for national legislation on Government purchasing of goods dealing with procedures to be followed by various government agencies in their procurement practices. The Model Law is intended to be a codification of sound public procurement rules of goods by ensuring transparency, competition and objectivity. Its model nature means that it could be used as a guideline by countries that are yet to establish legislation in the field of procurement or it could be used to measure the adequacy of existing legislation.

The Legal Sub-Committee of the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) met at New York from 22 March to 8 April 1993. The meeting discussed, in addition to the general legal issues of peaceful uses of outer space and disarmament, other specific issues relating to some matters of continuing interest like the geostationary satellite orbit, the definition and delimitation of outer space, and the exploration and exploitation of outer space for peaceful purposes, taking into account the needs and interests of the developing countries. The discussion on the principles governing the use of nuclear powered sources in outer space focussed on the need to review the principles adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1992.

The UN Conference on Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, held at New York from 12 to 30 July 1993, was the first major conference convened by the United Nations in the area of the Law of the Sea after the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) which resulted in the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982. The central issues before the conference related to the balancing of the interests of coastal States and the distant water fishing nations with due regard to the principles of conservation and equitable utilisation of the highly migratory fish and taking into account the Sovereign Rights of Coastal States in their exclusive economic zones. Another important issue discussed was the prevention of reflagging of fishing vessels on high seas to avoid responsibility and liability under the flag-State jurisdiction upon violation of conservation measures. The next session will be held in March 1994.

The claims of Indian nationals and corporations who were adversely affected by the Iraq-Kuwait conflict were presented by Government of India to the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC). The Governing Council of the UNCC held two sessions during the year at which several legal and policy issues concerning the handling of the claims were considered. The basic position adopted by the Government of India is to defend the claims of India as permissible under relevant UN Security Council Resolutions as well as the mandate of UNCC and further to cover such claims for settlement by the Commission on a priority basis from the initial stages.

The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) held the fourth session of the Committee of Governmental Experts on the International Protection of Cultural Property at Rome from 29 September to 8 October 1993 to consider the text of a draft convention on the international return of stolen or illegally exported cultural objects. The Committee made substantial progress on several important issues including the definition of "cultural property" and special protection for "public collections".

The International Conference on Protection of War Victims, sponsored jointly by the Government of Switzerland and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Geneva in September 1993, discussed several legal issues of contemporary importance. The conference reaffirmed faith in international humanitarian law and adopted a declaration suggesting measures to promote the same.

The Thirty Second Annual Session of the Asian African Legal Consultative Committee (AALCC) was held in Kampala from 1 to 6 February 1993. The Session enabled legal experts of the member States from Asia and Africa as well as observers from other States and several international organizations to have an exchange of views on several international legal issues of contemporary concern such as environment and development, human rights, the UN Decade of International Law, Status and Treatment of Refugees, Law of the Sea. Exchange of views also took place on legal issues concerning International Trade Law being discussed in the UNCITRAL and other fora. India has been a host of this Committee, so far, which has been functioning on a temporary basis, its term being renewable once in every five years. For the first time at Kampala, the Committee decided to establish a permanent Headquarters and upon an invitation received from the State of Qatar the same was decided to be established at Doha.

As in previous years, the Ministry undertook negotiations and processed for signature, ratification, and accession several multilateral and bilateral treaties involving India.

India ' became a party to several multilateral Conventions, for example, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention Establishing the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency.

The Indo-UK Extradition Treaty, signed at London on 22 September 1992, entered into force from 15 November 1993 i e the date of exchange of the instruments of ratification which took place at New Delhi. To give full effect to the provisions of this Treaty, the Indian Extradition Act 1962 has been amended, bringing the same into effect in December 1993. A list of Treaties entered into by India during the year is in Appendix III.

10. Foreign Economic Relations


THE Ministry's role and activities during this period reflected the increased emphasis placed on the economic objectives and content of India's diplomatic efforts, both at the bilateral and multilateral levels, and on its intensification and diversification. Interaction. at the inter-governmental level was complemented by and provided dynamism through ensuring active involvement of trade and industry, media and academia in India as well as in concerned countries.

In the past year, the Ministry's strategy in this regard continued to evolve in the context of a number of international developments and domestic imperatives and priorities. The impact of changes in the world economy on India's increasingly liberalising trade and technology driven economy was felt with greater effect because of the growing interdependence of the issues of trade, money, finance, technology and services within and across national borders. The strengthening of the trend towards regional and sub-regional economic co-operation and integration groupings which exclude India tended to affect her market access in traditional areas and regions of export interest to India, as also her prospects of attracting investment flows. The coming into force of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) among USA, Canada and Mexico,, and the gradual consolidation of co-operation among the Asia- Pacific countries in the context of the first APEC Summit in Seattle symbolised this trend. Although the Uruguay Round for setting up a more liberalised, rule-based multilateral trading system concluded with a fundamental restructuring of world trade and economic relations, new protectionist pressures and discriminatory barriers threatened to appear on the trade policy horizon in the form of labour and environment-related conditionalities. The structural changes taking place in Eastern Europe brought about a consequential adaptation and reorientation of India's commercial and economic interaction with them. Economic liberalisation in the developing countries and the impressive economic performance of some of them provided new avenues for co-operation in trade, investment and technology, and at the same time put new competitive pressures on India. Given the criticality of access, transfer and diffusion of technology as an input for economic growth and development, India had to cope with the trends towards monopoly controls and restrictive regimes on technology transfer, particularly those relating to the so-called dual use and sensitive technology. To meet the objectives of sustainable development, favourable, including preferential, access to environmentally sound technologies acquired a new urgency.

Taking into account the constraints and opportunities posed by these issues and development, India attempted in international organizations like the UN, its conferences, agencies and regional fora: NAM, CHOGM, G- 77 and most recently the G-15, to activate more focussed and meaningful North-South dialogue and a new partnership for development which would make for a greater flow of financial resourcesbilateral and multilateral, official and private into developing countries like India, a growth-oriented solution to her debt problems, better and considerably enhanced market access for her exports as well as access to critical tools of competitiveness such as technology, particularly high technology and global trade and information networks. The Ministry has also used these fora to coordinate, articulate and pursue India's, interests on emergent issues in the context of world conferences such as those on environment, population and social development.

India is the current chairman of the Group of 15 (G-15). This Summit level Group on South-South consultation, is a compact, trans-regional group of developing countries that seeks to pursue, on a more realisitic and implementable basis, the specific goals- of South-South co-operation and North-South partnership. South-South co-operation is to be made a reality through identification of complementarities with regard to trade, technology and investment. 18 co-operative projects, as well as structured and regular interaction among business communities of the member countries through the annual G-15 Business Forum, have been created so as to translate these complementarities into actual transactions. The resultant capacity building and progress will confirm the viability of South-South co-operation, thus opening new avenues for development.

India made considerable progress in implementing the projects relating to Solar Energy Applications and Gene Banks on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Both these projects involve information exchange, technical co- operation and long term institution building. Preparations are on for the setting up of a Vocational Training Centre for Africa in Senegal and establishing a Computer Training,, Facility for G-15 countries in New Delhi. This Ministry also coordinated and enabled India's participation in and benefit from projects coordinated by other G-15 countries particularly South Investment Trade and Technology Data Exchange Centre (SITTDEC) coordinated by Malaysia, and the Petroleum, Gas and Petrochemicals Design, Execution and Management project coordinated by Egypt.

The Fourth Summit of G-15 which was scheduled between 13 and 15 December in New Delhi in 1993 could not be held due to a lack of quorum caused by an unfortunate coincidence of circumstances which prevented many Heads of State/Government from attending the Summit. However, the Personal Representatives of Heads of State/Government and the Foreign Ministers of G- 15 countries met as scheduled and carried out their preparatory work for the postponed Summit. A Draft Agenda for the Fourth Summit was discussed, as were the concepts, message and format of the Draft joint Communique. The Agenda and the Draft joint Communique are to be fine- tuned and updated nearer the April Summit. The attempt is to promote South-South Consultation and North-South Dialogue with a view to influencing for common benefit,, the evolution of economic, political and social issues and events impacting on peace and development.

India's efforts to establish closer linkages with the regional groupings in Asia assumed a new dimension with the commencement of sectoral dialogue partnership with the ASEAN. The first meeting was held in New Delhi in March 1993, and the first substantive meeting within the framework of the dialogue was scheduled for January 1994. The sectors identified for co-operation are' trade, investment and tourism. In order to provide business underpinning to this dialogue, the Ministry facilitated the setting up of the India-ASEAN Economic Co-operation Committee as a counterpart to the ASEAN Chambers of Commerce and Industry.

The Economic Division continued to act as a catalyst in promoting economic and commercial interests abroad in the following respects:

(1) In concert with Indian Missions abroad, the Division has. been actively gathering and disseminating information on trade, technology and investment opportunities in different sectors. In doing so, it seeks to facilitate an accurate, realistic and reliable assessment of existing conditions and potential prospects in different countries and regions. This is done, inter alia, through periodic and special despatches, conducting market surveys in specific areas and products, assisting in holding and participating in trade fairs, exhibitions, symposia and workshops etc.

(2) It continued to provide backup support with regard to promotion (including promotion of project exports), coordination (vis-a-vis other Ministries, Departments, Indian and foreign parties to transactions), monitoring and follow-up of trade, investment and technology transactions.

(3) Facilitated removal of irritants and bottlenecks in respect of such transactions, inter alia, through help in resolving trade disputes and issues such as those relating to blocked funds in some trading partners. One of the major functions of the Division is to facilitate visits of the business delegations from India and to India. Over the year, business delegations from countries as varied as Burkina Faso, Belarus, Kyrghyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Israel were assisted through meetings convened by Indian apex chambers. Business delegations that accompanied VVIPs were also put in contact with apex chambers in India. In the first quarter of the year, the Prime Ministers of Spain and UK and the German Chancellor visited India with business delegations.

Indian business delegations mounted by FICCI, FIEO, ASSOCHAM, PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Gujarat Chamber of Commerce and Industry, AIMO and OCCI were assisted by the Division through Indian Missions and Posts abroad to have fruitful and meaningful interactions with their counterparts in Central Asian States, Europe, USA, Africa and South-East Asia.

The Division's objective was to diversify India's export markets. This was done, inter alia, through participation in seminars, talks etc. In July 1993, the Division organized a seminar on "Trade, Technology and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa" through FIEO. The seminar was attended by Indian businessmen who had business interests in Africa and also those who were interested in doing business in Africa. The Heads of Mission of the African Embassies in New Delhi also actively participated in the seminar, which evoked enormous response. The action points that resulted from the seminar were also forwarded to the Ministry of Commerce for their comments and inputs.

In the spirit of South-South co-operation, the Division participated actively in the Indo-Latin file-sponsored seminar in October 1993. The Division also coordinated the G-15 Business Forum and Exhibition held from 10 to 15 December 1993. With the postponement of the G-15 Summit, bilateral business meetings between delegations that came from Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria, Egypt, Zimbabwe, Argentina, Venezuela and Senegal and India took place.

The Economic Division was also closely associated with the Joint Business Council meetings in India and Indonesia, Japan, South Africa, Mauritius, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Malaysia and several others. The JBC is an important forum for private businessmen of India and foreign countries to spell out their requirements and follow up their commercial interests. There are, at present, nearly 46 JBCs spanning all continents.

The Economic Division, as a member of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Overseas Investments, provides through Indian Missions abroad, important inputs that are considered by the Committee in deciding on joint venture applications. The Missions also play an effective role in interceding with the Government agencies of the host countries when required to solve the problems of Indian joint ventures.

The Division is a member of the Committee which evaluates the feasibility study reports prepared by the Department of Science and Technology, the Telecom Export Promotion Committee, the high level Export Promotion Committee, ITPO governing body, WAPCOS project exports etc. Through all such meetings, the Division contributed its share to the Government's policies and to the nation's export efforts.

The Division kept Indian Missions abroad abreast with the changes in the Government's policies relating to trade by promptly informing them of such changes and other relevant details. An Exporter's Directory is prepared, updated and improved upon on a regular basis, in consultation with trade and industry in India and Indian Missions abroad.

The Division through the year assisted several Missions in the collection of information for commercial enquiries from concerned departments and despatched the same expeditiously to the Missions. Indian businessmen who sought information about markets/ contacts abroad were also provided the necessary assistance. The Division also interacted with other Ministries and agencies in trade dispute matters which were brought to its attention by Missions abroad. Important tenders, commercial deals etc were also actively pursued with the concerned Ministries.

The Economic Division is the agency which is involved in the execution of the operation of the Indian Technical and Economic Co-operation (ITEC) Programme and the Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme (SCAAP). These two programmes constitute major instruments for promoting technical assistance by India to other partner countries in the developing world in the true spirit of South-South co-operation.

The year witnessed a significant increase in the scope and extent. of activities covered under the ITEC in terms of increased geographical coverage as well as the areas in which technical training is imparted in Indian civilian institutions. Apart from traditional areas like rural development, small scale industries, banking etc, greater emphasis is being given to areas like electronics, computers, foreign trade, diplomacy etc. Efforts are also afoot to streamline the ITEC programme and to bring about a greater harmonisation between the activities under the programme and the pursuit of India's economic and commercial interests abroad. Following the coverage of ITEC to all the successor States of the former USSR, greater focus is being imparted to the newly emergent Republics of Central Asia. Special cources in Banking, Foreign Trade, Diplomacy and Hotel Management were held for Central Asian Republics and Russia during the year. A Plan of Action for intensifying coverage of ITEC to Central Asian Republics (CAR) for the period 1993-94 to 1996-97 has been formulated. Under this, each year, apart from executing a few projects in each of the CAR, it is also planned to undertake feasibility studies, consultancy services on specific areas/projects of interest to India and to give more slots for training in Indian civilian institutions.

During 1993-94, around 700 nominees from partner countries have availed of training in Indian civilian institutions under ITEC/SCAAP in areas ranging from small scale industries, computer training, management, diplomacy, foreign trade etc.

Nearly 450 military personnel from about 20 countries have availed of training facilities in Indian Defence Institutions including National Defence College (NDC) in New Delhi and the Defence Services Staff College in Wellington (Tamil Nadu).

Among the projects which were executed or are nearing completion during this year are a hand-tool design centre in the Philippines and the 7th. and final phase of an ambitious project for the restoration of the famous Angkor Vat temples in Cambodia. Among the projects under execution are a Multipurpose Training Centre in the small scale sector in Vietnam, a Vocational Training Centre in Mongolia, a Solar Photovoltaic Plant in Oman, a Common Facilities Centre in Palestine (in the context of Indian support to the Middle East Peace Process), a Remote Sensing Centre in Mauritius and various other projects in Asia and Africa.

During 1993-94, around 30 experts were sent to various developing countries to assist the latter in areas as varied as agriculture, education, engineering, medicine, taxation, etc.

Study visits from partner countries to India organized under the ITEC are aimed at familiarising the former of India's capabilities in select areas, to facilitate finalising concrete areas of co-operation. Among the study visits undertaken in 1993-94 are those from Ghana, South Africa, Zimbabwe in 1993; visits from Egypt, Seychelles and Central America are also planned to be held in the course of the year.

During the year, a 3-member team of evaluators has undertaken a comprehensive review of the ITEC programme and the entire gamut of activities covered by the same. The recommendations of the team are varied and wide-ranging, including improvement of the terms and conditions under which foreign nominees avail of training programmes in India, deputation of Indian experts abroad, prioritising the areas in which assistance is sought to be extended etc. The recommendations are aimed at increasing the efficacy of ITEC as an instrument in promoting India's overall economic and commercial interests abroad, particularly in the light of the on-going reforms in the Indian economy. The recommendations of the evaluation team are under examination. Meanwhile, action has already been initiated to implement some of the recommendations; ie, grading Indian civilian training institutions (where training is imparted) on the basis of a careful evaluation of the course content and accommodation facilities, prioritising the areas where assistance is sought to be given on the basis of the specific requirements of partner countries and improving the terms and conditions under which training is imparted in Indian civilian training institutions.

Among the countries for which emergency relief assistance has been extended in 1993-94 are Grenada, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Belarus, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrghyzstan, Eritrea, Mongolia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kenya and Liberia.

11. Trade and Investment Promotion


MINISTRY of External Affairs has always accorded high priority to promoting India's economic and commercial interests abroad. Following the announcement of India's new economic policies and the emphasis placed on increasing exports and foreign investment and progressively integrating the Indian economy with global economy, the Ministry has further intensified its economic and trade promotion efforts.

India's new economic policies encourage increased interlinkages with the world economy and give the opportunity and the flexibility to deal effectively with the challenges of a new and more complex world order and the emergence of a true global economy-a world in which radical economic changes have taken place on an unprecedented scale and in which decisions concerning production, distribution, capital and technology flows are increasingly being taken not on a national but on a global basis. MEA fully recognises that India can ignore these developments only at the risk of marginalisation in the world order and that it is imperative to manage India's economic priorities in an integrated manner.

Towards this, end, Ministry of External Affairs has been active in coordinating with its Missions and Posts on the various promotional measures that need to be undertaken and in providing full support to these initiatives. These efforts are especially focussed on those countries where the potential for increasing, trade and investment flows is the highest: a list of such target countries has been drawn up for the purpose.

In this process, it has been liaising closely with the other Ministries involved such as Finance, Industry and Commerce.

Each of the Ministry's 140 Embassies/Posts abroad have arrangements for doing commercial and economic work. These arrangements have been progressively strengthened; priority has been given to providing Economic and Commercial Wings with the necessary infrastructure and back up support to aid them in the efficient execution of their responsibilities. Officers posted to Missions as Commercial Representatives undergo intensive training; refresher courses are also arranged from time to time.

Specific details of trade and investment promotion undertaken by Ministry of External Affairs both at Headquarters and through its Missions and Posts abroad in the year under review are as follows:
Trade Promotion


Missions and Posts were fully engaged in the aggressive drive to promote exports within the broad approach chalked out by the Ministry of Commerce in respect of thrust areas and "extreme focus" products. In addition to day to day functions such answering trade enquiries from Indian exporters and local importers, liaising with incoming exporters' delegations, attending to trade complaints and commercial disputes, coordinating participation in local trade fairs and interacting with local chambers of commerce and trade associations, Missions have made special efforts to organize seminars and workshops and encourage exchange of delegations in the thrust areas.

In the period under review, as part of a pro-active campaign to reach out to exporters and inform them of the rules and procedures of doing business with various foreign countries, Missions were asked to prepare detailed handbooks for exporters wishing to do business in their areas. These handbooks have been re-printed by apex Chambers of Commerce and distributed to exporters on request.

As part of the same approach, several Missions and Posts have converted specific areas in their premises into "business centres" where Indian exporters may access commercial and economic information with the Embassies and use the premises for business meetings.
Investment Promotion


Following the decision by Government of India to entrust the work relating to investment promotion abroad to Indian Embassies and Posts, Ministry of External Affairs has designated an officer in each Mission abroad to handle investment work. Missions have built up a wide network of contacts with local Chambers of Commerce, business communities, economic journalists and other opinion makers in order to keep them appraised of the Government of India's new economic policies and its progressive evolution towards even further liberalisation.

A large number of high level seminars have been organized in important business centres in Europe, Japan, South-East Asia and USA to project India as an investment destination and to create greater awareness of business opportunities in India. Speakers at such seminars have included Ministers/senior Government officials, representatives of Reserve Bank of India and leading financial institutions, management consultants, tax experts and captains of Indian industry. In the period under review, major seminars were organized in several cities of the USA, Japan, Germany, UK, Italy and Australia. Among other countries that received special attention were Singapore, Malaysia, Korea and UAE. A special effort was made to attract British investment through the Indo-British Partnership Initiative, involving close co-operation between the two Governments as well as trade and industry in the two countries.

Special emphasis was placed on a sector-specific approach in Missions investment promotion efforts. In Germany, for instance, a series of seminars were arranged in March 1993 focussing specifically on the software industry; in Japan, seminars were organized on castings and forgings and auto components, to name only two sectors. Another seminar in Singapore in May 1993 concentrated on investment opportunities in the Indian capital market. A similar sectoral approach has been followed in other countries as well such as USA and Australia.

Speaking engagements before business audiences have been arranged wherever possible when Ministers/officials from economic Ministries visited a particular country. For instance, the visit of the Finance Minister to the USA in October 1993 in connection with World Bank meetings was utilised for arranging his interaction with opinion makers in key economic journals, important members of the corporate business community and think tanks in Washington and New York.

Apex industry organizations are being increasingly co-opted into the Government's efforts to attract foreign investment. Overseas visits by business delegations are in particular, being used to project India as an attractive destination; apex chambers have, in collaboration with their overseas counterparts and with the active participation of the local Missions, organized several promotional events.

A number of Missions have started bringing out economic newsletters and bulletins focussing on the new economic policies and aimed at generating greater awareness about business opportunities in India. Some of these publications are in the local language; they are all distributed to a carefully targeted audience. The High Commission of India in Singapore has taken the initiative of sending out its weekly economic bulletin on electronic mail to major local business entities; other Missions have also been asked to look at the possibilities of doing something similar in their areas.
Back-up Support to Missions and Posts


The Ministry of External Affairs provides comprehensive back-up support to its Missions and Posts in their on-going efforts to ensure the widest possible dissemination of information about the new economic policies.

Missions and Posts are being kept regularly and, in case of target Missions, instantly informed by fax about important changes in economic policies and procedures so that they in turn can keep business, industry and other sections of targeted audiences in host countries suitably informed. Arrangements have also been made with Indian Chambers of Commerce to keep Missions regularly informed about the evolving economic scene and other economic issues.

Special importance has been given to. developing publicity material aimed at projecting India as an investment destination. The first such publicity kit prepared in October 1991 comprised a set of brochures and a floppy diskette entitled "Doing Business with India,"; the diskette provides detailed information on investment related policies and procedures in an user-friendly manner. In addition, two slide packages have been prepared in collaboration with CII and ASSOCHAM to assist Missions in projecting the new economic policies. To supplement this material in industrialised countries, a special computer-aided visual package has been prepared in collaboration with the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI). In August 1993, a set of 7 brochures detailing various aspects of Doing Business in India such as Trade, Investment and Tax policies, the size of the market and how to establish a business presence in the country were published by the Economic Coordination Unit of the Ministry and over 10,000 copies distributed through Missions and Posts abroad. This material has received widespread appreciation and is also being used by other Ministries of Government of India for distribution to foreign investors.

Attention has also been paid to reaching out to business journalists in target countries and arranging their visits to India in order to catalyse favourable coverage of the economic reform programme in the local media of these countries.

1993 highlighted a growing trend for visiting Heads of State and Government to bring along with them high level industrial delegations for the purpose of interactions with Government as well as industry on the Indian side. Ministry of External Affairs utilised this opportunity to organize Round Table interactions of the visiting industrial delegations with a panel of Secretaries from Ministries relating to their areas of interest. Such interactions were organized during the visits of British Prime Minister John Major, German Chancellor Kohl, the King of Sweden, Dutch Prime Minister Lubbers and Malaysian Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohammad. They have been found by visiting industrialists to be extremely useful in receiving first hand briefings and clarifications on India's new industrial policies. Further, the format in which these delegations are allowed the opportunity to interact at one point with several decision makers in Government of India has spoken for itself in conveying the Government's commitment to welcoming foreign investment and the genuineness of its desire to hear the foreign investors' point of view.
World Economic Forum


India was represented at the 1994 Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF) at Davos by a delegation headed by the Prime Minister, and including Commerce Minister, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Shri Sharad Pawar, Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister, Finance Secretary and several other senior officials of Goverment of India and major industralists.

The 1994 meeting had as its theme "Redefinning the Basic Assumptions about the Great Challenges Facing Mankind". At the request of WEF Prime Minister addressed the valedictory session as the final speaker on 1 February 1994. In addition, India was one of the seven countries chosen for a special country specific session, where Prime Minister, Commerce Minister and Government officials answered questions from a packed audience on India's economic reforms and new business opportunities.

The importance given to India at Davos and the high degree of interest expressed by the members of the international corporate community present are indicative of increasing foreign interest in India as an investment destination and the growing conviction that the reforms are here to stay and will be carried forward. The "India session" at the Annual Meeting of 1994 was attended by over 130 delegates, much more than the number of delegates who attended a similar session in 1992.

12. Policy Planning and Research


THE Policy Planning and Research Division prepared briefs and back- ground notes on issues concerning India's foreign policy in the rapidly changing international scenario. It continued its co-operation with the sponsors of Seminars and Conferences on international issues for extending partial financial assistance. This facilitated the organization of seminars and symposia by a number of institutions in different parts of India. It extended such assistance to 15 Seminars Conferences during the period under review on subjects covering challenges to India's foreign policy, regional security perspectives, geo-political parameters of South-Eastern Indian Ocean, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, China and South Asia in the post-cold war world, South- South co-operation and G- 15 Summit, etc. It also extended financial support to scholars and academic institutions for studies and research projects on subjects relevant to this Ministry.

The Division assisted the territorial Divisions as well as Indian Missions abroad on issues relating to India's international boundary or whenever any specific information or documents on international relations were required.

The Division examined maps printed in foreign publications (both official and private), which incorrectly depicted international boundaries of India, in consultation with the concerned territorial Divisions. It also took up the matter with the concerned publishers through Indian Missions abroad for necessary corrective measures.

The Division continued to coordinate the Ministry's approval to new Survey of India maps depicting international boundaries of India. It also coordinated with the Survey of India and the Ministry of Defence for the supply of restricted map-sheets to various Government or semi- Government agencies for use in their official work.

The Division handled the requests from research scholars for access to the closed records of the Ministry in the National Archives of India relating to the restricted areas as laid down in the Access Rules in consultation with the concerned territorial Divisions. It also scrutinised excerpts of the closed period records taken by research scholars for clearance in consultation with the concerned territorial Divisions.

An important task of the Division is to edit and coordinate the printing of the Annual Report of the Ministry prepared on the basis of the material sent by the various Divisions.

The Printing of Old Records (POR) Unit, attached to this Division, is entrusted with the task of editing and printing selected old policy files of the Ministry. It also undertook review/weeding of old files of the Record Management Section of the Ministry as well as of Indian Missions abroad referred to it by them. Similarly, the Unit reviewed the old closed records kept in the National Archives of India. The Research Section of the Division continued to coordinate the distribution of periodical reports from Indian Missions abroad.

To support the research efforts, a library equipped with modern facilities and large resource material is maintained with over one hundred thousand books and documents in its collection. The Library subscribes to 600 periodical titles. The library is equipped with an in- house computer system with 12 terminals, two of which support data entry and retrieval in Indian languages; a microfilm/fiche reader printer and a plain paper photocopier. A Laser Printer with DTP software is also available and is being utilised for producing documents of the Division.

Documentation/Bibliographic Services as well as other library operations and services were computerised using an integrated software package developed in India. Information about books and selected periodical articles received in the Library since 1986 is available on-line through each terminal. All new documents received in the Library-books, maps, microforms, selected articles from periodicals etc-are being fed into the in-house computer system to create a database on foreign affairs. Using this database, the Library provides Current Awareness Service and Bibliographical Services. In addition, the Library regularly issued a monthly Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin and an annotated monthly list of Recent Additions to the Library.

Library users including Research Scholars can access on-line computer- based information held in the Library in different databases through the Foreign Affairs Information Retrieval System (FAIRS). Photocopying and Computer Print-out facilities are also available to all Library users including Research Scholars.

The Policy Planning & Research Division has embarked upon the collection of information on Indian Scholars and Mediapersons specialising in international affairs as well as Scholars and Mediapersons from selected foreign countries specialising on India/South Asia. This database has been computerised in the Library.

The Division has commenced publication of India's bilateral treaties and agreements with foreign countries signed after Independence. The first three volumes of the publication covering the period from August 1947 to December 1960 were published, in January 1994. The publication is expected to fulfil a long-felt need of scholars of international relations and serve as useful reference material.

13. External Publicity


THE External Publicity Division (XP Division) has been entrusted with the responsibility of projecting India's views and concerns on national and international issues, and acquainting audiences abroad with developments in India in the political, economic, social and cultural spheres, with particular reference to all issues that have a connection with the foreign policy of India.

There are two broad streams in XP Division's work: the first is the on- going work of projecting India on the world stage, which is basically done by providing Indian Missions abroad with adequate and appropriate publicity material of various kinds and supporting their information efforts. This on-going work includes organizing the media element of Indian VVIP visits abroad as well as foreign VVIPs who visit India, hosting journalists and other persons from abroad, monitoring the world media, preparing print as well as audio visual publicity material, etc. The second stream is the special efforts that need to be mounted for meeting the requirements of the publicity fall-out from major events, countering anti-India propaganda, etc.

During the year under review, the XP Division was actively engaged in discharging its responsibility of projecting India's position on various issues and developments in India as well as countering propaganda directed against India. Simultaneously, due emphasis was given to dissemination of credible information relating to the positive aspects of India's economic, scientific and technological progress and underlining the sustained march of Indian democracy. A thrust was given to the wide publicity on the new policy initiative undertaken by the present Government, particularly, the drive for economic liberalisation including the country's concerted efforts to attract foreign investment.

The XP Division continued to assist Indian Missions/Posts abroad with publicity material in different languages for distribution to local dignitaries, prominent persons, opinion makers and academic institutions, etc. These publications have been especially designed with the objective of acquainting foreign audiences with the multi-faceted nature of the Indian polity and the sustained progress of independent India.

False and malicious propaganda relating to human rights, the situation in Punjab and Kashmir and other incidents such as Ayodhya, bomb blasts in Bombay, communal riots in India, the Hazratbal incident, etc, were focussed upon by certain countries such as Pakistan.

While developments in Jammu & Kashmir have figured prominently in the international media, the focus has been on activities of terrorists as well as allegations of excesses by security forces and violations of human rights, the latter being the subject of an intensive propaganda effort by Pakistan.

To counter such disinformation a number of specific and important steps have been taken.

The basic aim of the efforts being made by the Ministry of External Affairs to counter the anti-Indian allegations are:

(i) To try to put the overall situation in the proper perspective;

(ii) To rebut specific allegations by providing correct factual position. A substantial amount of material including pictorial descriptions, video films, pamphlets, has been compiled and disseminated to all our Missions so that they could utilise this effectively for briefing Governments of their accreditation, opinion makers, media personnel, officials and politicians. The material has highlighted the truth behind the situation in Kashmir and Punjab as well as Pakistan's aiding and abetting of terrorism in these States. Other material include facts about human rights violations, factual position with regard to the special legislation passed in India to deal with abnormal situations created by secessionist movements and terrorists, such as the TADA, the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, etc. Material has also been widely distributed regarding Pakistan's links with narco terrorism, its training camps for terrorists as well as material which pinpoints the activities of terrorists in these States in exhaustive detail. Amnesty International's comprehensive report on India has been examined with other concerned Departments of the Government of India and a comprehensive rebuttal prepared, giving the factual position which proved very effective in blunting adverse criticism and exposing the grossly exaggerated picture of human rights allegations apart from showing that it is the terrorists, armed and trained and financed by Pakistan, who are violating the fundamental human- right to life, by killing innocent people.

"India Perspectives", the monthly magazine which is published by the XP Division, is now brought out in 10 languages and has emerged as a major component in the Ministry's publicity efforts. The magazine has widened its readership and feedback from Indian Missions has been most encouraging. At present, 50,000 copies are printed and sent out to Indian Missions abroad for further redistribution.

The Division continued to regularly brief the foreign and Indian Press about India's policy on various issues. Government's swift response, as well as material outlining facts and all steps taken to counter communal forces, were disseminated to all the Missions abroad in order to enable them to present India's point of view to foreign officials, foreign governments as well as Media, opinion makers and others. During the period under review almost daily press briefings were held for the Media and press releases issued. In all, more than 490 Official Spokesman's statements/press releases were issued.

As part of its regular programme of inviting foreign journalists on familiarisation visits, XP Division hosted 40 journalists from 19 different countries during the period and made a further commitment to visits of 17 more foreign journalists from 10 other countries. The countries include the Philippines, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Oman, Nepal, Ukraine, Republic of Korea, Bangladesh, Austria, Sri Lanka, UAE, Pakistan, Greece, Tunisia, Thailand, Kenya, Syria, Namibia and Sweden. In addition, reputed economic journalists from select target countries such as Britain, Germany, France, Japan, Russia and South Africa visited India, in pursuance of Prime Minister's directive of inviting such journalists to enable them to have first hand information about economic liberalisation in India. Some of these visits coincided with the India Engineering Trade Fair and the India International Trade Fair. The outcome of these visits reflects a considerable degree of success achieved in generating goodwill and promoting the cause of favourable projection of India's views and concerns on international issues.

The XP Division looked after logistics/media arrangements for VVIP visits abroad. During the period under review, the Division has handled media arrangements and logistics for journalists accompanying the President to Ukraine, UK, Turkey, Greece and Hungary, the Vice President to UK, Morocco and Vietnam and the Prime Minister to Thailand, Bangladesh, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Oman, China, Republic, of Korea, Bhutan and Iran.

The Division facilitated media arrangements for the foreign journalists accompanying the VVIPs on their visits to India. A Liaison Officer from XPR Section was attached with each visiting delegation. The Following VVIPs visited India during the period:

King of Bhutan, Prime Minister of UK, President of Sri Lanka, Prime Minister of Spain, German Chancellor, President of Moldova, President of Mauritius, King and Queen of Nepal, President of Tanzania, Prime Minister of Belarus, President of Burkina, Faso, President of Nauru, President of Ireland, President of Zambia, King & Queen of Sweden, Prime Minister of Netherlands, Chairman of National Committee of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

XPR Section also arranged the media coverage for the incoming visits of ten Foreign Ministers and Deputy Prime Ministers from different countries.

XPR Section also processed documentary proposals from foreign TV producers for clearance and this involved references to various departments agencies in the Government of India. A total of 189 proposals were processed during the period. In addition, 109 foreign journalists were accredited and provided other miscellaneous press facilities.

Information and publicity activity through the audio-visual media were substantially expanded during the year. Approximately 50 documentaries on various aspects of India were acquired from various sources besides Doordarshan and Films Division for distribution to Missions Posts in the appropriate colour systems for non-commercial presentation. Approximately 15 of these were acquired in the 16 or 35 mm film formats also. Missions were also requested to promote films of outstanding quality commercially as, information or entertainment software.

Under the XP Division's film production programme, a film on investment opportunities opened up by the economic reforms in India was produced and circulated to all Missions and Posts. This film as wen as some other films from the XP Division catalogue were telecast in approximately 40 countries world-wide notably on the occasion of the Independence Day 1993. French and German versions of an earlier production "Continuity in Change" were also produced.

The XP Division runs an active film programme through Indian Missionse Posts abroad. Approximately 150-200 Indian feature films from XP Division and from the Directorate of Film Festivals were presented at nearly 40 film events/festivals organized in this manner. The XP Division has also had a role in the organization of the India International Film Festival 1994 (IFFI 1994), the Bombay International Documentary and Short Film Festival 1994, and the International Children's Festival at Udaipur in October 1993.

The XP Division processes the hardware audio-visual requirements of Missions/Posts. Twelve Missions were sanctioned satellite dish antennae for reception of satellite TV, requirements of 16 Missions for TV/VCRs were met as also the requirements of 3 Missions for film projectors. On the organizational front, the entire inventory of feature films, documentary films, video programmes, photographs and transparencies were computerised.

On the photo publicity side, 12,000 photographs mostly from Photo Division, 5,000 transparencies, and 1,300 posters acquired from independent sources were circulated/distributed to Missions. Aproximately 250 new transparencies were acquired.

A Special Unit has been set up to strengthen India's external publicity efforts and to coordinate the external publicity efforts amongst the various Ministries of the Government of India.

14. Protocol


DURING the year 1993-94, Heads of Diplomatic Mission of the following eighteen countries left India on completion of their assignments:-

1 Ghana
2 Slovakia
3 Germany
4 Tanzania
5 Greece
7 Cyprus
8 Austria
9 Brunei
10 Japan
11 Mauritius
12 Colombia
13 Libya
14 Thailand
15 Korea (DPR)
16 Bhutan
17 Philippines
18 Argentina

During the same period, Heads of Diplomatic Mission of the following sixteen countries presented their credentials to the President of India:-

1 New Zealand
2 Bulgaria

3 Chile
4 Poland
5 Indonesia
6 Qatar
7 Austria
8 Japan
9 Cuba
10 Colombia
11 Greece
12 Laos
13 Kazakhstan
14 Cyprus
15 Portugal
16 Germany

During the period under review, the following countries opened their 'Resident Missions' in New Delhi:-

1 Ukraine
2 Uzbekistan
3 Kazakhstan
4 South Africa

A list containing names of foreign dignitaries who visited India and a list containing information about visits by Indian VVIPs to foreign countries during the year are at Appendices XIII and XIV.

15. Passport and Consular Services and Indians Overseas


THE main areas of focus during 1993 were reduction in the backlog and time taken in the issue of passports, simplification of procedures, upgradation of facilities and a long term review of all aspects of passport issue.

The pendency, which had peaked at over 12 lakhs in May 1992 and was approximately 11.4 lakhs at the start of January 1993, was reduced to around 5.3 lakhs as on 31 December 1993.

The output of the Passport Offices increased further during 1993 with the issue of over 27 lakh fresh passports. This figure represents an increase of about 21 per cent over the output in 1992 which itself was an increase of 46.4 per cent over the 1991 output. Detailed input and output figures regarding fresh passports and miscellaneous services are at Appendix IV.

The factors that contributed to this increase included a stable supply of an adequate number of passport booklets, some increase in staff, the introduction of an incentive system geared to enhance the output from all personnel and a ma or overall effort.

The Passport (Amendment) Act 1993 came into effect on 1 July 1993. Major features of the Act include provisions to enable the Government to fix the fee based on the cost of production and preparation of passports and to increase the penalties for violations of the Act. Consequent to the Act coming into force, passport fees were rationalised and revised with effect from 10 July 1993 in a manner by which what was in effect a subsidy to passport holders from the rest of the public was put to an end. It is Government's policy to provide passport services on a noprofit basis.

Further systematisation and streamlining of procedures resulted in operational measures in the following areas

(1) Specific instructions for students studying in hostels or away from home were drawn up, by which minors below 15 years of age would have the option of applying at the Passport Office covering either their parents/permanent address or present place of residence while all others would need to apply at their place of normal residence for the major part of the year.

(2) After a thorough examination of the operation of the system of recruitment of labourers for Saudi Arabia, the procedure for issuing passports on priority on grounds of employment was clearly laid down in a manner to ensure that, no genuine case with a specific visa or demand letter would be denied a passport on the basis of authentic documentation.

(3) With the resumption of diplomatic relations with South Africa, the erstwhile restriction on travel to South Africa on passports of Indian nationals stands deleted. Passport Offices are to provide this service free and as a matter of course Immigration check points have also been advised that the limiting endorsement with regard to South Africa, if found on a passport, is to be treated as deleted.

(4) In order to keep the public informed about the position in the processing of applications, Passport Offices now issue a weekly press release indicating the application date covered in the previous week on a first-come-first-served basis where the application is complete in all respects. This has helped to give the public an idea of when their cases are likely to be processed. It has also helped individuals to bring to the attention of the Passport Officers and the Ministry those cases which might have not been processed for various reasons such as incomplete documentation and enabled appropriate necessary action.

(5) An officer of the CPV Division meets members of the public every day to hear complaints and resolve problems.

(6) Letters of complaint received by the CPV Division are entered into a computer database and followed up at various levels as a result of which several cases have been resolved. Complaints against staff are investigated and where it is established that action is called for, the official is proceeded against either departmentally or by the CBI.

(7) In order to facilitate travel where the renewal of a passport issued at another office requires verification of the particulars from the original issuing office, all passport issuing authorities can on application renew a passport for a period of one year pending verification of the document.

(8) With the stabilisation in the supply of passport booklets, applicants wishing to have an additional booklet instead of visa sheets may now be issued an additional booklet as per their preference.

(9) A `jumbo' passport booklet with an increased number of pages for the frequent traveller is to be introduced. A proto-type has been developed and is presently undergoing testing for introduction once found acceptable.

The Ministry worked in close consultation with various law enforcement agencies on matters concerning passport fraud. An inter-ministerial group has completed work on the format and features of machine readable passports and visas in terms of international standards and the Government of India's requirements. Proto-types are now to be produced by India Security Press (ISP) (Nasik) for testing before acceptance and introduction.

As part of the on-going work to place the cadre management of the Central Passport Organization on a stable basis, 110 promotions and 416 confirmations were effected during the year. A majority of the 400 newly created posts were filled up through promotions and nominations forwarded by the Staff Selection Committee. Vacancies at lower levels resulting from promotions are now in the process of being filled up as per prescribed procedures.

The Passport Offices at Calcutta, Chandigarh, jalandhar, Kozhikode, Lucknow, Madras, Patna and Tiruchirapalli were inspected during the year and specific operational problems identified and addressed.

Regional Passport Office (RPO) (Bombay) suffered a serious setback with one of the blasts of 12 March 1993 occurring close to its premises, causing considerable damage. The office was however operational on the first working day after the blast with the Regional Passport Officer and his staff ensuring that services to the public were not disrupted in any major way.

Government took steps to identify alternate premises for several Passport Offices and to upgrade facilities wherever possible in existing offices. New and more spacious premises for the Regional Passport Office (Delhi) have been got ready at Bhikaji Cama Place. Completion formalities are now awaited in order to enable the office to shift. Construction of new office space at Cochin and Kozhikode is nearing completion. Proposals regarding Ahmedabad, Bhubaneswar, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Panaji are at various stages of processing. An overall package to upgrade office equipment and fittings has resulted in most Passport Offices now having fax machines, franking machines, photocopiers and electronic typewriters in addition to whenever necessary, public address systems and generator sets (to ensure availability of electricity during power cuts to run the laminating machines so as not to delay the issue of passports). Computer installation at Regional Passport Office (Bombay) which got delayed owing to the bomb blast, has been completed and is being operationalised. Site preparation at the CPV Division is presently going on.

Security of Passport Offices is an area that has required greater attention. Whenever necessary, arrangements by the State Government were supplemented with the hiring of private security agencies. This has so far been done in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Cochin, Kozhikode, Lucknow and Madras.

Consular work with regard to Indian nationals abroad continued to be an area requiring constant attention particularly in regions where there is a high concentration of labour. Assistance provided to Indians included repatriation of destitute Indians, using the Missions' good offices to settle differences with local employers, tracking cases of Indians under trial in foreign countries, visiting Indians in jails, assisting with formalities for Indians who died abroad including either the performance of last rites in the country concerned or the return of the bod y to India, follow-up with the next of kin regarding necessary documentation and dues and so on.

Figures regarding various categories of cases where consular services were provided in India and abroad may be seen at Appendix VI.

The subject of foreigners in Indian prisons came in for specific attention during the year. An agreement for the transfer of convicted prisoners has been initialled with Spain. Similar agreements are under consideration with some other countries.

Fees for consular services such as authentication of documents, rendered by Missions and Posts abroad were last revised on I November 1985. Due to a steep rise in costs, fees for consular services were revised with effect from 1 December 1993.

There are approximately 13 million overseas Indians including Indian citizens and persons of Indian origin and descent who have adopted the citizenship of other countries. While the welfare of Indian citizens remains the prime responsibility of the Government of India, the close links of the entire overseas Indian community with India were sought to be strengthened further in both the cultural and economic fields. Indian Missions abroad interacted closely with overseas Indians for this purpose.

16. Administration and Organization


SHRI Dinesh Singh continued to hold charge as Minister of External Affairs with Shri R L Bhatia and Shri Salman Khurshid as Ministers of State for External Affairs, during the year 1993-94.

During the year reported upon, a new Mission was opened in Brunei on 18 May 1993 and an Indian Cultural Centre was opened in Johannesburg (South Africa) on 24 May 1993. In addition, the Government proposes to open 6 new Missions/Posts shortly in Ashkabad (Turkmenistan), Dushanbe (Tajikistan), Bishkek (Kyrghyzstan), Istanbul (Turkey) and Durban and Pretoria (South Africa). This is being done in accordance with policy directions given by the Government, to safeguard India's economic and political interests in the post cold war global scenario. The Mission in Kabul was re-opened on 25 September 1993.

Separately, and as a measure of economy, the Embassies in Malawi, Colombia and Zaire were closed down.

The Ministry, therefore, has now 140 Resident Missions/Posts abroad including Indian Cultural Centre in Johannesburg and 3 special Missions. The Indian Cultural Centre in Johannesburg has recently been upgraded to Consulate General of India.

In order to streamline the work at headquarters and to meet the changing functional requirements, two new units have been set up in the Ministry to deal with international economic co-operation and disarmament.

The total strength of IFS and IFS(B) at Headquarters and Indian Missions and Posts abroad is 3484. This includes certain posts borne on the budget of Ministry of Commerce but excludes ex-cadred posts and those held in abeyance. In addition, 11 posts are held by ex-cadre Heads of Mission. The cadre-wise strength is at Appendix VIII. The list of officers qualified in various foreign languages is at Appendix IX. The statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment and promotion) made in various groups in the Ministry and reserved vacancies filled by Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes during the year 1992 is at Appendix X.

In pursuance of the directive of the Standing Committee of the Parliament, the Ministry intensified efforts to purchase and construct office and residential accommodation for Indian Missions abroad, keeping in view functional requirements, condition of the real estate market in various countries and availability of funds. A plot of land was purchased in Lucknow for construction of a Regional Passport Office-cum- residential building. An agreement has been signed with Bangladesh to acquire a plot of land in Dhaka, on exchange basis, for the construction of a Chancery-cum-residential complex for Indian High Commission. Land has also been purchased in Delhi to build residential accommodation for officers and staff of the Ministry.

Proposals are under active consideration for purchase of properties for Indian Missions in London, New York, Vladivostok, Dhaka, Almaty and Regional Passport Office, Hyderabad. The construction work at Papankala project to provide residential accommodation for Ministry's officials has begun. The interior work at the new premises for the Regional Passport Office, Delhi at Bhikaji Cama Place has been completed. The Ministry has taken various steps to enable the start of construction of a new headquarters of the Ministry on Maulana Azad Road and the Foreign Service Institute in JNU Campus.

The pre-construction work for projects in Riyadh, Abu Dhabi, Islamabad (Phase--II) and Tashkent is at an advanced stage. The pre-construction planning for projects in Beijing, Kathmandu, Dhaka, Kiev, Muscat, Port Louis and Bonn has been initiated.

In order to assess the functioning of Indian Missions abroad, Foreign Service Inspectors inspected Missions in Abu Dhabi, Almaty, Beijing, Brunei, Bonn, Buenos Aires, Frankfurt, Islamabad, Karachi, Lima, Manila, Riyadh, Rome, Shanghai, Tashkent and Ulan Bator.

The Ministry provided computers to several more Divisions at Headquarters and in Missions abroad to further improve their efficiency.

17. Foreign Service Institute


DURING the year under review, the initiative taken by the Foreign Service Institute in 1992 in organizing exclusive courses for foreign diplomats, has found wide and positive response resulting in a large demand for such courses. Although it has been impossible to cater to the entire demand, the Foreign Service Institute held the third exclusive Course from 20 September to 30 November 1993. In this programme there were 26 diplomats from 17 countries. These included diplomats from the Baltic Republics (Latvia and Lithuania), the Central Asian Republics (Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan), Armenia, Moldova, Poland and Bulgaria, South Africa (ANC and PAC), Kiribati, Vietnam, Laos, Syria as well as Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar.

The Institute successfully completed in November 1993, the Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for IFS Probationers of the 1992 batch. A special feature of their programme this year was the emphasis on getting to know the country and its institutions. Accordingly, an all round exposure was organized on defence related matters. The Probationers spent time with the Army, Air Force and Navy. During their tour on training they travelled to the Southern States of India, while for their District Attachment they chose either States in the North, East or non-home States. For the second successive year, the Probationers were given an exposure to management issues and the foreign service: this was organized at the Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore. The Probationers were also given training in the use of computers and learnt Hindi in addition to a foreign language.

The new economic policies of Government were appropriately highlighted in all courses carried out at the Institute. India's experience in liberalising the economy and the steps taken by her to encourage flow of investment and technology were discussed and highlighted especially in the exclusive course for foreign diplomats and in the IFS Probationers training programme.

The Institute's language laboratory was completed this year. It is now fully operational and has borne fruit. Language courses are available to all members of the Foreign Service and these are being organized as required. Likewise, the Institute modernised and upgraded its computer training equipment and actively continued to provide computer famillarization training programmes. These programmes are exceedingly popular and the Institute receives more requests for admission than the limited capacity available.

The Institute made special efforts to develop and foster linkages with similar institutions in other countries. During the year, the Dean visited Vienna to attend the meeting of the Associations of Directors of Diplomatic Academies and Institutes of International Relations (ADDAIR), Budapest for interaction with University of Economic Sciences and New York to attend the 8th session of the high-level committee and consultations with UNDP headquarters. Representatives of the Institute visited Botswana to discuss training requirements for ANC diplomats from South Africa, and Zimbabwe to attend the inaugural seminar for setting up of an Institute of International Affairs there. The Zambian authorities made a request to FSI for technical assistance in developing their training programmes, the discussions for which are in progress. The German Foundation in International Development has expressed a desire to establish linkages with FSI and several Asian, African and European countries have requested for training.

Under the Ford Foundation Project, one member of the faculty visited Washington and successfully completed the MBTI Qualifying Workshop.

Under the UNDP Project, two Foreign Service officers will be sent abroad for the academic year 1993--94.

Apart from these special activities, the basic functions of the Foreign Service Institute continued with the training of officers and members of staff under different programmes. These included:

(i) "Introduction to India "-Familiarisation Programme for Resident Diplomats.

(ii) Basic Professional Course for IFS (B) personnel being posted abroad.

(iii) Hand-on Computer Programmes.

(iv) Language Programmes.

The Institute expanded its activities by arranging special programmes for non-MEA personnel going on posting to Indian Missions abroad.

18. Implementation of Official Language Policy and Propagation of Hindi Abroad


THE Ministry continued to implement with vigour the Official Language Policy. Steps were also taken to propagate Hindi abroad. The Hindi Advisory Committee of the Ministry provided guidance in both these tasks. The Official Language Implementation Committee, headed by joint Secretary (Administration), oversaw the day to day implementation of these tasks.

In general terms, workshops were organized for those having working knowledge of Hindi, a Hindi module for the Indian Foreign Service Probationers of the 1992 Batch was organized, Hindi week was observed and various competitions organized at Headquarters as well as in some Indian Missions abroad and Passport Offices in India. The Ministry persisted with its decision not to purchase Roman typewriters.

Special emphasis was laid on monitoring the implementation of the Official Language Policy in the Passport Offices. Officers from Headquarters inspected Passport Offices from this point of view at Chandigarh and jalandhar. The Committee of Parliament on Official Language also inspected the Passport Offices at Bangalore and Bhubaneshwar. This Committee of Parliament also received the Oral Evidence from a team of officials of the Ministry headed by the Foreign Secretary.

An encouraging picture emerged from Ministry's efforts to propagate Hindi abroad. Specifically, sets of standard Hindi literature, Hindi teaching aids like text books, audio cassettes, charts, dictionaries, etc were supplied to specific Indian Missions abroad. There were noticeable demands from institutions in foreign countries for such material. Some Indian Missions started Hindi classes on the request of local residents. In this context, the Indian Missions in Mexico, Buenos Aires, Budapest and Ulan Bator need to be mentioned.

The Fourth World Hindi Conference was held from 2 to 4 December 1993 in Mauritius. Ministry of External Affairs coordinated all Indian assistance given to the Conference, which included the holding of an exhibition on Hindi language and literature, despatch of cultural troops, presentation of books and electronic bilingual typewriters, etc. A high-powered 15-member official delegation, led by Shri Madhukar Rao Chowdhury, Speaker of Maharashtra Legislative Assembly, participated on behalf of the Government. Shri Ram Lal Rahi, Deputy Home Minister, was the Deputy Leader of the Indian delegation. The Conference was attended by scholars, writers and intellectuals from twenty odd countries.

The Indian Consulate in Kobe and the Embassy in Paramaribo organized Hindi Essay Competitions for students. The Ministry provided prizes for the winners.

19. Cultural Relations


THE Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) was established in

April 1950 with the primary objective of establishing, reviving and strengthening cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries. The Council has since worked steadfastly towards that direction.

The major activities of the Council include: administration of scholarship schemes on behalf of Government of India for overseas students and welfare of overseas students; exchange of scholars, academicians, opinion makers, artistes and writers; exchange of exhibitions; organization of and participation in seminars and symposia; exchange of performing arts groups; establishing and maintaining chairs and professorships for Indian studies abroad; presentation of books; organizing annual Maulana Azad Memorial Lectures and Maulana Azad Essay Competitions; providing the secretariat for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding; publications; maintaining Indian cultural centres abroad and supporting special bilateral programmes.

Scholarships and Welfare of Overseas Students

During the year 1993-94, the Council granted scholarships to 647 new overseas students for graduate and post-graduate courses. The total number of overseas students under various ICCR scholarships is 1782. Most of the scholarship holders are from developing countries while there are a few from developed countries like Japan, France, Germany, Austria and Canada.

The Council has decided to institute a new scholarship in the memory of the late Apa Sahib Pant. The Apa Sahib Pant Memorial. Scholarship will be awarded annually from the academic year commencing July 1994 for a meritorious Kenyan student. Apa Sahib was the first Indian Commissioner to Kenya.

At the request of the family of the former Japanese Foreign Minister, the late Mr Saburo Okita, the Council will administer an annual scholarship in the memory of Mr Okita for an Indian student to study Indo-Japanese relations. The scheme would come into effect from the academic session commencing July 1994.

The welfare of all foreign students is the responsibility of the Council. In May 1993, the Council organized a meeting of all Foreign Students' Advisers of various Universities throughout India to review and discuss matters related to the welfare of overseas students.

The Council celebrated the birth anniversary of its founder, Maulana Azad, on 11 November as Foreign Students Day by arranging special get- togethers of overseas students in Delhi and at various Universities. On these occasions, overseas students presented cultural programmes relating to their countries. Indian Missions abroad also organized special functions to mark the day by inviting former alumni of Indian Universities, thus keeping alive contacts with former alumni who studied in India.

Performing Arts

The major highlights of presentation of India's composite culture abroad have been the Days of Indian Culture in Hungary, participation at the Theatre Festival at Glasgow, Brisbane International Festival, London International Festival of Theatre, Teatre Tascabole Di Bergamo in Italy, XVIII Festival of Eastern Venezuela and Five Continents and on the occasion of the Fourth World Hindi Conference in Mauritius.

During April-December 1993, the Council sponsored 33 cultural troupes abroad to 39 countries (Details at Appendix XIX). Following is an indicative list of troupes/artistes sponsored by the Council:

(i) Smt Madhavi Mudgal-Odissi Dancer

(ii) Shri Karaikudi Mani-Percussionist

(iii) Naya Theatre Group led by Shri Habib Tanvir

(iv) Sankirtana Group, Imphal

(v) Smt Penaaz Masani-Vocalist

(vi) Guru Maya Dhar Raut-Odissi and pupils

(vii) Ustad Bismillah Khan-Shehnai

(viii) Kum Alarmel Valli-Bharatanatyam

(ix) Kum Neera Batra-Kathak

(x) Karnataka College of Percussion, Bangalore

(xi) Teejan Bai-Pandavani Singer

(xii) National School of Drama Repertory-Theatre Group

(xiii) Jhaveri Sisters-Manipuri

During April-December 1993, the Council received 14 cultural troupes from 12 countries (Details at Appendix XX). Following is an indicative ist of troupes/artistes received from abroad:

(i) Zanoubi Folk Dance Troupe-Syria

(ii) Children's ensemble-D P R Korea

(iii) Talking Drums-Nigeria

(iv) Sonia Amelio-Mexico

(v) Het Folkloristisch Danstheater-Netherlands

(vi) Ms Zaniboni-France

(vii) Kroumata Percussion Ensemble-Sweden

(viii) Reda Dance Troupe- Egypt

(ix) Compagnie Didier Thorne-France

(x) VTM Military Band-Switzerland

The Council organized 7 special performances of Indian artistes in
honour of VVIP visitors/delegates/conferences (Details at Appendix XXI).


Major exhibitions abroad organized by the Council were "Magical Hands- living Indian Crafts" in Schallaburg, Austria from April to November 1993 and "India Songs-Multiple Streams in Contemporary Indian Art" in five Australian cities from April to October 1993. Both these exhibitions were highly acclaimed and the one in Austria had a record number of 1,00,000 visitors. Other exhibitions organized by the Council during April-December 1993 were: " Photographic Exhibition My Land My People" in Egypt and Lebanon; "Children's Paintings" in South Korea; and "Contemporary Art Exhibition-Meeting Point" in UK (Details at Appendix XXII).

Visitors Programme

During April-December 1993, the Council sponsored and assisted 35 Indian scholars, intellectuals, academicians and artists to participate in seminars, symposia, study tours, etc abroad (Details at Appendix XXIII). During the same period, the Council received 31 visitors from 12 countries under the Incoming Visitors Programme (Details at Appendix XXIV).

Seminars and Symposia

The Council in collaboration with the Supreme Council of Culture of the Arab Republic of Egypt. organized a seminar on "Contemporary Cultural Relations between India and Egypt" in New Delhi from 20 to 23 December 1993, focussing on contemporary literature, theatre and cinema. Eminent scholars and personalities from both countries participated in the dialogue. The seminar was second in the series on Indo-Egyptian relations.

The Council also collaborated with the Khuda Baksh Library, Patna, in organization of the Seminar on "Historical & Cultural Links between India & Uzbekistan from ancient times to present day".

Indian Cultural Centres Abroad

To promote greater awareness and appreciation of India's composite culture abroad, the Council has established cultural centres in Georgetown (Guyana), Moscow (Russia), Port Louis (Mauritius), Paramaribo (Suriname), Cairo (Egypt), Berlin (Germany), London (UK), Johannesburg (South Africa) and Jakarta (Indonesia).

The centres with the exception of Berlin, London and Johannesburg impart lessons in Indian music, dance, yoga and languages. For this purpose teachers are deputed by the Council. Each centre maintains a library and a reading room and organizes lectures, symposia, exhibitions, essay competitions, plays, dance and music, performances and screening of films.

The centres in Berlin and London primarily focus their activities on the local decision makers, opinion makers, intellectuals and friends of India through lectures, seminars, symposia, cultural programmes and films. The centres also maintain contact with a wide cross-section of students, teachers, scholars and cultural personalities.

The Cultural Centre in Johannesburg established in May 1993 has started its activities and these presently relate to information and consular services. The centre is expected to enhance its activities in the financial year 1994-95.

All cultural centres abroad extend a supportive role to ICCR's activities by coordinating events from India in their respective regions.

Visiting Professors and Chairs of India Studies

The Council deputes visiting professors abroad to teach Indology, Indian languages and other related subjects. The deputation of Professors abroad is done under the bilateral Cultural Exchange Programme and where 'institutional arrangements exist with ICCR.

ICCR presently has on deputation abroad 19 Professors teaching Hindi, Sanskrit, Tamil and Anthropology/Sociology (Details at Appendix XXV)

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Essay Competition

The Council annually organizes an Essay Competition for citizens of SAARC countries below the age of 30 years. The Essay Competition is held in three languages, namely, Hindi, Urdu, and English. The topics for the Essay Competition relate to the ideals of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and their relevance in the contemporary situation with particular focus on the SAARC region.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Memorial Lecture

The 27th Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Memorial Lecture was delivered on 6 December 1993 by justice Mohamad Sai'd Al Ashmawy, Chief justice of the Higher State Security and Criminal Court of the Arab Republic of Egypt. The topic of the lecture was "Religion and Politics".

Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding

The Council provides the secretariat for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding. All nominations received for the award were processed and compiled.

Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education and Culture

The Council provides the secretariat for the Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education & Culture.

The thrust of the Indo-US Sub-Commission's programmes has been the area of new information technology. A series of programmes under the umbrella of "Information 2000+" have been organized in India.

These are:

(i) an exhibition on "Structures" at National Science Centre, New Delhi;

(ii) "Classroom 2000+", a programme on Distance Learning by the Department of Education and Central Institute of Educational Technology;

(iii) a symposium on the "Future of the Mind: Mind of the Future";

(iv) seminar on "New Mass Communications Environment";

(v) Workshop on "Low Altitude Aerial Photography" in co-operation with the US and the Indian experts from the Archaeological Survey of India.

Indo-British Discussion Group The Council provides the secretariat for the Indo-British Discussion Group. This year the meeting of the Indo-British Discussion Group took place in London in June 1993 and the theme of the discussions was "Dominant Trends in International Relations in the 1990s".

Africa Day, UN Day and PLO Day

The Council organized special functions to observe the Africa Day (25 May), the UN day (24 October) and the PLO Day (29 November).


The Council brings out six quarterly journals in different languages English ('Indian Horizons' and 'Africa Quarterly'), Hindi (Gagananchal), French (Rencontre avec l'Inde), Spanish (Papeles de la India) and Arabic (Thakafatul Hind). A special issue of Gagananchal was brought out on the occasion of the 4th International Hindi Conference held at Mauritius. This issue was unique as it carried a large number of contributions from non-Indian scholars writing in Hindi. Similarly, a special issue of Africa Quarterly on Post-apartheid South Africa was brought out in celebration of the process underway for dismantling racism in South Africa. To mark the Poetry Festival, a Special Issue of Indian Horizons was brought out on Indian poetry and was dedicated to the memory of Prof A K Ramanujam.

The Council has also brought out two books, "Studying in India" which is a revised edition of a publication providing information on India for foreign students wishing to study in India, and "Contemporary Relevance of Sufism" which was released on 11 November 1993 by President as part of the Maulana Azad Celebration, is a compendium of papers from 50 scholars both from India and abroad who had participated in an international symposium in New Delhi on Sufism.

The Council also participated in three international book fairs: the 45th Frankfurt Book Fair, the Madison and Chicago Book Fair and the Paris International Book Fair.


The Council has a well-stocked library of around 70,000 titles. The prestigious personal collection of Maulana Azad is also housed in the library in a special section called Ghosha-E-Azad. These rare books and manuscripts are being laminated so that they can be preserved for reference use by researchers and scholars. An annotated catalogue of the Maulana Azad collection is also being prepared. This year a total of 105 new books have already been accessioned and the process of accessioning more books, relevant to the Council's interests is underway.

Presentation of Books/Musical Instruments

During the period April-December 1993, the Council under its presentation programme presented books to institutions, distinguished persons, academicians and opinion makers in the 30 countries. Major presentations were: donation of 1000 books on India to Silpakorn University in Bangkok, Thailand and presentation of a set of collected works of Mahatma Gandhi to University of Botswana. In addition, the Council presented musical instruments and audio/video tapes to institutions in 15 countries (Details at Appendix XXVI).


The Statutory Bodies of the Council viz the Governing Body, General Assembly and Finance Committee were reconstituted in July 1993 for a period of three years and the meetings were held on 19 and 20 July 1993.

Programmes/events Scheduled for Period January-March 1994

Performing Arts

The Council proposes to send 10 cultural troupes abroad to about 12 countries. ICCR would collaborate with jazz India in the organization of "Jazz Yatra" a biennial event in February 1994. In addition to the above, ICCR will receive 3 cultural troupes from France, Germany and Mongolia.

Visitors Programme

ICCR will sponsor three scholars to the IXth World Sanskrit Conference to be held in Melbourne, Australia and a Qari to participate in the International Quranic Reciters Assembly to be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Visitors from Austria, China, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Turkey, USA and Uzbekistan are to be hosted.

20. International Assistance for Maharashtra Earthquake Victims


THE devastating earthquake in Maharashtra in September 1993 evoked immediate response from friendly countries, International Organizations/Institutions including the concerned agencies of the United Nations, NGOs and NRIs from all over the world, The countries which sent assistance, cash and/or in kind, include the following:

Algeria, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Luxemberg, Maldives, Mauritius, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Portugal, Qatar, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand. Turkey, UAE, UK, USA and Uzbekistan.

APPENDIX-I List of Divisions.


Ministry of External Affairs-List of Divisions.

Specialized & Support Divisions

1 Administration Division

2 Bureau of Security

3 Coordination Division

4 CPV & 01 Division

5 Disarmament and International Security Affairs Division

6 Economic Division

7 Economic Coordination Unit

8 Establishment Division

9 External Publicity Division

10 Foreign Service Institute

11 International Organization Division

12 Legal & Treaties Division

13 MER Division

14 Policy Planning and Research Division

15 Protocol (including Conference Division)

16 Special Kuwait Cell

Territorial Division

1 Africa Division

2 AMS Division

3 Asia Pacific Division

4 ASEAN Division-South East Asia Division

5 BSM Division

6 Central Asia Division

7 Europe East Division

8 Europe West Division

9 Gulf Division

10 IPA Division

11 LAC Division

12 North East Division

13 South East Asia Division

14 WANA Division

APPENDIX-II Division-wise List of Countries


Ministry of External Affairs-Division-wise List of Countries and


1 Angola 16 Gabon 31 Nigeria
2 Benin 17 Gambia 32 Rwanda
3 Botswana 18 Ghana 33 Sao Tome & Principe
4 Burkina Faso 19 Guinea 34 Senegal
5 Burundi 20 Guinea Bissau 35 Seychelles
6 Cameroon 21 Kenya 36 Sierra Leone
7 Cape Verde Islands 22 Lesotho 37 South Africa
8 Central African
Republic 23 Liberia 38 Swaziland
9 Chad 24 Madagascar 39 Tanzania
10 Comoros 25 Malawi 40 Togo
11 Congo 26 Mali 41 Uganda
12 Cote d'Ivoire 27 Mauritius 42 Zaire
13 Equatorial Guinea 28 Mozambique 43 Zambia
14 Eritrea 29 Namibia 44 Zimbabwe
15 Ethiopia 30 Niger
1 Canada 2 United States of
   America   3 The Bahamas
1 Brunei 3 Malaysia 5 Singapore
2 Indonesia 4 Philippines 6 Thailand
1 Australia 7 Marshall Islands 14 Society Islands
2 Cook Islands 8 Nauru 15 Tonga
3 Democratic People's 9 New Zealand 16 Tuvalu
 Republic of Korea 10 New Caledonia17 UN Trust Territori- es in South Pacific
4 Fiji 11 Papua New Guinea 18 Vanuatu  
5 Japan 12 Republic of 19 Western Samoa
6 Kiribati 13 Solomon Islands  
1 Bangladesh 3 Myanmar 5 Indian Ocean
2 Maldives 4 Sri Lanka
1 Azerbaijan 4 Tajikistan 6 Turkmenistan
2 Kazakhstan 5 Turkey 7 Uzbekistan
3 Kyrghyzstan
1 Albania 9 Georgia 16 Romania
2 Armenia 10 Hungary 17 Russia
3 Belarus 11 Latvia 18 Slovak Republic
4 Bosnia-Herzegovina 12 Lithuania 19 Slovenia
5 Bulgaria 13 Macedonia 20 Ukraine
   (Not yet recognised) 
6 Croatia 14 Moldova 21 Yugoslavia (FRY-
   Serbia and Montene- gro)
7 Czech Republic 15 Poland 
1 Austria 10 Holy See, The 19 Norway
2 Belgium 11 Iceland 20 Portugal
3 Cyprus 12 Ireland 21 San Marino
4 Denmark 13 Italy 22 Spain
5 Finland 14 Liechtenstein 23 Sweden
6 France 15 Luxemberg 24 Switzerland
7 Germany, Federal 16 Malta 25 United Kingdom of
 Republic of   
8 Gibraltar 17 Monaco Great Britain and
9 Greece 18 Netherlands Northern Ireland
1 Bahrain 4 Oman 7 Saudi Arabia
2 Iraq 5 Qatar 8 United Arab Emirates
3 Kuwait 6 Republic of Yemen 
1 Afghanistan 2 Iran 3 Pakistan
1 Antigua & Barbuda 13 Dominican Republic 25 Panama
2 Argentina 14 Ecuador 26 Paraguay
3 Barbados 15 El Salvador 27 Peru
4 Belize 16 Grenada 28 St Christopher and
5 Bolivia 17 Guatemala Nevis
6 Brazil 18 Guyana 29 St Lucia
7 Caynan lslands 19 Haiti 30 St Vincent and the
8 Chile 20 Honduras Grenadines
9 Colombia 21 Jamaica 31 Suriname
10 Costa Rica 22 Netherlands 32 Trinidad & Tabago
11 Cuba 23 Mexico 33 Turks and Caicos
12 Commonwealth of 24 Nicaragua 34 Uruguay
  Dominica  35 Venezuela
1 Bhutan 3 Hong Kong 5 Nepal
2 China 4 Mongolia 6 Taiwan
1 Cambodia 2 Laos 3 Vietnam
1 Algeria 7 Lebanon 13 Somalia
2 Djibouti 8 Libya 14 Sudan
3 Egypt 9 Mauritania 15 Syria
4 Israel 10 Morocco 16 Tunisia
5 Jordan 11 Palestine
6 League of Arab States 12 SADR (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic)  

APPENDIX-III Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or
renewed by India

Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or
renewed by India with other countries in 1993.*

                                   ADOPTION     ACCESSION OR   ENTERED
                                                ACCEPTANCE        INTO
1 International Sugar 
  Agreement 1992                  31.12.1992    19.1.1993   20.1.1993 
2 Convention on the               30.7.1980     9.7.1993    8.8.1993 
  Elimination of All 
  Forms of Discrimination 
  Against Women 
3 Amendments to Convention        9.1.1989      10.9.1993   10.9.1993 
  and Operating Agreement 
  on International Maritime 
  Satellite Organization 
4 International Coffee            4.6.1993      22.9.1993   1.10.1993 
  Agreement 1983 
5 United Nations Framework        10.6.1993     1.11.1993   31.1.1994 
  Convention on Climate 
6 Agreement on SAARC              11.4.1993 
  Preferential Trading 
7 Agreement between Govern-       27.10.1993 
  ment of Republic of India 
  and Government of Union 
  of Myanmar and the Govern- 
  ment of the Kingdom 
  of Thailand on the 
  Determination of the 
  trijunction between the 
  Three Countries in the 
8 SAARC Convention on             23.11.1990    31.8.1993   15.9.1993 
  Narcotic Drugs and 
  Psychotropic Sub- 
9 Double taxation Avoidance       26.4.1993 
  Agreement between the  
  Government of the Re- 
  public of India and 
  the Government of 
  Kingdom of Belgium 
10 Agreement between the          14.5.1993 
   Government of the Re- 
   public of India and the 
   Government of the Re- 
   public of Belarus on 
   Cooperation in Science 
   and Technology 
* This list is not exhaustive. 
11 Agreement between the          14.5.1993                 14.5.1993 
   Government of the Re- 
   public of India and the 
   Government of the Re- 
   public of Belarus on 
   Cooperation in the 
   spheres of Culture, 
   Arts, Education, Mass 
   Media, Sports and Tourism 
12 Memorandum of Understanding    4.1.1993 
   between the Government 
   of India and the Royal 
   Government of Bhutan regard- 
   ing the Sankosh Multipurpose 
13 Exchange of Letters on         17.3.1993                 17.3.1993 
   Paro Airport Terminal 
14 Protocol to the Agreement      13.5.1993                 13.5.1993 
   between the Government 
   of India and the Royal 
   Government of Bhutan  
   regarding the Chukha 
   Hydro-Electric Project 
   (rescheduling of the loan 
   repayment and power tariff) 
15 Exchange of Letters on         16.11.1993                16.11.1993 
   Sale of Bhutan Lotteries 
16 Agreed minutes of the          5.1.1993 
   Fourth Session of India- 
   China joint Group on Eco- 
   nomic Relations and Trade, 
   Science and Technology 
17 Trade protocol between         5.1.1993                  1.1.1993 
   the Government of the 
   Republic of India and 
   the Government of the 
   People's Republic of 
   China for the calendar 
   year 1993 
18 Memorandum of Understanding    18.1.1993                 18.1.1993 
   between the Government 
   of Republic of India and 
   the Government of the 
   People's Republic of China 
   on Cooperation in the field 
   of Geology and Mineral 
19 Agreement on the Maintenance   7.9.1993                  7.9.1993 
   of Peace and Tranquillity 
   along the Line of Actual 
   Control in the India-China 
   Border Areas 
20 Protocol, for Extension        7.9.1993                  7.9.1993 
   of Border Trade across 
   Shipkila Pass 
21 Agreement between the          7.9.1993                  7.9.1993 
   Ministry of Information 
   and Broadcasting of the 
   Republic of India and the 
   Ministry of Radio, Film, 
   Television of the People's 
   Republic of China on Radio 
   and Television Cooperation 
22 Agreement on Environmental     7.9.1993                  7.9.1993 
   Cooperation between the 
   Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government 
   of the People's Republic of 
23 Protocol on Festival of        23.11.1993                23.11.1993 
   India in China between 
   the Ministry of Human 
   Resource Development of 
   the Government of the 
   Republic of India and the 
   Ministry of Culture of the 
   Government of the People's 
   Republic of China 
24 Protocol on the Est-           17.9.1993                 17.9.1993 
   ablishment of Diplomatic 
   Relations between the Re- 
   public of India and the 
   State of Eritrea 
25 Protocol on the Establish-     17.9.1993                 17.9.1993 
   ment of Consular Relations 
   between the Government of 
   the Republic of India and 
   the Government of the State 
   of Eritrea 
  European Community 
26 Cooperation Agreement          20.12.1993 
   between the Republic of 
   India and the European 
   Community on Partnership 
   and Development 
   European Space Agency 
27 Cooperative Agreement          11.11.1993                11.11.1993 
   between the Indian Space 
   Research Organization and 
   the European Space Agency 
28 Protocol of the seventh        27.7.1993                 27.7.1993 
   meeting of the Indo- 
   French Working Group on 
   Mineral Exploration and 
   Development of the Indo 
   French joint Committee 
   on Economic and Technical 
29 Agreement for Cooperation      17.11.1993                17.11.1993 
   in the Field of Outer 
   Space between the Indian 
   Space Research Organiza- 
   tion and the Centre 
   National D'Etudes 
 Great Britain 
30 Extradition Treaty between     22.9.1992     15.11.1993  15.11.1993 
   the Government of the 
   Republic of India and  
   the Government of the 
   United Kingdom of Great 
   Britain and Northern 
31 Memorandum of Under-           13.9.1993                 13.9.1993 
   standing between the 
   Government of India and 
   the Government of the 
   United Kingdom of Great 
   Britain and Northern 
   Ireland on Cooperation 
   for the Promotion of 
   International Under- 
   standing and Progress 
   in the Conservation, 
   Management and Sustain- 
   able Development of 
32 Agreed Minutes between         17.5.1993                 17.5.1993 
   the Ministry of External 
   Affairs of the Republic of 
   India and the Ministry of 
   Foreign Affairs of the 
   State of Israel 
33 Agreement on Scientific        17.5.1993 
   and Technological `Co- 
   operation between the 
   Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government 
   of the State of Israel 
34 Cultural Agreement between     18.5.1993 
   the Government of the  
   Republic of India and 
   Government of the 
   State of Israel 
35 Agreement between the          18.5.1993 
   Government of the Re- 
   public of India and the 
   Government of the State 
   of Israel on Cooperation 
   in the fie1d of Tourism 
36 Memorandum of Under-           17.5.1993                 17.5.1993 
   standing between the 
   Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government 
   of the State of Israel on 
   Economic Cooperation 
37 Loan Agreement No ID-C7        3.12.1992                 3.12.1992 
   for Hydro-carbon Sector 
   Program between the Overseas 
   Economic Cooperation Fund, 
   Japan and the President of 
38 Loan Agreement No ID-P83       3.12.1992                 3.12.1992 
   for Anpara B Thermal Power 
   Station Construction Project 
   (IV) between the Overseas 
   Economic Cooperation Fund, 
   Japan and the President of 
39 Exchange of Notes signed       7.12.1993                 7.12.1993 
   between the Government of 
   India and the Government 
   of Japan for extension of 
   the Japanese Debt Grant 
   Assistance to India for 
   the year 1993-94 of Yen 
40 Loan Agreement No ID-P84       21.12.1992                21.12.1992 
   for Yamuna Action Plan 
   Project between the Over- 
   seas Economic Cooperation 
   Fund, Japan and the 
   President of India 
41 Loan Agreement No ID-P86       21.12.1992                21.12.1992 
   for Gandhar Gas Based 
   Combined Cycle Power Pro- 
   ject (III) between the 
   Overseas Economic Co- 
   operation Fund, Japan and 
   the President of India 
42 Loan Agreement No ID-P85       21.12.1992                21.12.1992 
   for Srisailam Power Trans- 
   mission System Project 
   between the Overseas Ec- 
   onomic Co operation Fund, 
   Japan and the President 
   of India 
43 Exchange of Notes between      28.5.1993                 28.5.1993 
   the Government of the 
   Republic of India and the 
   Government of Japan for 
   extension of Japanese grant 
   assistance to India of 700 
   million yen for increase of 
   food production in India 
44 Exchange of Notes between 
   the Government of the Re- 
   public of India and the 
   Government of japan for 
   extension of the follo- 
   wing Japanese assistance 
   to India : 
(i)    Debt relief Grant          28.6.1993                 28.6.1993 
       Aid of Yen  
(ii)   Grant Aid of Yen           28.6.1993                 28.6,1993 
       907,000,000 for 
       Updating Training 
       Equipment for  
       Nautical and 
       Marine Engineering 
(iii)  Anpara'B'Thermal           7.12.1993                 7.12.1993 
       Power Projecte 
       (Stage V) 
(iv)   Bakreswar Thermal          7.12.1993                 7.12.1993 
       Power Station Project 
(v)    Faridabad Thermal          7.12.1993                 7.12.1993 
       Power Station  
(vi)   Bridge across the          7.12.1993                 7.12.199? 
       River Yamuna near 
       Naini Project 
(vii)  Four-Laning of             7.12.1993                 7.12.1993 
       National Highway 
       No 5 Project 
(viii) Small-scale Indus-         7.12.1993                 7.12.1993 
       tries Development 
       Programme (Stage IV) 
45 Agreement between the          25.5.1993 
   Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government 
   of the Republic of Kazakhstan 
   on Co-operation in Science 
   and Technology 
46 Memorandum of Understanding    2.2.1993                  2.2.1993 
   on Defence Cooperation 
   between the Government 
   of the Republic of India 
   and the Government of 
47 Agreement between the          19.3.1993 
   Government of the 
   Republic of India and 
   the Government of the 
   Republic of Moldova 
   regarding Cooperation 
   in Education, Science, 
   Culture, Arts, Mass-Media, 
   Sports, Tourism and 
   Youth Affairs 
48 Agreement for Mutual           30.3.1993                 30.3.1993 
   Cooperation between the 
   Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government 
   of the Union of Myanmar for 
   Reducing Demand and Preve- 
   nting Illicit Trafficking in 
   Narcotic Drugs and Psycho- 
   tropic Substances and 
   Related Matters 
49 Agreement between the Gove-    12.1.1993 
   rnment of the Republic of 
   India and the Government 
   of the Republic of Poland 
   on Cooperation in Science 
   and Technology 
50 Agreement between the Gove-    18.10.93 
   rnment of the Republic of 
   India and the Government 
   of the Republic of Romania 
   on Cooperation in Science 
   and Technology 
Russian Federation 
51 Agreement on Cooperation       28.1.1993                 28.1.1993 
   between the Government of 
   the Republic of India and 
   the Government of the 
   Russian Federation 
   on the Matters relating to 
   Competence of the Ministry 
   of Finance of the Republic 
   of India and the Ministry of 
   Security of Russian 
   Federation in the sphere of 
   combating Illicit Traffic in 
   Narcotics Drugs and Psychot- 
   ropic Substances 
52 Agreement between the Gov-     28.11.1993 
   ernment of the Republic of 
   India and the Government 
   of Russian Federation on 
   Cultural and Scientific 
53 Agreement on Cooperation       18.10.1993 
   between Ministry of Home 
   Affairs, Government of 
   India and the Ministry 
   of Internal Affairs 
   of the Russian Federation 
54 Memorandum of Understanding    5.2.1993 
   between the Government of 
   the Republic of India 
   and the Government of the 
   Republic of Singapore 
   concerning Cooperation in 
   the fields of Arts, Heritage 
   and the Archives 
   South Africa 
55 Protocol on the Establishment   22.11.1993               22.11.1993 
   of Diplomatic Relations 
   between the Republic of 
   India and the Republic 
   of South Africa 
56 Protocol on the Establishment   22.11.1993               22.11.1993 
   Consular Relations between 
   the Republic of India and 
   the Republic of South Africa 
57 Memorandum of Understanding    8.12.1993                 8.12.1993 
   between the Department of 
   Space, Government of the 
   Republic of India and the 
   General Organization of 
   Remote Sensing of the 
   Syrian Arab Republic on 
   Cooperation in the 
   Peaceful Applications 
   of Remote Sensing 
58 Memorandum of Understanding between                      14.12.1993 
   the Government of the Republic of India 
   and Government of the Republic of 
59 Agreement between the          15.2.1993                 15.2.1993 
   Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government 
   of the Republic of Tajiki- 
   stan on Cooperation in the 
   spheres of Culture, Arts, 
   Education, Science, Mass- 
   Media (including Cinemato- 
   graphy) and Sports 
60 Agreement between India and    27.10.1993 
   Government of the Kingdom of 
   Thailand on the Maritime Bo- 
   undary between the two 
   countries in the Andaman Sea 
   from Point 7 to the Trijunc- 
   tion Point (Point T) between 
   India, Thailand and Myanmar 
61 Agreement between the          29.7.1993 
   Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government 
   of Republic of Uzbekistan on 
   Cooperation in Science and 
62 Treaty on the Principles of    24.5.1993     5.1.1994    5.1.1994 
   Inter-State Relations and 
   Cooperation between the 
   Republic of India and the 
   Republic of Uzbekistan 
63 IND/93/012-Upgradation of      5.5.1993                  5.5.1993 
   R&D Facilities of RDSO, 
   Lucknow (Phase II) 
64 IND/92/031-Comparative Study   3.3.1993                  3.3.1993 
   of Corporate and Industry 
   Competitiveness in India and 
   selected Countries in the 
   Asia-Pacific Region 
65 IND/93/006-Modernisation of    11.3.1993                 11.3.1993 
   the Administration and More 
   Effective Use of Trade Marks 
   in India 
66 IND/93/014-Quality Assurance   22.3.1993                 22.3.1993 
   in Telecom Materials 
   Products and Components 
67 IND/93/007-Managment           7.5.1993 
   Development of Senior 
68 IND/93/016/A/01/99-            16.8.1993                 16.8.1993 
   Assistance to Indian 
   Railways for Organizational 
   Development and System 
69 IND/93/004/A/01/99-            22.6.1993                 22.6.1993 
   Institute for Auto 
   Parts Technology 
70 Mutual agreement between the   4.12.1993                 4.12.1993 
   Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government 
   of the Republic of Zambia 
   to Combat Illicit 
   Trafficking in Narcotic 
   Drugs and Psychotropic 
   Substances and Money 
Full Powers issued during 1993. 
S NO     CONVENTION/TREATY                         DATE OF FULL POWERS 
1 Full Powers in Favour of Shri M V Chandrashekara,          18.2.1993 
  Minister of State, Ministry of Finance to sign 
  the Convention between the Government of the 
  Republic of India and the Government of 
  the Republic of Italy for the Avoidance of 
  Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal 
  Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income 
2 Full Power in favour of Shri S L Malik,                    30.6.1993 
  Ambassador of India to Vietnam to sign the 
  Air Services Agreement between the 
  Government of the Republic of India and 
  the Government of Socialist Republic of Vietnam 
Instruments of Ratification issued during 1993. 
S NO     CONVENTION/TREATY                   DATE OF           DATE OF 
                                             SIGNATURE/     INSTRUMENT 
1 Convention Establishing the multilateral   13.4.1992      6.9.1993 
  Investment Guarantee Agency 
2 Cultural Agreement between the Government  13.1.1993     25.8.1993 
  of the Republic of India and the 
  Government of the Republic of Chile 
3 Cultural Agreement between the Government  22.9.1992     13.8.1993 
  of the Republic of India and the 
  Government of the Republic of 

APPENDIX-IV Statement showing the number of Fresh and
Miscellaneous applications

Statement showing the number of Fresh and Miscellaneous applications
received and services granted by each Passport Office during the year

1 AHMEDABAD              111325      124080           60467      60517 
2 BANGALORE              111035      104068           32583      31532 
3 BARELLEY                59603       61906           29213      28566 
4 BHOPAL                  25833       26410           11856      11848 
5 BHUBANESHWAR            10069       11114            3263       3255 
6 BOMBAY                 211059      209480          155031     158233 
7 CALCUTTA                42470       51720           29796      29246 
8 CHANDIGARH              73766       95554           39156      37923 
9 COCHIN                 137771      183535           76620      76168 
10 DELHI                 129632      128186           75190      72132 
11 GOA                    16065       16015           15723      15780 
12 GUWAHATI                8840        9358            2794       2914 
13 HYDERABAD             202069      215090          108142     102011 
14 JAIPUR                 67030      106104           28657      29875 
15 JALANDHAR              80042      110070           35611      36989 
16 KOZHIKODE             206917      341000          103262     192911 
17 LUCKNOW               139215      138457           33628      33575 
18 MADRAS                152674      188416           66646      68047 
19 NAGPUR                 12934       12890            3548       3454 
20 PATNA                  45485       46661           13469      13270 
21 TRICHY                218491      334847           56508      55433 
22 TRIVANDRUM            124600      194319           75051      74719 
   GRAND TOTAL          2186925     2709280         1056214    1138398 

APPENDIX-V Statement showing the Revenue and Expenditure

Statement showing the Revenue and Expenditure Figures of Passport
Offices during the year 1993.

S NO     OFFICE                      REVENUE               EXPENDITURE 
                                     EARNED                   INCURRED 
1 AHMEDABAD                         25186018                   4711127 
2 BANGALORE                         24556840                   5436392 
3 BAREILLY                          12712307                   4171790 
4 BHOPAL                             5841435                   1030511 
5 BHUBANESHWAR                       2122435                    686795 
6 BOMBAY                            57623170                  13184579 
7 CALCUTTA                          11386505                   3022308 
8 CHANDIGARH                        16859165                   5765348 
9 COCHIN                            29152568                   7402184 
10 DELHI                            29953574                   8444914 
11 GOA                               4219296                   1603441 
12 GUWAHATI                          1960136                    741401 
13 HYDERABAD                        43607389                   8071238 
14 JAIPUR                            5548346                   4135097 
15 JALANDHAR                        17411576                   5262669 
16 KOZHIKODE                        45642319                   8256166 
17 LUCKNOW                          27573448                   6106207 
18 MADRAS                           33136816                   6662241 
19 NAGPUR                            2554935                   1056565 
20 PATNA                            7444640                     1701047 
21 TRICHY                          49836603                     6848198 
22 TRIVANDRUM                      27592916                     5463702 
   TOTAL                           481922437                   109763920 
CPV DIVISION                             -                     324072325 
TOTAL                             481922437                   433836245 

APPENDIX-VI Consular Data for 1993.

Consular Data for 1993. 
1 Number of Attestations                                      2,08,342 
2 Number of Indians repatriated at Government cost                 237 
3 Number of Indians arrested abroad*                             3,503 
4 Number of deaths of Indians reported to the Ministry*          1,181 
5 Number of foreigners arrested in India*                          912 
6 Number of foreigners died in India*                              229 
7 (i) Numer of requests for extradition received by 
      Government of India from abroad                                7 
 (ii) Number of requests for extradition from 
      Government of India to foreign Governments                     2 
8 Number of lost/damaged passport cases received*               11,150 

APPENDIX-VII Names of Ambassadors/High Commissioners of India

Names of Ambassadors/High Commissioners of India abroad who have taken charge
from 1.1.93 to 17.12.93.

S NO      COUNTRY       CAPITAL        AMBASSADOR/         DATE OF 
                                       HIGH COMMISSIONER   APPOINTMENT 
1 Azerbaijan            Baku           K Gajendra Singh     9.12.1993 
2 Bahrain               Bahrain        Rajanikanta Verma    18.11.1993 
3 Belarus               Minsk          R C Shukla           16.1.1993 
4 Brunei Darussalam     Brunei Dar- 
                        ussalam        Brig (Retd)          28.6.1993 
                                       Bhawani Singh 
5 Bulgaria              Sofia          B P Aggarwal         7.7.1993 
6 China                 Beijing        C Dasgupta           8.1.1993 
7 Cuba                  Havana         R S Rathore          18.1.1993 
8 Cyprus                Nicosia        Y M Tiwari           14.7.1993 
9 France                Paris          Ranjit Sethi         8.11.1993 
10 Guyana               Georgetown     P L Goyal            1.4.1993 
11 Hong Kong            Hong Kong      Smt Kamlesh Kumar    1.2.1993 
12 Iran                 Tehran         S K Arora            25.1.1993 
13 Maldives             Male           Dr Harswarup Singh   29.3.1993 
14 Namibia              Windhoek       K S Jasrotia         1.2.1993 
15 Norway               Oslo           S K Mathur           23.6.1993 
16 Peru                 Lima           T Cherpoot            29.1.1993 
17 Singapore            Singapore      BMC Nayar              3.9.1993 
18 Spain                Madrid         G D Atuk              22.3.1993 

APPENDIX-VIII Cadre Strength at Headquarters and
Missions/Posts abroad during 1992-93

Cadre Strength at Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad during 1992-93
including posts budgeted by Ministry of Commerce-December 1993.

SL NO         CADRE/POST                    POSTS AT   POST AT   TOTAL 
                                        HEADQUARTERS   MISSIONS 
IFS (A) 
1 Grade-I                                      4            17      21 
2 Grade-II                                     5            23      28 
3 Grade-III                                   25           101     126 
4 Grade-IV                                    32            77     109 
5 junior Administrative Grade/Senior Scale    52           182     234 
6 junior Scale                                 3            30      33 
7 Training Reserve (Prob) junior Scale         -            27      27 
8 Training Reserve for all Grades             10             -      10 
9  Leave Reserve                              19             -      19 
10 Deputation Reserve                         20             -      20 
IFS (B) 
1 Grade-I                                     25           119     144 
2 Grade-II/III                               171           153     324 
3 Grade-IV                                   351           378     729 
4 Grade-V/VI                                 451           192     643 
5 Grade-II of Cypher Sub-Cadre                81           123     204 
6 Selection Grade of Stenographer Cadre       16            34      50 
7 Grade-I of Stenographer Cadre               31           146     177 
8 Grade-II of Stenographer Cadre             212           177     389 
9 Grade-III of Stenographer Cadre             42            77     119 
10 Combined Research Cadre                    21             5      26 
11 Interpreters' Cadre                        11            24      35 
12 L & T Cadre                                16             1      17 
TOTAL                                       1598          1886    3484 

APPENDIX-IX List of Officers qualified in various foreign languages
List of Officers qualified in various foreign languages.

1 Arabic 88
2 Bahasa Indonesia 9
3 Bulgarian 1
4 Burmese 1
5 Chinese 50
6 Dutch 1
7 French 84
8 German 37
9 Gorkhali/Nepali 1
10 Hungarian 1
11 Italian 5
12 Japanese 23
13 Kazaka 1
14 Kishwahili 9
15 Laotian -
16 Malay 1
17 Persian 13
18 Polish 1
19 Portuguese 14
20 Russian 73
21 Serbo-Croatian 3
22 Sinhalese 1
23 Spanish 49
24 Swedish 1
25 Thai 1
26 Tibetan 3
27 Turkish 3
28 Ukrainian 1
29 Vietnamese 2



APPENDIX-X Statement showing the number of appointments
Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct
recruitment and promotion) made in various groups
in the Ministry of External Affairs and reserved vacancies
filled by scheduled castes/scheduled tribes during the year 1993.

          FILLED        RESERVED                         DE-RESERVED 
                        FOR                              DUE TO NON- 
                                                         OF RESERVED 
                                     SC      ST 
Group'A'    37            6    3     6        1          As per rules 
Group'B'    99           25    7    21        5          As per rules 
Group'C'   130           35    6    28        6          As per rules 
Group'D'    30            5          5        Nil        As per rules 
(Excluding Sweepers)


APPENDIX-XI Revenue Expenditure of the MEA during the Year
1993-94.Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry of External Affairs
during the Financial Year 1993-94.

                                             REVISED ESTIMATES 1993-94 
                                               (IN CRORES OF RUPEES) 
Headquarters                                                     48.88 
Missions/Posts abroad                                           317.75 
International Conferences and Meetings                           10.79 
Hospitality Charges                                               6.50 
Contribution to International Organizations (including UN)       21.76 
Central Passport Organization                                    50:90 
Special Diplomatic Expenditure                                  156.29 
Grants-in-Aid to ICCR                                            15.00 
Other Miscellaneous items                                        14.64 
Loss by Exchange                                                 23.90 
Payment to SCI for charter operations between Madras-Port Blair 
sector                                                            8.30 
Payment to Indian Airlines for charter operations between 
Madras-Port Blair sector                                          1.07 
Aid to other Countries 
Aid to Bangladesh                                                 1.70 
Aid to Bhutan                                                    62.00 
Aid to Nepal                                                     13.00 
Aid to Sri Lanka                                                  5.73 
Aid to Maldives                                                  21.17 
Aid to Cambodia                                                   4.05 
Aid to Other Developing Countries                                38.54 
Aid under AFRICA Fund                                             1.27 
TOTAL REVENUE EXPENDITURE:                                      823.24 


APPENDIX-XII Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad
Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters
of the Ministry of External Affairs in 1993-94.

The estimated expenditure on the Headquarters Organization of the Ministry during the current financial year (1993-94) is expected to be Rs 48.88 crores which is 5.94% of the total estimated revenue expenditure of this Ministry. Out of this, Rs 11.57 crores will be on Salaries and Wages, Rs 11. 00 crores on Travel Expenses, Rs 15.97 crores on Office Expenses, Rs 5.50 crores on Publicity and Rs 4.00 crores on Rent and Maintenance.

The total estimated expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts is expected to be Rs 317.75 crores during the current financial year which works out to 38.60% of the total revenue expenditure of this Ministry. Out of this, an amount of Rs 133.83 crores is for Salaries (including Foreign Allowance), OTA and Wages, Rs 38.34 crores for Travel Expenses (Transfer Passages/Home Leave Passages and Local Tours), Rs 65.04 crores for Office Expenses and Rs 80.54 crores for Rent, Rates and Taxes as well as for Repairs and Maintenance of Government owned/rented accommodation in Missions abroad. Average expenditure per Mission abroad (including Publicity) works out to Rs 2.25 crores.

The remaining 55.46% of the estimated revenue expenditure of the Ministry is being incurred on various aid programmes for neighbouring and other developing countries including ITEC programmes, Aid under AFRICA Fund, SAARC and SCAAP Programmes, contribution to United Nations Organizations and other International bodies, Passport Organizations, Hospitality, Grants-in-Aid to Indian Council for Cultural Relations and other miscellaneous items.

In the Capital Section there is a total provision of Rs 79.76 crores in RE 93-94. Out of this an amount of Rs 15.00 crores is for Loan to Nepal, Rs 15.00 crores for Loan to Bhutan, Rs 4.00 crores for Loan to Bangladesh and Rs 44.25 crores for Construction and Purchase of Properties.

APPENDIX-XIII VVIPs Visits to India during 1993.

VVIPs Visits to India during 1993.

SL NO   NAME OF VISITOR                     DATE 
Heads of State, Vice President, Heads of Government 
1 His Majesty Jigme Singhye Wangchuk    4 to 7 January 1993 
  King of Bhutan                                          
2 His Excellency Mr R Premadasa           14 to 17 January 1993 
  President of Sri Lanka (Private)                        
3 His Majesty Jigme Singhye Wangchuk      22 to 25 January 1993 
  King of Bhutan (Private)                                
4 His Excellency Mr John Major         23 to 27 January 1993 
  Prime Minister of United Kingdom                        
5 His Excellency Mr Boris Yeltsin       27 to 29 January 1993 
  President of Russia                                     
6 His Excellency Mr Felipe Gonzalez    7 to 10 February 1993 
  Prime Minister of Spain                                
7 Mrs Rafiaakaroui wife of Prime Minister of  13 February 1993 
  Tunisia (Private)                                   
8 His Excellency Mr Abdumalik Abdullojonov  14 to 18 February 1993 
  Prime Minister of Tajikstan                            
9 Mrs Maurine wife of Zambian Vice President 
  (Private)                            16 February 1993 
10 His Excellency Dr Helmut Kohl         18 to 22 February 1993 
   German Chancellor                                     
11 His Excellency Mr Arpad Goncz President of   22 February 1993 
   Hungary (Transit)                                  
12 Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales 
   (Princess Diana)                          2 to 6 March 1993 
13 His Excellency Mr Mircea Ion Snegur President
of Moldova                                  17 to 19 March 1993 
14 His Excellency Mr LI Jong OK       25 to 27 March 1993 
   Vice President of Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea   
15 His Excellency Mr G P Koirala         26 to 28 March 1993 
   Prime Minister of Nepal (Private)                        
16 His Excellency Dr Mahattir Mohd       31 March 1993 
   Prime Minister of Malaysia (Transit) 
17 His Excellency Mr Cassam Uteem       2 to 9 April 1993 
   President of Mauritius                                   
18 His Excellency Dr Mahattir Mohd      9 April 1993 
   Prime Minister of Malaysia (Transit) 
19 His Excellency Mr R Premadasa          12 to 15 April 1993 
   President of Sri Lanka (Private) 
20 His Excellency Dr Robert Mugabe         6 to 12 May 1993 
   President of Zimbabwe (Transit)                            
21 His Majesty King Birendra Bir   6 to 12 May 1993 
  Bikram Shah of Nepal 
22 His Excellency Mr Ali Hassan Mwinyi      10 to 15 May 1993
   President of Tanzania                                       
23 His Excellency Mr V F Kebich    12 to 15  May 1993
   Prime Minister of Belarus                                  
24 His Excellency Mr Blaise Compaore   30 May to 3 June 1993 
   President of Burkina Faso                               
25 His Excellency Mr Bernard Dowiyogo  9 to 11 June 1993
   President of Nauru                                         
26 His Excellency Mr Ranil Wickremesinghe  21 to 23 June 1993
   Prime Minister of Sri Lanka                                
27 His Excellency Mr N A Nazarbaev      20 July 1993 
   President of Kazakhstan (Transit) 
28 Her Excellency Mrs Mary Robinson    26 September to 3 October 1993
   President of Ireland                                  
29 Chairman Yasser Arafat of Palestine Liberation 
   Organization          28 September to 2 October 1993
30 His Excellency Mr J Rawlings President of Ghana 
   (Transit)                 1 and 2 October 1993 
31 His Excellency Mr Yoweri Kaguta Museveni  4 October 1993 
   President of Uganda (Transit) 
32 His Excellency Mr Fjt Chiluba  5 to 8 October 1993 
   President of Zambia                                    
33 King Carl Gustaf of Sweden     10 to 18 October 1993 
34 His Excellency Mr R F M Lubbers    26 to 28 October 1993
   Prime Minister of Netherlands                           
35 King Carl Gustaf of Sweden (Transit)   4 and 5 November 1993
36 Crown Prince of Nepal (Private)   8 to 17 November 1993
37 His Excellency Mr Ong Teng Cheong    21 to 30 November 1993
   President of Singapore (Private)                       
38 His Excellency Mr A Jugnauth         22 to 24 November 1993
   Prime Minister of Mauritius (Private)                  
39 His Majesty King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of 
   Nepal (Private)                    29 November 1993 
Deputy Prime Ministers, Foreign Ministers
and Others        11 December 1993
1 Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jabar Al-Sabash    10 and 11 February 1993
  First Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister 
  of Kuwait                                               
2 His Excellency Mr Datuk Abdullah HJ Haji Ahmed 
  Badawi                           14 February 1993 
  Foreign Minister of Malaysia (Private) 
3 His Excellency Mr D Fokker        2 to 16 April 1993
  Labour Minister of Mauritius (Transit)                     
4 His Excellency Mr Farouo Qaddoumi     5 to 9 April 1993
  Foreign Minister of Palestine                              
5 Datuk Abdullah Badawi Foreign Minister of 
  Malaysia (Transit)               6 April 1993 
6 His Excellency Mr Vermon J Mwaanga     18 to 21 April 1993
   Foreign Minister of Zambia                                
7 His Excellency Mr Theodere Hele    20 to 24 April 1993
  Foreign Minister of Benin                                  
8 His Excellency Mr Omar Mustafa Al Muntasir   29 and 30 April 1493
  Foreign Minister of Libya                                  
9 His Excellency Mr Shimon Peres Foreign Minister 
  of Israel                               16 to 18 May 1993 
10 His Excellency Mr Fathulla Jameel      17 to 21 May 1993
   Foreign Minister of Maldives
11 His Excellency Mr IU F larov         24 to 31 May 1993
   Deputy Prime Minister of Russia (Transit)
12 His Excellency Mr A S M Mostafizur Rahman    11 to 13 June 1993
   Foreign Minister of Bangladesh
13 His Excellency Mr Josef Zieleniec     16 to 21 July 1993
   Foreign Minister of Czech Republic 
14 His Excellency Mr Hedayat Amin Arsala   16 to 21 July 1993
   Foreign Minister of Afghanistan (Private) 
15 His Excellency Mr G A Abilsyitov     19 to 25 July 1993
   Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan 
16 His Excellency Mr T M Miryakubov      26 to 30 July 1993
   Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan 
17 His Excellency Dr Qmar Bin Abdul N Al Zawawi   1 and 2 August 1993 
   Special Advisor of Sultan of Oman 

18 His Excellency Mr E O Kapabaev     4 to 6 August 1993  
   Foreign Minister of Kyrghyzstan
19 His Excellency Mr Trivimi Velliste  14 to 17 October 1993
   Foreign Minister of Estonia
20 His Excellency Sq Ldr Prasong Soonsiri 3 to 8 November 1993
   Foreign Minister of Thailand 
21 Sir Duglas Hurd               15 to 18 November 1993
   Secretary of State of United Kingdom
22 His Excellency Mr R F Botha      21 to 23 November 1993
   Foreign Minister of South Africa
23 His Excellency Mr Yladislav jouanovic 27 November to 1 December 1993
   Foreign Minister of Yugoslav 
24 His Excellency Mr L I Ruihuan   29 November to 4 December 1993
   Chairman NCCPPC China 
25 His Excellency Mr Saidkassimov  1 to 4 December 1993
   Foreign Minister of Uzbekistan 


APPENDIX-XIV Visits abroad of the President, VP and PM

Visits abroad of the President, Vice President and Prime Minister of India during 1993.

1  Visit of the Vice President     27 January to I February 1993
          to Paris
2  Visit of the Prime Minister to    7 to 11 April 1993
    Thailand and to Bangladesh

3 Visit of the Vice President  6 and 7 May 1993
        to Sri Lanka   

4 Visit of the Vice President   16 to 29 May 1993
      to United Kingdom 

5 Visit of the Prime Minister to    23 to 26 May 1993
        Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan

6 Visit of the Prime Minister to Muscat 14 to 16 June 1993 
7 Visit of the Vice President to   28 June to 5 July 1993
                     France & Morocco

8 Visit of the President to Ukraine,  13 to 26 July 1993
  Turkey, Hungary, United  Kingdom and Greece 
9 Visit of the Prime Minister to Bhutan    21 and 22 August 1993 
10 Visit of the Prime Minister to     6 to 11 September 1993
     China and Korea 

11 Visit of the Prime Minister to Iran     20 to 22 September 1993
12 Visit of the Vice President to Vietnam  22  to 28 September 1993
     and Republic of Korea

APPENDIX-XV Major International Conferences /Meetings/ Seminars

Major International Conferences /Meetings/ Seminars etc organized by Inter-
Governmental Organizations at which Government of India was represented in 1993-94.

1 Sixth meeting of Rockfeller Chiang Mai 10 to 15 February 1993 Institute Programmeon Rice Bio-technology

2 13th Conference of Asia and Pacific Labour Tehran 21 to 23April 1993 Ministers

3 14th Session of UNCHS Nairobi 26 April to 5 May 1993

4 UNICEF Executive Board Session New York 26 April to 7 May 1993

5 11th Meeting of Technical Committee on Thimpu 30 April to 2 May 1993 Health and Population Activities of SAARC Countries

6 4th Meeting of Commonwealth Ministers Nicosia 5 to 9 July 1993 responsible for Women's Affairs

7 42nd Conference of State Labour Ministers New Delhi 7and 8 July 1993

8 7th Session of the UN Group of Experts on Geneva 12 to 21 July 1993 Transport of Dangerous Goods

9 ICGEB Meeting Vienna 18 to 23 July 1993

10 Regional Consultation on "Managing Wate Manila 24 to 27 August 1993 Resources to meet Mega City needs"

11 Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Rabat 6 to 11 September 1993 Council Meeting

12 Regional Seminar on Nature of and Beijing14 to 16 September 1993 rationale for the protection of plant varieties

13 To serve as a Member of International UK 20 to 24 September 1993 Commission on Radiological Protection

14 ESCAP sponsored meeting on New Delhi 27 September to 1 October 1993 Network ofRegional Training Institution in Asia and Pacific -175>

15 8th SAARC Technical Committee Meeting on Dhaka 6 and 7 October 1993 Women Development

16 Seminar on Examination of Geneva October to 2 November 1993 Patent Applications

17 ESCAP Conference on Asia and Bangkok 27 October to 2 November 1993 Urbanisation in Pacific Region

18 Meeting on Safety Procedure Hague 15 to 26 November 1993 on Chemical Weapons TheStorage Facilities

19 UNDP-ESCAP sponsored Third Congress of Bombay 20 to 24 November 1993 Citynet

20 SAARC Ministerial level Conference Kathmandu 21 to 23 November 1993 on "Women & Family Health"

21 ILO Seminar on Sexual harassment at Manila 22 to 26 November 1993 Work Place

22 East & South Asian Workshop Beijing 29 November to 3 December 1993 on Strategies for Accelerating Improvement of Civil Registration and Vital Statistics Systems

23 Meeting on Chemical The Hague 29 Nov-ember to 3 December 1993 Weapons Destruction Facility

24 Asia Pacific Workshop or Micro Kaula 2 to 5 December 1993 -Enterprisesand Entrepreneur Development for Island and Rural Lumpur

25 International Meeting on Plant Culture Dhaka 19 to 21 December 1993 Tissue

26 Meeting of the Inter-Sessional Group to New York 10 to 1 January 1994 working develop the Platform for Action -176>

APPENDIX-XVI Major International Conferences /Meetings/ Seminars

Major International Conferences /Meetings/ Seminars organized by Non Governmental
Organizations in which Indian Experts participated in their personal capacity with Government assistance in 1993.

I Children delegation as India's Kobe 28 April to 5 May 1993 participation in World Children's Forum

2 G-15 Meeting (on biotechnology) Brazil 18 to 23 1993

3 US Agency for International Bangalore 26 to 28 August 1993 Development-TRF Workshop on the "Role of Cities for Management of Urban Environment in India"

4 WEDC Conference on "Water, Accra 6 to 10September 1993 Sanitation, Environment and Development"

5 Australian Biotechnology Conference 20 to 24September 1993

6 First Asian Region Meeting of Jakarta 11 to 13October 1993 G-15 Jakarta

7 Indian Water Works AssociationNagpur 26 to 28November 1993 -International Water Supply Association Workshop on "Alternate Methods of Water Treatment" 8 SAARC Meeting on Plant-tissue Culture 7and 8 December 1993 -177>


Miscellaneous Major International Conferences, etc in '1993-94 at which Government of India was represented or in which Indian Experts participated with Government of India's assistance in their personal capacity.

1 International Seminar on Kathmandu 19 to 21 April 1993 Hydrology with a Special Colloquium on Environmental Problems and Water Resources of Himalayan Region

2 IEEE 1993 National Radar Boston 20 to 22 April 1993 Conference

3 International Congress of Cannes 25 to 28 April 1993 Nuclear Cardiology

4 5th Asian and Oceania Thyroid Association Congress Sydney 2 to 5 May 1993

5 Global Consultation on the Tunis 3 to 7 May 1993 Construction Industry

6 3rd International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion: 10 14 May 1993 Scheveningen Non-Intrusive Combustion Diagnostics

7 3rd (1993) International Offshore 6 to 11 June 1993 Singapore and Polar Engineering Conference

8 IEEE Signal Processing Workshop California 7 to 9 June 1993 on Higher Order Statistics

9 8th International Conference on Kiev 8 to 14 June 1993 Fractures (ICF-8)

10 Indo-German Workshop on Surface 13 to 19 June 1993 Germany Engineering

11 Indo-German Workshop on Surface 13 to 26 June 1993 Germany Engineering

12 1993 IEEE AP-S International Michigan 27 june to 2 July 1993 Symposium & URSI Radio Science Meeting

13 International Conference on the Vancouver 8 to 14 August 1993 Applications of the Mossbauer

14 AIAA Atmospheric Flight Mechanics California 9 to 11 August 1993 Conference

15 3rd International Conference on Tokyo 31 August to 4 September 1993 Advanced Materials -178>

16 Workshop on Domestic Capacity Building Nairobi 6 to 8 September 1993 in the Building Materials Sector for African Region

17 International Food Convention Mysore 7 to 11 September 1993 (IFCON-93) at CFTR

18 20th General meeting of the San Francisco10 to 25 September 1993 International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC)

19 13th International Congress of Calgary 12 to 18 September 1993 Biometerology

20 7th International Conference on Image Bari 20 to 22 September 1993 Analysis & Processing

21 14th International Symposium on Quebec 26 to 29 September 1993 Ballistics

22 International Symposium on Structural Pennsy1vania 26 September 1993 to 30 Intermetallics

23 Seminar on Non-Proliferation Dual Use Philadelphia 3 to 6 October 1993 Technologies and New Initiatives

24 The INMARSAT International Conference Paris 12 to 14 October 1993 and Exhibition on Mobile Satellite Communications

25 2nd Asian-Pacific International Symposium Beijing 15 to 18 October 1993 on Combustion and Energy Utilisation

26 International Trade Exhibition-Batimat Paris 9 to 14 November 1993

27 13th Asian and Pacific Conference of 14 to November 1993 Correctional Hong Kong 20 Administrators

28 International Workshop on Physics New Delhi 14 to December 1993 Semiconductor 18 Devices

29 International Symposium on Recent New Delhi 15 to December 1993 Advances in 18 Microwave Technology 30 International Congress on Oral Cancer Madras 22 to 25 January 1994 -179>

APPENDIX-XVIII Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the NAM

Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the Non-Aligned movement(NAM during 1993-94.

S NO TITLE OF CONFERENCE                  VENUE          DATE 
1 17th Meeting of the Ministers of        Bali           4 May 1993 
  Health of Non-Aligned and Other 
  Developing Countries 
2 Meeting of the Standing Nlinisterial   Bali           10 to 13 May 1993
  Committee for Economic Cooperation                           
  of the Non-Aligned Movement 
3 IV Conference of the Ministers of      Pyongyang      14 to 18 June 1993
  Non-Aligned Countries                                      
4 Expert Group Meeting on Population   Bali           19 to 21 July 1993
  of the Non-Aligned Movement                                 
5 Expert Group Meeting on the         Jakarta        13 and 14 
  Promotion  and Enhancement of                         September 1993
  the Self-Propelling Growth 
  Strategy within the Framework of 
  international Development Cooperation 
6 Meeting of Ministers of Foreign     New York       4 October 1993
  Affairs and Heads of Delegation 
  of the Movement of Non-Aligned 
  Countries to the 48th Session of 
  the UN General Assembly 
7 Ministerial Meeting on Population   Bali           9 to 13
  of the Non-Aligned Movement                          November 1993
8 Long term Projection on the Use    Jakarta        26 and 27 
  and Application of Modern                           November 1993
  Technology by the Mass Media in 
  Non-Aligned Countries

APPENDIX-XIX Outgoing Performing Arts Delegations (ICCR)

Outgoing Performing Arts Delegations (ICCR) (April to December 1993).

S NO   COUNTRY    TYPE OF GROUP   PERIOD                       REMARKS 
1      North      Cultural        7 to 18      April Spring Friendship 
       Korea      Delegation      April 1993   Art Festival in Pyongy- 
       Mongolia   from Leh,                    ang and to give perfor- 
                  Ladakh                       mances in Mongolia      
2 to 4 Hungary,   (i) Daya-       19 to 24     To give performances o- 
       Slovak     Shehnai         April 1993   n the occasion of Days  
       Republic                                of Indian Culture in H- 
                                               Hungary and to give pe- 
                                               rformances in other co- 
       Hungary    (ii) Ms Madhavi 
                  Mudgal, Odissi 
                  Dancer and Shri 
                  Gautam Bhatta- 
                  charya, Light 
       Hungary,   (iii) Shri Kar- 
                  aikudi Mani, 
                  South Indian 
                  Percussion Gro- 
5      Mauritius  16-member       8 April to   To visit Mauritius at   
                  Sharon       4 May 1993      the invitation of Gove- 
                  Prabhakar,                   rnment of Mauritius an- 
                  Pop Singer,                  d perform for the rele- 
                  Bombay                       ase of two Tea Products 
6      Romania,   Smarjit         2 to 11      To give Lectures and m- 
       Czechoslov Chakravorty     May 1993,    eet counterparts under  
       Republic                   12 to 27     CEP item No 44 as an o- 
       Germany                    May 1993,    observer to the Prague  
                                  27 May to    Spring Festival         
                                  1 June 1993 
7      UK         38-member       10 May to    Partial trave1 assista- 
                  Naya Theatre    10 June      nce to group to give p- 
                  Group led by    1993         erformances at the inv- 
                  Habib Tanveer                itation of Tramway Com- 
                                               pany, Glasgow and in L- 
                                               eicester, Haymarket     
8      Australia  9-Member Langas 26 May 1993  To participate in the   
                  & Manganiyars                Brisbane Festival       
                from Rajasthan 
9      Tanzania,  5-Member Kathak 2 June to    To give performances    
       Kenya,     Group of Ms     16 July 
                  Neera Batra     1993 
       South Africa 
10     Poland,    Folk Dance      4 to 7 June, To give performances at 
       Lithuania, Group from      17 to 12     the time of an Art Exh- 
       Germany,   Rajasthan       June,        ibition of India being  
       Norway                     13 june to  held in Szczecin (Polan- 
                                  4 July,      d) prior to their visit 
                                  20 June to   to Stuttgart on 13 June 
                                  2 July       for India Week at the   
                                  1993         International Horticul- 
                                               ture Exhibition (IGA)   
                                               in Stuttgart (Germany)  
                                               and to give performanc- 
                                               es during Magic Hands   
                                               Exhibition in Austria   
                                               and to give performanc- 
                                               es in Lithuania         
11     UK         23-Member       13 June to   Request from London In- 
                  group of Ms     17 July      ternational Festival of 
                  Neelam Man-     1993         Theatre (Council's lia- 
                  singh  Chou-                 bility 50% towards air- 
                  dhury from                   fares)                  
12     Sweden     Naveena Jafa    6 to 19      At the invitation of S- 
                  & Rani Khanam   July 1993    venska Rikskonserter,   
                  Kathak Dancer                Sweden to participate   
                                               in Folk Festival and to 
                                               give performances in N- 
13     Italy      Sankirtana      7 August to  Request received from   
                  Group from      8 September  Theatre Tascabole Di B- 
                  Imphal led      1993         ergamo, Italy           
                  by Lokendra 
14     Bhutan     Penaaz Masani   12 to 19     For India's Independen- 
                  Popular Singer  August 1993  ce Day Celebrations     
15     Pakistan   Rajendra & Nina 17 to 21     For India's Independen- 
                  Ghazal Singer   August 1993  ce Day Celebrations     
16     Seyche-    Ms Parwati Khan 20 August    To participate in the   
       lles,      Pop Singer      to 9 Sept-   4th Indian Ocean Games  
       Mauritius                  ember 1993   in Victoria, Seychelles 
                                               and to give performanc- 
                                               es in Mauritius         
17 &   (i) USA    C V Chandra-    22 August    At the invitation of B- 
18                sekhar Group    to 26 Sep-   attery Dance Company,   
                                  tember 1993  USA                     
       (ii) USA   Jhaveri Sisters 22 August    At the invitation of B- 
       Mexico     Group           to 25 Sep-   attery Dance Company,   
                                  tember 1993  USA; To participate in  
                                               Cervantino festival in  
19     South      Manipuri Dance  27 August    To participate in the   
       Korea,     Group of Priti  1993         Taejon Expo 1993 in Se- 
                  Patel & Sruti                eoul                    
       China      Banerjee        8 to 16      To participate in Yang- 
                                  September    Ko (Folk Dance) Festiv- 
                                  1993         al in Shenyang Lioning  
                                               Province in China       
20     USA        Two accompa-    30 August    Ravillia Festival of M- 
                  nists of Ms     to 30 Sep-   usic and Dance          
              Leela Raja        tember 1993 
21     USA       Ms Protima       20 September To give performances    
                 Bedi Odissi      to 24 Nove-  and workshops at the    
                 Dance            mber 1993    invitation of Internat- 
                                               ional foundation for V- 
                                               edic Education, USA     
22     UK,        9- Member Odi-  2 to 4       To give performances in 
                  ssi Group       October      Germany arranged by In- 
                  of Guru         1993,        do-German Society. To   
       Ireland,   Maya Dhar       4 to 6       participate in Dublin   
                  Raut            October 1993 Theatre Festival (Agre- 
       Germany,                   8 October to ed in principle). To    
                                  7 November   give performances in    
                                  1993,        UK, Belgium and Nether- 
                                  9 to 11      lands.                  
       Belgium,                   November 
       Netherlands                12 and 13 
23     Germany    Four Travel                  International Shadow P- 
                  Grants to                    lay Theatre Festival of 
                  Shadow Puppet                Oberhausen 1993         
24     UK         (i) Shri Rudra-              For Uk University Circ- 
                  patnam Srikan-               uit                     
                  than Ramakanth 
                  (ii) Ms Tiru- 
                  vengadam Rukmani 
                  Violinist & Vi- 
                  (iii) Ms Sukanya 
                  Ramgopal Percu- 
25     South      Pt Uma Shankar  17 to 24     To participate in the   
       Korea      Mishra Sitar    October      Asian Contemporary M-   
                  Player          1993         usic Festival in South  
26     Venezuela, 3-Member        25 to 30     To participate in XVIII 
       Valencia,  Kathak Group    October      Festival of Eastern Ve- 
       Curacao,   of Ram Mohan    1993         nezuela and Five Conti- 
       st Maarten Mishra along-   31 Octo-     nents and to give perf- 
                  with Dr Nalini  ber to       ormances at other plac- 
                  eswith          7 November   es                      
27     UK,        Ustad Bismillah 6 to 20      At the invitation of S- 
       Germany    Khan Shehnai    November     hireen Isal, Sargam     
                  Player          1993         (UK) and to give perfo- 
                                               rmances in Germany      
28     Muscat     Nandu Bhende    6 to 12      For Indian Trade Fair   
                  Pop Singer      November 
29 & 30  Japan    (i) Alarmel     23 November  For Min-On Concert tour 
33                Valli           to 9 Dec- 
                  (ii) Karnataka  ember 1993 
                  College of 
31 to 33 Mauritius (i) Teejan Bai 22 November   To participate in the 
                  Pandavani Sin-  to 5 Dec-     4th Word Convention on 
                 Pandavani Singer      5 December 1993 
                   (ii) Bhojpuri Folk Music       do - 
                   Group of Ms Shailesh 
    (iii) 31-Member Drama        29 November to 
    Group from National         8 December 1993 
          School of Drama (NSD) 

APPENDIX-XX Incoming Performing Delegations (ICCR).

Incoming Performing Delegations (ICCR). (April to December 1993).

1 25-Member Zanoubia Folk Dance Group from Syria was in India from 8 to 17 April 1993. The group performed at Delhi, Chandigarh, Bombay and Hyderabad.

2 15-Member Children Instrumental Ensemble from DPRK visited and performed in Delhi, Lucknow and Calcutta from 17 to 26 April 1993.

3 AFRICA DAY CELEBRATION : As an annual feature the Council observed the Africa Day on 25 May 1993 at Siri Fort Auditorium. Under this Celebration the following two groups were invited:

(a) 6-Member Musical group from Nigeria visited India from 24 May to 6 June 1993 and performed at Delhi, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Calcutta and Bombay.

(b) 10-Member Folk Dance Group from Mauritius was in India from 24 May to 9 June 1993 and performed at Delhi, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Calcutta, Barrackpore, Hyderabad and Bombay.

4 3-Member Group of Sonia Amelio (Castanet Player) from Mexico gave a performance on 17 June 1993 at India International Centre. The programme was organized in collaboration with the IIC.

5 38-Member Group of Het Folkloristisch Danstheatre from Netherlands was in India from 11 to 25 September 1993 and performed at Delhi, Bangalore, Madras, Bombay and Calcutta.

6 In collaboration with the Alliance Francaise de Delhi, the Council sponsored the visit to India of Evelyne Zaniboni, Blues Singer from 22 September to 15 October 1993. She also performed at Chandigarh, Bhopal, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Madras, Trivandrum, Bombay, Pune and Delhi.

7 In collaboration with the Max Mueller Bhavan and Embassy of Switzerland, the Council lent support to the theatre production of Swiss Parate Labor Project under the aegis of the Indo-Swiss Co-operation in the field of theatre on 25 September 1993.

8 9-Member percussion Ensemble from Sweden-'Kroumata' visited India from 2 to 13 October 1993 and performed at Bombay, Bangalore and Delhi. A Special programme was also arranged at Teen Murti Auditorium on 12 October in honour of the King and Queen of Sweden.

9 7-Member Flamenco dancers from Spain together with 6-member Kathak dancers presented a joint show on 13 October 1993 at Delhi in collaboration with the Embassy of Spain.

10 15-Member Redo Cultural Troupe from Egypt visited India from 23 to 31 October 1993 and presented shows in Delhi and Bombay. The programme was organized in collaboration with the Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the group also presented a programme at the Embassy.

11 35-Member VTM Military Band from Switzerland was presented in Delhi on 14 November 1993 in collaboration with the Indian Army and the Embassy of Switzerland.

12 Priya Mitchell, an eminent violinist and Christian Schuster, a pianist presented a concert in collaboration with the British Council Division in Delhi on 6 November 1993. The duo also travelled to Bombay, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Calcutta for performances.

13 Council in collaboration with the British Council Division and Sangeet Natak Akademi conducted a percussion workshop by Evelyne Glennie alongwith Indian percussionists like T H Vinayakram, Govind Chakravorty, Tej Prakash Tulsi and Gazi Khan. The workshop was held on 25 November at the BCD Auditorium. The Council also in collaboration with

BCD and National School of Drama arranged a theatre workshop by members of Northern Broadsides who toured India between 14 November to 7 December 1993 with their Shakespeare Drama 'The Merry Wives'.. Mr Barrie Rutter, Artistic Director, conducted the workshop on 25 November at the NSD.

14 The Council in collaboration with the Alliance Francaise sponsored 'Iron Works' a contemporary French Dance by Compagnie Didier Theron. The group toured India from 3 to 17 December and performed in Delhi, Hyderabad, Madras, Bombay and Chandigarh.

15 The Council in collaboration with the IIC has agreed to lend support to the Indo-Japanese Association by organizing a concert of string and flute players from India who will perform alongwith 6-member Flute and Shakuhachi Players from Japan. The programme held on 23 December 1993 at India International Centre.

APPENDIX-XXI Special Programmes in honour of VVIP (ICCR)

Special Programmes in honour of VVIP (ICCR)visitors/delegates/conferences

1 Council organized a programme by Ms Vijya Lakshmi (Mohiniattam) and Biswajit Roy Chowdhury (Sarod) for the delegates of the 4th Regional Conference of United Nations Association of Asia Pacific on 28 April 1993 at Hotel Taj Mahal, Mansingh Road, New Delhi.

2 Council presented an Odissi Dance recital by Madhavi Mudgal in honour of the visit of the Irish President, Mrs Mary Robinson to India. The programme was presented at the Rashtrapati Bhavan on 27 September 1993

3 As an annual feature, the Council celebrated United Nations Day on 25 October 1993 at Teen Murti Auditorium. Ms Kavita Dwivedi presented an Odissi recital on the occasion.

4 For the delegates of the Indo-Uzbekistan Seminar on historical and cultural links, the Council presented a Kathak recital by Malti Shyam and Renu Bassi on 6 December 1993 at Teen Murti Auditorium.

5 Council organized a concert by Shri Bhajan Sopori, Santoor Player on 13 December 1993 at Rashtrapati Bhavan for the delegates to the G-15 Summit.

6 The Council organized a Flute Recital by Shri Rajendra Prasanna on 16 December 1993 at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The programme was organized in honour of the President of Indonesia.

7 For the delegates of the Global Organization of People of Indian Origin living abroad, the Council presented Odissi Dance by Rajlakshmi Behera on 28 December'1993 at IIC.


1 Council organized a programme by Ms Vijya Lakshmi (Mohiniattam) and Biswajit Roy Chowdhury (Sarod) for the delegates of the 4th Regional Conference of United Nations Association of Asia Pacific on 28 April 1993 at Hotel Taj Mahal, Mansingh Road, New Delhi.

2 Council presented an Odissi Dance recital by Madhavi Mudgal in honour of the visit of the Irish President, Mrs Mary Robinson to India. The programme was presented at the Rashtrapati Bhavan on 27 September 1993

3 As an annual feature, the Council celebrated United Nations Day on 25 October 1993 at Teen Murti Auditorium. Ms Kavita Dwivedi presented an Odissi recital on the occasion.

4 For the delegates of the Indo-Uzbekistan Seminar on historical and cultural links, the Council presented a Kathak recital by Malti Shyam and Renu Bassi on 6 December 1993 at Teen Murti Auditorium.

5 Council organized a concert by Shri Bhajan Sopori, Santoor Player on 13 December 1993 at Rashtrapati Bhavan for the delegates to the G-15 Summit.

6 The Council organized a Flute Recital by Shri Rajendra Prasanna on 16 December 1993 at Rashtrapati Bhavan. The programme was organized in honour of the President of Indonesia.

7 For the delegates of the Global Organization of People of Indian Origin living abroad, the Council presented Odissi Dance by Rajlakshmi Behera on 28 December'1993 at IIC.


APPENDIX-XXII Exhibition (Outgoing and Incoming)

Exhibition (Outgoing and Incoming) for 199-1-94 (ICCR).

     EXHIBITON               COMMISSIONER/ 
     outgoing Exhibitions. 
1 'Magical Hands' Austria April to Dr Jyo- 
                                    tindra Jain ICCR sponsored an exi- 
  'Living Indian Crafts'     November 1993      hibition of living In- 
                                                   ian crafts 'Magical 
                                                 Hands' to Austria for 
                                                display at the intern- 
                                                ational Exhibiton Cen- 
                                                tre at Schallaburgh C- 
                                                  astle. The Exhibiton 
                                                included the live dem- 
                                                onstration of skill of 
                                                 crafts persons at the 
 2 Photographs Egypt July 1993                     An Exhibition of 48 
                                                photographs was spons- 
                                                ored to Egypt for dis- 
                                                play at the Maulana A- 
                                                bdul Kalam Azad centre 
                                                 for Indian culture in 
                                                 Cairo. The Exhibition 
                                                was inaugurated on 5th 
                                                July 1993 by Mr Moham- 
                                                 mad Ghoneim, First U- 
                                                 nder Secretary, Egyp- 
                                                 tian Ministry of Cul- 
                                                  ture in the presence 
                                                    of the Ambassador. 
                    Lebanon                      Exhibiton proposed to 
                                                be sent to Lebanon fr- 
                                                             om Cairo. 
3 Bust of Gurudev   Guyana May 1993             A marble bust of Guru- 
dev Rabindranath Tagore                      Tagore was sent to Guyana 
                                                   for presentation to 
                                                the Tagore Memorial S- 
                                                econdary School in Ge- 
4 Children's Paintings Seoul (Korea) May 1993     An exhibit-ion of 20 
                                                  award        winning 
                                                  children   paintings 
                                                  were sent   to Korea 
                                                  for participation in 
                                                  the            Third 
                                                  Children's       Art 
5 Marble bust of Gandhiji Myanmar September 1993  A marble bust     of 
                                                  Gandhiji was    sent 
                                                  for installation  at 
                                                  the Mahatma   Gandhi 
                                                  Prayer         Hall, 
6 Contemporary Art  UK   September 1993           Works of C  Jagdish, 
  Exhibition 'Meeting                             Ms Kanchan  Chander, 
  Point'                                          Ms Shyamli  Kastigar 
                                                  and Regi         Mon 
                                                  Augustine were  sent 
                                                  to UK for display at 
                                                  the    Wolverhampton 
                                                  Museum &         Art 
                                                  Gallery,  Exhibition 
                                                  was organized     as 
                                                  part of the    South 
                                                  Asian Visual    arts 
                                                  festival. Visit.  of 
                                                  Shri C jagdish   and 
                                                  Ms Kanchan   Chander 
                                                  was also   sponsored 
                                                  to UK for       this 
7 India Songs:  Australia March to  Shri Haku     An Exhibition     of 
  Shan &                                          contemporary   works 
  Streams in Contemporary           October 1993  Urban & Folk     art 
  Manjit Bawa                                     display at       the 
  Indian Art                                      New South W     ales 
                                                  gallery in    Sydney 
                                                  during March   1993. 
                                                  The Exhibition   was 
                                                  inaugurated by   our 
                                                  High Commissioner in 
                                                  Canberra.        The 
                                                  Exhibition was  also 
                                                  displayed in   other 
                                                  few cities        in 
                                                  The Works         of 
                                                  following    artists 
                                                  were           sent: 
                                                  Amitava Das,  Bhupen 
                                                  Khakhar,      Nalini 
                                                 Malini, R Reddy,  N N 
                                                  Rimzon,       Arpita 
                                                  Singh,             J 
                                                  Ganesh,        Teju, 
                                                  Megha Devi,   Yamuna 
                                                   Devi, Pema   Fatya, 
                                                  etc. A few     items 
                                                  from the  collection 
                                                  of National  Museum, 
                                                  New Delhi, were also 

APPENDIX-XXIII Outgoing Visitors (ICCR).

Outgoing Visitors (ICCR).

S NO   NAME OF PERSON    COUNTRY         PURPOSE                PERIOD 
1 Ms Aruna Sunderlal     UK              Study Tour-to      3 April to 
  Founder & Director     Germany         visit Music       16 May 1993 
  Bangalore School of                    Schools and to 
  Music                                  learn about the 
  Bangalore                              developments in 
                                         music education 
                                         for children 
2 Shri M Varadarajan   South Africa       To attend the    23 April to 
  Member                                 International     1       May 
  Minorities Commission                  Conference on 
  New Delhi                              Culture organized 
                                         by the African 
                                         National Congress 
                                         in Johannesburg 
3 Ms Kristine Michael    UK              To participate        1 to 30 
  Ceramic Artist                         and work in the      May 1993 
  New Delhi                              Pottery's 
                                         Exhibition at the 
                                         Aldermaston Pottery 
4 Dr N Rajasekharan      Germany         To participate in    17 to 22 
  Reader in Linguistics                  the First            May 1993 
  Annamalai University                   International 
  Annamalainagar                         Conference/Seminar 
                                         on Dravidian 
                                         Studies at Stuggart 
5 Dr Pabitra Mohan Nayak Austria         To participate in   18  to 22 
  Reader & Head                          the Triennial       May  1993 
  Post Graduate Department               Conference of 
  of English                             European 
  SCS College                            Association for 
  Puri (Orissa)                          Commonwealth 
                                         Literature and 
                                         Language Studies at 
                                         the University 
                                         of Graz 
6 Professor A H H Abidi  Russia         To participate in    24 to  28 
  Professor                              the Seminar on       May 1993 
  Centre for West Asian                  'Muslim 
  and African Studies                    Minorities and 
  Jawaharlal Nehru University            Christian Majority' 
                                         in Russia and 
                                         Europe at Astrakhan 
7 Dr & Smt Karan Singh   South Africa    To participate in   26 May to 
  New Delhi                              a public meeting  2 June 1993 
                                         organized by 
                                         the Transvaal Indian 
                                         Community in 
                                         Johannesburg to 
                                         inaugurate the 
                                         Centenary Celebrations 
                                         of Gandhiji's 
                                         arrival in 
                                         South Africa 
8 Professor B R Nanda    South Africa    To give the           2 to 15 
  Gandhian Scholar                       Commemorative       June 1993 
                                         Address at the 
                                         University of 
                                         in connection 
                                         with Centenary 
                                         Celebrations of 
                                         Gandhiji's arrival 
                                         in South Africa 
9 Shri Ranjan Kumar Singh     Norway     To attend a           From 25 
  Sub-Editor-cum Reporter                six-week course     June 1993 
  Navbharat Times                        in Norwegian Art 
  New Delhi                              at the 
                                         Summer School 
                                         of Oslo 
10 Shri Eric Gonsalves     UK           To attend meeting      4 to  8 
                                         of the              July 1993 
11 Shri Dileep Padgaonkar - do -             - do -             - do - 
   Times of India 
   New Delhi 
12 Shri Rajiv Kumar       - do -             - do -             - do - 
   Senior Economic Adviser 
   Ministry of Finance 
   New Delhi 
13 Dr Amarjiva Locha,    UK             (i) To participate     5 to 10 
   Lecturer in History                  in the 5th           July 1993 
   Shivaji College                      International 
   University of Delhi                  Conference on Thai 
                                        Studies in London 
              and                       and 
   New Delhi             Mexico         (ii) 13th           29 July to 
                                        International         5 August 
                                        Congress of               1993 
                                        & Ethnological 
                                        Sciences in 
14 Shri Raj Bisaria     UK              To attend a            5 to 31 
   Theatre Director                     four-week Summer     July 1993 
   Lucknow                              School at the 
                                        Centre for Extra 
                                        Mural Studies, 
                                        Birkback College, 
                                        University of London 
                                        in Contemporary 
                                        British Theatre, 
                                        Literature and 
15 Shri C Mohd Sherif  Germany          To participate in      8 to 26 
   Technical Director                   the Summer Seminar   July 1993 
   Kerala Kalarippayat Akademy          of the Kadgamala 
   Kannur (Kerala)                      Akademie at Bunsoh 
16 Dr Mrs Parul Shah      Japan         To participate in      1 to 12 
   Dance/Performer                      JADE 1993          August 1993 
   Vadodra                              International 
                                        Dance Conference & 
17 Ms Prakriti Kashyap  - do -          - do -                  - do - 
18 Smt Alka Raghuvanshi    UK           To participate    15 August to 
   Arts Editor                          in the Edinburgh  4 September  
   The Pioneer                          Festival for             1993  
   New Delhi                            Performing Arts 
19 Dr Aru Alagappan  Sri Lanka         To participate in the  18 to 25 
   Head                                 Tamil Sahitya Day  August 1993 
   Department of Tamil                   Celebrations 
Annamalai University 
20 Dr R M Periakaruppan  Sri Lanka      To participate in     18 to 25 
   Tamil Scholar                        the Tamil Sahitya  August 1993 
21 Dr O Lourdo          - do -              - do -              - do - 
   Professor & Head 
   Department of Folklore 
   St Xaviers College 
   Tamil Nadu 
22 Dr M I Khan           Hong Kong      To participate in     21 to 29 
   Reader                               the 34th           August 1993 
   Sanskrit Department                  International Congress 
   University of Delhi                  of the Asian and North 
                                        African Studies 
   Dr D P Sharma        - do -          do -                    - do - 
   National Museum 
   New Delhi 
23 Professor Meenakshi  Germany         To participate 24 September to 
   Chairperson                          the Annual      2 October 1993 
   Centre of Linguistics                meeting of German 
   English Jawaharlal                   University Professors 
   Nehru University                     in English  
   New Delhi                            (Anglistentag) 
                                        held in Eichstadt,     Bavaria 
24 Shri K L Nandan        UK            To participate in the 25 to 26 
   Editor in Chief                     International    September 1993 
   Sunday Male                          Hindi Conference 
                                        & Kavi Sammelan in  Manchester 
25 Dr Nemai Sadhan Bose  France         To participate in the  5 to 20 
   Former Vice-Chancellor               function in connection October 
   Vishwa Bharati University            with the Centenary        1993 
   Calcutta                             Celebrations of          Swami 
                                        Vivekananda's Parliament    of 
                                        Religions at Chicago in   1893 
26 Professor Hossainur   France         To participate in the  5 to 20 
   Rahman                               function in connection October 
   Professor of History                 with  the Centenary of 1993 
   Mahassin Government College          Parikrama and his Address at 
   West Bengal                          the Word Parliament the of 
                                        Religions at Chicago in 1893 
27 Ms Roxana D           Italy          To participate as 11 to 19 
   Anklesaria                           Indian Jury member for 1993 
   Concert Pianist and                  Valentino Bucchi November 1993 
   Adjudicator                          Award in Rome 
   Poona Music Society 
28 Professor Saroja       Poland        To participate in the 22 to 28 
   Bhate                                International September   1993 
   Department of Sanskrit &            Conference on Sanskrit and 
   Prakrit Languages                    Related studies to be organiz- 
   University of Poona                  ed by the Jagellonian Univers- 
                                        ity at Krakow 
29 Professor T N         Kenya          To Participate in the   4 to 9 
   Krishnan                             Kenya  Music   August     1993 
   Vice President                       Adjudicator 
30 Professor Vinod       France          To collect  18  September  to 
   Bhatia                                source      16   October 1993 
   Academy of Third World                material on 'Central' Asia 
   Jamia Millia Islamia                  Paradoxes of Translation 
   New Delhi 
31 Professor Dauji Gupta Mexico         To participate in   29 July to 
   Ex-Mayor                             the 13th     5   August   1993 
   Lucknow                              International Congress of 
                                        Anthropological and Ethnologi- 
                                        cal Science 
32 Smt Veena Verma       Norway             To participate in 24 to 27 
   MP                                   Seminar        October    1993 
33 Shri Shankar Dayal Singh - do -      - do -                    do - 
34 Shri Shrikant         Norway         To participate        24 to 27 
   Ramchandra Jichkar                    Seminar          October 1993 
35 Professor Jaya Shekara     Russia       To identify 5 December 1993 
   Centre for Soviet and East              one to      15 January 1994 
   European Studies                     two Russian Research Institute 
   School of International Studies      with the help of Indian 
   JNU, New Delhi                       Embassy in Moscow to Establish 
                                        direct Co-operative relations 
                                        between JNU & these institutes 

APPENDIX-XXIV > Incoming Visitors ICCR.

Incoming Visitors ICCR.

1  Mr Hans Vermeersch        Belgium   July-    To Meet Orientation 
   Music composer                      August   Indian  Grant for two 
                                       1993     Musicians months 
2  Dr Artemio D Palongpalong Philipp-  8 to 21   To meet 
   Dean, Asian Centre        ines     August    his counterpart and to 
   University of Philippines          1993      visit Indian Universi- 
                                                 ties and Institutions 
3  Mr Paddy Ashdown          UK       2 to 9    Goodwi- MEA Agency 
   Leader of the UK's Liberal         October   ll vis- work 
   Democratic Party and               1993      it 
   Mrs Ashdown 
4  Professor Man Young       Republic 18 to 27  To speak at the 
   Hwang                     Korea    October   inaugural  function of 
   Associate Professor of the         1993      the exhibition on 'Cu- 
   Department of Painting                       ltural Interflow' 
   Mokwon University, Taejon                    between India and the 
                                                Pensive Beyond' and to 
                                                meet Indian artists 
   Three member delegation 
5 (i) Professor Valentin     Russia   27 Octob- To finalise programme 
      Sidorov                          er to     of the Proposed Word 
      President                       2 Novemb- Congress on Spiritual 
      International Association       er 1993   Concord 
      International Association 
      "Peace Through Culture" 
  (ii) Dr Boris Autenshlus 
   General Director 
   Experimental Creative Centre 
  (iii) Mr Nicolai Ogorodni- Russia   27 Octob- To finalise  programme 
        kov                           er to 2    of the proposed World 
        kov                           2 November 1993 programme of the 
        Assistant Secretary General 
    International Association          2 November 1993  proposed World 
      Congress on 
      "Peace Through Culture"                        Spiritual Concord 
6 Mr Amanzhol Shamkenov  Kazakhstan    29 October to          Goodwill 
Eminent Poet and Recipient              7 November 1993        visit 
of the Jawaharlal Nehru 
Friendship Award 
7 His Excellency           Thailand       10 to 19          To deliver 
Dr Thanat Khoman Former                      November 1993  Jawaharlal 
Foreign Minister and                                        Nehru Memo 
Deputy Prime Minister of                                 -rial Lecture 
Thailand & Mrs Khoman 
8 Dr Moosajee Bhamjee    Ireland        22 to 29        Goodwill visit 
Member of Parliament                    November 1993 
9 Ms Djahel Vinaver       Mexico        November-       To Orientation 
Dancer and                              December update    Grant   for 
Choreographer                          1993  her knowledge/ two months 
                                    techniques of Odissi Dance 
10 5 Scholars           Uzbekistan     4 to 9           To participate 
                                       December 1993    in the Intern- 
                                                       ational Seminar 
                                                       on Historical & 
                                                       Cultural Links  
                                                       between   India 
                                                       and  Uzbekistan 
                                                    from ancient times 
                                                        to present day 
11 Mr justice Mohamad Sai'd   Egypt    4 to 16      To deliver Maulana 
Al Ashmawy                           December 1993     Abul Kalam Azad 
Chief justice of Higher State                         Memorial lecture 
Security and Criminal Court 
12 Mr Nirj Deva             UK         18 to 23       Goodwill     MEA 
Member of Parliament                    December 1993  visit    Agency 
13 10-Member delegation led   Egypt   18 to 26       To participate in 
by Dr Gaber Asfour, Secretary           December 1993      the  'Indo- 
General Supreme Council of                         Egyptian Seminar on 
culture                                          Contemporary Cultural 
                                                     Relations between 
                                                      India and Egypt' 
14 Dr (Mrs) Ursula Pasterk   Austria    20 to 30      To meet Cultural 
                                       December 1993 Personalities and 
                                                    visit Indian dance 
                                                  & music Institutions 
15 Dr (Ms) Kathleen Raine    UK    19 December 1993     To meet Indian 
Poet/Writer and Philosopher      to 2 January 1994     writers,  poets 
                                                        and give talks 
                                                       at universities 
16 Lord Templeman             UK   20 December 1993    Goodwill    MEA 
                                  to 7 January 1994    visit    Agency 

APPENDIX-XXV Visiting Professors-Chairs of Indian Studies Abroad (ICCR).

Visiting Professors-Chairs of Indian Studies Abroad (ICCR).

Under various schemes, the ICCR Council sends abroad Visiting Professors for teaching Indology, Indian languages and allied subjects. During the period under report the following academics were in position abroad:

1 Dr Devendra Shukla Designate Visiting Hindi Professor at the University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

2 Dr Arun Prakash Mishra Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Indian Cultural Centre, Georgetown, Guyana.

3 Dr Jai Singh Yadav Visiting Associate Professor of Indian Studies at the Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia.

4 Dr K Subramoney Visiting Professor of Tamil Language & Literature at the University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

5 Dr Hari Mohan Sharma/Dr Abdul Bismillah Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

6 Dr Satya Brat Sharma Visiting Professor of Hindi at the Adam Machiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.

7 Dr Triloki Nath Singh Visiting Hindi Lecturer at the Indian Cultural Centre, Paramaribo, Suriname.

8 Dr Y Venkataramana Rao Visiting Professor of Hindi at the School of Foreign Languages (NIHERST), Port of Spain, Trinidad.

9 Dr P K Mishra/Dr N Jayaram Visiting Professor of Social & Cultural Anthropology at the University of West Indies, St Augustine Campus, Trinidad and now Dr Jayaram is being deputed.

10 Dr V R Jagannathan Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the University of West Indies, St Augustine Campus, Trinidad.

11 Dr (Mrs) Kamlesh Singh Visiting Assistant Professor of Hindi Language and Literature at the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. She is also teaching Hindi at the State University of Ghient.

12 Dr O P Singhal Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi Language & Literature at the Beijing University, Beijing, China.

13 Dr (Mrs) Usha Satya Vrat Shastri Visiting Professor of Sanskrit at the Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

14 Dr (Mrs) C Tulasamma Visiting Professor of Hindi at the Hankook University, University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

15 Dr Mohan Lal Sar/Dr (Mrs) Anita Ganguly Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

16 Dr (Mrs) Noorjahan Begum Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

17 Dr (Mrs) Jogesh Kaur Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Jawaharlal Nehru Cultural Centre, Moscow, Russia.

18 Dr Syed Asghar Wajahat Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary.

19 Dr N S Shukla/Dr S K Lal Visiting Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris-III, Paris, France.

Books, cassettes, video tapes and musical instruments, furnitures/fixtures etc have been sent to the Cultural Centres abroad.

APPENDIX-XXVI Presentation Unit (ICCR)

Presentation Unit (ICCR) (April to December 1993)

Presentation of Books

1 Thailand For presentation to five Universities A set of Buddhist books A set of books (1000) and for Prime Minister's visit to Thailand To Princess in Thailand Books on India To Indian Mission Books on Vivekananda

2 Turkey For presentation to Indian Mission 3 copies of Indian Music

3 South Korea For presentation by Indian Ambassador ICCR Publications

4 Mexico For presentation to University of ICCR Publications Veracruz in Mexico

5 Philippines For preser tion to Asian Centre A set of books on University of Philippines Art & Culture National Society Council Books on India Asian Centre University Indian Culture

6 Singapore For presentation to Indian Fine A set of books on Arts Society Indian Culture

7 Zimbabwe Children School in Zimbabwe A set of children books

8 Romania The Institute for Educational ScienceBooks on Hindu Vedas Central Universities Library A set of books on Indian Culture

9 Mauritius HRM's visit to Mauritius Books on Indian Culture

10 Myanmar Presentation in School Children Books NCERT Books To School

11 Sweden Oriental Studies Books on Religion

12 Belgium For presentation 50 Books on Art & Culture and 120 audio cassettes

13 Botswana Various Universities Books on Gandhi Association Books on Hinduism For presentation in University Collected Works of Mahatama Gandhi (Vol 1-90) -202>

14 Egypt Presentation purpose Short Stories For presentation Maulana Abul Kalam Azad To Egyptian Universities Short Stories ICC, Egypt Panchatantras

15 Italy For presentation purposes 100 Portfolios Romanian Students Dictionaries

16 Ghana Embassy for presentation ICCR Publications Library & Archieval Studies Books on Library Sciences

17 Pakistan For publicity purposes Books on India

18 Ukraine Presentation to School Hindi Books

19 Malaysia Indian University Books on Vivekananda

20 Cuba Sixth International Book Fair ICCR Books

21 Peru Museum Library ICCR Books

22 Syria Local dignitaries Books on Gandhi

23 Sri Lanka Presentation Purposes Books on Nehru

24 Vietnam Presentation purposes ICCR Publications

25 Russia For display Books on Indian Dances

26 Switzerland For Exhibition Guru Granth Sahib

27 Ireland Trinity College Books on India

28 Laos For presentation Books on Buddhism & ICCR Publications

29 Trinidad & To Mission for presentation Books on Vivekananda Tobago -203>

Presentation of Art Objects/Musical Instruments

1 Jamaica For Club India, Indian Cultural A set of musical Society instruments

2 Cuba For presentation to the Cuban 6 Cassettes of Institute of Friendship with people Rabindra Nath Tagore organized the function in Cuba

3 Mauritius For presentation purposes 25 sets of musical instruments

4 Brazil For presentation purposes 120 Audio Cassettes

5 Ukraine To Indian Mission A set of musical instruments

6 Suriname For presentation to Hindustani A set of musical immigrants instruments

7 Singapore To Indian Fine Arts Society A set of musical instruments

8 Ghana For presentation purposes A set of musical instruments

9 South Africa To Cultural Centre Audio Cassettes (2)

10 Iran For presentation purposes 6 Audio Cassettes

11 Kenya For presentation purposes 4 Tanjavur plates

12 Philippines Art Gallery One pair of doll (Rajasthani)

13 Trinidad & For presentation purposes A set of musical Tobago instruments

14 Mozambique To Indian Association in Maputo A set of musical instruments

15 Uzbekistan Prime Minister's visit to Tashkent 4 Typewriters


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