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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1994-95

1. India's Neighbours 1
2. South-East Asia and the Pacific 15
3.East Asia 24
4.Central Asia 30
5. The Gulf, West Asia and North Africa 35
6. Africa (South of the Sahara) 48
7. Europe 55
 Eastern Europe 55
 Western Europe 64
8.The Americas 72
 North America 72
 Central and South America and the Caribbean 76
9.United Nations and International Organisations 81
 Political Issues 82
 Disarmament and International Security 84
 Human Rights 88
 Economic, Social and Humanitarian Issues 89
 Administrative and Budgetary Issues 96
 Elections and Appointments 97
 Non-Aligned Movement 98
 Commonwealth 98
 International Law: Developments and Activities 99
10.Foreign Economic Relations 103
11. Trade and Investment Promotion 115
 Back-up Support to Missions and Posts 117
 External Economic Publicity 119
 Important Trade and Investment Promotion Events 121
12. Policy Planning and Research 124
13. External Publicity 128
14. Protocol 138
15. Passport and Consular Services and Indians Overseas 141
16.Administration and Organisation 146
17.Foreign Service Institute 149
18. Implementation of Official Language Policy and Propagation of Hindi Abroad 152
19. Cultural Relations 154
  APPENDICES 165-231
The past year presented some exceptional challenges which were managed with satisfactory results. Relations with the major powers and the rapidly growing economies in the world were considerably strengthened. Good relations with our neighbours, with the exception of Pakistan, were incrementally enhanced. Both Houses of Parliament on 10th May 1994 welcomed the results of the multi-party non-racial elections in South Africa and hailed the election of President Nelson Mandela as the Head of State of democratic South Africa, and President Mandela accepted our invitation as Chief Guest for our Republic Day this year. We commemorated the 50th Anniversary of the United Nations and the 40th Anniversary of Panchsheel.

The following broad guidelines characterised the activities of the Ministry:

-- Maintaining the integrity and independence of foreign policy decisions and actions.

-- Consolidating and improving our relationship with world powers.

-- Strengthening relations with our neighbours with a view to promoting peace, stability and mutual confidence in the region and beyond.

-- Developing stronger economic and technical relations with neighbouring and other developing countries in the overall context of furthering South-South cooperation.

-- Strengthening the institutions in which we have membership by asserting strong commitment, such as UN, NAM, SAARC, Commonwealth, G-77, G-15, and seeking closer association with ASEAN, APEC, and OECD.

-- Countering Pakistan's negativism and confrontation while reaffirming our readiness for meaningful negotiations with Pakistan on all bilateral issues with a view to fostering good neighbourly relations.

As the only near-universal international body, the United Nations, now with 185 members, represents our hopes for the realisation of the aspirations of humankind. In Resolutions on the 22nd December 1994, both Houses of Parliament reaffirmed India's commitment to the Charter (about which Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said, "I do not think it would be possible to improve upon that language"), and to the greater democratisation and efficiency of the UN Organisation. During the 49th General Assembly, the leader of the Indian delegation proposed four major initiatives in his address; the expansion of the Security Council, both in its permanent and non-permanent membership, to enjoy greater credibility in keeping with the increased membership of the general body, together with India's legitimate claim to be a permanent member on the basis of any objective criteria that might be evolved for permanent membership; the need for a fourth Special Session on Disarmament to reflect the contemporary international security situation after the end of the Cold War; the need for reassertion of initiatives within the UN system to stress the priorities of poverty eradication, economic growth and sustainable development; and, in the light of experience of post Cold War UN peacekeeping operations, the need for a closer look at all aspects of these operations.

Indian peace-keeping operations formed an element in India's foreign policy, being reflective of India's desire to play a positive role to promote normality at a time of need on the part of certain friendly developing countries in difficulties. Thus our presence in

peace-keeping operations during the past year was seen in Somalia, Rwanda, Mozambique, Angola and Liberia. Our representatives, both military and civil, earned high praise for dedication and valour, though the loss of some lives was a matter of sorrow.

At the request of the UN Secretary General, India has agreed to place at the call of the United Nations an integrated stand-by force Of approximately 5000 for faster response when need arises. Actual deployment of this force will however be a matter for national judgement.

India will be required to play a constructive, contributory role in the deliberations and decisions of several Summits in 1995. The United Nations celebrates its 50th Anniversary on October 24 in a gathering of leaders in New York. Prior to that have been scheduled the World Social Summit, the SAARC Summit and the Non-aligned Summit, and after that are the G-15 Summit and the Commonwealth Summit. Our preparations for these are being made in the light of the scheduled time-table.

It is hoped that the second SAARC Summit to be held in India will lead to consolidation of the work achieved in the thirteen Committees which have been set up, and beyond this, towards achievement of concrete progress in the commercial and economic fields, especially the SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement, in which progress has been impeded by the inhibitions of one member-state. SAPTA was to be made operational before December 1995 and the six other members are anxious that this time-table should be implemented.

Relations with most of our neighbours registered substantial progress. The new Governments installed after multi-party elections in Sri Lanka and Nepal have expressed their desire to consolidate and strengthen relations with us; sentiments which we welcome and reciprocate. High- level exchanges of visits with China, including our Vice President to China and the Chinese Foreign and Defence Ministers to India, promoted the trend of establishment of greater confidence and close ties with that country. Total trade with China is increasing rapidly, and it is hoped that the implementation of the Peace and Tranquillity Agreement in border areas will make progress in the ensuing year to clarify the line of actual

control and remove potential confrontation in areas where forces are in close proximity. With Bhutan, a new agreement continuing the system of free trade will be signed, and discussions are taking place for a major 1020 MW hydro-electric project. In the Maldives, the Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital built with Indian assistance is already functioning and will be formally inaugurated in 1995. With Myanmar, border- trade arrangements at Moreh/Tamu have been finalised. India has closely followed the activities of a National Convention organised by SLORC to institute political changes under new constitutional provisions with the stated, aim of pro viding greater representative government.

The past months marked no improvement in ties with Pakistan; rather the reverse. Pakistan's attempts to confront India on every issue and to internationalise the Kashmir question continued. The unilateral closure by Pakistan of their Consulate General in Bombay and later the Indian Consulate General in Karachi were designed to heighten tension, and reflected the rejection by Pakistan of numerous initiatives by India to resume a meaningful dialogue on all issues impeding good neighbourly relations between the two countries. Pakistani sponsorship of militancy and terrorism in India continued unabated. Repeated Pakistani, efforts in United Nations bodies to persuade member-states to criticise India in matters relating to Jammu & Kashmir were effectively countered. In the OIC, there are indications that several member-states have wearied of Pakistani's obsessive attempts to introduce an anti-Indian agenda in that organisation. It will be our endeavour to maintain contacts with the OIC Secretariat in Jeddah.

Both Houses in Parliament on the 22nd February 1994 passed Resolutions condemning Pakistan's interference in India's internal affairs and reiterated the constitutional and legal status of Jammu & Kashmir as a State within the Indian Union.

Visits abroad by the President, the Vice President and Prime Minister and incoming visits of Heads of State and Government of friendly countries have, as usual, helped to enhance the level and content of India's relations with those countries. Prime Minister's visits to three permanent members of the Security Council, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Russian

Federation, gave cause for great satisfaction. He also visited the economic and political power centres o Germany, Vietnam and Singapore. All these visits held significant economic and commercial content. With the United Kingdom, the first ever bilateral investment protection guarantee agreement was concluded. With USA, a substantive joint statement was issued which reflected fully our national position on several important bilateral and international issues. During the Moscow visit, the Rao-Yeltsin Declaration on the Protection of the Interests of Pluralistic States was a landmark document of the greatest contemporary relevance, concerning threats to multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic, multi- cultural and multi-religious states in the post-Cold War era.

The Prime Minister's visits to Vietnam and Singapore marked our growing contacts with ASEAN. The second Indo-ASEAN sectoral dialogue is being held within a space of 14 months. ASEAN and the 18 nation APEC grouping have been informed of India's willingness to expand its ties with those organisations. Contacts have been made to associate India with some working groups of APEC and OECD.

Mauritius has taken the initiative along with a small number of countries to consider a new Indian Ocean regional grouping. India has been invited and will participate in the preparatory discussions in Port Louis in March 1995.

In the sphere of external publicity, new initiatives were taken to modernize publicity techniques and upgrade the External Publicity Division's communication infrastructure. Pakistani inspired anti-India propaganda was countered, and a projection of India's potential as a result of the economic reforms has been successful in portraying India as a promising business destination.

The ICCR during the year conducted several programmes; the Festival of India in China, and the exhibit "'The Healing Touch-Ashoka, Gandhi, Nehru" in Japan; an international symposium on Indian Studies was held at Kovalam; the Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Maestro Zubin Mehta visited India; a major Bangladesh festival of arts was held; and Maulana Azad lectures were given by the Secretary-General of the United Nations and a former Deputy Premier of Malaysia. The Jawaharlal Nehru

Award for 1992 was conferred on Maurice Strong. The first-ever review of the ICCR Cadre was processed and will be implemented after necessary approvals.

Housekeeping activities in the Ministry required attention. The number of pending applications for new passports pending over one month ' has been brought down from 3.42 lakhs on 31.3.1994 to 1.40 lakhs on 31.12.1994. Efforts are being undertaken for a-first-ever cadre review for the Central Passport Organisation, and for updating the three basic Consular and Passport manuals. Nine I Passport offices have been computerised; nine more passport offices are being computerised; financial estimates are being obtained for the remaining 5 which will become operational in 1995-96.

The Policy Planning Division in the Ministry has been revitalised. As many as 90 papers, long and short, have been produced by this Division from February to December 1994.

Unexpected crises such as the Yemen civil war necessitated the evacuation of Indian nationals by air and sea. 1564 Indian citizens and 85 nationals of other countries were safely evacuated by the efforts of the Ministry. Most of the Indian nationals have returned to their employment in Yemen. The repatriation in good order of our 17 year old Karachi Consulate General personnel in 9 days was another managerial achievement.

The Ministry continued to arrange for the Haj pilgrimage, with the number of pilgrims having increased to 25,000. In coordination with the Central and State Haj Committees, satisfactory arrangements were made for the transportation, stay and other needs of the pilgrims. Facilities for the Kailash-Mansarovar yatra organised by the Ministry were upgraded, and the total number of pilgrims was increased to 370.

It has been decided to open new Missions in the coming year in Slovakia, and Papua New Guinea, and Posts in Houston, Cape Town and Glasgow. Our Embassy in Colombia has been re-opened in the light of the forthcoming Non-aligned Summit in that country.

The Ministry's technical and economic cooperation programme continued satisfactorily, underlining our commitment to South-

South cooperation and to the economic progress of developing countries, especially our neighbours. Apart from major programmes in Bhutan and Nepal, 630 civilian and military personnel from abroad were trained under the ITEC/SCAAP Programme. 18 experts were deputed to foreign countries. In addition, relief supplies for humanitarian purposes were sent to 21 countries of a value of nearly Rs 8 crores.

The Foreign Service Institute conducted 11 courses from April 1, to January 31, 1995, including 2 for foreign diplomats in which 37 were trained in diplomatic theory and practice.

Efforts were made to optimise progress in purchases of property in India and abroad by utilising in full the year's budget grant. Relocation of personnel was carried out in South Block, Patiala House, and the ISIL Building to improve working conditions.

Cadre reviews, both for the IFS "A" and IFS "B" were processed during the year. The review for the "A" Cadre has been done and is awaiting inter-Ministerial examination, but the "B" review could not, once again, be carried out due to lack of consensus among the various representative bodies of that cadre.

February 1, 1995


1. India's Neighbours

Relations between India and Nepal, which have been close, with a long tradition of friendship and shared history and culture, continued to develop smoothly in 1994-95.

Several high-level exchanges took place between India and Nepal. The Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office, Shri Bhuvnesh Chaturvedi was present as Prime Minister's Special Envoy at the foundation stone laying ceremony of the Yatri Niwas at Janakpur in June 1994. The then Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Shri B Shankaranand represented the Prime Minister at the foundation stone laying ceremony by Nepalese Prime Minister for the Indian-assisted B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences in Dharan, Nepal on 19 October 1994. At the invitation of the Vice President, Shri K R Narayanan, the Crown Prince of Nepal, Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev paid his first official visit abroad to India in August 1994.

India-Nepal economic relations also gained from the liberalisation of both economies and from the stable and positive framework provided by the 1991 Treaties of Trade and Transit and their further amendments in 1993. In the last three years, 48 Indian joint ventures have been approved by Nepal. The State Bank of India and the Union Bank of India have also set up joint ventures in Nepal. Nepalese exports to India during the year 1993-94 were worth Rs 1,176.3 million and imports from India were worth Rs 7,874.63 million.

India's commitment to Nepal's economic development continued to be expressed through an extensive cooperation programme. The upgradation of the Jayanagar railway through the supply of new locomotives and carriages was completed during the year as was the supply of city sanitation equipment to Kathmandu Municipality. The formal inter- governmental agreement on the Institute for Health Sciences at Dharan with an associated 300-bed hospital was signed during the year and implementation of the first phase made it possible for the first group of students to be admitted in September 1994. At its completion after another four years, the teaching hospital will be preparing medical graduates to meet Nepal's health needs. The new Sirsiya bridge at the Raxaul border linking the two countries at the point where the traffic in goods and people is the heaviest, was completed during the year. The Rajbiraj industrial estate was formally handed over to the Nepalese government during the year.

Work also continued in the India-Nepal Joint Technical Level Committee on repairing boundary pillars in demarcated stretches of the India-Nepal boundary. Contacts were also begun with the Nepalese authorities with a view to extending cooperation to ecological, soil conservation and other cross-border problems which affect both countries and their peoples.

As a close and friendly neighbour with whom India shares an open border, India's hand of friendship remains extended to the Government and people of Nepal.

India and Bhutan enjoy a close and warm relationship marked by deep mutual understanding. Economic cooperation between the two countries has provided a solid basis for this relationship.

During the year, regular exchanges of views at various levels fostered the traditionally friendly relationship. His Majesty the King of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuk visited India privately in December 1994 when he met with the President and the Prime Minister.

Bhutan is presently implementing the 7th Five Year Plan (199297) which was launched in July 1992. India is actively involved

in implementing portions of the plan. Annual Plan talks were held in February 1994 in New Delhi and the review of Plan was done in September 1994 in Thimphu. Major projects such as the airport terminal building at Paro, Kurichu Hydel Project in Eastern Bhutan, hospitals, schools, roads and bridges, transmission lines, rural electrification, survey project, etc are underway. India also continued to cooperate with Bhutan in the field of higher educition, survey and training, and for renovation of culturally important places.

The level of interaction between the Government of India and the Government of Bangladesh remained high. There were visits to New Delhi by the Bangladesh Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism (23 to 26 September), Foreign Secretary (22 to 27 September) and the Minister for Industries (20 to 24 November) and to Dhaka by the Governor of Tripura (18 to 21 April), the Chief of Army Staff (24 to 29 April), the Finance Minister (9 to 12 July) to attend SAARC Finance Ministers' Conference, and the Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia (30 and 31 July) to attend the meeting of SAARC Council of Ministers.

As a follow-up to the decisions taken during the visit of the Home Secretary to Dhaka in October 1993, the first meeting of Indo-Bangladesh Joint Working Group took place in New Delhi from 29 to 31 March to discuss, inter alia, security-related issues, cross-border movements, the existing visa regime, and the situation along Indo-Bangladesh border.

Director-General level talks between the Border Security Force and the Bangladesh Rifles were held in New Delhi from 10 to 14 January 1994 and in Dhaka from 9 to 12 November 1994 to discuss issues such as repair and maintenance of boundary pillars, cross-border movements, illegal immigration of Bangladeshis into India, transborder crimes and repatriation of Chakma refugees from Tripura to Bangladesh.

India has on several occasions reiterated to the Government of Bangladesh her commitment to holding a constructive bilateral dialogue for arriving at a long-term, comprehensive and equitable arrangement on water sharing with Bangladesh. Bangladesh meanwhile continued to raise the issue of sharing of river waters in international fora. On 6 October, the Foreign Minister of

Bangladesh made a reference to the subject in his statement at the United Nations General Assembly.

Negotiations between India and Bangladesh on the repatriation of Chakma refugees from Tripura resulted in the return of 5198 refugees to Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh in separate phases (15 to 22 February and 21 July to 5 August). Discussion's continue for the resumption of further repatriation at an early. date although there is reluctance on the part of refugees to return on grounds of alleged unimplementation of rehabilitation measures by the Government of Bangladesh. All repatriation is on a strictly voluntary basis. About 50,000 Chakma refugees await repatriation in camps in Tripura.

On 20 December, the Bangladesh Festival of Arts was inaugurated jointly by the Bangladesh Minister for Cultural Affairs Prof Jahanara Begum and India's Deputy Minister of Education and Culture, Kum Selja at New Delhi. The two-week long festival was organised by the ICCR and the Department of Culture. This was the first major festival of arts of Bangladesh in India under the bilateral Cultural and Academic Exchange Programme. The festival was concluded at Calcutta on 5 January 1995.

The second meeting of the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Business Council was held in Dhaka from 2 to 4 August to explore possibilities for expansion of economic and commercial cooperation and for setting up of industrial projects and joint ventures.

On 4 January 1995, Bangladesh Railway signed a US $ 10 million agreement with RITES to purchase 10 diesel metre gauge locomotives. The delivery of the locomotives will be completed in 16 months.

India's exports to Bangladesh in 1993-94 were valued at Rs 1349.69 crore while imports from Bangladesh were Rs 56.09 crore. Tariffs on select items of export interest to Bangladesh were reduced. Both sides also held discussions on further measures to intensify and diversify trade and investment.

Under the Aid to Bangladesh Programme, 3 persons received training in India in news agency operations, journalism and rural development. There were, in addition, a large number of Bangladeshi students in India on a self-financing basis.

There were several exchanges of visits between India and Myanmar. The visits of the Home Secretary (2 to 7 February), the Chief of Army Staff (9 to 13 May) and the Commerce Secretary (8 to 10 June) to Yangon provided opportunities to pursue the bilateral dialogue. During the visit of a Survey delegation led by the Director General, Survey Department, Government of Myanmar to India from 18 to 22 July, operational matters relating to boundary demarcation, fixation of field season, repair and maintenance of boundary pillars were discussed. Official-level talks with Myanmar for operationalisation of the Border Trade Agreement were held from 10 to 12 January 1995.

Both Governments agreed to consider measures to ensure better border management with a view to maintaining peace and tranquillity on the Indo-Myanmar border. Three sectoral meetings flowing from the Memorandum of Understanding on Contacts between Border Civilian Authorities of the two countries were held at Imphal (7 to 9 March), Kalemyo, Myanmar (23 and 24 June) and Aizawl (22 to 24 November). Issues such as activities of insurgents, terrorists, narco-terrorists and other negative elements operating on the Indo-Myanmar border were discussed.

India is watching with interest developments in Myanmar relating to efforts to formulate a new Constitution and recent meetings between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the Government of Myanmar (20 September and 28 October).

Twenty-eight trainees came to India in 1994-95 for courses on farm machinery, computers, news agency operations, journalism, survey, diplomacy, banking procedure, cooperatives, railway computer reservations and railway signalling and telecommunications.

India's working relationship with Myanmar continued to improve during the year, which saw the exchange of high-level visits and the signing of a Border Trade Agreement. Simultaneously, India continued to support the restoration of democratic government in Myanmar.

Relations with Sri Lanka continued to be based on friendship, understanding and good neighbourliness. Soon after Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga assumed office as Prime Minister of Sri Lanka in August 1994, the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister, Shri A N Varma visited Colombo as the Prime Minister's Special Envoy to convey felicitations, good wishes and India's interest in strengthening close and friendly ties with Sri Lanka. With her victory in the Presidential elections in November 1994, Kumaratunga obtained a clear mandate for the peace process and constitutional reforms. The President and the Prime Minister sent warm messages of congratulations to President Kumaratunga on her election.

The run up to the Presidential elections saw the tragic assassination of UNP Presidential candidate Gamini Dissanayake. The Government of India expressed its shock at the dastardly act in messages sent by the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs. In response to a request from the Sri Lanka Government, India has offered the assistance of forensic and ballistic experts in the investigation of the assassination and requested Sri Lanka to indicate specific aspects on which such assistance is required.

Political dialogue with the new Sri Lanka Government began with the visit of the Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar to India from 6 to 10 October 1994, during which he called on the President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker, the Commerce Minister and the Leader of Opposition and held official talks with the Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia. Kadirgamar briefed the Indian leadership about the Sri Lanka Government's agenda including the peace process, constitutional reforms and economic policies. The Government of India wished the Sri Lanka Government success in its efforts. It was reiterated that India has always stood for a peaceful political settlement of the ethnic issue and was watching developments with close interest.

Kadirgamar stressed Sri Lanka's keenness for sound and cordial relations with India and was informed that the Government of India fully reciprocated these sentiments. There was a particular emphasis during the discussions on the need to strengthen and diversify bilateral economic cooperation. It was agreed that matters such as the security of Indian fishermen and the release of boats of Sri Lanka refugees should be resolved early. The Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Commission had earlier held its second session in New Delhi in April 1994. The Joint Commission decided on several measures to consolidate, diversify and strengthen bilateral relations in a wide variety of areas. Some decisions taken in pursuance of the Joint Commission meeting include : restoration of preferential tariff margins on Sri Lankan cloves; reduction in tariffs on select items of export interest to Sri Lanka such as ceramic tiles, glycerine, graphite and rubber; extension of a new line of dollar-denominated credit; permission to Bank of Ceylon to open a branch in Madras; and enhanced seat capacity for airlines following civil aviation talks in July 1994.

Indo-Sri Lanka trade stood at Rs 877.3 crore from January to August 1994 with exports valued at Rs 830.8 crore and imports from Sri lanka valued at Rs 46.5 crore. During 1993, the total value of trade was Rs 1,131.5 crore, with exports at Rs 1,069.5 crore and imports at Rs 62 crore. India's interest in broadening economic relations with Sri Lanka resulted in two delegations from the Confederation of Indian Industries visiting Sri Lanka in March and October 1994. A joint task force has been set up to identify and follow up implementation of specific proposals.

Seventy-seven trainees from Sri Lanka were nominated for courses in India in areas including Statistics, Mill Management, Personnel Management, Maintenance Engineering, Personnel Planning, Packaging Technology, Software Systems, Diplomacy and Cooperative Banking.

About 8,000 Sri Lankan Tamil refugees returned to their home country in 1994 on a voluntary basis. Repatriation took place in two phases in January-February 1994 and in September 1994.

The traditionally close and friendly relations with Maldives were further strengthened and consolidated during the year.

President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom paid a State visit to India from 21 to 25 March 1994. He called on the President, met the Vice President and held wide-ranging talks with the Prime Minister on issues relating, inter alia, to Indo-Maldives cooperation, particularly in the fields of health, education and progress of SAARC.

There were also visits by a Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Citizens' Majlis, Abdullah Hamid (11 to 19 May), Maldives Minister of State for National Defence and Security, Brig Abdul Sattar Anbaree (19 to 22 September), a Maldivian Civil Aviation delegation (4 to 8 November) for discussions regarding the operations of Air Maldives to India, which began shortly thereafter, and by Ahmed Abdullah, Mini ter of Health and Welfare of Maldives (12 to 16 December).

Ships of the Indian Coast Guard visited Maldives in April 1994 and conducted joint exercises with the ships of the Maldivian National Security Service.

The Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital commenced out-patient work on 15 October 1994, with a schedule for the phased opera-tionalisation of all departments by the end of the year. Fifty-six Indian deputationists including senior medical professionals are in Male to help start work in the hospital.

Another Government of India project, the Maldives Institute of Technical Education, is under construction at Male.

Fifty-nine Maldivian nominees received training in India during the current year in fields such as medicine, nursing, school administration for headmasters, computer software, banking, horticulture and aviation- related services.

India-Pakistan bilateral relations continued to show a downward trend. Pakistan's sustained efforts to internationalise the Kashmir issue, its unabated support to subversion and terrorism directed against India, its intransigence on the issue of resumption of a bilateral dialogue with India and its persistent negative approach have vitiated the atmosphere and prevented any meaningful progress in bilateral relations. In addition to training, equipping, funding and guiding militants, Pakistan has stepped up its trans-border terrorism by inducting mercenaries from third countries into Jammu and Kashmir. Government have strongly urged Pakistan to conduct inter-State relations as a responsible member of the international community and to eschew the threat of terrorism held against India, which is totally unacceptable.

Consistent with her policy to resolve differences with Pakistan bilaterally and peacefully in accordance with the Simla Agreement, Government have conveyed to Pakistan on several occasions in 1994 India's readiness for the resumption of bilateral dialogue without any pre-conditions. On 21 March 1994, Foreign Secretary renewed the offer for the resumption of Foreign Secretary-level talks. At a meeting at Dhaka on 31 July 1994 between Minister of State for External Affiars, Shri R L Bhatia and Pak Foreign Minister, Government reiterated its offer of dialogue. Foreign Secretary followed this up with a letter to his Pakistan counterpart inviting him for talks. On 3 November 1994 Government once again formally conveyed to Pakistan through diplomatic channels its offer for dialogue. During his visit to Islamabad from 22 to 24 November 1994 to attend the Commonwealth Senior Officials Meeting (COSM), Foreign Secretary conveyed to his Pak counterpart Government's readiness to discuss all bilateral issues. Shri Arjun Singh, the then Human Resource Development Minister during his visit to Pakistan to attend the Commonwealth Education Ministers Meeting (26 to 29 November 1994), reiterated India's desire for normalisation of relations. Unfortunately, Pakistan's response has been conditional and negative.

Government proposed on 7 April 1994 and 12 July 1994 to Pakistan that consultations between the two Foreign Offices may be held for a review of the implementation of the Code of Conduct for treatment of Diplomatic/Consular personnel in India and Pakistan, in the light of numerous incidents of intimidatory surveillance and harassment meted out to the Indian Diplomatic Officials and their family members posted in Indian Missions in Pakistan. This proposal, however, did not find favour with, Islamabad.

Pakistan has persisted with its restrictive visa policy and other negative measures which further impeded people-to-people contacts between the two countries. On 17 March 1994, Pakistan unilaterally and without justification announced the closure of its Consulate in Bombay. Subsequently, on 26 December 1994 Pakistan asked the Government of India to close down the In-dian Consulate General in Karachi. These actions of Pakistan are regrettable and are patently designed to create perception of tensions between the two countries. Pakistan also assumed an exaggerated air of panic towards the isolated reports of incidents of plague in India.

Pakistan's campaign to internationalise and communalise the Kashmir issue continued. At the 50th session of the UNHRC (March 1994), Pakistan had decided to move a resolution on the Human Rights situation in Jammu and Kashmir and aggressively campaigned for support but, subsequently, withdrew its resolution, at the behest of a number of friendly countries. At the 49th session of the UNGA, Pakistan made yet another attempt to table a resolution. However, this attempt also failed. This was the second occasion in 1994 that Pakistan's campaign to agitate Kashmir at an UN forum had petered out.

In the face of Pakistan's campaign of Jammu and Kashmir issue, India apprised the international community of the politically motivated act by Pakistan and emphasised that all outstanding issues between the two countries need to be resolved peacefully and bilaterally within the framework of the Simla Agreement.

Pakistan has continued to pursue its nuclear weapons-oriented programme, its clandestine procurement of material for this purpose and its acquisition of sophisticated weapons and arms technology far beyond its legitimate defence requirements. The curtain of ambiguity about the intentions and purpose of Pakistan's nuclear programme has now fallen off with the former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif publicly acknowledging on 23 August 1994 about the possession of an atomic bomb by Pakistan.

Government will endeavour, without compromising its unity and territorial integrity, to pursue all available opportunities for normalising relations with Pakistan through a bilateral dialogue within the framework of the Simla Agreement. However, Government are willing to adapt to whatever pattern of relationship Pakistan desires.

There was a major escalation in the conflict in Afghanistan in January 1994 which continued through the year and further aggravated the political and security situation in Afghanistan. A new peace initiative launched by the United Nations under the Special Envoy of the UN Secretary General, Ambassador Mehmoud Mestiri is underway. But prospects for a peaceful political settlement in the near future still remain uncertain.

There have been some high level exchanges with Afghanistan in 1994, although it has been difficult to keep up the momentum of bilateral exchanges due to the unstable conditions prevailing in Afghanistan. Dr Abdul Rehman, Afghan Minister for Civil Aviation visited New Delhi twice in March and July 1994 as a Special Envoy of Afghan President. Mohammadullah Naqid, Afghan Minister of Martyrs & Disabled Affairs visited India in March 1994. Sayed Noorullah Emad, Afghan Agriculture Minister paid a visit to India in October 1994.

India's cooperation with Afghanistan has consistently focussed on areas which are of direct benefit to the Afghan people. Unfortunately, in the unsettled conditions in Afghanistan, the cooperation programmes have been disrupted. Government have, however, been able to resume some technical cooperation (training facilities, scholarships, medical facilities, etc) during 1994. India has an abiding concern for welfare and prosperity of the Afghan people. During 1994, India has supplied tea, medicines, etc worth Rs 1 crore as relief assistance to various provinces of Afghanistan such as Herat, Kabul and Jalalabad. Despatch of further relief supplies to other provinces is being worked out.

India stands for a united, stable, non-aligned, and independent Afghanistan. India supports a peaceful political settlement which is acceptable to all sections of the people of Afghanistan. India supports the ongoing peace initiative of the UN, and stands ready to make a contribution to peace efforts.

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established in December 1985 with the adoption of the Charter of SAARC by the Heads of State/Government of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka at their meeting in Dhaka on 8 December 1985.

India views SAARC as an additional dimension to her bilateral relationship with the Member Countries. SAARC can develop into an effective vehicle for collective self-reliance in the region. The recent incorporation of substantive issues of economic cooperation into its agenda could harness the complementarities of the region in a positive manner, if diligently followed up by all Member Countries. India is firmly committed to SAARC and it is her sincere desire to strengthen the Association for the common benefit of all the SAARC Member States.

The 14th Session of the SAARC Council of Ministers was held in Dhaka on 30 and 31 July 1994. This was preceded by the 14th Session of the SAARC Programming Committee (26 July) and the 19th Session of the SAARC Standing Committee (from 27 to 29 July) held in Dhaka.

The SAARC Council of Ministers reviewed the status of implementation of its earlier decisions as also the status of implementation of Summit decisions. At the time of 7th SAARC summit held in Dhaka on 10 and 11 April 1993, a Framework Agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA) was signed by the Foreign Ministers of the SAARC Member Countries. The 14th Session of the Council of Ministers reviewed the progress in the implementation of the Agreement on SAPTA and urged the Member States to exchange request lists containing the size and nature of concessions to be exchanged by them well in time before the next meeting of the Inter-Governmental Group (IGG) to be held in Islamabad in September 1994. However, Pakistan has not fulfilled its obligation. It has neither sent any request lists nor organised the 5th Meeting of IGG which it was to host in September 1994.

With a view to evolving a collective position by SAARC Countries on the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, 1994, India hosted a Workshop in New Delhi from 30 March to 2 April 1994. The Report adopted at the Workshop was presented at the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction held in Yokohama, Japan in May 1994.

Bangladesh hosted the Meeting of Finance/Planning Ministers of SAARC Countries in Dhaka on 10 and 11 July 1994. The Ministerial Meeting decided that a mechanism should be set up which would act as a forum for exchange of information on experiences of the SAARC Countries in the implementation of poverty alleviation programmes. The Ministers suggested this mechanism in the form of a three-tier institutional structure that would meet once a year. The 14th Session of the Council of Ministers commended the Report of the Finance/Planning Ministers and decided to transmit it to the Heads of State or Government.

A SAARC Ministerial Conference on Youth was held in Male from 9 to 11 May 1994. A five-member delegation from India led by Shri Mukul Wasnik, Minister of State for Youth Affairs and Sports attended the Meeting. The Ministerial Conference adopted a 17-point resolution known as "Male Resolution on Youth". The 14th Session of the Council of Ministers appreciated the Male Resolution on Youth and decided to transmit the Resolution to SAARC Heads of State or Government.

As per decision of the 13th Session of the Council of Ministers held in Dhaka on 4 and 5 December 1993, the SAARC Documentation Centre (SDC) has been established and located at the Indian Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC), New Delhi. The Governing Board for the SDC has been constituted and its first meeting was held in New Delhi in May 1994.

As per decision of the Seventh SAARC Summit held in Dhaka in April 1993, a SAARC Ministerial Conference on Disabled Persons was held in Islamabad from 16 to 18 December 1993. The Ministers adopted the Resolution called "Islamabad Resolution on Disabled Persons". The 14th Session of the Council of Ministers held in Dhaka on 30 and 31 July 1994 endorsed the Report of the SAARC Ministerial Conference on Disabled Persons and the Islamabad Resolution on Disabled Persons and decided to transmit them to the SAARC Heads of State or Government. India organised a SAARC Meeting of Experts on Rehabilitation Techniques for Disabled Persons from 28 November to 2 December 1994 at the National Institute for Mentally Handicapped, Secunderabad.

Within the parameters of the SAARC Charter, discussions are underway between SAARC and some other UN and International Organisations for possible cooperation between SAARC and these bodies. Agreements/Memoranda of Understanding have already been signed between SAARC and ESCAP, UNICEF,

APT, UNCTAD. The discussions are underway for cooperation between SAARC- EU, SAARC-ASEAN, SAARC-ADB and SAARC-UNDP.

Under the aegis of SAARC , around 58 activities have been held so far in 1994, out of which 16 were held in India. These include training courses, seminars, workshops, technical studies, etc.

India would be hosting the 8th SAARC Summit in April 1995.


2. South-East Asia and the Pacific

In keeping with India's desire for greater integration with the Asia Pacific, South-East Asia continued to be an area of prime focus during the year 1994-95. The Prime Minister paid official visits to Singapore and Vietnam during the year. The visits to India of President Soeharto of Indonesia and Prime Minister Mahathir of Malaysia in March 1994 (in the context of G-15) helped to rekindle interest about India at the political as well as trade and economic level in those countries. Foreign Ministers of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia and Deputy Foreign Minister of Thailand also visited India during the year. Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong of Singapore who visited India as the Chief Guest for Republic Day 1994, paid another visit in January 1995 in connection with the Centenary celebrations of the Confederation of Indian Industries in Calcutta. Interaction has also taken place at the level of intellectuals and academics, with the Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA) and India International Centre organising seminars, with the Ministry's support, on India's relations with South-East Asian countries.

The on-going economic liberalisation process in India continues to be viewed positively by South-East Asian countries that have investible surplus along with marketing and managerial skills. Efforts to synergise the complementarity in the economies of India and the region continued and succeeded in numerous productive ventures both in India and in the South-East Asia re-gion. Meetings of Joint Business Councils (JBCs) with several countries and seminars on "Doing Business with India" were instrumental in fuelling further interest in the Indian economy, at the same time bridging some of the information gap. There are 96 joint ventures spread over Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and now Vietnam, out of which about 60 are operational. Investment proposals approved so far amount to approximately Rs 900 crore. Last year, Thailand, fox instance, was the 6th largest foreign investor in the country. Trade with South-East Asia has also increased steadily. Currently, India's exports to the region are in the range of Rs 5,500 crore, a little less than 10% of her global exports.

The Sectoral Dialogue partnership with ASEAN progressed satisfactorily. The indication from the ASEAN members is that they would welcome the sectoral dialogue to diversify further and at a rapid pace.

The year also witnessed significant developments in regional security, with the first meeting of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) taking place in Bangkok in July 1994. As an immediate neighbour of South-East Asia sharing common security concerns, India desires to be associated with deliberations of the ARF. The general question of expanding ARF membership is under consideration of the ASEAN countries.

India's bilateral relations with Singapore continued on a dynamic course. Singapore has been fully supportive of India's quest for a deeper involvement with South-East Asia, whether in the form of full dialogue partnership with the ASEAN, or membership of the ASEAN Regional Forum and APEC. There is increasing involvement of private sectors of the two countries in trade and economic cooperation. Several proposals relating to infrastructural development, civil aviation and tourism, information technology, financial services, etc are under consideration.

Prime Minister's visit to Singapore in September 1994 within a short span of eight months of the Singapore Prime Minister's visit to India in January 1994 was instrumental in turning a new chapter in India's relations with Singapore. The discussions, that took place in an atmosphere of warm cordiality and goodwill,focussed primarily on economic exchanges in which both sides saw immense potential ahead. Public housing, power generation, telecommunications, in addition to tourism and civil aviation, were identified as sectors for possible cooperation with Singapore in India. The Prime Minister suggested Singapore's involvement in commercialising new technologies developed by CSIR and also flagged India's interest in further strengthening defence cooperation in such areas as training and equipment. Possibilities of bilateral tie-up for third-country projects were also discussed. A Memorandum of Understanding on, Foreign Office Consultations and a dozen corporate agreements involving areas such as trade and investment, banking, aquaculture, warehousing, real estates, telecommunications, etc were signed during the visit. The Prime Minister also delivered the highly prestigious "Singapore Lecture" on "India and Asia Pacific: Forging a new Relationship", which was followed by a lively question-answer session.

Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong's visit to India again in January 1995 signified the growing informality and closeness in the relationship between the two countries of mutual benefit. He met the Prime Minister for a one-to-one meeting, in addition to an encounter with businessmen and a working lunch. A Memorandum of Understanding on Science and Technology was also signed on the occassion, to put in place a framework that will facilitate cooperation in this field, particularly in the area of commercialisation of technologies developed by CSIR, earlier discussed during Prime Minister's visit to Singapore in September 1994.

Prime Minister's visit to Vietnam in September 1994 reaffirmed India's traditionally warm and close relationship in the changing environment. While acknowledging the strength and continuity of bilateral relations between India and Vietnam, both sides agreed that there was need to upgrade economic linkages. With market-oriented reforms taking place in both countries, time was opportune to substantially enlarge areas of economic cooperation. Several new areas including sugarcane cultivation and processing, dairy farming, rubber plantation and manufacture, vegetable oil production, leather processing, etc were identified. Four Agreements were signed during the visit-on Avoidance of Double Taxation, Facilitation of Visas, Defence Coopera-tion and Foreign Office Consultations. In addition, the visiting Indian business delegation signed six corporate agreements relating to investments and joint ventures in Vietnam.

As decided during the visit, a Joint Working Group met in New Delhi from 16 to 18 January 1995, which reviewed cooperation in all areas and held detailed discussions, in the subgroups, on ways- to further enhance and concretise cooperation, in identified sectors.

With Thailand, there is an excellent understanding at the political level reinforced by periodic exchange of high level visits. During the year, the Thai Parliamentary Committee of Religion, Art and Culture visited places of Buddhist interest in India in September 1994. Deputy Foreign Minister Dr Surin Pitsuwan visited in October 1994 during which comprehensive talks were held. The visit was useful for taking stock of the process on the points of action emerging from the last joint Commission meeting and also for identifying new areas of cooperation. Dr Supachai Panitchpakdi, Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand visited Calcutta in January 1995 in connection with CII Centenary celebrations. Secretary level talks were also held (27 January 1995) between India and Thailand in New Delhi. The year also saw the first meeting of the India- Thailand Joint Business Council, an investment Seminar on India and the joint Trade Committee taking place.

India's bilateral trade with Thailand showed a welcome sign of growth with the overall value reaching US$ 601.60 million (approximately Rs 1800 crore) during the year 1993-94. From Thailand, investment proposals worth US$ 120 million (approximately Rs 360 crore) were approved in 1993, mainly in the fields of fisheries, chemicals, air-conditioning systems, hotel and tourism. Some prominent Thai companies have also signed agreements with Indian companies in telecom sector. Indian investment in Thailand amounted to a total registered capital of US$ 25 million during the last year. The Aditya Birla group is the largest Indian investor with three joint ventures.

India's close relations with Indonesia continued to be strengthened during the year. The visit of President Soeharto to New Delhi for the reconvened G-15 Summit in March 1994 offered a
fresh opportunity for bilateral exchanges at the highest political level. There were also regular contacts at Foreign Minister's level in connection with the NAM and UN matters. Efforts also continued at official level to expand bilateral interaction in diverse fields. A comprehensive review of bilateral relations with Indonesia was undertaken during discussions at Head of Division's level in Jakarta in December 1994. It was agreed, in principle, to further strengthen the relations through institutionalised mechanism like joint Commission, Foreign Office Consultations, etc.

India's trade and economic relations with Indonesia are steadily going up. The volume of trade in 1993-94 was US$ 354.36 million (approximately Rs 1100 crore) and has far exceeded the previous year's figure of US$ 197.19 million (approximately Rs 600 crore). India has 15 joint ventures in Indonesia with investments worth US$ 189 million.

Prime Minister Mahathir's special gesture of visiting India in March 1994 for the reconvened G-15 Summit after his visit in the same connection three months earlier, contributed to the strengthening of India's bilateral relations with Malaysia. There is a growing realization today, on the part of both India and Malaysia that it is in mutual interest to enhance economic interaction. India and Malaysia, have excellent cooperation in the area of projects, with several major projects involving Indian companies having been cleared over the last year including a contract for export of gas turbaned equipment by BHEL and another one for hire and maintenance of Indian-made diesel locomotives by IRCON. The volume of India's bilateral trade with Malaysia in 1993-94 was to the tune of US$ 593 million. There are 18 Indian joint ventures in Malaysia and another 14 under various stages of implementation, in areas of automobile products, textiles, chemicals, metal, electrical products, palm oil, rubber, turnkey projects, consultancy and insurance.

Malaysian investment in India, which has picked up rapidly since liberalisation, continued to look up with approved investment reaching Rs 830 million in 10 projects. These are in the areas of telecommunication equipment, rubber products, software production, electrical apparatus, shrimp and prawn cultivation. Some other proposals for infrastructural development including highways are under consideration. Under the Memo-randum of Understanding for Defence Cooperation signed by the two countries in 1993, over 100 Malaysian Air Force personnel are currently undergoing training in India.

During a detailed review of India's bilateral relations with Malaysia undertaken in Chula Lumpur in December 1994, the ways and means to further expand and diversify the relations were discussed and a mutually agreed time table for important bilateral activities like high-level visits, Joint Commission meeting, Foreign Office Consultations, etc was drawn up.

With the Philippines, India's relations have remained cordial and friendly. There is growing realisation on both sides of the untapped potential for economic cooperation to mutual advantage. The Foreign Office Consultations that took place in Manila in November 1994, underlined the need to step up bilateral economic cooperation. A Joint Business Council was set up during the year, which also saw resumption of meat exports from India to the Philippines after a gap of almost thirty years. Senator Leticia Shahani, President Pro-tempore of the Philippines Senate, continued to provide an important link between India and the Philippines. She visited India twice during the year.

India's relations with Brunei Darussalam are also gathering momentum. In keeping with Brunei's interest in enhancing aviation links with India, Brunei's Minister of Communications Dato Haji Zakaria visited India from 9 to 12 January 1995 at the invitation of the Indian Civil Aviation Minister. During the visit, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed to discuss matters relating to the conclusion of an Air Services Agreement and introduction of scheduled air services between the two countries. The two sides also finalised the text of the Air Services Agreement, which was initialled by Leaders of the two delegations.

With Cambodia, India continues to enjoy close and cordial relations. India wishes to see peace and tranquillity prevail in that country. Former Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Prince Norodom Sirivuddh, visited India in June 1994. During the visit, he called on the President, the Vice President and the Prime Minister and held discussions with Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia. A Memorandum of Under-standing on Foreign Office Consultations was signed during the visit. India remains interested in resuming the restoration work on Angkor Vat temples. It was also decided to establish a centre for artificial limbs in Cambodia.

The Lao Foreign Minister Somsavat Lengsavad visited India in August 1994 during which a Memorandum of Understanding on Technical Cooperation and a Cultural Agreement were signed. The visit imparted a much-needed impetus to the bilateral relations. Several proposals for enhancing economic and trade relations are under consideration. A line of credit to facilitate expansion of bilateral trade is also under consideration.

Relations between India and Australia continued to be cordial. Vice President Shri K R Narayanan visited Australia in April 1994. He inaugurated the Festival "India Today 1994"-a two-month long diversified programme of events featuring the arts, music, culture-organised by the Australia-India Council. The Vice President met the Governor-General, the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister of Australia, besides a large number of State level dignitaries and eminent personalities.

Bilateral consultations at Secretary level were held in Canberra on 2 and 3 February 1994. Secretary (East) led the Indian side. There were extensive discussions on important international and bilateral issues. Jim Kennon, former Deputy Premier of Victoria, Australia visited India in February 1994. He met senior government officials and business leaders, to identify specific areas for expanding trade and investment. As part of the ongoing exchanges between the defence establishments, the Australian Chief of Defence Forces Admiral A Beaumont visited India from 13 to 17 April 1994.

On the economic front, India-Australia relations are expanding rapidly. At the Secretary level consultations in February 1994, the Australian side have shown a keen interest in expanding trade and investment. A comprehensive study on Indian Trade and Investment conducted by the Australian Foreign Office indicated attractive prospects with the Indian economy showing 6% annual growth. Several business/trade delegations from Australia visited India during the year under report.

The third meeting of the India-Australia joint Ministerial Commission was held on 4 February 1994 in Sydney. The Indian delegation was led by Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed, Minister of State for Commerce while the Australian delegation was led by Bob McMullan, Minister for Overseas Trade. A business cum investment seminar was organised in Sydney on 18 April 1994, followed by the India-Australia Joint Business Council's meeting on 20 and 21 April 1994 in Perth.

The bilateral trade during 1993-94 was Rs 2855.08 crore with adverse balance of trade for India. Australian investment in India has been rising steadily. From January to September 1994 it is Rs 385 crore, fourth largest after USA, Germany and NRIs.

An Honorary Consul General of India was appointed in Melbourne in November 1994.

The traditional friendly relations between India and New Zealand were maintained. Bilateral consultations at Secretary level were held on 22 and 23 April 1994 in Wellington. The Indian side was represented by Shri Salman Haider, Secretary (East) and the New Zealand side by Graham Fortune, Acting Secretary.

Bilateral trade registered an increase of 20% in 1993-94 to Rs 342 crore. About 12 joint ventures in various fields have been launched. The fourth meeting of the Indo-New Zealand Joint Business Council was held in Auckland on 14 and 15 April 1994. The discussion focussed on areas like trade and investment expansion, prospects for cooperation through joint ventures and technology transfer.

The fourth meeting of the India-New Zealand Joint Trade Committee was held in Wellington from 22 to 29 June 1994. The India-New Zealand Joint Business Council sent a seven-member consultants team to India in May 1994 to discuss prospects and joint ventures with Indian companies involving transfer of technology.

The Government of India has been closely following the developments in Fiji. Addressing the opening session of the newly constituted Fijian Parliament on 21 March 1994, President Mara said that the Fiji Government's two most important foreign policy objectives were (i) to seek resumption of full diplomatic relations with India and (ii) to seek Fiji's re-entry into the Commonwealth.

Government of India have declared that the Fijian Government should accelerate the review process of the racially-biased 1990 constitution, with a view to achieving an early solution acceptable to all the sections of the Fijian population. Once that is achieved, other issues would not pose any problems.

India has decided to establish diplomatic and consular relations with Federated States of Micronesia, a UN member. Ambassador of India in Tokyo will be concurrently accredited to Micronesia. Efforts were made to strengthen and maintain India's cordial relations with other Pacific Island countries during the year.


3. East Asia

India-China relations in 1994-95 continued to improve steadily and to expand into new areas of cooperation. The Government continued to work for the establishment of a long-term, stable and good neighbourly relationship with China. The momentum of high level political dialogue was maintained in 1994 to expand cooperation and create a favourable climate in which the two countries can work for the resolution of outstanding issues.

Political contact between India and China continued through high level exchanges and regular consultations at other levels.

Among the high level political exchanges between the two countries, the Chinese Foreign, Defence, Foreign Trade and Supervision Ministers visited India. From India, the Ministers of Agriculture, Human Resource Development and Health & Family Welfare visited China. The Ministers of State for Coal, Petroleum, Labour and the Deputy Minister for Culture also visited China. Vice President of India Shri K R Narayanan visited China from 22 to 28 October 1994.

The situation along the India-China border remained peaceful during the year. The seventh meeting of the India-China joint Working Group (JWG) was held in Beijing in July 1994. The JWG continued discussions aimed at arriving at a fair, reason-able and mutually acceptable solution to the boundary question and on the implementation of the Border Peace and Tranquillity Agreement. The India-China Expert Group (EG), set up under the Border Peace and Tranquillity Agreement to assist the JWG in the implementation of the Agreement, held two meetings in February and April 1994. These meetings of the EG resulted in basic agreement on issues relating to the Group's mandate, future tasks and methodology codified into a document on the work regulations of the EG which was signed by the leaders of the two delegations at the second meeting of the EG. The two countries also agreed in principle to open more points for border trade. Border trade through Shipkila in Himachal Pradesh started on 16 July 1994. An agreement to open Shipkila for border trade had been signed during the Prime Minister's visit to China in 1993.

The two countries also succeeded in their efforts to enhance the economic content of their relations. In the first nine months of 1994 the total volume of bilateral trade was US$ 593 million, an increase of 29.5% over the corresponding period last year. The potential for a future increase in this trade, given the size and strength of the Indian and the Chinese economies, remains vast. During the fifth meeting of the India-China Joint Group on Economic, Trade and Scientific and Technological Cooperation held in June 1994, India's Commerce Minister and the Chinese Minister for Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Mme Wu Yi called for greater efforts by all concerned to realise the trade and economic potential that exists between two such large economies. The Vice President during his visit to China in October 1994, emphasised the need to further increase cooperation in economic and scientific- technological fields. Agreements signed in the field of banking and avoidance of double taxation are likely to facilitate the further growth of trade and economic links between the two countries-The year also saw continued efforts to expand cooperation to new areas based on the logic of mutual benefit. Coal, petroleum, medicine, civil aviation, banking and the labour laws are some of the new areas in which the two countries have initiated cooperation.

The year 1994 saw the Festival of India in China during the months of May and June. This was the first ever ' festival of a foreign nation to be held in China. The two countries also celebrated the fortieth anniversary of Panchsheel or the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence. During the seminar which was inaugurated by the Prime Minister on 27 June 1994, participants from both India and China discussed the relevance of Panchsheel in the post-Cold War era.

India's relations with Japan have been expanding in recent years, especially after the visit of Prime Minister P V Narasimha Rao in June 1992. The two countries have institutionalised bilateral consultations. Foreign Secretary level talks are held annually; and the recent meeting was held in Tokyo in September 1994 when important bilateral and other issues were discussed. Shozo Azuma, Parliamentary Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan visited India in January 1994 and discussed several issues including India's economic reforms. He again visited India in April 1994 to participate in the 50th meeting of the ESCAP held in New Delhi.

The economic and commercial relations between India and Japan continued to grow during the year under report. Japan has maintained its position as the largest bilateral donor of development assistance to India. Japan has pledged 125,765 million yen (approximately equivalent to Rs 3,920 crore) as ODA to India for 1994-95, a five per cent increase over the previous year. This year's ODA loan package comprises twelve projects covering power, transport, drinking water and sewage system, environment and afforestation sectors. Japan continued its grant-in-aid for small scale, health, education and social welfare projects and technical training.

The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) conducted a feasibility study on the setting up of an Industrial Model Town in Haryana. A 46-member Economic Mission from Japan led by Eme Yamashita, Chairman of the Japanese Committee of the India-Japan Business Cooperation Committees, visited India from 7 to 10 March 1994. They had a series of meetings with various dignitaries in the Government of India and participated in a meeting of the India-Japan Joint Business Council.

India and Japan have agreed to hold a policy dialogue at the Secretary/Vice Minister level between the Ministry of External Affairs on the Indian side and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry on the Japanese side. Important issues such as technology transfer, investment in infrastructure in India and trade insurance are likely to be discussed.

A 24-member delegation from Kansai Economic Federation (Kankeiren) visited India in November 1994. After extensive talks they have signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) New Delhi for a wide-ranging cooperation on trade matters.

India's trade with Japan during 1993-94 was Rs 10,231.13 crore of which India's exports were worth Rs 5,482.21 crore and imports were worth Rs 4,748.92 crore. During the period from April to July 1994 total trade is Rs 3,636.22 crore, exports being Rs 1,904.82 crore and imports being Rs 1,731.40 crore. Japanese investors are showing considerable interest in the new economic policies of the Government of India and Japanese investment in India is expected to increase in the near future.

The 24th meeting of the India-Japan Study Committee was held in April 1994 in New Delhi. The Indian side was led by Shri Vasant Sathe, President, ICCR and the Japanese side by Toshiki Kaifu, former Prime Minister of Japan. The 25th meeting of the Committee was held in Tokyo in October 1994.

There were exchanges of scholars and cultural delegations. India-Japan Documentation Centre at the Indian Council for Social Science Research, New Delhi, with Japanese assistance is nearing completion. The Centre will be a data-base on East Asia, with advanced retrieval facilities. The ICCR organised an exhibition entitled "King Ashoka, Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru-the Healing Touch" in Japan during October-December 1994. The exhibition marks the 125th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi and aims at promoting the philosophy of pacifism and nonviolence.

India's relations with the Republic of Korea (ROK) continued to expand rapidly during the year under report. The third round of Foreign Office Consultations at Secretary level was held in New Delhi on 6 April 1994. The discussions covered several issues including economic cooperation between the two countries.

The Union Minister for Surface Transport, Shri Jagdish Tytler visited Seoul from 12 to 15 October 1994, with a high-power team comprising representatives of the Shipping Corporation of India, the Hindustan Shipyards Ltd and others. The delegation made series of useful presentations on investment attractions in India, to the major ROK business conglomerates such as Hyundai, Daewoo, Samsung, Hallu and Kookdang.

The President of Daewoo and the Advisor of Hyundai visited India in early 1994 in response to Prime Minister's invitation to ROK industrialists to study investment possibilities in India. DCM-Daewoo have agreed for a joint collaboration to produce passenger cars in India.

The two-way trade between India and ROK exceeded US$ one billion for the first time in 1993. The trade is expected to double in the next three years. ROK's direct investment approvals to India by September 1994 amounted to Rs 474.6 million. Recently, ROK has expanded its participation in India's infrastructural sectors, particularly in the shipping and oil exploration and production sectors.

ROK Minister for Trade, Industry and Energy Dr Chul Su Kim, visited India in September 1994 and held useful talks with Finance Minister, Commerce Minister, Power Minister, and the Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia.

India has maintained close cultural links with the ROK. Under the cultural exchange programmes, there were exchanges of students, scholars and cultural delegations.

A new Honorary Consul General of India has been appointed in Pusan in ROK in October 1994.

India maintained friendly relations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). India expressed profound sorrow and grief at the passing away of Kim Il Sung on 8 July 1994. President, Prime Minister and other dignitaries sent condolences and Parliament passed a resolution. The gestures were duly appreciated.

Government of India had been closely following the DPRK nuclear issue. Welcoming the DPRK-US agreement of 21 October 1994, India expressed hope that the agreement would reduce tensions in the Korean peninsula and the anxiety that was voiced in the surrounding region and beyond.

Bilateral consultations at Secretary level were held on 23 March 1994. Important international issues and bilateral relations including economic cooperation and cultural exchange programme were discussed.

India enjoys a friendly relationship with Mongolia which was further cemented during the year. President P Ochirbat paid a State visit to India from 21 to 25 January 1994 when a Treaty of Friendly Relations and Cooperation was concluded, besides agreements on establishing a joint Committee on Cooperation and on Avoidance of Double Taxation. Dr Balram Jakhar, Union Agriculture Minister and the Commerce Minister Shri Pranab Mukherjee visited Ulaan Baatar during 1994.

While trade and economic links have been limited by distance, India participated in the fourth Mongolia Assistance. Group meeting in Tokyo in November 1994. The desire of Indian private and public sector enterprises to associate themselves with joint venture projects in Mongolia in the small scale sector as well as for infrastructural development was reaffirmed. The opening of chartered flights to Mongolia from India during 1994 is expected to contribute to the growth of bilateral trade.


4 Central Asia

India is actively engaged in promoting her relations with Central Asian countries as well as with Azerbaijan and Turkey. India's relations with these countries have been historically friendly and the Central Asian leaders are especially keen for this relationship to grow as rapidly as possible. These newly independent countries are going through a process of external and internal adjustment with a view to integrating themselves in the international community following the dissolution of the Soviet Union; India has offered training facilities to the nationals of these newly independent countries. Some of these countries, such as Tajikistan, also face the twin threats of fundamentalism and terrorism, including cross-border terrorism. Apart from maintaining a steady dialogue with the above mentioned countries at the UN and other international fora, India has opened resident diplomatic missions in Bishkek (the Kyrghyz Republic), Dushanbe (Tajikistan) and Ashgabat (Turkmenistan); with these Missions, India has resident diplomatic representation in all Central Asian capitals except Baku (Azerbaijan). The Consulate General of India has been opened in Istanbul in Turkey and India's Ambassador in Ankara is concurrently accredited to Azerbaijan.

Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid visited Kazakhstan leading a delegation of senior officials and businessmen where he had detailed discussions with the Kazakh leadership on international issues as well as on ways to inten-sify bilateral relations. The Director of the Indian Cultural Centre with the Embassy of India, Almaty, was in position in May 1994. This was in fulfilment of Prime Minister's announcement in 1993 for setting up an Indian Cultural Centre in Almaty to cater to the deep Kazakh interest in Indian culture. In August 1994, the new Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan, Kanat B Saudabaev transited through New Delhi and had detailed discussions with Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia. A delegation of the Ministry of External Affairs participated in the Senior Officers' Meeting in October 1994 in Almaty to discuss the Kazakh President's proposal on Conference for Interaction and Confidence-building Measures in Asia.

The Defence Minister of Kazakhstan, General S K Nurmagambetov visited India from 1 to 5 February 1995. During his stay in India he called on Prime Minister and had discussions with Minister of State for Defence and with Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs and other senior defence officials. He was given a presentation about the defence training facilities available in India.

Kazakh Airways has started regular commercial flights between Almaty and New Delhi. The Kazakh Chamber of Commerce and Industry has established a Joint Business Council with the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry in November 1994. Several Kazakh nationals are receiving training in India and Indian companies have established their representation in Almaty. The credit 'line of US$ 10 million extended by Government of India is under active consideration though its early implementation has been slowed down by Kazakh internal procedure. Relations with Kazakhstan are marked by shared global perspectives and close understanding.

The first Indian resident Ambassador presented credentials to the Kyrghyz President Askar Akaev in June 1994. Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid visited Bishkek in June 1994, leading a delegation of Indian officials and businessmen; during his stay he had discussions with the Kyrghyz leaders who welcomed greater Indian presence in Central Asia. The credit line of US$ 5 million is under active negotiation and will be finalised shortly.

India's relations with Tajikistan also received considerable stimulus with the visit, the first ever by an Indian leader after the independence of Tajikistan, of Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid in June 1994, who led a delegation of senior government officials and businessmen to Dushanbe. During his stay he met the acting President, Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and other senior figures in the Government. An Indo-Tajik credit Agreement for extension of an Indian credit line of US$ 5 million was signed during the visit. Tajik government welcomes closer interaction with India and appreciates its political significance for the region; the two Governments have publicly expressed themselves against international terrorism and for resolution of bilateral issues directly without recourse to their internationalisation. India's resident mission having been opened in May 1994, the first resident Ambassador in Dushanbe is in position since December 1994. The Tajik Government is considering a proposal to open their resident mission in India where they are presently represented by an Honorary Consul. Humanitarian assistance is also being provided to the Government of Tajikistan. Elections to the Presidency were held in November and the Acting President Rakhmonov was declared elected the new Head of State. The President has sent a message of congratulations to President Rakhmonov.

The second session of the Indo-Uzbek joint Commission was held on 22 November 1994. The two delegations were led respectively by the Union Commerce Minister and the Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan, U Sultanov. The delegation called on the President, the Prime Minister and other Indian leaders. The decision was taken to set up two sub- commissions under the Joint Commission to look after trade and economic cooperation and science and technology sectors respectively; an agreement was also signed to use the second tranche of the US$ 10 million credit which was announced by the Prime Minister during his visit to Uzbekistan in May 1993 after the finalisation of contracts for the first tranche of US$ 10 million. The Director of India Cultural Centre with the Indian Mission in Tashkent has been functioning since May 1994. The Uzbek Television is directly relaying Doordarshan programmes using receiving and editing equipment supplied by the Government, an offer made by the Prime Minister during his visit to Uzbekistan in May 1993. The process of selecting a suitable incumbent for the proposed India Chair at the World University of Economics and Diplomacy is underway. Uzbekistan has used the agreed slots under the ITEC programme and has expressed an interest in higher allotment which is being considered. The Government pledge in January 1994 for US$ 500,000 for alleviation in the crisis in the social sector in Uzbekistan is being implemented. Embassy of Uzbekistan was ' headed by a charge d'affaires in India since December 1993; he has been upgraded as Ambassador in September 1994. Bilateral relations are marked by close mutual understanding and support.

India has a resident Ambassador in Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) since June 1994. In response to the Turkmen request, a cultural troupe and handloom craftsmen visited Ashgabat as part of the third anniversary of independence of Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan has decided to open a resident mission in New Delhi at the level of an Ambassador. The Charge d' Affaires has already arrived.

India has a functioning Consulate General in Istanbul. Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia visited Turkey in July 1994, where he had discussions with the President Suleyman Demirel, State Minister Sami Dace, the then Foreign Minister and other senior officials. Deputy Chairman, Rajya Sabha, Smt Najma Heptulla, visited Turkey in April 1994 at the invitation of Turkish Parliament. Shri M Arunachalam, Minister of State for Small Scale Industries and Agro and Rural Industries visited Turkey in October 1994. The Indo-Turkish joint Economic Committee scheduled to meet in November 1994, could not take place due to local elections being scheduled in Turkey at the same time. Cooperation in different fields, including new areas, is under active discussion between the two countries.

The President of Turkey, Suleyman Demirel paid an official visit to India from 30 January to 2 February 1995 in response to an invitation from President of India. He was accompanied by a high level delegation which included Ministers, Members of Parliament and several distinguished businessmen and journalists. President of Turkey had discussions with President, Prime Minister and other Indian leaders. The discussions concentrated on cooperation in international fora based on the common commitment to democracy and secularism and on bilateral cooperation in diverse fields especially economic. President Demirel also addressed a joint session of Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry and Assocham. He visited Agra and Bombay during his stay in India. Agreements on avoidance of double taxation and tourism were also signed during the visit.

India has offered training facilities to nationals of Azerbaijan.


5. The Gulf, West Asia and North Africa
The global importance of the Gulf region stems from the fact that the area holds over half of the world's proven oil reserves. During the past two decades, many of the Gulf countries have attained unprecedented economic prosperity from their oil revenues. Further, Islam originated in this region and two of the holiest Islamic shrines of Makkah and Madinah lie in Saudi Arabia, giving the country a special place in the Islamic world.

Historically, India and the neighbouring region of the Gulf have had a close interaction based on trade routes and Islam. In recent times, these ties have acquired a significant socio-economic dimension. Currently, India imports nearly two-thirds of her oil from this region. India's trade with the Gulf countries stood at over Rs 20,206 crore in 1993-94 (Indian Exports: Rs 6,260 crore; Indian Imports: Rs 13,946 crore). During this year the total value of Indo-Gulf trade grew by 23%. The ongoing economic liberalisation has facilitated expansion and diversification in bilateral trade with the Gulf countries.

Over 20 lakh Indian nationals are estimated to be living in these countries most of whom are gainfully employed. The inward annual remittances from these Indians through banking channels are currently estimated to be Rs 7,800 crore.

The Gulf region is one of the large markets for the Indian exports. Although Indian exports to the Gulf have risen significantly in recent years, India still has a large trade deficit with this region. India has the advantage of proximity and cheap labour which together can make the country an ideal source for light consumer items, perishables, handicrafts, etc required by the countries of this region.

Tranquillity in the Gulf region is imperative to Indian interests. India has, therefore, consistently called for peace, stability and security in this region. India has urged respect for independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of all the Gulf States. India is willing to contribute to all sincere endeavours to secure and stabilise the region.

It has been India's endeavour to harness geographical proximity, social familiarity and economic complementarity between India and the Gulf region to mutual advantage. To this end, creation of bilateral economic linkages remains a priority.

Even as there have been no serious bilateral problems or difference of views between India and Gulf states, India has remained keen to promote bilateral understanding. To this end, India took a number of initiatives for dialogue and exchange visits. A pattern of bilateral Foreign Office consultations at Secretary level with the Gulf countries has become a regular feature of Indian diplomacy. During the year, such consultations were held with Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Yemen.

In the recent times, India's bilateral relations with all the Gulf countries have been marked by growing mutually beneficial co operation and cordiality. The year 1994-95 saw further development in this direction.

During the year, Indo-Bahraini relations continued to develop in various fields. A 22-member delegation of Bahrain Chambers of Commerce and Industries visited India in April and signed an agreement with FICCI for setting up a joint Business Council. In December, a nine-member delegation of Majlis al-Shoura of Bahrain visited India at the joint invitation of the Chairman of Rajya Sabha and the Speaker of Lok Sabha. Shri Salman Haider, Secretary (East) in the Ministry visited Bahrain in September this. year as part of annual Foreign Office talks.

Even as India's relations with Iraq have remained restricted by the UN economic sanctions on that country, there was gradual upgradation in bilateral contacts. India has consistently advocated phased lifting of the UN economic sanctions in tandem with Iraqi compliance with the terms of the relevant UN Security Council resolutions. Iraqi Foreign Minister Mohamed Saeed al-Shhaf visited India from 21 to 23 April as Iraqi , President's Special Envoy. He called on the President, the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs. A six-member Iraqi Economic Delegation led by the Permanent Under Secretary for Communications Jamil Ibrahim Ali al-Saleh paid an official visit to India in November. Pending bilateral economic issues were discussed during the visit.

During the year, Indo-Kuwait relations continued to be on the upswing. On a number of occasions, India reiterated her commitment to Kuwaiti independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity. The Minister of Communication, Electricity and Water of Kuwait Jassem Mohammed al-Oun visited India from 5 to 9 December. During the visit he held extensive talks with the Ministers of Civil Aviation and Tourism, and Power and the Minister of State for Communications on ways to strengthen bilateral cooperation. A 15-member Kuwaiti Multi-Disciplinary Economic delegation led by the Under Secretary of Finance Abdul Mohsin al-Hunaif paid an official visit to India from 11 to 16 April. The visit was aimed at exploring possibilities of boosting bilateral economic cooperation.

Kuwaiti Oil Minister Dr Abdul Mohsen Medej al-Medej paid an official visit to India from 11 to 14 January 1995 to hold extensive talks for future bilateral cooperation in oil sector with his counterpart, Captain Satish Sharma, Minister of State for Petroleum & Natural Gas. During the visit, he called on President and met Finance Minister, Minister for Chemicals & Fertilizers as well as Minister of State for External Affairs.

The momentum generated by the Prime Minister's landmark visit to Oman in June 1993, saw further progress during the year reflected in intense exchange of views and Ministerial-level visits. The Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Shri Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav paid an official visit to Oman from 28 to 30 July . He and the Omani Minister of Petroleum and Minerals signed a Memorandum of Understanding envisaging preparation of detailed feasibility report for US$ 900 million fertilizer joint venture. The Omani Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Yousuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah paid an official visit to India from 11 to 13 August. During the visit extensive talks were held on bilateral matters and views exchanged on regional and international issues. An Indo-Omani Agreement setting Principal Conditions of the long-term gas supply contract for the import of Omani natural gas through a pipeline across the Arabian Sea was signed in Muscat, Oman on 28 September 1994 by the Minister of State for Petroleum and Natural Gas Shri Satish Sharma and the Deputy Prime Minister for Finance and Economy Qais bin Abdul Munim al-Zawawi as well as the Omani Minister of Petroleum and Minerals, Ahmed bin Said al-Shanfari. The Foreign Secretary Shri K Srinivasan paid short visits to Oman in August and October.

India continued to have cordial relations with Qatar. India endeavoured to strengthen economic-commercial relations with Qatar. India has recently emerged as a major buyer of ammonia from Qatar. The Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia visited Qatar on 8 and 9 July. During the visit he called on the Amir and held extensive talks with his Qatari counterpart on regional issues and bilateral matters.

India's substantive ties with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia developed satisfactorily during the year with the bilateral trade reaching the record level of US$ 2 billion. The highlight of the year was visit to that country by the Finance Minister Dr Manmohan Singh as the leader of the Indian delegation for the Fourth Session of Indo-Saudi joint Commission held in Riyadh from 2 to 5 December. The Saudi side was led by the Minister of Industry and Electricity Abdul Aziz al-Zamil. During the visit, Dr Singh called on the Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud to deliver two letters from the President to King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud and from the Prime Minister to the Crown Prince himself. He also had meetings with Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Saud al-Faisal as well as Saudi Ministers of Oil, Finance and Commerce. These meetings and deliberations at the Joint Commission session were marked by traditional cordiality and purposiveness. He also addressed the members of Saudi Chambers of Commerce and Industry, who evinced great interest in economic ties with India. The Minister of State for External Affairs Shri Salman Khurshid met Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Prince Saud al-Faisal at, New York on 2 November.

India's multi-faceted relations with the UAE continued to grow during the year. In the UAE, a trade fair titled 'India in Dubai' was inaugurated by the Minister of Commerce Shri Pranab Mukherjee in September. Around 163 participants attended the fair and orders worth US $ 55 million were booked at the fair. This was the largest ever display of Indian products and services in the Gulf. The Eighth Session of Indo- UAE joint Commission was held in Abu Dhabi in September. It was co- chaired from the Indian side by Shri Salman Haider, Secretary (East) and from the UAE side by Mohammed Khalifa bin Yousef al-Suwaidi, Director, International Economic Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

India's relations with Yemen have been marked by friendship and cordiality. The former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Yemen Mohammed Saleh Basendwa visited India on 11 and 12 April. He called on the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs. India kept a close watch on the two-month long civil war in Yemen and had to evacuate around 1700 Indian and some foreign nationals from there. Ali Abdullah Saleh was reelected as the President of the Republic of Yemen on 2 October. Abdo Rabbo Mansoor Hadi was appointed the new Vice President. The new Cabinet headed by Abdul Aziz Ghani was announced on 6 October. Dr Abdul Karim Iryani was appointed as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. The President, the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs sent congratulatory messages to. their newly appointed Yemeni counterparts.

The Special Kuwait Cell handled a total of 1,44,496 claims for an asserted value of approximately US$ 3.6 billion. These comprised 1,04,035 'A' claims, 258 'B' claims, 39,158 'C' claims, 927 'D' claims, 117 'E' claims and 1 'F' claim. The deadline prescribed by the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) for submission of individual claims, was extended from 1 January 1994 to 1 January 1995. The final dates for submission of corporate claims and Government claims remained as 1 July 1994 and 1 August 1994 respectively. Late claims continued to be sent to the UNCC on a weekly basis.

It has been gathered from the UNCC that payment for some Indian 'A' claims may come through not earlier than March/May 1995. There is a possibility that this payment may even be further deferred till the end of 1995. All approved Indian 'B' claims are, however, likely to be paid out by 1995. 'C' claims will be taken up for approval in the second instalment of this category. Upon receipt of payments from the UNCC, which are exclusively responsible to scrutinise and evaluate the claims, disbursement is to be effected through 4 banks designated for the purpose in consultation with the Ministry of Finance and the Reserve Bank of India.

Efforts initiated in recent years to strengthen the bilateral relationship with Iran, a strategic Gulf country, were further pursued. Shri Dinesh Singh, External Affairs Minister paid an official visit to Tehran on 5 and 6 March 1994 to attend the 7th Session of India-Iran joint Commission. Other high level exchanges during 1994 included (i) visit of Smt Krishna Sahi, Minister of State for Industries to Tehran in April 1994; (ii) visit of Hussain Kamali, Iranian Labour Minister to New Delhi in April 1994; (iii) visit of Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Commerce Minister to Iran in July 1994; (iv) visit of Akbar Torkan, Iranian Minister of Roads and Transportation to India in August 1994; (v) visit of Dr Hassan Rowhani, Deputy Speaker of Majlis to India in August 1994; (vi) visit of Shamkhani, Chief of Naval Staff of Iran to India in September-October 1994.

The Foreign Minister of Iran, Dr Ali Akbar Velayati visited New Delhi from 2 to 4 January 1995 in connection with the Eighth Session of the India-Iran joint Commission. The Session reviewed the status of bilateral functional cooperation and gave directions for strengthening cooperative activities in the future.

Efforts were undertaken to further expand and diversify bilateral trade which recorded an impressive increase in 1993-94 over the preceding year. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed for a US$ 300 million joint venture fertilizer project in the Qeshm Island in Iran. A US$ 45 million, project was awarded to Hindustan Machine Tools for supply of equipment and auxiliary vehicle for the Tehran Metro Workshop. Potential projects in the railway sector include extension of Iran's railway network on the Bafq-Mashad and Kerman-Zahidan sectors at an estimated cost of US$ 700 million. IRCON secured a US$ 25 million project for the execution of Ahwaz-Bandar-e-Imam Signalling Project. Modalities for conducting a pre-feasibility study were initiated in regard to the proposed gas pipeline project for supply of Iranian natural gas to India.

India and Iran strengthened consultation and cooperation on issues of mutual interest under consideration in various international fora. Regular contacts between the Foreign Offices facilitated this process.

During the period under review, India's relations with countries in West Asia and North Africa were distinguished by a spirit of mutual understanding and widening of areas of bilateral cooperation. India continued to extend moral and material help to the Palestinian people. India welcomed the progress made in the Middle East Peace Process (MEPP) and displayed her deep interest by participating in the meetings of all working groups of the MEPP held in 1994-95. High level Ministerial delegations from India were present during the signing of 'the Agreement between Israel and the PLO in Cairo on 4 May 1994, and the bilateral Peace Treaty between Israel and Jordan on 26 October 1994, at Wadi Araba. The Prime Minister in a message commended the role of Morocco in organising the first Middle East/North Africa Summit held at Casablanca from 30 October to 1 November 1994. India's economic reforms and liberalisation policies on the whole had a positive impact and encouraged greater private sector exchanges with WANA countries. There has also been a diversification in the items of trade.

During the year, India maintained satisfactory contacts with Algeria. Algeria showed keen interest in expanding bilateral economic cooperation. An Indian Railway delegation visited Algiers in July-August for further cooperation in transport sector. Engineers India Ltd signed a fresh contract with Algeria's State-owned oil and gas company (SONATRACH) worth US$ 5 million for providing consultancy services. An Indian agricultural- delegation visited Algeria in September 1994.

The Secretary General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Djibouti Mohammad Hassan Abdullah visited India from 24 to 29 June 1994 for bilateral talks. During the discussions, it was decided to set up a Joint Committee at Secretary level. In response to an emergency appeal made by the Government of Djibouti for food assistance, India supplied 23 tonnes of milk powder worth Rs 10 lakh in September 1994. India has also agreed to offer technical assistance under ITEC and slots under the General Cultural Scholarship Scheme (GCSS) to students from Djibouti wishing to pursue studies in India.

India and Egypt made renewed efforts to impart greater dynamism to the existing friendly and cordial relations which were reflected in the close interaction in various international fora. A 9-member Egyptian Parliamentary delegation led by Speaker of the People's Assembly of Egypt Ahmed Fathi Sarour visited India in May 1994. Foreign Secretary Shri K Srinivasan visited Egypt in August 1994 for mutual consultations on matters of common interest and concern. An Indian delegation led by the then Health and Family Welfare Minister Shri B Shankaranand participated in the UN-sponsored International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in September 1994. Two-way trade with Egypt improved considerably during the year. Seventeen Indian companies participated in the Africa Telecom Exhibition held in Cairo in April 1994. A large official delegation led by Minister of State for Telecommunications also attended the Exhibition. On the cultural side, a beginning has been made with Al Azhar University of Cairo, which sponsored 3 scholars to visit India. Several high level visits are due to take place from Egypt in the near future notable being those of Ministers of Education and Culture.

Secretary (East) paid a visit to Cairo in January 1995 and had discussions with Foreign Minister Amre Mousa.

Egyptian Minister of State for Population and Family Welfare, Dr Mehar Maharan visited India from 7 to 17 January 1995.

The year witnessed a number of high level exchanges between India and Israel. Notable visits from India to Israel include those of the then Minister of Human Resource Development Shri Arjun Singh (June 1994), the Minister of State for Chemicals,, Fertilizers and Electronics Shri Eduardo Faleiro (July 1994). the Speaker of Lok Sabha Shri Shivraj V Patil leading a Parliamentary delegation that included the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs Shri V C Shukla (November 1994), Chief Minister of Haryana Shri Bhajan Lal (April 1994), Chief Minister of Rajasthan Shri Bhairon Singh Shekhawat (June 1994), and the Commerce Secretary (April 1994). Three Memoranda of Understanding were signed between Indian and Israeli educational institutions during the visit of the then Minister of Human Resource Development. Three Memoranda of Understanding were signed between the enterprises and the Israeli companies during the visit of Chief Minister of Haryana. Notable visits from Israel include those of Dr Yossi Beilin, Deputy Foreign Minister (April 1994), Shulamit Aloni, Minister of Science, Arts and Communications (November 1994), Micha Harish, Trade and industry Minister (December 1994) and Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra led by Shri Zubin Mehta (November 1994). An Air Transport Agreement was signed during the visit of Dr Yossi Beilin. A Memorandum of Understanding in telecommunications was signed during the visit of Shulamit Aloni and a Trade Agreement was signed during the visit of Micha Harish. The year witnessed a quantum jump in the bilateral trade between Israel and India. There was a diversification of commercial contacts. Areas where progress was achieved in cooperation are bio-technology, agriculture, dairy industry, drip irrigation and solar energy. Israel has emerged as a significant source for tourism and a tourism workshop was organised in Tel Aviv in June 1994.

Relations with Jordan continued to remain friendly and were marked by high level contacts. India welcomed the Jordan-Israel agreement signed at Wadi Araba on 26 October 1994 and an Indian delegation led by Shri Salman Khurshid, the Minister of State for External Affairs was present during the signing ceremony. In a statement issued at the time of the initialling of the draft Peace Treaty between the two countries, the Government of India hoped that it would mark a fresh beginning and help achieve a settlement of all the issues that have caused strife in the area for the past several decades. Shri Balram Jakhar, Minister of Agriculture visited Jordan from 21 to 23 June 1994 and Shri K Srinivasan, Foreign Secretary held bilateral discussions on 23 August 1994 with Nayef Al Haddeed, Secretary General of the Jordanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Following the end to the civil war in Lebanon, there has been a renewed sign of greater interest in India which has led to widening of bilateral contacts., Shri Balram Jakhar, the Minister of Agriculture visited Lebanon from 24 to 26 June 1994 where he met the Prime Minister Rafik Al Hariri, and the Minister of Economy and Commerce Nagip Demirzan. Shri K Srinivasan, Foreign Secretary visited Lebanon from 25 to 27 August 1994 for bilateral discussions. Commercial and cultural contacts with Lebanon have been resumed.

India's relations with Libya continued to remain on even keel. Persistent efforts were made by India to speed up the settlement of outstanding payments owed to Indian companies for projects undertaken in Libya.

Bilateral relations with Morocco were marked by cordiality, cooperation and understanding. At the invitation of King Hassan II of Morocco, India participated in the first Middle East/North Africa Economic Summit held in Casablanca from 30 October to 1 November 1994. The high level Indian delegation was led by Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs. Prime Minister, in his message to King Hassan II, expressed sincere appreciation for holding the timely conference to discuss issues of economic and regional development of North Africa and Middle East and hoped that the conference would make a significant contribution to advancing peace in the Middle East. India also appreciated the constructive role played by Morocco as the host and Chairman of the Casablanca OIC Summit (December 1994).

India's relations with the PLO continue to be marked by cordiality, close understanding and a complementarity of views. India has been a consistent supporter for the legitimate aspirations of the Palestinian people. India 'welcomed the Israel-PLO agreement signed in Cairo on 4 May 1994, which set up the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) and put into process the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Gaza and Jericho. An Indian delegation led by the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia was present during the signing ceremony. The Government of India welcomed the role played by PNA in the reconstruction of Gaza and Jericho. India has been a strong supporter of the Middle East Peace Process (MEPP) and with that conviction, she has enthusiastically participated in the Meetings of all Working Groups of the MEPP set up to examine a range of issues that affect the prospects for peace in the region. India has been committed to alleviating the plight of Palestinian refugees by extending moral, material and technical assistance to the Palestinian people. India has regularly contributed to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) budget. The Government of India, in response to the appeal made by the Working Group on Refugees, has also offered to train 15 para-medical staff from Gaza and Jericho. Palestinian students will continue to be provided scholarships to pursue their studies in India. As part of India's commitment to the economic re-construcion of Gaza and Jericho, the Government of India has proposed to send a team to conduct feasibility studies for setting up, under Indian technical assistance programme, a Hi-Tech Centre on Computers and Electronics that will train Palestinian youth and help address the unemployment problem of Gaza and Jericho. In accordance with India's commitment made at the Washington Donors Confernce in October 1993 it has also been decided to send 100 metric tonnes of tea to Gaza and Jericho. The Indian Council for Cultural Relations organised a function to commemorate the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian people in New Delhi on 13 December 1994.

India sent medicines and seeds worth Rs 10 lakh to Somalia for distribution by the Indian military contingent deployed with UNOSOM-II in that country. The Indian contingent did a commendable job in Somalia, despite heavy odds, particularly in providing humanitarian assistance. The performance of the Indian peace keeping contingent was acknowledged by the UN, the various factions in Somalia, NGOs working for humanitarian relief and the people of Somalia. Pursuant to the decision to withdraw the Indian contingent from Somalia, the last batch of Indian troops left Somalia by end December 1994.

Relations between India and Sudan continued to improve during the period under report. Both sides have sought to widen the scope of their bilateral cooperation and re-establish their multi-dimensional links. Omar Yousif Barido, First Under Secretary of the Sudanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs Visited India in April 1994 to discuss various issues of mutual concern. It was also decided to increase the share of Sudan in the ITEC programme. An Agreement to set up a joint Committee at the Secretary-level was signed during the visit of Shri Salman Haider, Secretary (East) to Sudan in January 1995.

Bilateral relations with Syria continued to get warmer. Syria evinced keen interest in sending students to Indian institutions of higher learning in the field of science and technology. Syria also showed interest in basic chemicals and fertilisers. The Minister of Agriculture, Shri Balram Jakhar visited Syria from 18 to 20 June 1994. A Programme of Cooperation in the field of agriculture and allied sectors was signed between the two sides. This Programme of Cooperation will be valid for a period of 5 years. Shri K Srinivasan, Foreign Secretary visited Syria from 23 to 25 August 1994 for bilateral discussions. He met the Syrian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Farouk Al Shara.

The 7th session of the Indo-Tunisian Joint Commission took place in New Delhi in September 1994 with the Tunisian delegation being led by Sadok Rabah, the Minister of National Economy. A Commercial Agreement was signed between the two sides. India and Tunisia have exchanged draft treaties on extradition. Formal signing of the agreement is expected in the near future.

India maintained traditionally close relations with the League of Arab States. India values the efforts made by the League to develop and strengthen friendship between India and the Arab countries. The Minister of External Affairs, Shri Dinesh Singh has extended an invitation to Dr Esmat Adel Meguid, the League's Secretary General to visit India in 1995.

India made sincere attempts to persuade the Organisation of Islamic Conference to adopt objective and unbiased views on India-specific issues. The Seventh Extra Ordinary Islamic Foreign Ministers Conference held in Islamabad in September passed a resolution for establishing an OIC Contact Group on Kashmir at the UN. Giving India's official response, External Affairs Minister Shri Dinesh Singh regretted the resolution and reiterated India's offer of a dialogue with Pakistan under the Simla Agreement. Subsequent attempts by the OIC Contact Group to table an India-specific draft resolution in the First Committee of the UNGA had to be given up due to lack of support from the member countries themselves following India's extensive demarches to the concerned countries to explain her position in this regard. While the Seventh Islamic Summit held in Casablanca (Morocco) on 14 and 15 December passed the customary resolution on Jammu and Kashmir dispute, there was a pronounced shift away at the Summit from the bilateral disputes.


6. Africa (South of the Sahara)

Africa was witness to a number of significant political events during 1994. India enjoys warm relations with the countries in Africa. India has always attached special significance to her relations with Africa, and is continuing to build a strong economic relationship with countries there. In 1994 India continued to have close interaction with them.

In the first multi-party elections, based on universal franchise, the people of South Africa voted the African National Congress (ANC) to majority in the Parliament. However, ANC leader Nelson Mandela proved his farsightedness and statesmanship by choosing to form a government of national reconciliation. In Mozambique, after decades of civil war, the ruling Frelimo Party and the main opposition Renamo signed a Peace Accord in 1992 and participated in the country's first multi-party elections in October 1994 under UN supervision. Frelimo, Party leader, Joaquin Chissano was re-elected as President. Dr Sam Nujoma was re- elected President of Namibia. India welcomed these developments.

India has expressed her readiness to develop., mutually beneficial relationships with the new governments in the political, economic, commercial, technological and educational fields. India is ready to cooperate with these countries in such areas as human resource development, small scale industries, agriculture, etc. India also extended humanitarian and relief assistance to a number of countries including Rwanda.

Africa continues to be a major thrust area under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) and Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme (SCAAP), the two technital assistance programmes which are executed by the Ministry of External Affairs. Out of a total of 1350 slots allocated for training in Indian civilian institutions under ITEC for 1994-95, 768 (more than 50%) were reserved for countries in Africa. Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, Tanzania and Mauritius were among those which were allotted the maximum number of slots. Among the preferred areas for training are small scale industries, tools design, rural development, diplomacy, textile research, standardisation, banking and finance, management, etc. A total of 28 Indian experts are also in station in various African countries as of December 1994. The areas of specialisation of the experts include small scale industries, engineering, medicines, taxation, etc. Out of the 250 slots offered to nominees from friendly developing countries for training in Indian defence establishments under the ITEC Programme, more than 150 were allotted to countries from the African continent.

From Western Africa Pere were the State visits of Presidents of Burkina Faso and Togo. Presidents of Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Senegal and Zimbabwe too visited India, some in connection with the G-15 Summit. The Vice President of Mauritius visited India in January 1995. Several Ministerial-level visits were also exchanged with a number of countries.

Africa continues to suffer from a serious socio-economic crisis. Poverty, hunger, AIDS, high internal indebtedness, balance of payment crises resulting from falling prices of primary products, have undermined the ability of African countries to face economic challenges. But the changed political scenario in Southern Africa, the integration of South African and Namibian economies in the region, the entry of South Africa into Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), the revival of the Eastern Africa Community among Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, and greater cooperation among countries of the southern and eastern regions are positive developments and could be expected to play a vital role in the economic regeneration and development of Africa.

The Vice President, Shri K R Narayanan accompanied by Smt Usha Narayanan, Smt Sonia Gandhi and Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed, Minister of State for Commerce, represented the Government of India at the inauguration of Dr Mandela as the first If President of the new South Africa. Dr Mandela paid a State visit to India from 24 to 27 January 1995. He was the, Chief Guest at the Republic Day celebrations. During his visit, India and South Africa signed three agreements, viz, Treaty on Principles of Inter-State Relations and Cooperation, an Agreement to set up a joint Commission and a Protocol providing for regular consultations between the Foreign Ministries of the two countries. President Mandela's visit opened up new areas of bilateral cooperation.

With the election of a democratic, non-racial Government in I South Africa, the Government of India established an Indian Embassy in Pretoria in May 1994 and the Indian Cultural Centre in Johannesburg was converted into a Consulate General. The Embassy was redesignated as High Commission with South Africa joining the Commonwealth on 1 June 1994. In Kwazulu/Natal Province which is the home of about 0.8 million South African Indians, India established a Consulate General at Durban on 16 May 1994.

Indexpo '94, the largest single country trade exhibition ever organised in South Africa was held in Johannesburg in August 1994. The Exhibition attracted more than 50 thousand visitors. Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Commerce Minister visited South Africa during the Exhibition and signed a Trade Agreement with the South African Minister of Trade and Industry during his visit.

The South African Deputy Foreign Minister, Aziz Pahad visited India from 24 to 28 November 1994 at the invitation of Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid. Besides delegation level discussions, the two sides initialled a bilateral agreement to set up the India-South Africa Joint Commission as well as a Protocol providing for regular consultations between the Foreign Offices of the two countries.

The Indian naval ships, INS Gomati and INS Khukri visited Durban and Simonstown in December. This was the first ever visit of Indian Naval ships to South Africa.

During the visit of President Mugabe of Zimbabwe in March 1994, India agreed to cooperate with that country in the informal sector particularly in the development of small and middle enterprises.

To mark the reintegration of Walvis Bay and the off-shore islands into Namibia, Smt Sonia Gandhi attended the ceremony as a Special Guest of President Sam Nujoma. A Namibian Parliamentary delegation led by the Chairman of the National Council Kandy Nehova visited India in September 1994 followed by Defence Minister Mweshihange for purchase of defence equipment. HAL sold four Indian-built helicopters to Namibia. To maintain political interaction at a high level, official invitations to visit India were extended to Prime Minister Hage Geingob, Labour and Manpower Development Minister H Witbool, Trade and Industry Minister H Hamutenya, and Agriculture Minister N Mbumba. These visits are likely to take place during 1995-96.

The working visit of Finance and Communication Minister of Seychelles, James Michel in January 1994 has raised hopes of improved trade relations between India and Seychelles. The main impediment in the expansion of trade continues to be the absence of regular shipping services between the two countries. Two Indian naval ships-INS Gomati and INS Khukri-paid a goodwill visit to Port Victoria from 23 to 26 November 1994. However, Government of India expressed its strong disapproval of the way the Seychelles authorities refused disembarkation of passengers from an Air India flight that had made an emergency landing in November in an unsuccessful bid to save an infant passenger's life. Several visits of business delegations from India and proposals for establishment of some industrial projects with Indian assistance are under active consideration. India deputed seven experts to Seychelles under the ITEC Programme during the year. Seychelles also utilised two civilian training slots under this programme.

Following the death of President Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda in an air crash on 6 April 1994 and the outbreak of ethnic violence in that country, all the Indians there (300 in number-except two nuns who were unwilling to abandon a large number of Rwandan orphans in their charge- migrated from Rwanda. The Indian High Commission in Kampala, which is concurrently accredited to Rwanda, managed to get the members of the Indian community evacuated safely to the neighbouring country, Burundi and elsewhere with the assistance of other friendly countries. The Indian High Commissions in Kampala and Nairobi provided consular services to the evacuees. The Indian Association in Burundi, with which Indian High Commission in Kampala maintained close contacts, rendered necessary assistance to the Indian evacuees who first went to Burundi from Rwanda. The High Commission of India, Kampala has remained in constant touch with the Indian community in Burundi with a view to monitoring their security and other interests. There were no reports of any casualties among Indian families in the course of ethnic violence in Rwanda. India supplied relief materials worth Rs 5 lakh to Rwandese refugees in Tanzania. An Indian army battalion to United Nations Aid Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR) reached Kigali on 10 November 1994. Rwanda has shown interest in increasing and strengthening economic and technical cooperation with India.

The Angolan External Affairs Minister, Moura paid an official visit to India from 5 to 8 April 1994, principally to brief the Indian leadership on the political situation in Angola.

Blaise Compaore, President of Burkina Faso paid a visit to India on 22 and 23 July 1994 and held talks with the President and the Prime Minister. India announced a grant of Rs 15 crore approximately for setting up an agricultural development project in Burkina Faso and a team of Indian experts visited Burkina Faso in September for holding discussions with the Burkinabe authorities for implementation of the scheme.

The traditionally close and friendly relations between Mauritius and India have grown further. Vice President Shri K R Narayanan, leading a high-level delegation, visited Mauritius for one day on the way back from South Africa in May this year. Other Ministerial visits included those of the Mauritian Finance Minister Sithanen, External Affairs Minister Dr Kasenally and that of Labour Party Leader, Navin Ramgoolam. Mauritian Vice President Sir Rabindranath Ghurburrun and Lady Ghurburrun visited India in January 1995. Bilateral trade has increased by almost 30 per cent this year. A number of new joint ventures in different fields were established. Mauritius has emerged as the main centre for channelising investments into India through off-shore funds as a result of the advantageous provisions of the treaty for Avoidance of Double Taxation. Twenty-nine civilian training slots were utilised by Mauritius under the ITEC Programme during the year. Seven ITEC experts were also deputed from India to Mauritius during the same period.

Indo-Kenyan relations continued to be warm and friendly, characterised by mutual regard. President Moi stopped over in Delhi on his way to Beijing in May 1994. India donated 476 metric tonnes of rice to Kenya for distribution to persons in drought-affected areas. A Cultural Exchange Programme was signed between India and Kenya in May 1994.

Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad, Minister of Civil Aviation and Tourism visited Tanzania in January 1994. The Tanzanian Home Minister cum Deputy Prime Minister Augustine Mrema visited India at the invitation of India's Home Minister. Tanzania utilised 23 civilian training slots under the ITEC Programme. Three Indian experts were also deputed to Tanzania under this Programme.

The political stability and economic recovery achieved under the leadership of President Museveni of Uganda continue to be maintained during the current year. India's relations with Uganda witnessed positive developments during this period. President Museveni led a high- powered trade and investment delegation to India in September 1994. In December, Ugandan Minister of Education and Sports visited India. There have been several visits of business delegations from India and proposals for establishment of some industrial projects with Indian assistance are under active consideration.

General Gnassingbe Eyadema, President of Togo paid a State visit to India from 26 to 29 September 1994. Being the first visit by a President of Togo, this opened a new chapter in mutual relations and added an impetus to bilateral cooperation between the two countries. India also announced a grant of Rs 10 crore approximately for setting up of an agricultural project in Togo and agreed to cooperate in the fields of city transportation, health care, scientific research, trade, industry and agriculture. India and Togo also decided to set up a Joint Commission and sign a Memorandum of Understanding on Economic and Technical Cooperation between the two countries. Government of India also agreed to supply agricultural tractors, agricultural implements, etc to the Togolese Government.

General Sani Abacha, Head of State of Nigeria visited India in March- April 1994 to attend G-15 Summit and also held bilateral discussions with Indian leadership. Nigeria utilised ten civilian training slots under the ITEC Programme during the year.

President Diouf of Senegal visited New Delhi in March 1994 to attend the G-15 Summit. He was preceded by Foreign Minister Moustaph Niasse who attended the G-15 Troika and Ministerial level meetings. While in Delhi President Diouf had wide-ranging bilateral discussions with Prime Minister.

India's interaction with Ghana under the ITEC Programme was maintained at a high level. An eye clinic is under execution by India. Ghana utilised 13 civilian training slots while two Indian experts were deputed there under the Programme.



7. Europe

Eastern Europe

There was considerable interaction between India and the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States as well as Central and Eastern Europe during 1994-95. With practically all these countries, India has had longstanding relations of friendship and cooperation based on trust and confidence. The evolution of these countries in the direction of democratic pluralism and market-oriented economic structures has brought them closer to India in terms of basic orientation. While integration with West European political, security and economic structures remains their first priority, there is also acknowledgement of the importance of preserving and strengthening their traditionally close relations with important Asian countries, particularly India.

An additional factor has been the emergence of India as a potential large market and attractive destination for foreign investment in recent years. India has established a mutually beneficial economic and commercial interaction with all the countries in East Europe. In many cases, institutional mechanisms like Inter-Government Joint Commissions and Joint Business Councils, as well as framework agreements establishing the legal basis of cooperation in various spheres are already in place.

It has been India's endeavour, in her approach towards these countries, to blend continuity with change, retaining and building upon those elements of the traditional relationship which continue to be relevant while making adjustments as necessary in the light of the changes which have taken place in these countries as well as in India. Thus, direct contacts between the Indian Parliament and the parliamentary systems in many of these countries is emerging as an important new dimension in the bilateral relationships. In the economic and commercial sphere, old patterns of State trading and special trading arrangements are giving way to new relationships based on international and technological competitiveness. The challenges posed to India's bilateral relations by the transition processes in this region are being met and the new opportunities which have arisen are increasingly being utilised.

During the year, there were seven exchanges of visits at the Head of State or Head of Government level. The President paid State visits to Bulgaria and Romania, while the Prime Minister paid an official visit to the Russian Federation. The Presidents of the Czech Republic and Poland paid State visits and the Prime Ministers of the Slovak Republic and the Russian Federation paid official visits to India. Parliamentary delegations from Bulgaria, the Russian Federation and Hungary visited India.

India's relations with the Russian Federation are friendly and multifaceted, encompassing political consultation on matters of mutual interest, significant economic and commercial interaction and cooperation in such areas as science and technology, defence, atomic energy, space, culture and education. The two countries are keen to preserve the positive elements of their traditional cooperation and to take advantage of the new opportunities provided by the changes in both countries.

The Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao visited Russia from 29 June to 2 July 1994. He was accompanied by the Commerce Minister, the Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism, the Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office, the Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia and senior officers. The Prime Minister had a tete-a-tete meeting with President Yeltsin and separate delegation level talks with President Yeltsin and Prime Minister Chernomyrdin. Deputy Prime Minister Yarov and Culture Minister Sidorov called on the, Prime Minister. Several other meetings took place between the Ministers accom- panying the Prime Minister and their counterparts: Commerce Minister met Deputy Prime Minister Yarov, who is also the Co-chairman of the Indo- Russian joint Commission, as well as the acting Finance Minister and the Minister for Economic Relations; Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism met the First Deputy Minister of Transport; and the Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office met the Chairman of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Chairman of the Indo-Russian Working Group on Science and Technology. Minister of State for External Affairs had talks with the Russian Foreign Minister and the First Deputy Foreign Minister. The Prime Minister addressed a representative group of Parliamentarians from both Houses of the Russian Parliament.

Beyond reciprocating the visit by President Yeltsin to India in January 1993, this visit ushered in a qualitatively new stage of Indo-Russian relations. The Moscow Declaration on the Protection of the interests of Pluralist States sets out the post-Cold War challenges posed to the viability of large, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-cultural and multi-religious States by the forces of aggressive nationalism, religious and political extremism, terrorism and separatism and the need to combat these challenges through democracy, tolerance, secularism and the rule of law. It is recognised as a unique document in international relations and has subsequently been circulated as a UN Document at the joint initiative of India and Russia.

The Declaration on Further Development and Intensification of Bilateral Cooperation underlines the broad identity of views of the two countries on important regional and international issues, and identifies priority areas and directions of cooperation between the two countries.

In addition, Agreements and Protocols were signed on cooperation in tourism, environment, space, science and technology, standardisation and metallurgy. The 1992 Agreement on defence credit was extended for a further period of two years and an agreement on setting up of a joint venture in military aviation was signed.

The first meeting of the co-chairmen of the Inter-Governmental Joint Commission, Commerce Minister, Shri Pranab Mukherjee and Deputy Prime Minister Yuri F Yarov was held in Delhi in June 1994. Priority areas of cooperation were identified and the Joint Commission held its first meeting in Moscow on 13 and 14 September 1994, after the Working Groups had held their separate meetings.

Accordingly the nine Working Groups-on Trade and Economic Cooperation; Power and Non-Conventional Sources of Energy; Petroleum; Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metallurgy; Science and Technology; Culture; Coal; Information Technology; and Environment-held meetings and identified their respective areas of cooperation. In addition, two Sub-Groups on Transport as well as Health were established.

The Home Minister, Shri S B Chavan visited Russia from 28 August to 3 September 1994. He held discussions with Russian Minister of the Interior, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Nationalities and Regional Policy, Counter-Intelligence Chief, Border Forces Chief and Mayor of St Petersberg and called on Prime Minister Chernomyrdin. The visit gave a fresh impetus to bilateral cooperation, particularly in areas such as in combating terrorism, organised crime and narcotics trafficking.

A nine-member Parliamentary Delegation, led by the Chairman, Ivan P Rybkin visited India from 3 to 6 November 1994. The delegation called on the President, the Vice President, the Prime Minister, held discussions with the Speaker and met Indian Parliamentarians, including the Leader of the Opposition.

The Russian Prime Minister V S Chernomyrdin visited India on 23 and 24 December 1994 along with a high level delegation including two Deputy Prime Ministers and the Ministers of Transport, Atomic Energy and Culture. Prime Minister Chernomyrdin had a one-to-one discussion with Prime Minister followed by delegation level talks. He called on President and Vice President. Eight documents, including agreements on promotion and mutual protection of investments, shipping, exploration and peaceful uses of outer space, implementation of the long term programme of defence cooperation upto the year 2000 and long term purchases of commodites in India for the period 1995-97, were signed at the conclusion of the visit. A Joint Statement was also issued on the results of the visit.

During the year several rounds of Foreign Office Consultations were held between the two countries. Deputy Foreign Minister, Panov visited India in April 1994. The First Deputy Foreign Minister, Anatoly Adamishin visited India in May 1994. In July 1994 senior officers of the Russian Foreign Ministry visited India and held consultations on East Asia. The Foreign Secretary visited Russia in August 1994 and held political consultations on bilateral and UN-related issues. The Deputy Foreign Minister, Chernyshev visited India in December 1994.

On an invitation from Chairman of the International Relations Commitee of the State Duma V P Lukin, Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha and Chairman of the Standing Commitee on External Affairs, Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee headed a Parliamentary delegation to Russia in January 1995. The delegation also included Shri G G Swell, Shri I K Gujral, Ms Geeta Mukerjee, Shri Sudershan Roychoudhary and Ms Tara Devi Sidharth. The Indian delegation had a number of high level and important meetings, both in the Russian Parliament and the Government.

Even within the framework of the former Soviet Union, India enjoyed close links with Ukraine. A considerable part of the industrial, scientific, agricultural and defence potential of the former Soviet Union is located within its territory.

Indo-Ukrainian relations were given direction and impetus by the visit of Foreign Minister Zlenko from 18 to 21 April 1994. During the visit, the following agreements were signed:

(a) Protocol of Consultations between the Ministry of External Affairs of India and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine;

(b) Agreement on the Inter-Governmental joint Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological, Industrial and Cultural Cooperation; and

(c) Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation.

The first meeting of the Indo-Ukrainian joint Commission was held in Kiev on 5 and 6 December 1994. Foreign Office Consultations were also held on the same dates.

It was decided that India Trade Promotion Organisation would post a Resident Director in Kiev. The Ukrainian side is actively considering the question of setting up a Ukrainian Export and Import Centre in New Delhi.

Negotiation on concluding an Agreement on Merchant Shipping and Bilateral Investment Protection have reached an advanced stage.

The State visit by the President Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma from ,26 to 29 May 1994 emphasised the importance India attaches to relations with Bulgaria. The President had discussions with his Bulgarian counterpart, President Zhelev, addressed the Bulgarian National Assembly and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Sofia. The Bulgarian Prime Minister Berov called on the President. During the visit six Agreements-on Quarantine and Plant Protection; Veterinary and Sanitary Agreement; Avoidance of Double Taxation; Combating Organised Crime, International Terrorism, Illegal Trafficking in Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances;- Protocol on Foreign Office Consultation and Cooperation; Cooperation in Tourism-were signed and a Joint Statement was issued.

Bulgarian Culture Minister, Ivailo Znepolski paid an official visit to India from 27 February to 6 March 1994. The Cultural Exchange Programme for 1994-96 was signed on 1 March 1994.

A Bulgarian Parliamentary Delegation, led by the Chairman of the National Assembly, Alexander Yordanov visited India from 24 to 31 March 1994. The delegation called on the President, the Vice President, the Prime Minister and had meetings with the Speaker.

President Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma paid a State visit to Romania from 30 May to 2 June 1994. The President held discussions with his Romanian counterpart, President Iliescu; addressed the Joint Session of the Romanian Senate and the Chamber of Deputies; and received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Bucharest.

During the visit, an Agreement on Combating Organised Crime, International Terrorism, Illicit Trafficking in Narcotics and Psy- chotropic Substances and other Illegal Activities; an Agreement on Cooperation in Tourism; a Declaration of Principles and Directions of Cooperation and the Cultural Exchange Programme for 1994-96 were concluded.

President of the Republic of Poland Lech Walesa paid a State visit to India from 2 to 8 March 1994. President Walesa called on the President. The Vice President and the Minister of External Affairs called on him. Delegation-level talks led by the Prime Minister on the Indian side and by President Walesa on the Polish side were held and were followed by a tete-a-tete between Prime Minister Rao and President Walesa. The Polish President also attended a meeting hosted by CII. Other than Israel, this was the Polish President's first visit to an Asian country.

Minister of State for Defence, Shri Mallikarjun visited Poland from 6 to 8 June 1994 to discuss further prospects for cooperation in defence between the two countries.

Hungarian Political State Secretary for Defence Laszlo Szendrei visited India from 18 to 22 March 1994. He called on Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia.

Hungary's Political State Secretary for Foreign Affairs Szent-Ivanyi paid an official visit to New Delhi on 21 and 22 September 1994. He held discussions with Minister of State for External Affairs Shri Salman Khurshid, Minister of State for Commerce and Minister of State for Defence. A Protocol on Foreign Office Consultations was signed during the visit.

A Hungarian Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the National Assembly, Dr Zoltan Gal visited India from 22 to 26 November 1994. The delegation called on President and Vice President, and held talks with Speaker of Lok Sabha, Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia and Members of Parliament.

Minister of State for Defence, Shri Mallikarjun visited the Czech Republic from 4 to 6 June 1994. He called on President Havel, and had talks with Czech Defence Minister Antonin Baudys and Minister for Industry and Commerce Vladimir Dlouhy.

Foreign Secretary, Shri K Srinivasan visited Prague for bilateral official talks on 29 August 1994. He called on Czech-Foreign Minister Jozef Zieleniec and had discussions with Deputy Foreign Minister, Pavel Bratinka.

During the year, the Czech Republic upgraded its diplomatic representation in India to that of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

The Joint Trade Commitee on Economics, Trade and Technical Cooperation held its first meeting at Prague on 9 and 10 January 1995 with Commerce Secretary leading the Indian delegation.

Minister of State for Defence, Shri Mallikarjun visited the Slovak Republic from 1 to 3 June 1994, during which he called on Slovak President Michal Kovac and Prime Minister Moravcik and Slovak Foreign Minister Kukan.

Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic, Jozef Moravcik paid an official visit to India on 7 and 8 June 1994. Besides calling on the President and the Vice President, Moravcik had talks with the Prime Minister. Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid called on the Slovak Prime Minister. Moravcik also met with Indian businessmen and industrialists at a dinner hosted by CII. A Protocol on Foreign Office Consultations; a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Science and Technology; and a Memorandum of Understanding concerning Indo-Slovak Joint Committee on Trade were also signed. It was also agreed that a resident Indian Mission would be opened in Bratislava in the near future. The Union of Slovak Industry and CII also concluded a Memorandum of Understanding.

During the year, the Slovak Republic upgraded its diplomatic representation in India to that of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and also established an Honorary Consulate in Calcutta.

An Armenian delegation led by their Minister of Science and Higher Education, Vardkes Gnouni visited India from 21 to 28 March 1994 and held discussions with Minister of State (Prime Minister's Office and Science and Technology), Shri Bhuvnesh Chaturvedi. Deputy Foreign Minister, George Kazinian, who was a member of the delegation, called on Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid and had discussions with Secretary (East), Shri Salman Haider. An Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology, a Memorandum of Understanding in the field of Education, and a Memorandum of Understanding on concluding an Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation were signed.

During the year, Armenia established its diplomatic representation in India by appointing an Honorary Consul. '

Government of India has offered humanitarian assistance of medicine valued at Rs 5 lakh to Armenia.

Deputy Prime Minister of Moldova, Valentin Kunayev paid an unofficial visit to New Delhi from 7 to 9 May 1 , 994, during which he held discussions with Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Salman Khurshid.

A Lithuanian delegation led by the Minister of Energy visited India in March 1994. He held discussions with Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia and had working discussions with senior officers in the Ministry of Power.

Lithuania established its Honorary Consulate in New Delhi in October 1994.

India kept a close watch on the developments in the Former Yugoslavia, particularly the continuing crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The official spokesman issued statements on 18 and 28 April 1994 during the crisis in Goradze and on 8 August 1994 in the wake of the rejection by the Bosnian Serbs of the Peace Proposals made by the International Contact Group on Bosnia-Herzegovina.

India supports the efforts of the International Conference on Former Yugoslavia, basically because to-date it is the only attempt at finding a settlement that is based on regard for legitimate aspirations and interests of all parties to the conflict.

India recognised Bosnia-Herzegovina on 11 May 1992 along with the Republics of Croatia and Slovenia but not as a Muslim State.

Secretary (West) visited Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 7 and 8 December 1994 for political consultations. He called on the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Culture, and held discussions with the Deputy Foreign Minister.

India's Ambassador to Hungary, who is concurrently accredited to Croatia, presented his credentials in June 1994.

Commerce Minister, Shri Pranab Mukherjee visited Croatia on 17 September 1994. An Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation was signed during the visit.

The Croatian Assistant Minister of Economic Affairs, Zeljko Kirincic led a delegation to India from 14 to 16 November 1994 during the India International Trade Fair. The delegation held talks with the Commerce Secretary and called on the Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia.

Western Europe
The process of continuing change in post-Cold War Europe and in India's own external environment has created a new context for relations between India and the countries of Western Europe, providing an impetus for intensification of relations based on complementarity of interests and mutual benefit. India's historical and cultural interaction with Europe also provides a unique dimension that further serves to strengthen mutual understanding and affinities. Over a million persons of Indian origin live in Western Europe, a tenth of them Indian citizens.

During the year, progress towards European integration continued and Sweden, Finland and Austria joined the European Union (EU) which now comprises 15 countries. India's political dialogue with the countries of the European Union, both individually and collectively, assumed added importance with the emergence of the EU as an influential political entity and the consolidation of a common EU foreign and security policy. Sustained efforts were made to strengthen understanding on issues of vital concern to India, both regional and global. Shared com- mitment to democratic values, secularism and individual freedoms under the rule of law provided a strong foundation for constructive relations and dialogue between India and the EU.

Both the European Commission and individual members of the European Union evolved new strategies to strengthen political dialogue and economic relations with Asian countries, including India. This trend was complemented by India's economic reforms and efforts to globalise the Indian economy, providing the basis for an unprecedented increase in India's economic relations with Western Europe.

India's trade with the EU countries increased by 20% over the previous year to reach $ 14.89 billion in 1993; this upward trend continued during 1994. Collectively the largest trading partners of India, the EU countries accounted for 30% of India's exports and imports. Similar progress was registered on the investment front. The share of West European countries in FDI approvals went up from 20% in 1993 to 30% in 1994. Germany, Italy, the UK and the Netherlands were among the top 10 investing countries in India during 1994. Actual investment inflows from Western Europe since the launching of India's economic reforms in July 1991 comprised 31% of total inflows. In terms of actual FDI inflows, the UK, Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and France were also among the 10 leading investors. West European countries also continued to be a leading source of development assistance, technology collaborations and joint ventures.

In order to be able to respond effectively to the challenges and opportunities arising from the evolution of common approaches of EU countries on foreign and security policies as well as the single EU market, bi-annual meetings of Indian Heads of Missions in Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Netherlands,. Sweden, Austria and the UK were institutionalised during the year. The meetings resulted in greater political and economic coordination and provided for more effective and concerted actions to promote India's relations with countries of the European Union.

The forward momentum in India's relations with Germany, India's leading economic partner in Europe, was given further impetus through the exchanges of high level visits during the year. Dr Carl-Dieter Spranger, German Minister for Develop-ment Cooperation visited India from 10 to 14 February 1994. The German Minister for Economics, Dr Gunter Rexrodt attended the 11th Session of the Indo-German Joint Commission held in New Delhi on 6 and 7 April 1994.

An Indian Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Shri Shivraj Patil visited Germany from 26 June to 2 July. 1994. The delegation interacted with a wide cross-section of German parliamentarians and leaders of various political parties.

The Vice Chancellor and Foreign Minister of Germany, Dr Klaus Kinkel visited India from 27 to 29 July 1994 accompanied by a high-level business delegation. He underlined the central position occupied by India in terms of Germany's "Asia Concept Policy" and stressed the importance attached by Germany to developing closer relations with India on the basis of partnership in political, economic and cultural fields. Dr Kinkel also reaffirmed Germany's support for the resumption of Indo- Pak bilateral dialogue and welcomed India's policy of transparency on human rights. He indicated Germany's strong interest in permanent membership of the United Nations Security Council and expressed support for a permanent seat for India in that UN body. The German business delegation accompanying Dr Kinkel evinced keen interest in increasing their presence in the Indian market through investments, particularly in the fields of power, chemicals and transportation infrastructure.

The Indo-German Consultative Group, which has emerged as a strong catalytic force in Indo-German relations, held its Third Session in Bonn on 27 and 28 August and submitted recommendations covering bilateral cooperation in political, economic, scientific, cultural and media fields. In the political field, the Group urged India and Germany to reinforce cooperation on global issues at multilateral fora; strengthen bilateral dialogue and regular exchange of assessments on the rapidly changing global situation with reference to new threats and challenges emerging in the post-Cold War scenerio such as intolerance and extremism, terrorism and drug-trafficking; institutionalise meetings of Policy Planning Staff as well as interaction between Research Insitutions and Think Tanks of both countries; con-tinue bilateral dialogue on non-proliferation and strengthen cooperation on disarmament issues.

Following up on a decision taken during Prime Minister's visit to Germany from 2 to 5 February 1994, an Indo-German Committee on Science and Technology was constituted during the year to promote and oversee cooperation in this vital field.

Prime Minister paid a visit to the UK from 13 to 16 March 1994, the first Prime Ministerial visit from India since 1955. The visit marked a new era of relations between the UK and India, reinforcing trends towards a long term partnership based on mutual confidence and trust, shared values and mutual benefit. Prime Minister's interaction with British leaders provided the basis for a broad consensus in the UK on the importance of relations with India. A Bilateral Investment Protection Agreement was concluded with the UK during the visit, the first signed by India with any country, giving a further boost to bilateral economic relations and investments. The Indo-British Partnership Initiative (IBPI), launched in January 1993, was extended for another year. The IBPI achieved major success in promoting awareness of opportunities for trade and investment opened up by India's economic reforms. Indo-British trade, which grew by 24%) during 1993, continued to register a high rate of growth during 1994.

Several high level visits were exchanged with the UK during the year. Rt Hon Betty Boothroyd, Speaker of the House of Commons visited India from 15 to 25 September 1994. Richard Needham, British Minister of State for Trade visited India from 22 to 27 February 1994 and again from 13 to 19 November 1994 in the context of IBPI. Other British Ministers who visited India during the year included Peter Brooke, Secretary of State for National Heritage (31 March to 4 April 1994); Tony Baldry, Minister of State for Construction (1 to 10 April 1994); Michael Jack, Minister of State for Agriculture (19 to 25 September 1994); John Gummer, Secretary of State for Environment (25 to 27 July 1994); and Viscount Ullswater, Minister of State for Construction and Planning (1 to 9 January 1995).

Alistair Goodlad, Minister of State in the British Foreign Office visited India from 16 to 19 August 1994. British Foreign Secre- tary Douglas Hurd paid a visit to India from 5 to 8 January 1995. Instruments of ratification of the Indo-UK Bilateral Investment Protection Agreement were exchanged during Hurd's visit, imparting further impetus to British investments.

From the Indian side Ministerial visits to the UK during the year included those of Finance Minister Dr Manmohan Singh (21 to 23 May 1994 and 29 September to 1 October 1994); External Affairs Minister Shri Dinesh Singh (20 July 1994); Home Minister Shri S B Chavan (21 October 1994); Minister of Power Shri N K P Salve (22 June 1994); Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad (13 and 14 September 1994); Minister of State for External Affairs Shri Salman Khurshid (12 October 1994); and Minister of State for Surface Transport Shri Jagdish Tytler (27 May 1994).

During the year, a Commercial Office of the British High Commission was opened in Bangalore and a decision taken to establish a Consulate General of India in Glasgow.

A delegation of the French Senate led by Xavier de Villepin, President of the Senate Committee for Foreign Affairs and Defence visited India from 7 to 14 February 1994. French Prime Minister Edouard Balladur forwarded a letter to the Prime Minister through Senator Villepin, affirming the desire of the French Government to impart new momentum to Indo-French relations in the political, economic and cultural fields.

French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe visited India from 3 to 6 April 1994. He expressed French resolve to intensify relations with India and give them fresh impetus, particularly in the economic field.

From the Indian side, Ministerial visits to France during the year included those of Agriculture Minister, Shri Balram Jakhar (5 to 9 February 1994); External Affairs Minister, Shri Dinesh Singh (10 and 11 February 1994); Minister for Power, Shri N K P Salve (25 to 29 June 1994); and the then Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Shri Shankaranand (1 to 3 December 1994).

Prof Giovanni Spadolini, President of the Italian Senate, visited India from 23 to 25 February 1994. Trade and economic rela-tions with Italy, which now provides the fourth largest market for Indian exports to Europe, continued to expand. Commerce Minister visited Italy from 28 May to 1 June 1994 for the 11th meeting of the Indo- Italian Joint Economic Committee. The Italian President, Dr Oscar Luigi Scalfaro was expected to pay a State visit to India from 10 to 13 February 1995 coinciding with the participation of Italy as partner country in the Indian Engineering Trade Fair. A Memorandum of Understanding concerning cooperation in the field of defence equipment was concluded between India and Italy on 4 November 1994.
Minister of State for External Affairs Shri Salman Khurshid paid official visits to Ireland on 10 and 11 October 1994 and Spain on 13 and 14 October 1994. The visits focussed on strengthening bilateral trade and economic relations with these countries.

A Parliamentary delegation led by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha Shri Shivraj Patil visited Ireland from 3 to 8 July 1994.

A Consulate General of Portugal was, opened in Goa on 18 April 1994. The Consulate General is expected to facilitate consular services for Indian nationals and will help promote Indo-Portuguese relations in the areas of trade, tourism and culture.

The 11th Session of the Indo-Swedish joint Commission for Economic, Industrial, Technical and Scientific Cooperation was held in Stockholm on 25 and 26 May 1994. The Indian delegation was led by Smt Krishna Sahi, Minister of State for Industry. The meeting provided impetus to trade and economic relations between India and Sweden.

Shri Sukh Ram, Minister of State for Communications visited Denmark on 19 and 20 May 1994. Ministerial visits to Norway included those of Shri Jagdish Tytler, Minister of State for Surface Transport from 22 to 27 May 1994 and Capt Satish Sharma, Minister of State for Petroleum from 29 May to 1 June 1994. The Norwegian Minister for Development Cooperation, Kari Nordheim-Larsen visited India, from 2 to 5 May 1994. Official level consultations between India and Norway on economic, industrial and technical cooperation were also held in New Delhi on 2 May 1994.

Shri M Mallikarjun, Minister of State for Defence paid a visit to Greece from 4 to 6 October 1994. The visit coincided with the first ever participation by India at the Defence Production Fair "Defendory" which was held in Athens from 4 to 8 October 1994. Shri Mallikarjun's visit and India's participation in "Defendory" strengthened prospects for Indo-Greek cooperation in the field of defence production.

On 22 November 1994, protocols were concluded with the Principality of Andorra establishing diplomatic and consular relations between India and Andorra.

During the year, double taxation avoidance agreements were concluded with Malta, Cyprus and Switzerland.

The process of structured dialogue between the Ministry and the Foreign Offices of countries in Western Europe was further intensified during the year. Foreign Secretary/Secretary level talks were held with the UK, Germany, France, Finland, Italy, Spain and Austria. Dialogue at the official level was also conducted with Ireland, UK, Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Portugal, Norway and the Netherlands.

With a view to expanding the areas of constructive interaction, official level dialogue was also undertaken on drug trafficking and terrorism with France, Germany and the European Commission.

Bilateral talks on disarmament, non-proliferation and international security issues were held during the year with the UK, France and Germany, resulting in a better appreciation of India's policy and concerns in these areas.

On 13 July 1994 the European Commission brought out a paper entitled "Towards a New Asia Strategy", which was considered by the European Council on 28 November 1994. The Council laid down its own approaches and guidelines in a Report on "Asia Strategy of the European Union", calling for a more focussed and active approach to relations with Asia. The potential for long term economic partnership between India and the EU was projected to EU countries as well as the European Commission.

The new Cooperation Agreement between the Republic of India and the European Community on Partnership and Development came into effect on I August 1994. During the 8th Session of the India-EC joint Commission held in Brussels on 10 and 11 October 1994, it was agreed that there was significant untapped potential for reinforcing and diversifying existing economic relations between India and the EU which could be achieved through operationalising of the new Agreement based on partnership, dialogue and mutual benefit. The broad principles of a strategy for economic and development cooperation with the EU up to the year 2000 was agreed on, focussing on continued assistance from the EU to India's development efforts, particularly in the social sectors such as primary education, health and employment as well as mutually beneficial economic cooperation. The Joint Commission also discussed questions related to market access, and decided to set up an Ad Hoc Working Party to coordinate Science and Technology Cooperation and to consider a separate Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in this field. The Joint Commission also decided to reconstitute its two principal subsidiary bodies, the Working Groups on Trade and Economic Cooperation and on Development Cooperation, and to set up within them such other Working Parties as may be required.

Recognising the increasing role and importance of the European Parliament as one of the pillars of European integration, special efforts were made to develop wide-ranging contacts with Members of European Parliament (MEPs) who were kept fully informed of the correct facts regarding matters of interest to them. Steps were taken to invite influential MEN to visit India.


8. The Americas

North America

The year 1994-95 witnessed rapid and diversified growth in Indo-US relations following Prime Minister's visit to the US from 14 to 20 May 1994. Discussions focussed on a wide range of global issues of common concern. Both countries agreed to ensure that where differences existed, they should not overshadow the potential for greater cooperation, especially in trade and economic fields.

Prime Minister Shri Narasimha Rao and President Clinton promised to cooperate in the search for solutions to global challenges posed by weapons of mass destruction, AIDS, environmental degradation, population growth, poverty, international terrorism and narcotics trafficking. Agreement was also reached to expand the pace and scope of high level exchanges on the full range of political, economic, commercial, scientific, technological and social issues. The two leaders, agreed to seek ways to expand their cooperation at the United Nations.

Two Memoranda of Understanding were signed during Prime Minister's visit to the US, on Cooperative Measures to Increase Awareness and Support for Efforts to Combat Production, Distribution and Use of Illegal Drugs and on Planning, Conservation and Management of Natural and Cultural Heritage Sites.

Commercial and economic interaction remained the leading sector of Indo- US cooperation through 1994-95. Bilateral trade in 1993 equalled US$ 7.3 billion with a trade surplus of US$ 1.8 billion in India's favour. The US remained the single largest investor-country in terms of direct foreign investment in India, with approved investments from the US between January to September 1994 amounting to Rs 14,302 million. Actual FDI inflows from the US from 1991 to September 1994 amounted to Rs 2,039 million.

US Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary visited India from 8 to 15 July 1994 leading a large Presidential Mission comprising officials and representatives of US companies in the energy sector. Four joint statements were signed and eleven cooperative projects between private companies of the two countries were announced. Minister of Power, Shri N K P Salve visited USA from 12 to 19 November 1994. Several agreements were signed during the visit. Minister of State for Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Shri S Krishna Kumar visited the US from 17 to 22 December. A number of Memoranda of Understanding for cooperation between Indian and US institutions/firms were signed during the visit. US Under Secretary for International Trade, Jeffrey Garten visited India from 13 to 19 November 1994 to lay the groundwork for the US Commerce Secretary Ron Brown's visit to India.

Secretary Ron Brown led a Presidential Business Development Mission including 25 CEOs representing the sectors of energy, telecommunications, infrastructure and agro-based industries to India from 14 to 20 January 1995. During the visit the two countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding, setting up the Indo-US Commercial Alliance. Contracts for business collaboration in the sectors of power, telecommunications and insurance signed in Delhi alone equalled over US$ 4 billion. Secretary Brown held discussions with the Ministers of Commerce, Finance, Power and Telecommunications. He called on Prime Minister and met Minister of State for External Affairs Shri Salman Khurshid. Sectoral workshops were oragnised in cooperation with business oragnisations, such as, FICCI, ASSOCHAM and CII. Secretary Brown also met members of the Indian Bar Association. His itinerary included visits to Bangalore and Bombay.

The Indo-US joint Business Council (JBC) held its 17th meeting in Washington on 6 and 7 October 1994. Commerce Minister, Shri Pranab Mukherjee delivered the key-note address on 21 October 1994 at a business conference in New York organised by Asia Society in collaboration with CII. Senator John Kerry (Democrat, Massachusetts) led a trade delegation to India from 17 ' to 22 November 1994 comprising representatives of leading Massachusetts-based firms dealing with energy, environment and telecom and computer products. The delegation visited Delhi and Bangalore.

On 3 October 1994 the US Trade Representative released a report to the US Congress on Super 301. No "priority foreign country practice", which would have necessitated initiation of action as provided for under the Super 301 mechanism, was identified. Indian market access for textiles was listed in a category that included practices being addressed in trade negotiations.

A bilateral review of the 1984 Memorandum of Understanding on the Export from the United States to India of Sensitive Commodities, Technologies and Technical Data was held in Washigton from 7 to 9 November 1994 with a view to improving its functioning.

Congressman Gary L Ackerman (Democrat, New York) accompanied by Congresswoman Barbara-Rose Collins (Democrat, Michigan) visited Delhi, Srinagar, Jammu and Bombay from 13 to 19 November 1994. Congressman Jim McDermott (Democrat, Washington) visited India from 13 to 22 November 1994. His itinerary also included Bombay.

Air Chief Marshal, S K Kaul visited the US from 13 to 27 August 1994. Chief of Army Staff, late General B C Joshi visited the US from 19 to 29 September 1994. Admiral Richard Macke, Commander-in-Chief of the US Pacific Command visited India from 8 to 13 December 1994. From 10 to 29 September 1994, the Indian and US Navies conducted a joint Special Operations exercise at Ratnagiri (Mirya Bay). US Under Secretary of Defence for Policy, Walter Slocombe visited India on 8 and 9 December 1994 in preparation for the visit of the US Secretary of Defence William Perry. Secretary Perry visited India from 12 to 14 January 1995. He held meetings with Home Minister, Minister of State for Defence and Senior Officials from the Ministries of Defence and External Affairs. He called on President, Prime Minister and Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri R L Bhatia. An Agreed Minute on Defence Relations between India and the US was signed on 12 January 1995. It was agreed that growth of bilateral defence relations would be evolutionary and related to convergence on global and regional issues.

India and the US held a further round of discussions on nonproliferation, regional security and disarmament in London on 27 and 28 April 1994. The two countries also agreed to intensify cooperative efforts to achieve a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and a verifiable global ban on the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purposes. During Prime Minister's visit to the US, the two leaders emphasised their strong support for efforts towards non- proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery and towards their progressive reduction with the goal of elimination of such weapons.

During the year, the US Administration kept under consideration the question of allowing the transfer to Pakistan of F-16 aircrafts through a one-time waiver of the Pressler Amendment. The Administration's proposal, which would have needed approval of the US Congress, would have required a verifiable cap on Pakistan's production of fissile material and freezing of its holding of components usable in nuclear weapons. However, the proposal did not go through during the year. Pakistan reportedly refused to consider any such capping.

US pronouncements on the human rights situation in India gave rise to considerable misunderstanding. Differences in perception continued over Pakistan's support to terrorism. However, the situation improved later in the year as a result of greater restraint and objectivity exercised by US authorities. The Indian Government's policy of increased transparency was widely appreciated. Steps taken by Government of India to restore normalcy and move towards elections in Jammu and Kashmir received some positive response from the US.

The fifth meeting of the Indo-US Joint Working Group on Narcotics was held in New Delhi on 16 and 17 March 1994. Dr Lee Brown, Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy visited India from 16 to 19 November 1994.

The second round of talks on a new Indo-US Extradition Treaty was held in Washington from 19 to 21 October 1994.

Indo-Canadian relations witnessed greater interaction, especially in the economic and commercial spheres. From January to September 1994, foreign direct investment approvals for Canada amounted to Rs 417 million as against the total Canadian investment approvals for 1993 of Rs 300 million. Canadian imports from India during January-May 1994 totalled C$ 178 million, registering an increase of 30.5% as compared to the imports during the same period last year. Canadian exports to India during January-May 1994 registered a marginal increase of 5.1% as compared to the same period last year.

The Canadian Minister for International Trade, Roy MacLaren, accompanied by a large Canadian business delegation, visited India from 7 to 12 October 1994. He called on the Prime Minister and had meetings with several Ministers of economic ministries.

After a long hiatus in Cabinet Minister-level visits to Canada, Home Minister Shri S B Chavan visited Canada from 22 to 28 October 1994. During his visit, India and Canada signed the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty on combating terrorism, drug-trafficking and organised crime.

Shri Balram Singh Yadava, Minister of State for Mines visited Toronto from 30 May to 1 June 1994 to explore the possibility of Indo-Canadian cooperation in the field of mining. Giles Pouliot, Minister of Transportation of Ontario, Canada accompanied by a delegation of senior officials visited India from 18 to 23 September 1994.

Central and South America and the Caribbean
India has 13 Missions in the region of Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC) while this region maintains 11 Missions in India. There are a number of Honorary Consuls of India and many Honorary Consuls in India from LAC. India maintains very good relations with all the countries of this region. During the year India's relations with these countries were consolidated by several exchanges of high level visits, joint commission meetings and contacts at various levels not only in the region but even in other capitals and at the United Nations.

Presidential and general elections were held in Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Chile, Panama, Costa Rica, Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and El Salvador and power transferred smoothly. Under the pressure of the international community, the military rulers had to leave Haiti. The elected President Jean Bertrand Aristide returned to Haiti to resume office. Presidential and general elections are due in several other countries in 1995. Now all countries barring Cuba have popularly elected governments.

Most of the countries in the region have embarked upon successful market liberalisation which has helped reduce the deficit in many countries and allowed massive internal and external investment in priority sectors. Most of the countries moved towards considerable growth and with the expansion of economies the international debt of even the larger countries reduced dramatically. The volume of external trade also expanded. Even in Cuba the state-controlled economy had to bow to market pressures to a certain extent.

Presidential elections were held in Brazil and the new President Fernando Henrique Cardoso assumed office on I January 1994. The Foreign Minister of Brazil Celso Amorim visited India to participate in the G-15 Summit. Brazilian Minister of Environment also visited India and held useful discussions with his Indian counterpart on cooperation between the two countries in environmental and forestry matters.

Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad, Minister of Civil Aviation and Tourism and Shri G Venkat Swamy, Minister of State for Textiles visited Brazil and discussed various means of close cooperation in tourism and explored the possibilities of export of textiles.

Kum Selja, Deputy Minister for Education visited Brazil in August- September 1994 to participate in the Conference on "Education for All".

Trade delegations from Indian Silk Export Promotion Council (ISEPC), Basic Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals & Cosmetics Export Promotion Council (Chemexcil) and Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) visited Brazil.

During the year Presidential elections were held in Mexico and the new President Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon Assumed office on 1 December 1994. A three-member delegation led by Shri V C Shukla, Minister of Parliamentary Affairs attended the inauguration ceremonies of the new President.

Trade delegations from ISEPC and Chemexcil and Machine Tools Accessories Manufacturers visited Mexico during the year.

President Dr Carlos Saul Menem of Argentina visited India in March 1994 to take over Chairmanship of G-15 and extended his stay to pay a bilateral visit. The leaders of India and Argentina discussed important international issues and matters of bilateral importance. Several agreements on bilateral cooperation were signed during the visit of President Menem to India.

Minister of Civil Aviation and Tourism, Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad visited Argentina in June 1994 to promote tourist traffic from South America to India. Shri Sukh Ram, Minister of Communications visited Buenos Aires during March 1994 to attend the first World Telecommunication Development Conference organised by the ITU. A trade delegation from Chemexcil also visited Argentina during the year.

The then Chief justice of India, M N Venkatachaliah visited Buenos Aires in August 1994 as the leader of the Indian delegation to the International Law Association Congress.

On account of reasons of economy India had closed its Embassy in Colombia (Bogota) in 1993. However, because of the emergence of Colombia as a key international figure as the next host of the NAM Summit, the Embassy in Bogota was reopened in October 1994. Both Colombia and India have expressed a desire to have close cooperation and 'similarity of view in relation to the Non-Aligned, Movement and the next Summit.

Vice President J R Ajodhia and Foreign Minister Subhas C Mungra of Suriname, where 40% of the population is of Indian origin, paid a State visit to India during November 1994 and held discussions with Indian leaders on matters of bilateral concern and international importance. India agreed to donate an agricultural project and a home gardening project and 10,000 bicycles to Suriname. The first Joint Commission meeting between India and Suriname was held in November 1994.

Apparel Export Promotion Council organised a buyer-seller meet in May 1994 in Chile.

Supreme Court Justice Kuldip Singh and Delhi High Court Justice Y K Sabharwal visited Chile in August 1994 to attend the post meet of the International Law Conference.

Venezuelan Minister of State for Foreign Trade, Dr Alberto Poletto Pomenta participated in the G-15 Conference held in New Delhi in March 1994.

Dr Lenny Saith, Minister of Planning and Development of Trinidad and Tabago visited India at the invitation of the Minister of State for Steel Shri Sontosh Mohan Dev and discussed matters of bilateral interest with Indian leaders.

Government of Trinidad and Tobago has given five acres of land on a 99- year lease to Government of India for setting up Mahatma Gandhi Institute for Cultural Cooperation (Cultural Centre to be operated by ICCR).

India Trade Promotion Organisation .(ITPO) arranged participation of 19 firms at the third International Exposition 94, held in Port of Spain in April 1994.

Cuban Foreign Minister Roberto Robaina visited India in March 1994 and held discussions with Indian leaders on ways of expanding bilateral cooperation and trade.

Minister of State for Non-Conventional Energy Sources Shri K Krishna Kumar visited Cuba in June 1994 to attend Solar Energy

International Conference. India has donated a 11 KW solar energy plant to Cuba to electrify a village.

Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed, Minister of State for Commerce led the Indian delegation to the second session of the Indo-Cuban Joint Commission held in June-July 1994 in Havana.

A four-member delegation from Cuba visited India for exploring possibilities of import of sugar mill machinery and spares from India. A four-member CSIR delegation also visited Cuba to discuss about nickel extraction.

Senator David Coore, Minister for Legal Affairs of Jamaica participated in the G-15 Conference held in New Delhi in March 1994.

During the year, a few Indian companies signed memoranda of understanding with Guyanese companies for establishment of joint ventures.

India Trade Promotion Organisation participated in the international fair, EXPOCOMER'94, held in Panama.

During the year, diplomatic relations were established with Honduras. To start with, India and Honduras would establish Honorary Consulate General in each other's country.



9. United Nations and International Organisations
The United Nations is presently in the process of restructuring and reforming both in terms of institutions and concepts. India's efforts during the year were directed at influencing these changes in accordance with her world view and her perceptions of the role of the United Nations. This involved hard and painstaking negotiations at every level leading to the development of formulations that would effectively secure the interests of the developing world, including India. Recognising the imperatives of change, India accepted the concepts and institutions that did not alter the basic premises on which the UN was founded. India also made a major contribution to the discussions on the Agenda for Development which started early in the year. Effectively articulating the concerns of the developing world, India put forward concrete and forceful proposals at the ECOSOC, World Hearings on Development and at the General Assembly. The revised Agenda for Development represents a success of the Indian diplomacy. India's contribution to the preparatory process of the World Summit for Social Development was also significant.

India was successful in generating international opinion in favour of a comprehensive reform of the UN Security Council, on the basis of criteria without any predetermined selection of countries. Simultaneously, India also staked her claim for the permanent membership of the Security Council during the General Debate in the 49th session of the General Assembly.

Other major achievements of Indian diplomacy at the United Nations were : the adoption of a Declaration on Measures to eliminate terrorism by the Sixth Committee of the UN; and the initiative to convene a fourth Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament (SSOD- IV). India also continued to effectively participate in the UN Peace Keeping Operations across the globe.

India effectively countered Pakistan's propaganda about Jammu and Kashmir and its strenuous efforts to get the General Assembly to adopt a resolution on this subject. Apart from setting the record straight in different fora on several occasions, a sustained and systematic effort was maintained to ensure that Pakistan's baseless allegations and ulterior objectives were defeated.

India constituted a National Committee for Commemoration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations and undertook an ambitious, well- designed and substantive programme of yearlong activities to mark the event. The celebration was inaugurated on 30 October 1994 (representing the commencement of fiftieth year of India's association with the United Nations) by Prime Minister's address to the nation and a cultural programme, coupled with a photographic exhibition.

India hosted, during the year, the visits of the UN Secretary General, Boutros-Boutros Ghali, and President of the 48th session of the General Assembly Insanally. During his visit to India from 8 to 10 September 1994, the UN Secretary General expressed his gratitude for India's contribution to the UN Peace-Keeping activities. The Secretary General also exchanged views on global issues with the Prime Minister as well as other Indian leaders.

Political Issues
India continued to play a leading role in UN Peace-Keeping activities. One battalion contributed by India to UN Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) has returned home. India contributed 5,000-strong contingent to UN Operation in Somalia

(UNOSOM II). After completing their mission successfully, the Indian contingent returned home. India has provided a battalion to the UN Assistance Mission in Rwanda (UNAMIR). India has also agreed in principle to contribute a brigade group to UN Standby forces. India has also agreed to provide 100 doctors, engineers and trainers to UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), Phase II, in addition to a company of para-military forces. Their deployment is awaited.

The UN General Assembly Working Group on "Question of Equitable Representation on, and increase in the membership of the Security Council" continued its discussions during the year. These discussions have not so far produced any consensus on criteria, or candidates, for admission to permanent members category of the Security Council. The term of the Working Group has been extended for another year.

During his speech in the General Debate at the 49th session of the UN General Assembly, Commerce Minister, the leader of the Indian delegation, stated that whatever the criteria-population, size of the economy, contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security and to peace-keeping, or future potential-India deserves to be a permanent member of the Security Council.

Pakistani Foreign Minister wrote a letter to the President of the Security Council on 11 August 1994 calling for an increase in the strength of UNMOGIP observers on both sides of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir. A similar letter was addressed to the UN Secretary General. This Pakistani move has not found any support in the Security Council so far.

The UN Secretary General in his Annual Report on the work of the Organisation made a brief reference to India and Pakistan, in which he stressed his willingness to exert every possible effort to facilitate a search for a solution should the two sides so wish. India has made it very clear that she remains ' committed to the Simla Agreement, which calls for resolution of all outstanding issues bilaterally.

Pakistan tried to table a resolution against India in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly through an OIC Con- tact Group. Prompt and effective counter-measures initiated by this Ministry forced Pakistan to abandon the move after failing to receive adequate support.

India also announced her candidature for election to the nonpermanent seat in the Security Council for the year 1996-97.

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea entered into force on 16 November 1994. A meeting was organised in Jamaica to commemorate the entry into force of the Agreement. The first meeting of the International Seabed Authority (ISA), created under the Convention, was also held in Jamaica from 16 to 19 November 1994. Earlier, India had played a major role in the negotiations leading to the Agreement related to implementation of Part XI of the Convention concerning deep sea-bed mining and exploration, which was adopted unanimously by the resumed 48th session of the UN General Assembly in June 1994.

The First Committee of the UN General Assembly, on 22 November 1994, adopted by consensus a resolution on this subject, bringing to an end a chapter of unnecessary controversy surrounding the subject. The item had been first inscribed on the agenda of the General Assembly in 1983. Since 1985, there has been no consensus on this subject, until this year.

Disarmament and International Security
During the period under review, positive initiatives in the, field of global disarmament, which began in the immediate aftermath of the end of the Cold War, were further consolidated. India continued to play a leading role in various multilateral disarmament fora-the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva, the UN Disarmament Commission (UNDC) and the First Committee of the UNGA.

In keeping with her long-standing approach to nuclear disarmament as the first step towards general and complete disarmament, India was actively associated with global measures which would be essential for the elimination of nuclear weapons in a time-bound manner. Progress was achieved to some extent in the area of a comprehensive test ban and a freeze in the production of fissile material for weapons.

In January 1994, an Ad hoc Committee of the CD on Nuclear Test Ban (NTB) with a full negotiating mandate to conclude a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was established. Since 1954, India has been calling for a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing. It was only in 1993 that there was a perceptible shift in the stand of the nuclear weapons states on this issue. In December 1993, India co-sponsored a consensus UNGA resolution which called for an early conclusion of a CTBT. India has been actively participating in the negotiations at Geneva. The Indian delegate is the Friend of Chair (FOC) on Seismic Methods, under the Working Group on Verification. India has presented several papers on both seismic and non-seismic methods which would be useful components of the future verification system of the CTBT. A draft "rolling text" of the CTBT was finalised in September 1994.

Further to the 1993 UN consensus resolution co-sponsored by India which called for negotiations on a Convention on the Prohibition of the Production of Fissionable Material for Weapons Purposes' a Special Co- ordinator was set up at the Conference on Disarmament. India had hoped that a consensus resolution calling for an Ad hoc Committee of the CD with a negotiating mandate to be set up would be adopted by the current session of the UNGA. However, due to continued differences on the scope of the mandate and the insistence by some countries on the inclusion of stockpiles within the purview, the resolution could not be tabled this year.

India also tabled a resolution on the subject of a Convention on the Prohibition of the Use and Threat of Use of Nuclear Weapons. The First Committee of the UN adopted it with 98 votes in favour. The voting pattern revealed that some of the nuclear weapons states and their allies continue to oppose the resolution. India also co-sponsored a new resolution calling for a step-by-step reduction of the nuclear weapons which was adopted by the First Committee with 91 votes in favour.

For long, India has been calling for the outlawing of nuclear weapons, on the argument that the use of such weapons constitutes a crime against humanity and a violation of the UN Charter. Accordingly, India submitted a statement to the Interna-

tional Court of Justice (ICJ) on 10 June 1994 as a follow-up to a World Health Assembly resolution of May 1993, requesting the ICJ for an advisory opinion on the legality of the use of such weapons in terms of their effects on health and environment. At the current session of the UNGA, a NAM draft resolution requesting the ICJ on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons was adopted by 77 votes in favour of the First Committee, overcoming the stiff opposition by some of the nuclear weapons states (NWS) and their allies.

India's proposal for the convening of a Fourth Special Session of the General Assembly devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-IV) put forward in June 1994 at the Cairo meeting of NAM Foreign Ministers was taken up enthusiastically by NAM and presented as a NAM initiative at the current session of the UNGA. A consensus resolution agreeing in principle to the convening of such a session in 1997, with the dates "to be considered at its 50th regular session" was adopted by the First Committee of the UNGA on 19 November.

India was also actively involved in UN expert groups on the Register on Conventional Arms, the Inhumane Weapons Convention, and Verification in All Its Aspects. The UN expert group on the Conventional Arms Register concluded its work in August 1994 and recommended that, in view of the lack of consensus, the scope of the Register (currently confined to arms transfers) need not be expanded. India actively supported the idea of a ban on the export of anti-personnel land mines at the expert group level and co-sponsored a UN resolution on the subject.

India continued her principled opposition to ad hoc export control regimes such as the Australia Group, Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in various international fora and called for their conversion into universal, transparent, non- discriminatory treaties which clearly distinguish between civilian "and military applications. An MTCR Quad team consisting of representatives of Switzerland, US, UK and Australia visited India on 30 August 1994 for official level discussions. This is in keeping with the recent MTCR decision to hold consultations with other coun-tries with an advanced scientific and industrial base. The exchange of views was useful and enabled both sides to obtain a better understanding of each other's positions.

A Special Conference of the States Parties of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) was held at Geneva from 18 to 30 September 1994. India participated actively as one of the Vice Presidents of the Conference which resulted in the setting up of an ad hoc group of experts to consider verification measures for the BWC.

India's views on the Australia Group have been articulated time and again at the Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) which meets in plenary sessions and expert level meetings at The Hague. India, which became an original signatory to the Chemical Weapons Convention in January 1993, is fully involved in the activities of the Preparatory Commission. Her delegate is the Chairman of three of the Expert Groups of the PREPCOM. Besides, technical experts from concerned departments have been regularly participating in the inter-sessional meetings.

In pursuance of her global disarmament agenda, especially in the context of the changing international security environment, India continued bilateral dialogues on disarmament, non-proliferation and security- related issues with the US, France and Germany. Bilateral initiatives at the highest level resulted in two signal achievements-(i) the issuance of a joint statement by Prime Minister Rao and President Clinton in May 1994 offering their strong support for efforts towards non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery and towards the progressive reduction with the goal of elimination of such weapons and (ii) a joint declaration issued by Prime Minister Rao and President Yeltsin reiterating their commitment to all measures aimed at the complete and universal elimination of the weapons of mass destruction. India also utilised these dialogues to effectively project her position that her security concerns cannot be addressed in the narrow framework of India-Pakistan relations but as part of a global problem which would require a global solution.

Human Rights
India continued to take a vigorous part in discussions on human rights in UN fora. India's stand in UN fora was rooted in her commitment to protection and promotion of human rights at home and abroad.

India's consistent stand in the UN fora was that human rights should be pursued in the Vienna spirit of cooperation and consensus. India does not favour selectively targeting individual countries through politically motivated resolutions.

During the year, the National Human Rights Commission was established through an Act of the Parliament. The Commission has wide-ranging powers of over-sight and enquiry. The Commission covers all parts of the country, including Jammu and Kashmir. The Commission has already started functioning. The Commission's recommendation on Bijbehara incident was accepted by Government for implementation.

A number of envoys visited Jammu and Kashmir. This reflected India's policy of transparency in protection and promotion of human rights.

During the 50th session of the Commission on Human Rights in Geneva from 31 January to 11 March 1994, Pakistan tabled a resolution against India on Kashmir issue. The resolution called for despatch of a fact-finding mission to Jammu and Kashmir. India apprised the international community of the facts about Jammu and Kashmir. The international community did not find merit in Pakistan's resolution. Failing to muster adequate support for her move, Pakistan was forced to withdraw the resolution unilaterally and unconditionally.

During the session, a resolution on Human Rights and Terrorism was adopted by consensus. The resolution unequivocally condemned all acts, methods and practices of terrorism wherever and by whomsoever committed.

Human rights and humanitarian issues were also considered at the substantive session of the Economic and Social Council under the social sector from 20 to 29 July 1994. Pakistan raked up the Kashmir issue under the Agenda item on Human Rights questions through statements by its official delegation as well as NGOs sponsored by Pakistan.

India, like other UN member-states, participated as an observer in the 46th session of the UN Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. This body comprises * of experts acting in their individual capacity. The session lasted from 1 to 26 August 1994. Pakistani moves to float a resolution were successfully thwarted.

During this session, the Sub-Commission adopted a resolution on Human Rights and Terrorism condemning terrorism.

After their failure to table a resolution against India in the First Committee of the UN General Assembly, Pakistan continued efforts to table a resolution against India in the Third Committee. However Pakistan could not find enough support to table the resolution.

The adoption at the 49th General Assembly of a Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism was an achievement of India's diplomacy in the United Nations. The resolution unequivocally condemns the acts, methods and practices of terrorism as activities aimed at the destruction of human rights and fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening the territorial integrity and security of States and destabilising the legitimately constituted governments. It called upon all States to take effective measures to prevent, combat and eliminate terrorism. Similar resolutions condemning terrorism were also adopted in other UN and international fora like the Commission on Human Rights, 44th session of the International Conference on Education, 145th session of the UNESCO Executive Board, etc. The resolutions reflect the growing understanding of terrorism by the international community as violative of human rights and threatening to the security and territorial integrity of Nation States.

Economic, Social and Humanitarian Issues
India continued to play an active role in the Economic and Social Council, the Governing Boards of the specialised agencies, vari-ous international meetings on the issue of promotion and protection of environment, and in the Second Committee of the United Nations. She sought to ensure that developmental issues were emphasised in various activities of the United Nations. India sought to ensure that the United Nations' "Agenda for Development" should be goal-oriented and incorporate clear plans of action for the development of developing nations. It should include a commitment to an open, fair and equitable international environment conducive to sustained and accelerated economic growth and provide additional resources for the developmental needs of the developing countries. India participated actively in the Public Hearings on the "Agenda for Development" organised by the President of the 48th session of the UN General Assembly and in the subsequent discussions on this issue in the course of the 49th session of the General Assembly. India also ensured that the "Agenda for Development" neither becomes an adjunct to the Agenda for Peace nor should it be overshadowed in the current preoccupation with security issues and peace-keeping activities of the United Nations.

The substantive session of the Economic and Social Council, including a High Level Segment was held in June-July 1994. The meeting focussed on the Agenda for Development; follow-up to the resolution adopted in the 48th session of the General Assembly on the restructuring and revitalisation of the United Nations in the economic and social fields; operational activities for development; etc.

While the United Nations continued to emphasise the traditional issues like debt, development, transfer of resources, it also focussed on issues relating to environment and social and humanitarian concerns.

India actively participated in the activities connected with the implementation of the agreements reached at the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and related follow-up action. The specific important areas of activities are highlighted below:

(a) The Second Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), including the High Level Segment, was held from 16 to 27 May 1994 in New York. India was elected to the Bureau and became a Vice Chairman, representing Asia. This election was all the more important since it came at a time crucial to the CSD process. Furthermore, it enabled India to effectively pursue her objectives regarding greater provision of financial resources by the international community for the implementation of Agenda 21. India was also elected as the Chairperson of the Working Group I of the Commission on Sustainable Development, which discussed the critical and broad-based issues of finance, technology, trade and environment,, consumption patterns, decision-making structures, etc. The document adopted by Working Group I of the Commission expressed clear concern at the inadequate availability of new and additional resources and added that such a state will constrain effective implementation of Agenda 21 and could undermine the basis of the global partnership for sustainable development. The need for further replenishment of the Global Environment Facility was also highlighted. Efforts for bringing ODA levels in line with 0.7% of GNP target were reaffirmed and a call given for substantial early commitments of concessional funding to accelerate the initial phase of the implementation of Agenda 21. Innovative approaches for mobilising financial resources, in particular in developed countries were proposed. Broad public support and generating the political momentum and CSD's role in this process were highlighted.

It was decided that the Inter Sessional Working Group (ISWG) on Finance would continue its deliberations on these issues.

The Report of the open-ended Ad Hoc Inter Sessional Working Group on Technology Transfer was also considered by the CSD. While recognising the constraints faced by the developing countries in their endeavours to promote or actively, participate in technology transfers, the Working Group had been unable to propose concrete action-programmes for consideration by the Commission. The final resolution adopted by the CSD on this issue is a diluted version of the recommendations of the ISWG on technology transfer and largely exhorts the UN system to consider appropriate means of technology transfer. CSD has so far not been able to take the process much beyond Rio. There is still no agreement on the definition of environmentally sound technologies or mechanisms for facilitation of their transfer to the developing countries.

The High Level Segment was attended by Minister of State for Environment and Forests. Several delegations of other countries participating in the High Level Segment mentioned that participation in CSD should not be restricted to the environment ministries of different countries at the technical level, but should be broadened to include representatives of finance, economic, planning, and agriculture ministries, depending on the subjects being covered.

(b) An inter-governmental group had been established to begin negotiations for a Convention to Combat Desertification with Special Reference to Africa. Regular discussions were held in Geneva and Paris and the Convention finalised at the Fifth Meeting of the Inter- governmental negotiating committee in Paris in June 1994. India signed the Convention when it was opened for signatures in Paris on 14 October 1994. Indian delegation ensured that the provisions of the Convention and the Regional Implementation Annex for Asia did not contain articles that were liable to misinterpretation.

(c) As mandated by the UN Conference on Environment and Development and the General Assembly resolution 47/192, a conference was organised in July 1993. Further negotiations were continued in March and August 1994. A draft agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea is presently being considered. India has been actively projecting the needs and requirements of the coastal states. India has also forcefully expressed the need for assistance to developing countries, both financial and technical, not only for the conservation and management measures but also to enable them to exploit the resources of the high seas.

(d) The IX and X sessions of the Inter-governmental Negotiating Committee to prepare for the First Conference of Parties of the Framework Convention on Climate Change were held during the year. India actively participated in them and worked assiduously to strengthen the application of the provisions of the Convention related to policy guidelines, financial resources and incremental costs.

(e) The second session of the Inter-governmental Committee on Convention on Bio-Diversity was held in Nairobi from 20 June to I July 1994. This was the last session prior to the first meeting of the Conference of Parties organised in Bahamas from 28 November to 9 December 1994. Indian delegation succeeded in safeguarding India's concerns and in promoting India's interests. It ensured the finalisation of some programme priorities and inclusion of clear references to national priorities in them. It was also able to secure incorporation of "endemism" as a programme priority. On the issue of institutional structure, it was decided that Global Environment Facility (GEF) should continue as an interim financial mechanism. India was also able to seek endorsement from the G-77 and effectively project her views on the issue of conclusion of a Protocol on Bio-Safety, Farmers' Rights and ex-situ collections, collections of CGIAR system, criteria for selection of the Secretariat, funding of the Secretariat, etc. India also circulated a Draft Agenda for the First Meeting of the Conference of Parties, which was unanimously approved by the G-77 and appreciated by the Chairman and was used for finalising the Agenda of the Conference of Parties by the Secretariat.

(f) First meeting of the Executive Council of the restructured Global Environment Facility (GEF) was held in Washington on 12 and 13 July 1994 and the second in October 1994. India is a donor and recipient nation and has contributed SDR 6 million (US$ 8.5 million approximately) to the total GEF corpus of US$ 2 billion. GEF is expected to fund the financial mechanisms of the Convention on Climate Change and Diversity, and Framework Convention on Climate Change, and measures to combat pollution of international waters, and the ill-effects of desertification. India has been playing a leading role in GEF and also in the implementation of the Conventions that it is expected to fund.

As a recognition of the prominent role played by India, the Indian member of the Executive Council Shri N K Singh, Additional Secretary of the Department of Economic Affairs, was unanimously elected as the first Chairman of, the GEF Executive Council. The Chairmanship would rotate between the recipient and non-recipient nations from one meeting to the other. As first elected Chairman, India will have an opportunity to play a constructive role and lead the facility in the desired direction.

(g) During the year inter-governmental meetings of the Montreal Protocol, the Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes, Inter-government Panel on Climate Change and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species were held. India actively participated in these meetings .

A development of far-reaching importance and wider portents, which emanated from the discussions in the environmental spheres, was the consolidation of the Association of Small Islands Developing States (AOSIS). The Association had been established at the First Conference on Sustainable Development of Small Islands Developing States held in Barbados in April 1994. India had actively participated in that Conference too, and projected the needs as well as the achievements in the field of sustainable development of small islands of India, like Andamans and Nicobar group, etc.

The Group of 77 (developing nations) commemorated the thirtieth anniversary of its establishment by a Special Ministerial Meeting organised in New York on 24 June 1994. India was represented by Minister of State for External Affairs Shri Salman Khurshid.

India hosted the 50th session of the ESCAP in New Delhi in April 1994. India also continued to take an active part in various activities for the Asia and Pacific region organised by ESCAP. India ensured that activities prejudicial to her national interests were not undertaken by the organisation.

Consistent with the renewed emphasis accorded by the United Nations to the social and humanitarian issues, a number of new initiatives were undertaken during the year. These included:

(a) The third International Conference on Population and Development was held in Cairo from 5 to 13 September 1994. Indian delegation was led by the Minister of Health and Family Welfare and included Minister of State for External Affairs Shri Salman Khurshid. Addressing the plenary, the leader of the Indian delegation, the then Minister of Health and Family Welfare, Shri B Shankaranand reiterated strongly the need for

enhanced international cooperation in this sphere. He also pointed out that the problem of demographic growth could only be addressed through integrated solutions, encompassing health, family welfare, education, women empowerment, employment and eradication of poverty.

India's concerns on international interference in dealing with internal migration, the assertion of right to development as a fundamental right, importance of education and empowerment of women, and increased resource flows from the developed to the developing nations have been well reflected in the document. India also stressed these issues in the discussions on follow up to the Conference in the 49th session of the General Assembly.

(b) India constituted a National Committee to prepare for the World Summit on Social Development. The country report of India to the Summit was prepared and distributed at the second session of the Preparatory Committee for the World Summit for Social Development held in New York in August-September 1994. The draft Declaration and Programme of Action to be adopted by the Summit were discussed and refined by the third session of the Preparatory Committee held in January 1995. India has been actively participating in these discussions and her concerns on the issue of poverty eradication, provision of full and productive employment and social integration, while respecting the plurality of societies have been forcefully expressed and incorporated in the documents.

India also participated in the Asian and Pacific regional Ministerial Meeting on Social Development to review the Social Development Agenda for the region and to prepare for the World Summit.

(c) The Fourth World Conference on Women is another important international meeting to be held in Beijing in June 1995. The aim of the meeting is to focus on women's issues particularly the need to raise the status of women in the society. India participated in the regional meeting held in Jakarta to prepare for the meeting and is actively contributing to other preparatory activities.

(d) ECOSOC and subsequently the UN General Assembly adopted resolutions enlarging the Executive Committee of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees from 47 to 50. By virtue of this enlargement, India, along with two other countries (Russia and Bangladesh) would become member of the Executive Committee after the next organisational session of ECOSOC to be held in April 1995.

India participated actively in the 144th and 145th sessions of the UNESCO Executive Board, ensuring that the Organisation did not deviate from its Charter mandate. India also ensured that intrusive elements were not sought to be introduced in the UNESCO's programmes. India also forcefully expressed the need for UNESCO to concentrate also on developmental issues, as a part of its Medium Term Plan for 1995-2001.

UNESCO, as the lead agency for commemorating the UN Year of Tolerance, also organised activities to mark the 125th Birth Anniversary of the Apostle of Tolerance-Mahatma Gandhi. A medallion was struck by UNESCO and other activities are also planned during 1995.

India participated actively in the quinquennial congresses of the Universal Postal Union and the International Telecommunications Union. India also participated in the Annual General Conferences of ILO, INTERPOL, IMO and the FAO Council.

Administrative and Budgetary Issues
India continued to actively participate in the work of the Fifth Committee. She ensured that adequate resources for the developmental activities of the United Nations were 'available and that, in the matters of scales of assessments, the principle of the capacity to pay was fully and effectively employed. India was a member of the Ad Hoc Group established to investigate fraud within the UN system, and also remained a member of the Board of Auditors of the UN. India also voiced concern over the mounting expenditure on peace-keeping operations and the delayed or non-payment of assessments by the member States, which created a severe financial problem for the United Nations, on account of reduced cash-flows.
Elections and Appointments
During the year, India was elected or nominated by acclamation/consensus to the following international bodies:

(a) Commission on Transnational Corporations for a three-year term commencing 1 January 1995.

(b) Inter-governmental Working Group of Experts on International Standards of Accounting and Reporting, for a three-year term commencing 1 January 1995.

(c) Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations for a four-year term commencing 1 January 1995.

(d) Executive Board of UNICEF for a three-year term commencing 1 January 1995.

(e) Committee for UN Population Award for a three-year term commencing 1 January 1995.

(f) Ambassador Shri Samarendra Sen to the membership of the UN Administrative Tribunal.

(g) Commission on Human Rights of ECOSOC.

(h) Postal Operations Council and Consultative Council for Postal Studies of the Universal Postal Union.

(i) Administrative Council of the International Telecommunications Union.

(j) Justice Shri P N Bhagwati as member of the Human Rights Committee of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).

(k) Membership of Economic and Social Council for 1995-97 (ECOSOC).

India was also elected as the Vice President of the 49th Session of the UN General Assembly and as Vice President of the Commission on Sustainable Development; India was also elected the Chairman of several of the international meetings held in the region under ESCAP.

Non-Aligned Movement
India participated actively in the meetings organised by the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and took an active interest in the work of the Coordinating Bureau of the Movement in New York. India was represented by Minister of State for External Affairs Shri R L Bhatia at the Eleventh Ministerial Meeting of the NAM held in Cairo in May-June 1994.

Indonesia, as Chairman of the Movement, organised the first Meeting of Agriculture Ministers of NAM countries in Bali in October 1994.

During the year the NAM and the Group of 77 also decided to establish a coordinating mechanism in New York between the two groupings.

The Fifth Conference of the Labour Minsiters of Non-Aligned and other Developing Countries was inaugurated by the Prime Minister on 19 January 1995. The Conference adopted the Delhi Declaration and a Plan of Action on labour and related issues. These documents reflected the broad developing country consensus that emerged on key issues such as labour standards and the so-called "social clause" and the need for enhancing South-South cooperation on employment-related matters.
During the year India continued to participate actively in meetings of the Commonwealth's over-arching governance mechanisms, including the Steering Committee of Senior Officials which met on 14 and 15 April 1994 and the Senior Officials Meeting held from 22 to 24 November 1994. In these meetings, India drew attention to the fact that seminal declarations issued by the Singapore (1971) and Harare (1991) CHOGMs stressed commitment to political values but gave no less importance to social and economic needs for development. India's arguments in favour of maintaining a balanced approach in determining priorities for Commonwealth action were endorsed at these meetings.

The Commonwealth Secretary General, Chief Emeka Anyaoku paid an official visit to India from 3 to 5 December 1994. The visit provided an opportunity to acquaint him with India's perceptions regarding the full range of Commonwealth activities and the continued importance India attached to socio-economic development cooperation under the Commonwealth banner. Chief Anyaoku paid tribute to India's contribution to the concept of a modern Commonwealth which had allowed it to outgrow an Anglo-centric past and expressed the hope that the Commonwealth philosophy of mutual help and Jawaharlal Nehru's legacy of the "healing touch" would help the Commonwealth to serve members better. He also stressed the commitment of the Commonwealth Secretariat to maintain the balance contained in the Harare Declaration between promotion of the fundamental political values of the Commonwealth and cooperation for socio-economic development.

International Law: Developments and Activities

India participated in the 46th Session of the International Law Commission (ILC) which was held at Geneva from 2 May to 22 July 1994. At this session, the Commission completed the drafting of a Revised Statute on the establishment of an International Criminal Court, the Second and Final reading of the Draft Articles on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Water Courses and the examination of the concept of crime attributable to the State itself and attendant consequences of such State Responsibility. The Commission commenced the Second and Final reading of the Draft Code of Crimes Against Peace and Security of Mankind and International Liability for Acts not Prohibited by International Law studied in the context of evolving principles of prevention.

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) held its 27th session from 31 May to 17 June 1994 at New York. The session was devoted to the consideration of the Draft Model Law on Procurement of Goods, Construction and Services. The other substantive items considered were the draft guidelines for preparatory conferences in arbitral proceedings, the reports of the Working Group on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and on International Contract Practices, the Draft

Convention on Independent Guarantees and Standby Letters of Credit and the case law on UNCITRAL Texts.

At the 49th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Sixth (Legal) Committee considered several agenda items during its deliberations from 20 September to 9 December 1994. The main agenda items related to the work of the International Law Commission (ILC), the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the Special Committee on the Charter of the United Nations and on the Strengthening of the Role of the Organisation, measures to eliminate international terrorism, establishment of an international criminal court, non-navigational uses of international watercourses, draft convention on jurisdictional immunities of States and their property, responsibility for attacks on United Nations and associated personnel, the United Nations Decade of International Law and the question of seeking an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on abductions abroad.

The Indian delegation participated actively in the Committee's deliberations, including its consultations on several matters and commented on the progress made by the ILC at its 46th Session particularly on the question of preparation of a draft statute for an international criminal court, international rivers, State immunity, safety of UN and associated personnel.

The General Assembly finalised the text of a Draft Convention on the Protection of UN and associated personnel. Further, the General Assembly decided to defer to its next session the question of convening international conferences to consider the draft articles prepared by the International Law Commission on establishment of an international criminal court,'. jurisdictional immunities of States and their property, and non-navigational uses of international watercourses.

The General Assembly also decided to hold a UN Congress on Public International Law in 1995 at UN Headquarters as part of the UN Decade of International Law.

The Legal Sub-Committee of the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space held its regular annual session at Vienna in

March/April 1994. The meeting is held for the first time in Vienna because the Outer Space Division has now been shifted from New York to Vienna. During this session the Sub-Committee discussed mainly the subjects of delimitation and definition of Outer Space, legal principles relating to the geo-stationary orbit, rational utilisation of Outer Space taking into particular account the needs and interests of developing countries. In addition, the Sub-Committee also discussed the question of the review of Principles relating to nuclear power sources. Although the discussions registered progress no final agreement has been reached during the session. ,

The 33rd Annual Session of the Asian African Legal Consultative Committee (AALCC) was held at Tokyo from 17 to 21 January 1994. The Committee elected Tang Yengchuan of China as its Secretary General for a three-year term. The Committee considered the report on the work of the International Law Commission, including the work of the Commission on international rivers, the Report on the Vienna meeting of human rights, Law of the Sea, Status of refugees, Agenda for Peace. During its Tokyo Session the Committee also convened a special meeting on privatisation which met as a sub-committee and held three Sessions. The Committee also considered matters arising out of the decision taken at its last session regarding shifting of its headquarters to Doha, Qatar.

A meeting of legal experts of States signatory to the Antarctica Treaty, held at The Hague from 7 to 9 November 1994 considered legal issues regarding liability for environmental damages resulting from human activities in Antarctica with a view to preparing an annex to the Antarctic Environmental Protocol on Liability.

Negotiations for conclusion of Extradition treaties were held with Germany, France, Hong Kong, UAE and USA.

As in previous years, the Ministry undertook negotiations and processed for signature, ratification and accession several multilateral and bilateral treaties involving India.

India became a party to several multilateral Conventions including the Convention against taking of Hostages. India also signed the Agreement relating to Part XI of the UN Convention on Law of the Sea 1982 and the UN Convention on Desertification. An Agreement with the United Nations regarding the Headquarters of the Asian and Pacific Centre in New Delhi was also concluded. Some important bilateral agreements signed during the year include the mutual assistance in criminal matters treaty with Canada and agreements with Bulgaria and Romania for combating organised crimes, terrorism and illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

During this year the Ministry took up, on a regular basis, and with a view to clearing the backlog, the registration, with the United Nations, of treaties concluded by India.

A list of Treaties entered into by India during the year is placed at, appendix III.


10. Foreign Economic Relations
In keeping with the global trend, the requirements of the national economy and social as well as political priorities, the Ministry of External Affairs continued to give special and focussed attention to economic diplomacy at the bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. The Economic and Multilateral Economic Relations Divisions of the Ministry played an important role in providing vitality and substantive content to the Ministry's efforts in this area. The co-option of academics, nongovernmental organisations, representatives of trade and industry and other economic actors was intended to ensure that these efforts translate themselves into practical results. An important part of the Ministry's effort was to expand existing opportunities and create new ones for trade, investment and technological cooperation with the industrialised, newly industrialising and developing countries which have achieved or have a promising potential to achieve rapid economic and technological growth. This initiative was taken through bilateral approaches, evolving new regional and trans-regional arrangements and appropriate initiatives in international fora such as the NAM, the G-77 and the UN.

Recognising that the success of India's economic development and reform programme can only be assured and sustained in a favourable international economic environment, the effort was to forge a consensus in the international fora in favour of global policies supportive of economic development and growth par-ticularly of developing countries. The Ministry worked along with other concerned Ministries to resist attempts at protectionism, injection of conditionalities on trade and aid and diversion of focus and resources to sectoral and socio-political issues.

There was a constant monitoring of not only all development policy evolutions in multilateral, regional and national contexts effecting the Indian economy, but also of emergent thinking in the UN and the Multilateral Financial Institutions on the issue of development. Wherever it was felt that India's interests were not properly safeguarded or sufficient importance was not given to the concerns of developing countries in the evolution of a new paradigm for international cooperation, the Ministry was active in raising consciousness within the country and among other developing and developed partner countries.

The year marked the 50th anniversary of the setting up of the United Nations as well as the Bretton Woods institutions and the Ministry was involved in the ongoing review of the role and relevance of these institutions in the new context of economic multipolarity and increasing dynamism and global profile of developing countries particularly in Asia. Global emphasis on entrepreneurial skills and initiative as against dirigist intervention of the state to ensure economic growth and social well-being called for a new look at these institutions. Several concept papers on this theme were prepared by the Ministry for discussion among developing countries as well as for interaction with developed countries.

In spite of the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, certain developed countries continued their efforts to increase protectionism, create new trade conditionalities and non-tariff barriers and apply pressures on developing countries to give increased market access on terms beyond those agreed in the Uruguay Round. These and other issues affecting market access for Indian goods and services were monitored and sought to be ameliorated and countered. One of the issues raised by certain developed countries is the establishment of a linkage between international trade and labour standards. The argument being given is that low level of wages and workers' benefits in developing countries, constitute an unfair trade ad- vantage and goods exported by using such labour amount to social dumping. There is an attempt to secure compliance of certain "Social Clause" related ILO Conventions by establishing a linkage with trade. The Ministry undertook internal, interministerial and inter-governmental consultations to help formulate and project India's position on this subject in international. fora.

India's engagement in economic cooperation among a trans-regional group of developing countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa assumed special significance this year as the reconvened 4th Summit of the G-15 was held in New Delhi from 28 to 30 March 1994. The Summit reaffirmed the relevance of the Group and gave it a new dynamism by setting up an institutional framework and a substantive agenda for cooperation. It was decided to broaden the scope of intra-G-15 cooperation through the establishment of a Committee on Trade, Investment and Technology (CITT) to work towards evolution of trans-regional arrangements for liberalisation, facilitation and promotion of trade, investment and technology transfer. The private sector will play a crucial role and will be closely associated in this endeavour. The CITT will also establish inter-active links with related G-15 projects such as the South Investment, Trade and Technology Data Exchange Centre (SITTDEC), Business Forum and certain techno-economic projects being coordinated by India in Solar Energy and Gene Banks of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.

The Business Forum including a large number of businessmen and trade
representatives from several G-15 countries, held a meeting in tandem with the Summit. The Business Forum drew up action plans for strengthening transport, financial and information infra-structure to expand cooperation in trade, investment, technological exchanges and tourism.

The Summit decided to harness the information and communication revolution to promote better understanding and knowledge of capabilities, potential and experiences of G-15 countries among each other. It asked the Troika Foreign Ministers to facilitate the setting up of an expert group to make recommendations on information infrastructure and communication systems

required by the G-15 countries. It agreed to extend full support through appropriate projects for expanding cooperation in the setting up of small scale industries, especially in Africa.

The Summit agreed that the meetings of G-15 Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Economy, Trade, Agriculture, Environment and Science and Technology would be held on a regular basis in the inter-Summit period for expanding cooperation in sectoral areas. It decided to guard against new trade restricting tendencies in the developed world using the pretext of social ' or environmental concerns, which were aimed at nullifying the comparative advantage of the economies of the South such as raw materials, wage structure, etc. It was agreed that G-15 ministers would meet at Marrakesh on the occasion of the concluding conference on the Uruguay Round to ensure coordination.

The Summit undertook a review of the international situation and economic, political, environmental challenges faced by the developing countries and shared experiences of G-15 countries in meeting these challenges. It reaffirmed the equal importance of attention to peace and development in a restructured and democratised UN to realise a more equitable, prosperous and secure world order. A Joint Communique was issued setting out the views of the G-15 countries on major issues.

The Prime Minister as Chairman sent a copy of the communique for information and consideration to the then Chairman of the G-7, the Prime Minister of Italy. The Summit decided that the on-going G-15 initiative on a constructive and focussed dialogue with the G-7 would be carried forward. It was agreed that the Fifth G-15 Summit would be held at Buenos Aires in 1995 and the Sixth Summit at Harare in 1996.

A G-15 ministerial meeting held in New York on 28 September 1994 decided that all inputs to develop the terms of reference and work programme of the CITT will be provided by the members by November 1994. The ministerial meeting held a substantive exchange of views on global issues and challenges aimed at prosperity and well-being of all peoples in the 21st century and required multilateral institutions to meet those challenges. The ministerial meeting also endorsed a new quorum rule for future attendance at the G-15 Summits which pro-

vides for participation of at least five Heads of State/Government and three Vice Presidents/Deputy Prime Ministers (number two in their respective governments).

At the 30th Anniversary commemoration meeting of the Group of 77 held in New York in July 1994, India reaffirmed the historical validity of the concept, purposes and endeavours of the Group of 77 and of her mission to obtain for developing countries a larger voice in global economic decision making. By inserting a development dimension and consensus in international institutions and policies, the G-77 had acted as a development conscience of the world and recorded some gains in this respect. India noted that G-77 was at the crossroads having reached a maturer phase after a period of considerable activity and trial. Developing countries, whatever their specificities, would continue to face common problems-systemic and emergent, and that they would need to work together in the context of a firm but flexible issue-based coalitions to further the common cause of development. The Group of 77 issued two ministerial declarations-one general and the other specifically focussed on the Agenda for Development to be evolved under UN auspices.

It is clear that both ASEAN and India attach considerable importance to the rapid development of their sectoral dialogue partnership and much progress has been achieved in a short time both at the governmental and business levels. The first substantive meeting of the ASEAN-India joint Sectoral Cooperation Committee (AIJSCC) was held in Bali, Indonesia from 6 to 8 January 1994. It launched cooperation in four sectors, namely, trade, investment, tourism and science and technology. The meeting set up the required institutional structures including an ASEAN-India Fund to finance mutually agreed projects. The second meeting of the AIJSCC is being convened in India from 13 to 17 February 1995 to review the on- going activities and decide on future programme of cooperation.

Progress has been made on developing a plan of action in all sectoral areas. These include: work on trade, liberalisation, facilitation and promotion; establishment of an ASEAN-India Trade and Investment Information and Promotion Centre, col- laboration and joint ventures in India, ASEAN and third countries, encouragement of ASEAN investment in highways, power and tele- communication sectors in India; cooperation in preparation of master plan for tourist destination development, exchange of information and technology, joint promotion of tourist destinations in India and ASEAN, development of integrated tourism marketing programme for India in selected ASEAN markets and for ASEAN in selected Indian markets, cooperation between national carriers of ASEAN countries and India, convening of joint workshops of ASEAN and Indian scientists and technologists to identify specific modalities of collaboration in science and technology. Cooperation is to start in the areas of advanced materials, bio-technology and information technology in terms of research and industrial application.

India has offered 12 scholarships in science and technology to ASEAN scientists for research and study in India. An ASEAN-India Business Expert Group comprising two experts from each side has been set up to prepare detailed modalities for a five-year plan of cooperation in trade and investment; the report of this group is to be considered at the AIJSCC.

As part of India's attempts to establish closer economic ties with the fast growing economies of East-Asia and the Pacific region, India has been following with interest, and establishing contacts with, the evolving Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) grouping. The 18- member group of Asia Pacific economies comprise a market of 2 billion people and account for 48% of the world's GNP and 40% of the world trade. APEC economies account for 45% of India's exports, 30% of its imports and 54% of FDI, since January 1994. India's joining the APEC would confer numerous benefits to both sides and it has been the Ministry's effort to put this across to APEC countries.

The APEC's move toward institutionalisation, consolidation and creation of free trade region at the Bogor Summit of 15 November 1994 provides added significance to India's efforts to join the APEC. Although the free trade declaration provides for a two-track approach for developed and developing countries and avers that it would not be an inward looking trade bloc and will give particular attention to its trade with non-APEC devel-

oping economies, Indian interests would need to be taken into account and safeguarded.

India had applied for membership of APEC in September 1991 on the eve of the APEC Ministerial Meeting in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Subsequently India has requested to participate in some of the working groups of APEC. India's request for participation in APEC activities is pending along with those of Russia, Argentina, Peru, Israel, Iran since the APEC Ministerial Meeting at Seattle in November 1993 imposed a moratorium for admission of additional members for three years. A' preliminary proposal on modalities of APEC membership policy and other associated issues is to be presented for consideration in 1995. APEC Senior Officials Meeting has been asked to submit to the 1995 APEC Ministerial Meeting criteria and principles for participation by non-members in APEC working groups. Several APEC economies have conveyed indications of their support for India's membership of APEC when this issue is considered by the group and India will continue to convey her interest in joining APEC and to demonstrate the mutuality of benefit of such a move.

In view of the strategic significance and economic potential of the Indian Ocean region, there have been moves in several Indian Ocean countries for establishment of an Indian Ocean Group for Economic Cooperation. It is felt that creation of such a group will enable the countries of the region to realise the full potential of their cooperation in trade, investment, science and technology, tourism, marine resources and environment and help them in improving their transportation and communication links. The Ministry undertook studies on this concept in cooperation with certain research institutions and soundings were made about views of Indian Ocean countries such as Mauritius, South Africa, Australia, Singapore, Malayasia and Indonesia. Mauritius is planning to hold a meeting of senior officials from a few core Indian Ocean countries to exchange views on various aspects of this concept. The representatives of public and private sectors and academics will also be associated in these discussions. The meeting is to recommend the best possible form of cooperation that can be generated in the region. India has also been invited to participate in this meeting.

In view of the important role of the OECD countries in global economic, financial, trade and environment policy making and their importance as India's major trade and investment partners and role being played by the OECD Secretariat as a research arm on development issues, the Ministry made contacts with the OECD countries and the OECD Secretariat in Paris to establish closer association with the OECD. India's willingness to establish a closer association with the OECD-the developed country think-tank and inter-governmental economic policy deliberation organisation-was conveyed to individual members of OECD as well as the Secretariat and in the context of OECD Ministerial and other senior level meetings.

The Finance Secretary during a visit to Paris on 4 July 1994 gave a detailed presentation to OECD on economic reforms initiated by India. This was followed by a visit by the President of the OECD Development Centre, Joan Bonvin to India during July 1994. A break-through in India's closer association with the OECD was achieved in December 1994 when the OECD Council approved inclusion of India along with Indonesia and China in their OECD Policy Dialogue framework with Dynamic New Major Economies (DNMEs). This would mean that India would be invited to participate in policy workshops that the OECD organises from time to time and provide occasions for regular and thematic interaction. In January 1995, the Ministry sent a fact-finding and familiarisation mission to Paris to confirm India's willingness to be part of OECD's Policy Dialogue.

The Ministry continued to further fine tune, adapt and expand its ECDC and TCDC programmes under the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) programme and the Special Commonwealth African Assistance Programme (SCAAt) for the benefit of developing countries mainly in Africa, Latin America, Caribbean and South East Asia. A demand-led approach as well as sensitivity to new needs in terms of disciplines and areas covered characterised the manner in which the ITEC and SCAAP programmes were implemented with partner countries. There was a greater meshing of the programmes with tangible economic and commercial interests.

Activities under ITEC include training of nominees from partner countries in Indian civilian and defence institutions, execution of projects, extension of consultancy services and undertaking feasibility studies, organising study visits and related TCDC support.

During 1994-95, 875 slots have been allocated for training of foreign nominees in Indian civilian institutions. At present, a total of 65 regular courses are being held in 30 prominent institutions in areas as varied as banking, small scale industries, finance, tool research, etc. Apart from traditional fields like small scale industries, stress is increasingly on high-tech areas, such as computers, maintenance of bio- medical equipment, flow process technology, etc whose growing importance and relevance in terms of India's trade/technology promotion efforts are evident.

Apart from Africa (270 slots have been allocated to countries in Africa in 1994-95), the focus is on countries in Central Asia which were allotted 150 slots. A total of 5 special courses with Russian interpretation facilities in foreign trade, banking, entrepreneurship development, small scale industries and financial management are to be held in 1994-95 for the countries of Central Asia. For the first time, South Africa has been extended coverage under ITEC; 60 civilian training slots have been allocated to nominees from South Africa during 1994-95. Among the countries which are increasingly availing of civilian training slots under ITEC are those from East Europe and the CIS countries.

The Economic Division is also a nodal point for organising military training to nominees from friendly foreign countries in Indian defence institutions. Slots are offered either under ITEC or on a self-financing basis; on an average 250 slots are offered under ITEC and 100 under the Self-financing Scheme. Courses range from the prestigious one at the National Defence College to relatively short-term, technical ones in the Army, Navy and Air Force.

Under the ITEC programme, projects (mostly of a pilot nature) with some financial outlay are executed in partner countries; among other things, such projects serve as demonstration models highlighting India's technology and potential in specific areas. Under execution are Vocational Training Centres in Vietnam and Mongolia, Solar Photovoltaic Plants in Oman and Cuba, a Remote Sensing Centre in Mauritius and a Mobile Eye Clinic in Ghana.

Execution of feasibility studies/extension of consultancy services in partner countries are also undertaken under ITEC. Among other things, such activities also facilitate enhanced economic and commercial interaction between India and the partner country concerned. Among the feasibility studies being undertaken at present are a road rehabilitation project in Mauritius and a Technical Training Institution in Kazakhstan.

Based on specific requests from partner countries, Indian experts are sent on deputation abroad under ITEC to assist, particularly in developmental activities and infrastructure building. At present, there are 34 experts from India deputed (for periods of more than one year) in various countries in areas as varied as agriculture, education, engineering, medicine, taxation, oceanography, etc.

Study visits by delegations consisting of senior officials, mostly of a decision making capacity, from partner countries to India are also organised under ITEC. Apart from providing a first hand exposure of India's capabilities in select areas, in particular, agriculture, agro- industries and small scale industries, such visits also facilitate chalking out concrete areas of cooperation. Around 8 study visits to India, including from Ghana, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Egypt and Yemen, are among those planned for 1994-95.

A major initiative undertaken under Prime Minister's instructions and guidance through the ITEC programme was the elaboration and launching of a programme for cooperation with select African countries for the development of small scale industries (SSI) in these countries. The objective of the SSI programme is the improvement of quality of life of the people of these countries, bulk of whom live in rural areas and creation of new job opportunities in both rural and urban areas. Important aspects of SSI Programme include effective mobilisation and utilisation of resources, creation of grass-root entrepreneurs, regional dispersal of industrial development, conservation and generation of foreign exchange and creation of complementarities in rural industrialisation. The Plan sets out legislative and institutional arrangements to be put in place in the target countries along with a detailed programming strategy and financing package.

The action proposed for India seeks to ensure success and viability of the programme through the following:

(i) Concentration on select group of countries, i e ', three members of the G-15, Nigeria, Senegal and Zimbabwe, and a few others which today have policies that encourage the involvement of the private sector- Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Ghana and Ethopia;

(ii) Information gathering on all aspects of the existing infrastructure and policy in target countries;

(iii) Preparation of feasibility studies to clearly establish areas that
need to be covered;

(iv) Assistance in the setting up of Entrepreneurship Development Centres, multi-purpose technical and vocational training centres and common facilities centres;

(v) Assistance in the establishment of ancillary units and/or consumer goods units;

(vi) Assistance in the establishment of training programmes of managers, entrepreneurs, skilled workers and marketing system; and

(vii) help in the establishment of services support system.

Government of India would offer to finance aspects of the actual implementation of the specific programmes under ITEC. The emphasis of such financing would be on promoting private entrepreneur-led industrialisation thus ensuring the viability of the entire SSI programme. An inter-ministerial committee headed by Secretary in the Prime Minister's Office is to oversee the progress in the implementation of the programme. A special programme for SSI-related cooperation with South Africa is separately being developed in order to put India's economic cooperation with that country on a new substantive footing with a view to contributing to the development of post-apartheid South Africa.

The SCAAP programme is aimed at providing technical assistance by India to 15 African countries which are ex-colonies of UK. Activities under SCAAP are directed at extension of training to nominees from these countries in Indian institutes. In 1994-95, a total of 475 slots to nominees from the SCAAP region-mainly from Ghana, Nigeria, Mauritius, Tanzania and Zambia-were allocated under SCAAP.

Apart from ITEC, SCAAP, etc, a new dimension was attempted to be given to India's policy of South-South Cooperation through the Special Volunteers Programme (SVP). The SVP envisages the sending of special volunteers to developing countries in Africa and Asia to assist them in their development programmes. Ten countries in Asia and Africa were identified as target countries initially and Indian Missions abroad were requested to assess the response of these countries to the SVP. Based on careful analysis of these responses, the Committee on SVP discussed the revision of target countries in Asia and Africa and their expansion to include Central Asian Republics. It was also decided that the areas in which the volunteers could be sent to assist the developing countries could be left to the choice of the receiving countries. Indian Missions in the revised list of target countries have been requested to obtain the response of the countries of their accreditation to the SVP.

During 1994-95, India continued to extend disaster relief assistance to countries afflicted with calamities like earthquake, flood, epidemics, etc. Among the countries for which disaster relief assistance has been/is being extended include Armenia, Tanzania, Mozambique, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Rwanda, Somalia, Madagascar, Djibouti, etc. Mauritius, for example, was extended relief assistance when it was affected by a cyclone in 1994. Such humanitarian gestures strike a positive chord amongst the people of these countries and create goodwill for India.



11. Trade and Investment Promotion
Historic and fundamental changes have taken place over the last few years in the world economic, political and strategic situation. In the economic sphere, one of the most important forces shaping current developments today is the emergence of a truly global economy. India's economic reform programme reflects her response to the changes sweeping across the world and her determination to build an economy that is internationally competitive and integrated into the global economy. In recognition of this fact and the fact that the economic dimension of state power is becoming increasingly important in determining the nature of international relations, the Ministry has been attaching increasing importance to the economic content of India's foreign policy. In the year under review, the Ministry continued to accord high priority to the promotion of India's economic and commercial interests. In close liaison with the concerned economic Ministries, the Ministry was actively involved, both directly and through Indian Missions and Posts abroad, in projecting India's economic potential and capacity with the objective of promoting trade, technology and investment flows and intensifying linkages with the global economy.

The Ministry of External Affairs is following a multi-pronged strategy in promoting India's economic and commercial interests. In the first instance, close attention is given to the economic and commercial aspects by all its territorial Divi- sions at Headquarters in the development of bilateral relations. This is done by way of monitoring economic and commercial developments, servicing Joint Commissions, participation in bilateral consultations on economic and commercial issues both at governmental and non-governmental level, and assistance to the formulation of bilateral agreements and treaties on economic and commercial matters. In addition to this, there are specialised Economic Units/Divisions coordinating with the territorial Divisions as well as all the other Ministries involved in trade and investment promotion. The Economic Coordination Unit (ECU) is the nodal unit for coordinating investment promotion activities with economic Ministries, India's Missions and Posts abroad and associations of trade and industry. The trade promotion arm of the Economic Division plays a similar role on the trade promotion side.

In pursuance of the decision by Government of India to entrust the work relating to investment and trade promotion abroad to Indian Missions and Posts, an officer has been designated in each Mission abroad to handle such work. Missions have built up a wide network of contacts with local industry associations, business leaders, economic journalists and other opinion makers in order to keep them apprised of the Government's new economic policies, their progressive evolution and the business opportunities therein. In addition to economic bulletins, press releases and newsletters, several Missions are using computer networks, data- bases and electronic media to disseminate this information.

Missions and Posts have been organising investment promotion seminars on a regular basis, especially in important business centres in Europe, Japan, South-East Asia, USA and the Gulf. Speakers at such seminars have included Ministers/senior Government officials, representatives of Reserve Bank of India and leading financial institutions, management consultants, tax experts and captains of Indian industry. Among countries that received special attention in 1994-95 were Japan, Germany, Singapore, Thailand, Australia, Italy and USA. The Indo-British Partnership Initiative, involving close co-operation between the two Governments as well as trade and industry in the two countries, was extended for a second year with the objective of further publicising and

promoting opportunities for collaboration between the two countries.
In collaboration with concerned Ministries and industry associations, the special emphasis placed on a sector-specific approach was continued, with special attention being paid to the economic strengths and complementarities of the various "target" areas vis-a-vis the Indian economy. Indeed, close coordination with Chambers of Commerce and co- opting the private sector in such efforts, formed a key component of the
Ministry's investment promotion exercise.

On the trade front, sectoral and fact finding delegations were encouraged and facilitated to explore and develop new target markets like those of South Africa, Israel, CIS countries and South East and East Asia. Individual exporters are assisted as well in their search for information on markets.

The Ministry of External Affairs is an active participant in inter- Ministerial meetings to promote India's exports, including project exports to new markets. The Ministry is represented in the Inter- Ministerial Committee (IMC) chaired by the Ministry of Commerce to approve overseas investments. The recommendations of Missions/Posts regarding Indian joint ventures abroad form a vital part of the decisions taken in IMC meetings. They are also important inputs in formulation of strategies for increasing India's project exports by the Committee of the Overseas Construction Council of India (OCCI), of which Ministry of External Affairs is a member. Indian Missions and Posts have succeeded in securing several important projects for Indian companies in countries like Lebanon, Nigeria, Tanzania, Vietnam, etc. The Ministry is also actively represented on the High-Level Committee for exports and has contributed constructively to policies formulated for promoting exports to target countries and meeting the needs of small and medium exporters.

Back-up Support to Missions and Posts
The Ministry of External Affairs provides comprehensive back-up support to its Missions and Posts for doing economic and commercial work. It liaises closely with Missions and Posts on the various promotional measures that need to be undertaken, and in providing full support to these initiatives. These efforts are especially focussed on those countries where the potential for increasing trade and investment flows is the highest.

Each of the Ministry's 14 9 Missions/Posts abroad has arrangement-s for doing economic and commercial work. These arrangements have been progressively strengthened: priority has been given to providing Economic and Commercial Wings with the necessary infrastructure and back-up support to aid them in the efficient execution of their responsibilities. Officers posted to Missions undergo intensive training; refresher courses are also arranged periodically at the level of Commercial Representatives as well as Heads of Mission.

Given the various economic policy changes that have taken place, especially after the economic reforms, The Manual of Instructions to Commercial Representatives (CRs) abroad, which was last prepared in 1967 was updated in April 1994 to cover the vast range of duties that a CR is expected to perform in the present liberalised economic environment. While work on the revision of the Manual was undertaken by a Committee set up by Ministry of Commerce, crucial inputs were provided by Commercial Representatives in Missions and Posts abroad. ECU assisted in the areas relating to investment promotion.

In order to ensure that the information database available in the Economic and Commercial wings of Missions and Posts is up-to-date, floppy diskettes containing information on the Indian economy, compilations of export and trade directories, handbooks of industrial statistics, etc are regularly supplied to them by Ministry of External Affairs. Missions and Posts are being kept regularly informed about important changes in economic policies and procedures so that they, in turn, can keep business, industry and other sections of targeted audiences in host countries suitably informed. The Ministry of External Affairs also sends a weekly summary to Missions of important economic events in collaboration with PTI.

Special despatches and market surveys received from Missions/Posts are summarised and disseminated among apex chambers of commerce and industry and concerned export promotion councils. Tender notices received from Missions abroad are promptly circulated among concerned Indian agencies.

The Ministry of External Affairs also provides Missions and Posts full back-up support in terms of expediting 'responses to specific queries arising out of business contacts and obtaining information from concerned economic Ministries and Chambers of Commerce in India. In addition, it coordinates programmes for visiting business delegations from foreign countries. High-level visits are utilised to arrange direct contacts between Chief Executive Officers of important foreign companies and decision makers in Government of India, both in the host countries as well as in India.

Trade facilitation functions of the Ministry also include attention to commercial disputes: Missions/Posts abroad, chambers of commerce and Indian companies are assisted in attempts to settle commercial disputes by closely pursuing these with concerned agencies.
External Economic Publicity
Wide publicity was given to international fairs organised in India like IITF'94, International Seminar on Mineral and Mineral-based Industries in ESCAP Region'94, MANTECH'95, IETF'95, AGROEXPO'95, Gifts and Handicrafts Fair'95 and 22nd World Marketing and Management Congress'95. Brochures and other information pertaining to these Fairs were despatched to all Missions/Posts which were actively involved in obtaining participation from foreign companies and Government agencies. The Ministry was actively represented in the Committees and inter- Ministerial meetings coordinating these Fairs. Important international fairs abroad were also publicised and brought to the attention of apex chambers, industry. associations and exporters, and advice and assistance regarding Indian participation in these fairs extended to concerned Ministries/agencies.

Special efforts were made in co-ordination with the External Publicity Division to reach out to business journalists in foreign countries by arranging their visits to India in order to enable them to see at first hand the changes in the business environment and report on it in the local media of their own countries.

With a view to making a more effective projectioneof India's new economic policies, ECU invited leading advertisement agencies in the country to submit concepts and make detailed presentations on the subject. After a detailed examination of the various concepts presented, the Ministry of External Affairs in coordination with the Ministries of Finance, Commerce and Industry selected an approach that most closely fitted the ideas which needed to be conveyed. The messages were released in Singaporean newspapers on the occasion of Prime Minister's visit in September 1994 and followed up in regional publications and other magazines.

A 12-page flier presenting the salient features of India's economic reforms introduced by India and her various advantages as a country to invest in was produced by ECU and used first during Prime Minister's visit to the United States in May 1994.

In November 1994, ECU published 10,000 copies of a set of six brochures, "India Means Business" for distribution through Indian Missions and Posts abroad. In addition to information on the economic profile of the Indian economy, these brochures contain useful information on trade, investment ' the financial sector, the size of the market and opportunities in specific sectors.

ECU also published 20,000 copies of a composite brochure entitled "India-Business Perspectives" in collaboration with a professional management consultant, containing up-to-date information on the regulatory environment, incentives for foreign investment, banking and finance, the Indian Tax System, Company Law and Accounting.

Information on the Indian economy and the business environment is also being made available on floppy diskette, with ECU linking up with the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), one of India's premier economic research organisations. The material will be constantly updated by means of a quarterly revision of the contents.
Two slide packages have been prepared in collaboration with CII and ASSOCHAM to assist Missions in projecting the new economic policies. To supplement this material in industrialised countries, a special computer aided visual package has been prepared in collaboration with the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India , (ICICI).

All this material has been produced with a view to distributing it to targeted audiences of foreign businessmen through Indian Missions and Posts abroad, economic Ministries and apex Chambers of Commerce. They incorporate inputs received from virtually every single Ministry in the Government of India involved in the investment and trade promotion exercise.
Important Trade and Investment Promotion Events
The occasions of the Prime Minister's visits to the UK, Russia, USA, Vietnam and Singapore, as well as visits by Ministers and prominent economic personalities were utilised to highlight the opportunities for economic collaborations and business tie-ups and all assistance rendered with regard to the business components of such visits. For instance, in the course of the Prime Minister's visit to Singapore in September 1994, a total of 12 agreements were signed between Indian and Singaporean companies in diverse fields including aquaculture, food processing, banking, commercial office complexes, EDI services, LPG terminals, mini- townships, shipbreaking, third country trading and warehousing. The agreements gave Indian companies access to state-of-the-art technology from Singapore with buy-back arrangements in certain cases. Some projects also involved collaboration in third countries.

Among the more important events coordinated for visiting economic delegation by ECU were the visits of the Yamashita

Economic Mission despatched by the Government of Japan in March 1994; the Korean Economic Mission in May 1994 and the Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC) delegation in August 1994.

The Yamashita Mission was the second economic mission sent to India by the Government of Japan after the launch of India's liberalisation programme and was a follow-up to the visit of the Ishikawa Mission in January 1992. The main purpose of the Mission was to arrive at ways and means by which trade and investment between India and Japan could, be stepped up.

A Korean delegation was sent by the Government of Republic of Korea in follow-up to a proposal made during Prime Minister's visit there in September 1993. The delegation consisted of representatives from Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, Construction, Trade, Industry and Energy. There were also representatives from Korea's Economic Planning Board and the Korea Development Institute.

The Hong Kong Business Mission was jointly sponsored by the Hong Kong Trade Development Council (HKTDC) and the Hong Kong Indian Chamber of Commerce and consisted of leading Hong Kong businessmen, both Chinese as well as Indians.

The Ministry arranged substantive interactions for all these delegations with senior Ministers and officials in concerned Ministries as well as representatives of Indian trade and industry. The visits resulted in a positive appreciation by these delegations of the progress achieved by India on the economic front and optimistic prognostications for heightened interest by their trade and industry in the opportunities that India has to offer.

In addition to these Missions, high-level interactions with panels of Secretaries to Government of India were arranged by the Ministry for several other visiting economic delegations as well, especially those accompanying foreign dignitaries. Such interactions were organised, inter alia, for delegations from Germany, France, Kuwait and Republic of

Korea. Other foreign business delegations visiting India, whose interactions with apex chambers were facilitated, were from Kuwait, Vietnam, Russia, Uzbekistan, Slovakia, South Africa, Israel, Thailand, Indonesia, Uganda and Iraq.

The Ministry was also closely involved in various investment promotion seminars organised in India by other Ministries as well as apex chambers and other economic organisations. Prominent among these were INVESMART organised in April 1994 by Ministry of Industry in collaboration with UNIDO. What made INVESMART different from other investment fora organised in the past was the fact that the entire forum was focussed on promoting 250 specific projects identified in six specific sectors by Ministry of Industry. Indian Missions and Posts were actively involved in promoting INVESMART and ensuring good participation from countries such as France, Italy, UK, USA and Singapore. The success of the forum can be gauged by the fact that about 70 Letters of Intent relating to the identified projects were signed' in the course of INVESMART between Indian entrepreneurs and foreign collaborators.

Another important initiative was the "Seminar on Trade and Investment Opportunities in Uganda" which was held in Bombay in September 1994. The Ministry, through the Bank of Baroda, organised the one-day seminar in Bombay which was inaugurated by the President of Uganda. Prior to the seminar, on the request of the Ugandan Investment Authority, the Ministry also sent an expert from FICCI under the ITEC programme to Kampala to assist the Ugandan authorities in the logistics of the seminar.


12. Policy Planning and Research
The Ministry of External Affairs accorded high priority to work related to Policy Planning. The Policy Planning and Research Division accordingly was revitalised and the Division prepared numerous papers on a wide range of subjects relevant to the formulation of India's foreign policy. The papers consisted of immediate reaction to unfolding international events as well as policy notes on issues of medium and long term interest. They contributed to discussion and decision making on the issues concerned.

The Division extended partial financial assistance to institutions in different parts of India conducting seminars and conferences on international issues of relevance to India's foreign policy. During the period under review, assistance was extended to seminars/ conferences on various subjects including aspects of India's foreign policy, Pahchsheel, 50th Anniversary of UN, Afghanistan, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Latin America, South Asian region, human rights, South East Asia, China, Africa, etc. It also extended financial support to academic institutions and scholars to enable them to conduct studies and research on subjects relevant to this Ministry.

One important task of the Division is to edit and publish the Annual Report of the Ministry on the basis of the material received from the various Divisions in the Ministry.

The Division rendered assistance to the territorial Divisions and the Indian Missions abroad on issues relating to India's international boundary or whenever any specific information or documents on international relations were required.

Whenever international boundaries of India were incorrectly depicted in maps printed in foreign publications (both official and private), the Policy Planning and Research Division scrutinised them and evaluated the extent of the error and the implications thereof in consultation with the concerned territorial Divisions. The incorrect depictions and the correct positions were pointed out and conveyed to the publishers through Indian Missions to enable them to take necessary corrective measures.

The Division also coordinated the Ministry's approval of new maps brought out by the Survey of India depicting international boundaries of India. It also processed requests of various Government or semi- Government agencies for supply of restricted map-sheets required for use in their official work in consultation with the Survey of India and the Ministry of Defence.

The Division handled the requests from research scholars for access to the closed records of the Ministry in the National Archives of India relating to the restricted areas as per the Access Rules in consultation with the territorial Divisions concerned. It also scrutinised excerpts of the closed period records taken by research scholars for clearance in consultation with the concerned territorial Divisions.

The Division undertook review/weeding of old files referred to it by the Record Management Section of the Ministry and the Indian Missions abroad. It also reviewed old records of the Ministry which were transferred to the National Archives of India.

The Division coordinated the distribution of periodical reports received from Indian Missions abroad.

To support the research efforts, a library equipped with modern facilities and large resource material is maintained

with over one hundred thousand books and documents in its collection. The Library subscribes to 600 periodical titles.

The Library is equipped with in-house computer system with 12 terminals two of which support data entry and retrieval in Indian languages; a CD- ROM Drive and CD-ROM databases on foreign affairs and current affairs; a microfilm/fiche reader printer; a plain paper photocopier and a VTR and colour monitor. A Laser Printer with DTP software is also available and is being utilised for producing documents of the Division.

Documentation/Bibliographic Services as well as other library operations and services were computerised using an integrated software package developed in India. Information about books and selected periodical articles received in the Library since 1986 is available on-line through each terminal. All new documents received in the Library-books, maps, microforms, selected articles from periodicals, etc-are being fed into the in-house computer system to create Database on Foreign Affairs. Using this Database and CD-ROM Databases, the Library provides Current Awareness Service as well as Bibliographical and Reference Services. In addition, the Library regularly issues a monthly Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin and an annotated monthly list of Recent Additions to the Library.

Library users including research scholars have access to on-line computer-based information held in the Library in different Databases, including CD-ROM Databases, through Foreign Affairs Information Retrieval System (FAIRS). Photocopying and Computer Print-out facilities are also available to all Library users including research scholars.

The Division has, during 1994-95, continued with the work of publishing India's bilateral treaties and agreements. While three volumes covering the period from August 1947 to December 1960 were published in January 1994, in the current year three more volumes covering treaties and agreements signed by India during the period January 1961 to December 1970 have been published. These volumes of India's bilateral

treaties/agreements serve as useful reference material and have been greatly appreciated by scholars of international relations.


13. External Publicity
Fundamentally, external publicity is the pursuit of foreign policy objectives by the purposeful presentation of news and views through the mass media with a view to preparing public opinion in a manner in which diplomatic objectives are favourably received. It is the task of the External Publicity Division (XP Division) to disseminate news about developments pertaining to India's external affairs within India, to project India and her views and concerns on national and international issues externally, and to acquaint people abroad about developments in India in the political, economic, social and cultural spheres with particular reference to issues which have a bearing on India's external relations and foreign policy. Information projection is therefore. a vital tool in the implementation of foreign policy.

External publicity consists of both long-term image-building as well as current or topical publicity. Image-building is concerned with the projection abroad of a consistent and coherent image of India designed to enlarge the area of positive perception of India and build up a greater awareness of, and understanding for India and her values and policies. Longterm publicity priorities focus largely on areas of perennial interest, and unique, and/or enduring features of India such as her luminous history, her rich civilisation, her ethnic, linguistic and cultural variety, her diverse and profound religious and philosophical traditions, her democratic and secu-

lar political culture and institutions, her pluralistic, tolerant and accommodative social ethos, her wide experience in nation building and her impressive economic and technological achievements.

The function of current publicity is to explain and interpret India's foreign policy objectives and actions and gain acceptance and support for them. It seeks to ensure the positive reportage of topical matters concerning India and highlight areas where India enjoys a certain 'comparative advantage'. Of late, this has meant an intensification of publicity of India's new economic environment and policies. But current publicity also includes an element of countering negative or adverse publicity either due to lack of information or motivated disinformation and propaganda, or due to differing perceptions, interpretations and misunderstanding of certain developments. Bearing in mind the reality of a market place of information, however imperfect, and the principle of freedom of opinion and information intrinsic to India's democratic system, it has been the endeavour of the External Publicity Division to counter unfair and biased reportage by transparency, and to project a balanced perspective through the mainstream media and other opinion- making channels so that negative developments are seen in perspective, and influences and initiatives contrary to India's interests are not allowed to prosper.

The Division performs five principal functions. Firstly, it sets the policy framework, and guides and supervises the functioning of the information and publicity wings of all Indian Missions and Posts abroad now numbering 149.

Secondly, in its key function as the office of the official spokesman of the Government of India on all matters pertaining to India's external affairs, it strives to orient the domestic and international media on India's external affairs perspectives and on topical issues through regular briefings, public relations efforts, interviews with key government and non-government figures, etc.

Thirdly, the Division performs a broad information 'supply' or 'service' function for Indian Missions abroad to enable them to discharge their press, information and publicity duties more effectively. Material is supplied in print as well as audiovisual formats covering news and features and encapsulating topical as well as perennial issues and subjects. While some material is produced or commissioned by the Division, most of it is acquired or adapted from other sources, governmental as well as non-governmental. The Division has a particularly close working relationship with the information bodies attached to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting such as Doordarshan, All India Radio, Directorate of Film Festivals, Photo Division, Press Information Bureau Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity and others on whom it is dependent to a considerable extent for its information material and services.

Its news dissemination function includes press releases and statements issued by the spokesman, news bulletins sent out to the majority of India's Missions and Posts abroad on a twice-daily basis, and a limited newspaper clipping service on external affairs coverage from the national media for the senior-most levels of the Ministry and for Indian Missions abroad. Over 400 press releases/statements were issued by the Division this year which are being compiled and brought out for information and record purposes on a quarterly basis. Another compilation of visits, agreements and other significant diplomatic developments, the 'Foreign Affairs Record' is being brought out on a monthly basis.

With regard to features and other information material, the Division commissioned or procured articles, publications, feature films and documentaries on film and video, transparencies, photographs, floppies and other publicity material for distribution to Missions and Posts on a regular basis and on special commemorative occasions such as Independence Day 1994, the 125th birth anniversary celebrations of Mahatma Gandhi, and Republic Day 1995. Twenty-nine new documentary programmes, six of them in 16mm/35mm film format also, were acquired from government and independent sources and distributed to Missions. Some of these have been telecast on foreign television networks through Indian Missions. Over 40 Missions arranged telecasts on the occasion of Indecent- dence Day 1994. Some 20 Indian Missions brought out special supplements in local newspapers on the occasion also. Four fresh TV programmes were offered to Missions for use on Republic Day 1995. Thirty-seven new book titles, 4 new magazines, and over 500 new transparencies on various aspects of India especially the economy, were also acquired and distributed to Missions and Posts abroad.

A special effort was undertaken to help Missions observe the 125th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. Vithalbhai Jhaveri's classic 13-reel documentary on the Mahatma was acquired in film and video form and circulated to Missions. Several sets of photographic exhibition on Gandhiji consisting of 50 historic photographs are being circulated to Missions to commemorate the anniversary during the course of the year. Books, photographs and other Gandhi souvenirs have also been made available to Missions for the occasion. Several Missions have held special functions including seminars, many attended by local dignitaries, brought out special supplements in local newspapers and/or arranged telecasts of films on Gandhiji to mark the occasion. An exhibition on Pandit Nehru was also organised in Colombo.

On the production side, the Division completed a previously commissioned film on the doyen of Indian classical music, Pandit Mallikarjun Mansur, a video film on Sufi traditions in India and their linkages with Central Asia, a video programme on the progress of India's economic reforms over the last year and two video programmes on the status of women in India. Spanish and Arabic versions of an earlier video programme entitled, 'India-Continuity in Change' were also brought out. Documentaries in film and video previously produced by the Division also received wide circulation and exposure.

As regards new publications, the Division brought out a second volume of 'Muslims in India' in continuation of its previous highly successful publication on the same subject with a view to highlighting the contribution of Indian Muslims in various facets of national life. A French version of this book is under preparation. Speeches delivered by Prime Minister during his visits to the USA, Russia and Singapore have also been printed and distributed to Missions. Compilations of speeches by Prime Minister on foreign policy since 1991 are also under production. A booklet entitled, 'The Kashmir Story', and a reprint of an earlier publication, 'Pakistan: Abetting Terrorism in Kashmir' were also produced to counter motivated disinformation and propaganda in Kashmir, rebut specific false allegations by presentation of correct information, and to put the overall situation in Kashmir in a proper perspective. A reprint of 'India-Continuity in Change' and a Turkish edition of the same are also under production. Similarly, the Division is also printing the 'Vienna Convention on Human Rights' in Hindi for distribution within the country in order to increase awareness of the contents of this important convention amongst citizens of India. The demand for the Ministry's flagship publication, 'India Perspectives', now printed in 10 languages continues to grow. Fifty thousand copies of this monthly magazine containing a lively mix of articles on all facets of life in India accompanied by illustrations and photographs are distributed through Indian Missions abroad.

As part of its entertainment and cultural publicity work, the Division helped organise the presentation of over 100 Indian feature films drawn from the XP Division, the Directorate of Film Festivals and the National Centre for Children's Films at over 30 films events/ festivals organised by and through Indian Missions abroad. The Division also assisted in the organisation of the 1995 India International Film Festival and the Bombay International Documentary Film Festival held in Bombay. As part of its ongoing programme of developing a comprehensive library of Indian film classics covering popular, mainstream and art cinema, the Division also acquired four feature films by the legendary director, Ritwik Ghatak. For the first time, subtitled VHS copies of films of Shyam Benegal and Guru Dutt not officially released in cassette form were negotiated with producers /distributors and distributed to Missions. It also helped facilitate the telecast in select countries abroad of popular Indian TV serials. Further, the Division assisted Missions in processing their requirements of satellite dish antennae, video projectors, TVs and VCRs, and other equipment necessary for effective information work, through the Ministry.

The Division's fourth major function is to monitor, with the help of the information wings of Indian Missions abroad, international media coverage on India and issues of special interest to India so as to be better able to respond to recognisable trends and distortions and take suitable corrective action. Of special importance in this connection were the international perceptions and reportage on the progress of India's economic reform programme, developments relating to India's neighbourhood, human rights and the plague in 1994.

Lastly, the Division undertakes an active public relations programme for the resident as well as visiting foreign media, and organises the media component of India's VVIP visits abroad, and of foreign VVIPs visiting India. As part of the ongoing programme of inviting foreign journalists to acquaint themselves first-hand with India, XP Division hosted 40 journalists from nearly 30 countries during the year mainly from economically advanced countries, the Islamic world, and India's neighbours. Journalists from Germany, Japan, France, Italy, Spain, Greece, Sudan, Bangladesh and China were amongst those covered under this programme. The Division also rendered assistance to over 30 other foreign journalists from different parts of the world visiting India on their own. These visits succeeded to a considerable degree in generating goodwill and promoting a more balanced picture of India abroad.

As the nodal agency responsible for media arrangements during visits of Heads of State and Government XP Division facilitated coverage of events in India by media teams who accompanied the President of Mongolia, the President of Poland, the President of Uzbekistan, the President of Argentina, the Prime Minister of Slovak Republic, the President of Burkina Faso, the President of Togo, the Prime Minister of Russia, the Prime Minister of Singapore ( to Calcutta ), the President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela ( on the occasion of Republic Day, 1995 ) and the President of Turkey to India during the year. It also arranged media coverage for the incoming visits of the UN Secretary General, and the Vice President of Suriname, and for visiting Foreign Ministers and important dignitaries from several other countries. XP Divi- sion also looks after media arrangements for VVIP visits abroad such as those relating to the visits of the President to Romania and Bulgaria, the Vice President to Australia, South Africa and China, and the Prime Minister to USA, Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam. Besides this, assistance was rendered to Indian Journalists going abroad on specific assignments. The Division also facilitated media coverage for journalists covering the G-15 and Education for All summits in 1994.

XP Division also serves as a facilitation centre for foreign journalists based in, or visiting India. It assists Ahem in getting accreditation as journalists, and facilitating their visas and their extension. News organisations such as AP Television, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, AP Dow-Jones Services, etc opened new India-Bureaus. The Division also liaises with other Government Ministries and Departments to process and facilitate proposals for the making of documentary programmes by foreign producers in India. Approximately 125 such proposals were cleared during the year.

Changes in the international media scene have required corresponding changes in publicity apparatus, strategy and techniques. The world-wide information revolution has resulted in much faster communication and news reportage than ever before. It has become necessary for the Ministry to be linked with Missions as speedily as possible. Information retrieval within India, especially in crisis situations, has to keep pace with the swiftness of international news dissemination so that authentic and authoritative information is obtained and projected immediately. The reaction time of administrators and policy makers to unexpected developments has been greatly curtailed. To meet this challenge the External Publicity Division is gearing up its communications technology by moving to an integrated use of communication by fax and computers as a first step, and eventually to link all Indian Missions by E-mail and other advanced computer-related information technologies.

New media technologies and channels have also emerged. New means of mass communication such as satellite and cable television, E-mail, CD-ROMs and interactive. video, information highways and computerised data banks and data pro-

cessing, and digital imaging and recording have supplemented traditional mass media such as print media, radio, terrestrial television and film. The mushrooming of communication and broadcasting satellites, and the combination of media, information and communication technologies are eroding the power of states to regulate the flow of news, information and reportage. It is recognised that publicity efforts should exploit the positive potential of established as well as emerging media technologies and channels of information, as each medium has its own segment, characteristics, appeal and impact. The territorial reach and penetration of phenomena like satellite, community and cable TV and computer-linked E-mail networks need to be tapped.

New publicity and public relations strategies are also being adopted in an effort to keep pace with the changing scenario. Newspaper and magazine space is being used more effectively through support for supplements brought out in foreign periodicals, and through professionally crafted advertisement campaigns placed in prominent international newspapers and periodicals. A new campaign promoting India as an economic and business destination finalised in association with the Economic Coordination Unit was launched formally during the visit of the Indian Prime Minister to Singapore in September 1994, with advertisements in two of Singapore's leading newspapers and the Far Eastern Economic Review. These advertisements were also published in a special supplement on India brought out by the 'Forbes' of USA and in the European Edition of 'Newsweek'. The latter will be provided to Indian Missions for local distribution and dissemination. The material prepared for the Ministry of External Affairs was also utilised by the Ministry of Finance in a special supplement on India in the 'Business Week' of October 1994. Further, in line with the practice there, professional lobbyists have been employed in USA to promote Indian interests in policy-making circles. The Division also notes with appreciation the independent efforts of Non-Resident Indians in USA, Canada and Europe to project information and lobby the 'Indian' viewpoint on crucial issues through the Email Internet network.

The nature and volume of media coverage of India has changed significantly in recent times. While areas of adverse publicity remain and are often occasioned or triggered by domestic events and developments, the area of positive publicity has vastly improved. Politically, the end of the Cold War and the progress in India's dialogue with world powers, hand in hand with economic policies facilitating India's greater participation in the global market, have helped overcome political and psychological barriers of the past and yielded an image of India as a more receptive economic, political and strategic interlocutor. In terms of domestic policies, an increasing acceptance of India as a genuine functioning democracy has been accompanied by an appreciation of India's ability to contain and weather formidable domestic challenges. Economically, the liberalisation programme 'has been the single greatest factor behind the interest in India shown by the international media. Though some reservations persist, the reaction to the reforms have ranged from cautious optimism to outright enthusiasm. The liberalisation measures have been seen as releasing hitherto suppressed economic and entrepreneurial energies, and placed India amongst a select group of attractive investment destinations and emerging markets. More than any other factor, these policies, and the dynamic response of Indian business and industry to the more competitive environment opened by it, have made a significant dent on India's image as a casestudy in bureaucratic red-tape and under- development, and introduced new images of India, such as those inspired by India's software industry, as a potential centre of economic energy and innovation. Culturally, contemporary trends in Indian writing, art, dance, music and other art forms are drawing attention to India's cultural resilience and establishing India as a force to reckon with in the global cultural arena.

India's response to negative reports and perceptions on Jammu and Kashmir has been to remind the world about the correct historical background leading to the unambiguous legal accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India, the circumstances leading to the UN Resolutions on Jammu and Kashmir, the reaffirmation and endorsement of this option by the

people and political parties of Jammu and Kashmir through successive elections held under the Indian Constitution and by the Constituent Assembly, the non-fulfilment by Pakistan of crucial requirements under the UN Resolutions resulting in its non-implementation and obsolescence, and the supersession of the UN Resolutions with the signing of the Simla Agreement enshrining a solemn commitment by India and Pakistan to sort out all problems bilaterally.


14. Protocol
During the year 1994, Heads of Diplomatic Missions of the following thirty-one countries presented their credentials to the President of India:-

1 Venezuela
2 Democratic People's Republic of Korea
3 Bhutan
4 Philippines
5 Sweden
6 Mongolia
7 Argentina
8 Australia
9 Republic of Korea
10 Thailand
11 Iraq
12 Vietnam
13 Mauritius
14 Ghana
15 Lebanon
16 Slovak Republic
17 USA
18 Brunei Darussalam
19 Sri Lanka
20 Denmark
21 Saudi Arabia

22 Uzbekistan
23 Canada
24 Czech Republic
25 Sultanate of Oman
26 Netherlands
27 Algeria
28 Afghanistan
29 Kenya
30 China
31 Norway

During the same period, Heads of Diplomatic Missions of the following seventeen countries left India on completion of their assignment:-

I Republic of Korea
2 Vietnam
3 Algeria
4 Uganda
5 Kenya
6 Sri Lanka
7 Sultanate of Oman
8 Canada
9 Denmark
10 Kazakhstan
11 Netherlands
12 Nepal
13 Panama
14 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
15 China
16 Norway
17 Zimbabwe

During 1994, there were 56 visits by VVIPs to India at the level of Head of State/Government, Vice President and Foreign Minister and other distinguished visitors. Details are at Appendix XV.

During the same period, there were 7 outgoing visits by the President, the Vice President and the Prime Minister of India as per details at Appendix XVI.

The Protocol Division of the Ministry has a Conference Cell which is responsible for organising international conferences. A list of Conferences/Meetings organised by the Cell is given at Appendix XVII. The Cell also extends all possible logistical support and consultancy services to other Ministries/Departments of the Government of India. The Conference Cell assisted XP Division in organising Press Conferences for dignitaries such as the Russian Prime Minister, Sri Lankan Foreign Minister, etc.


15. Passport and Consular Services and Indians Overseas
The main focus during 1994 was reduction in backlog and time taken for issue of a passport; systems review; and computerisation.

The Ministry's objective is to put into operation a system whereby passports are issued within a reasonable time period and procedures streamlined to provide quick and efficient service to the public. The decline in pendency during the year has been sharp and is indicative of the efficacy of the efforts made by the Ministry and the Passport Offices.

Pendency in issue of passports stood at 5,32,738 on 31 December 1993 and applications pending over one month were 3,43,215. At the end of December 1994, total pendency has come down to 2.8 lakhs and pendency over one month is only 1.4 lakhs. Pendency over one month indicates the real backlog with the Passport Office.

The Passport Offices issued 20,11,404 passports during 1994 (January- December). Miscellaneous services like renewals, change of names, inclusion of child's name, emigration clearance not required (ECNR) stamp, amounted in 1994 to

10,14,662 which is almost 50% of the issue of fresh passports. Detailed input and output figures are at Appendix VI.

A Passport Office was opened in Jammu on 31st March 1994. A colection centre is operating in Srinagar. A colection centre will be opened at Mangalore.

Following measures for further systematisation and streamlining of procedures were undertaken:

(i) Requirement of Police verification/Verification Certificate is dispensed with for 10-year renewal of passports. In cases where renewal is sought at an office other than the office of original issue, renewal is to be provided in thirty days from the date a reference was made to the original office, even if confirmation is not received within this period.

(ii) A system of inspection, visits and personal follow-up have helped tone up the passport offices and ensure they are more responsive to public needs.

(iii) To deal with the large number of complaints and grievances from the public, a senior officer in Consular, Passport and Visa (CPV) Division meets the public to hear their grievances and complaints with a view to seeking speedy redressal. The effort is to try and resolve the complaints within a month. Similarly, all Passport Offices have designated officials to meet the public in an attempt to provide redressal to the problems of the public.

(iv) Computerisation of Passport Offices has been speeded up. Apart from Delhi, Bombay and Bangalore, Passport Offices in Cochin, Goa, Kozhikode, Madras, Tiruchy and Trivandrum will be computerised by the end of the current financial year. During 1995, the remaining Passport Offices are proposed to be computerised. Computerisation has led to a decrease in the time taken for issue of a passport and retrieval of information regarding pending applications. Computerisation of all Passport Offices would result in speedier clearance of cases requiring prior authorisation from another Passport Office.Machine writing of passports is also under examination in consultation with NIC. This would eliminate inaccuracies in the writing of passports and also reduce the time taken for issue of a passport.

(v) Passports are issued on priority provided, applicants furnish documentary proof of urgency, in cases involving career/business opportunities, medical reasons, study abroad, death, marriage of son/daughter.

The Ministry worked in close consultation with various law enforcement agencies on matters concerning passport fraud. There are ongoing efforts to produce more secure passports by the India Security Press, Nasik.

The Regional Passport Offices in Delhi, Cochin and Bangalore moved to more spacious, and modern premises. In Kozhikode, Madras, Goa and Hyderabad, new properties have been located and are in various stages of construction/completion. In Jaipur and Lucknow, plots of land have been identified for purchase. In Bareilly and Chandigarh, discussions have been initiated for new sites. It is believed that improvement in the work environment and the facilities available would result in greater productivity in the Passport Offices. It would also make the premises more user-friendly.

As a measure of providing convenience to the public, sameday services have been started by the Passport Offices in Delhi, Bombay, Bareilly, Patna, Trivandrum, Madras, Cochin and Hyderabad for services of 5-year renewal, ECNR, inclusion/deletion of child's name and change of address. This same-day service would be extended to other metropolitan cities.

Inter-ministerial discussions have been completed regarding Machine Readable Visa Stickers. Production is expected to commence early in the next financial year.

Price Waterhouse and CMC have been commissioned to do a systems review of the working of the Central Passport Organisation (CPO). M/s Price Waterhouse submitted the final

Report in January 1995 which is under examination. CMC's final Report is awaited and will be similarly examined.

Departmental Promotion Committees (DPCs) were held to empanel officers for promotion to the posts of Superintendent, Assistant and UDC. Recruitment Rules for some of the Group C and D posts have been framed. Amendments to the existing Recruitment Rules to Group A posts have been proposed and are awaiting approval of the Union Public Service Commission.

Consular work with regard to Indian nationals abroad continued to be an area requiring constant attention. Indians in Rwanda and Yemen were evacuated to India due to internal problems in those countries. Indian Missions in Kampala, Sana'a, Aden and Djibouti rendered assistance to these persons by issuing them duplicate travel documents and arranging for their transportation back to India. On return to India they were given an amount of Rs 2,000 per person to help tide over the emergency. The affected persons have undertaken to repay the cost of transportation and the financial assistance given to them.

Missions abroad provide assistance to Indians in settling differences with local employers, repatriation of destitute Indians, maintaining contacts with Indians in foreign jails, assisting with formalities for Indians who have died abroad, either in the performance of last rites or return of the dead body to India.

Figures regarding various categories of cases where consular services were provided in India and abroad may be seen at Appendix VIII.

Agreements are under consideration with several countries for transfer of convicted persons.

There are nearly 14 million overseas Indians spread over the world. This figure includes Indian citizens settled abroad as also persons of Indian origin who have taken foreign citizenship. Government is sensitive to the emotional urges and cultural bonds that overseas Indians have with India as also to their deeply felt desire to nurture their roots in the mother country. Government makes every effort to remain informed about the wellbeing of Overseas Indians.

A section of the overseas Indians have sought grant of dual citizenship. This has not been found acceptable. Efforts are, however, being made to examine ways in which, the linkages with overseas Indians can be strengthened.


16. Administration and Organisation
Shri Pranab Mukherjee assumed charge as Minister of External Affairs on 10 February 1995. Shri Dinesh Singh, who had assumed charge as Minister of, External Affairs on 17 January 1993, demitted charge on the same day. Shri R L Bhatia and Shri Salman Khurshid continue to hold charge as Ministers of State for External Affairs during 1994-95.

During the year reported upon, new Missions were opened in Pretoria (South Africa) on 2 May 1994, Dushanbe (Tajikistan) on 23 May 1994, Bishkek (Kyrghyzstan) on 23 May 1994 and Bogota (Colombia) on 3 October 1994. In addition two Consulates General were opened : Istanbul (Turkey) on 20 April 1994 and Durban (South Africa) on 16 May 1994.

On 26 December 1994, Government of Pakistan asked for closure of the Indian Consulate General in Karachi within 10 days. As a consequence, the Consulate General was closed down with effect from 4 January 1995.

The Ministry now has 149 resident Missions/Posts abroad.

The total strength of IFS and IFS(B) at Headquarters and in Missions abroad is 3490 (Details are at Appendix X). This includes certain posts borne on the budget of the Ministry of Commerce but excludes ex-cadred posts. The list of officers qualified in various foreign languages is at Appendix XI. The statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment and promotion) made in various groups in the Ministry and reserved vacancies filled by Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes during the year 1994 is at Appendix XII.

In keeping with the instructions contained in the Second Report of the Standing Committee of Parliament on External Affairs, the Ministry assessed its requirements of property in India and abroad and drew up a comprehensive plan for purchase and construction of property, with a view to meeting all its requirements, that was proposed to be implemented in a period of 10 years, beginning with 1995-96. However, because of the current budgetary constraint, the financial authorities have expressed their inability to sanction funds required for implementation of this plan. The Ministry shall remain in touch with these authorities. As and when they are in a position to sanction the requisite funds, a suitably modified plan, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at that stage, shall be put into effect.

The Ministry continued its efforts to purchase built-up property within the available budgetary resources. Properties were purchased in Berne (4 residential units), Pretoria (Chancery building and Embassy Residence), Durban (Consul General's Residence) and Bangkok (3 residential units). Other property purchase proposals under active consideration pertain to the Missions/Posts at Kiev, Vancouver, The Hague, Wellington and Frankfurt. These will be finalised subject to fulfilment of financial and administrative requirements as also availability of funds. Approval of the Cabinet was obtained for renewal of the lease of the Residence of the Indian High Commissioner in London for a period of 65 years.

Special attention is being given to repair and maintenance of government owned properties abroad.

Construction work started on the Riyadh project (Chancery, Embassy Residence and 44 residences) in May 1994 and is expected to be completed in 20 months. Contract for construction of the building of the Indian Cultural Centre in Mauritius is expected to be awarded by 31 March 1995. Construction of building of the Foreign Service Institute in the old JNU Campus is expected to begin in July/August 1995. The Passport Office in Cochin has shifted to its newly constructed premises. The Passport Office, Delhi was shifted to its new premises in the Trikoot complex, Bhikaji Cama Place. The building of the Passport Office in Kozhikode is under construction. Other construction projects under process relate to the Missions in Abu Dhabi, Beijing, Brasilia, Dhaka, Islamabad, Kathmandu, Muscat, Moscow; the ICCR complex at Calcutta, construction of the Ministry's office building on Janpath, housing projects at Papankalan and Chanakyapuri, as also construction of Passport Office Complexes at Ahmedabad, Hyderabad and Panaji. Implementation of the above projects would depend upon fulfilment of administrative and financial requirements and availability of budgetary resources.

In pursuance of its policy to computerise its offices in India and abroad, the Ministry sanctioned purchase of additional computer hardware. A pilot project to introduce E-Mail link with 13 Missions was initiated. The Ministry's offices at South Block are proposed to be brought under a centralised computer network.

In order to assess the functioning of Indian Missions abroad, Foreign Service Inspectors inspected Missions in Brussels, Kiev, Minsk, Tel Aviv, Nicosia, Athens, Moscow and Malta. Some additional Missions in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America are expected to be inspected by the end of 1994-95.


17. Foreign Service Institute
The Foreign Service Institute (FSI) continued its regular activities during the year 1994-95. Stress was laid on improvement of the quality and content of each course based on past experience and to suit the changing requirements. This was achieved by giving more attention to qualitative performance in different areas.

The following courses were held in the year under report:

(i) Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for IFS Probationers (1993 batch)

(ii) Basic Professional Course for IFS (B) personnel posted abroad

(iii) Professional Course for Foreign Diplomats in Economic Diplomacy

(iv) Professional Course for Foreign Diplomats (PCFD)

(v) Familiarisation Programme for Resident Foreign Diplomats

(vi) Computer Courses

(vii) Language Courses

(viii) Orientation Programme for non-MEA Officers

(ix) Hindi Typing for officials of the Ministry of External Affairs.

The year-long Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for 15 IFS Probationers of the 1993 batch consisted of modules covering the following areas: Diplomatic Practice and Protocol, Inter- national Relations, Multilateral Diplomacy, International Law, Administration, Establishment, Finance and Accounts, Cultural Diplomacy, External Publicity, International Economic Environment, Commercial Work, Parliament Procedure and Proceedings, Representational Skills, Hindi, Consular Work, Overseas Indians., Tourism, Technology and Foreign Policy, Economic Reforms, Regional Economic Groupings, Assignment/Projects, Communication and Security, Management Skills, Foreign Policy, French Language, Army Attachment and Driving. A Comprehensive Tour on training cum Navy Attachment was also arranged for them.

Officials of the Ministry upto the rank of Section Officers posted abroad attended the basic' Professional Course which covers all aspects of functioning in Missions abroad. As part of this Course, two short courses on computer appreciation, word processing and data base management were organised so as to enable the participants to familiarise themselves with modern office management tools and techniques.

Based on the language need of the country of posting five language courses were also arranged for IFS (B) personnel, two each in French and Arabic and one in Russian. Language tapes and books have been provided on demand and individual officials and their families have taken advantage of the facilities available in the Language Laboratory. Special English coaching classes have also been ar I ranged for the participants of the PCFDs.

A Familiarisation Programme for Resident Foreign Diplomats in Delhi was held in the current year. A total of 24 diplomats from 19 countries and two UN Organisations attended the same.

The Professional Course for Foreign Diplomats (PCFD) arranged by the FSI has become popular over the years. The

course design covers the following areas: Diplomatic Practice and Protocol; International Relations; International Economic Relations; Implementation of Foreign Policy; Management Skills; Representational skills; Communication Skills; and Computer Appreciation. The Fourth and Fifth PCFDs were held this year. In the Fourth PCFD which laid stress on Economic Diplomacy, there were eighteen participants from seven countries (Poland, Slovakia, Uzbekistan, Russia, Belarus, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan). The Course was held from 15 March to 19 April 1994. The Fifth PCFD which was held from 19 September to 2 December 1994 was attended by 19 diplomats from the following countries : Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Zambia, Poland, Lithuania, Armenia, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Laos, Slovakia, Russia, Mongolia, Estonia, Kenya, Madagascar and Eritrea.

Orientation Programmes for non-MEA Officers are structured at least twice a year and both programmes this year, one in June and the other in December, were fully attended.

The Institute conducted five Hindi typing courses during the year in which sixty-three officials qualified. These courses, which were started in 1993-94, have proved popular.

The FSI continued to maintain contacts with other training Institutes abroad.


18. Implementation of Official Language Policy and Propagation of Hindi Abroad
Like previous years, this year too the Ministry endeavoured to implement the Official Language Policy of the Government of India and also to propagate Hindi abroad. The Official Language Implementation Committee headed by Joint Secretary (Administration) continued to review the implementation position of Official Language Policy in the Ministry. Official Language Committees were set up in several Indian Missions abroad during the year.

During the year under review, a Hindi module for the Indian Foreign Service probationers of the 1993 Batch was organised. With a view to creating an atmosphere conducive to use of Hindi in official work, a Hindi Week was observed and various competitions organised at headquarters as well as in some Indian Missions abroad and Passport Offices in India.

The Ministry made translation arrangements for two weeks during 49th Session of UN General Assembly to help the members of Indian delegation.

The Ministry continued to be actively engaged in the propagation of Hindi abroad. Besides sending sets of Standard Hindi literature and teaching aid material including text books, audio cassettes, charts, dictionaries, etc to a large number of Indian Missions abroad, the Ministry extended all possible help to foreign universities, educational institutions and individuals engaged in promotion of Hindi through Indian Missions abroad. During the year 1994-95 Hindi typewriters/computer softwares were provided to foreign institutions/individuals and Indian Missions in Vietnam, Russia (St Petersburg), New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Hungary. There was noticeable increase in demand from, predictable areas but requests for Hindi books and teaching aids were also received from places like Tehran, Vladivostok, Odessa, The Hague, Colombo, Kathmandu, Havana, etc. Indian Missions in Buenos Aires, Budapest, Ulaan Baatar, Seoul, Paramaribo, Port of Spain, London and Port Louis continued to play a major and significant role in propagation of Hindi abroad in the countries of their accreditation. The High Commission of India, London organised Kavi Sammelans in Manchester and London which were attended by poets from India, namely Neeraj, Ramnath Awasthi, Kanhaiya Lal Nandan and Jnanpith laureates besides filmstars Amitabh Bacchan and Dilip Kumar. The Indian Embassy in Kathmandu organised a Hindi-Nepali Kavi Sammelan which was extremely successful. The Indian Missions in Paramaribo, Budapest and Kathmandu successfully organised Hindi Diwas wherein natives of the respective countries participated actively and enthusiastically.

The Ministry liaised with Department of Education, Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, Agra and Indian Missions abroad for nomination of suitable foreign candidates for scholarship to study Hindi at Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, Agra.

The results of the Ministry's efforts in propagating Hindi in foreign countries have been very encouraging.



19. Cultural Relations
The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR, henceforth referred to as the Council) was formally set up in 1950, with the primary objective of establishing, reviving and strengthening cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries. Its aims as enunciated in the Memorandum of Association are:

(i) to participate in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes relating to India's external cultural relations

(ii) to foster and strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries

(iii) to promote cultural exchange with other countries and peoples

(iv) to establish and develop relations with national and international organisations in the field of culture

(v) to take such measures, as may be required, to fur- ther these objectives.

The major activities of the Council include:

administration of scholarship schemes on behalf of the Government of India for international students; exchange of scholars, academics, opinion makers, artistes and writers; exchange of exhibitions; organisation of and participation in seminars and symposia; exchange of performing arts groups; establishing and maintaining Chairs and Professorships for India Studies abroad; presentation of books; organising Annual Maulana Azad Memorial Lectures and the Maulana Azad Essay competitions; providing the secretariat for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding; publications; maintaining Indian Cultural Centres abroad and supporting special bilateral programmes.

Scholarships and Welfare of International Students

The Council attaches considerable importance to its scholarships programmes, as it is a critical input to greater people-to-people contact and hence, an integral part of India's foreign policy. Every year, a large number of foreign students come to India, mainly on self- financing basis. The Council offers around 1000 scholarships every year under its various scholarship schemes, principally to nationals of developing countries. After their studies here, many of these students occupy positions of influence and importance in Government, industry and the civil services, on their return to their countries. There are at present international students from around 70 countries on scholarships who are studying in different universities and educational institutions in India and pursuing a variety of courses from undergraduate studies to doctoral degrees in the social sciences as also professional subjects such as Engineering, Medicine, etc. The total number of international students under various ICCR scholarships is 1792.

From this academic year onwards, the Council has instituted a new scholarship in the memory of the late Appa Saheb Pant, the first Commissioner of India in Kenya. The scholarship has been awarded to a Kenyan student.

The Okita Memorial Scholarship has also been instituted at the request of the family of the former Japanese Foreign Minister, the late Dr S Okita, recipient of the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development in the year 1993. The scholarship is being awarded to a meritorious Indian student.

The Council celebrated the birth anniversary of its founder, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad on 11 November as 'International Students Day'. Special get-togethers and cultural programmes of international students and Indian students in Delhi and at various universities all over the country were arranged on the occasion. Indian Missions in Africa, South East Asia and elsewhere also organised special functions to mark the day by inviting former alumni of Indian Universities. This helps maintain links with former alumni.

The welfare of all international students is the responsibility of the Council. The Council deputed various officers during the year to visit different institutions and to meet the heads of these institutions to solve their problems. To further regular interaction with the international students, the Council has decided to bring out a news letter from this year onwards which would not only report on some of the activities of the international students but also highlight the activities of the Council.

Performing Arts

The major highlight this year of the presentation of India's composite and rich culture abroad has been the Festival of India in China (3 to 22 May 1994). Some of the other major events in which the Council participated during the year were 'India Today 1994' (21 April to 2 May 1994) in Australia, which was a month-long event inaugurated by the Vice President of India, the exclusive commercial exhibition organised by India Trade Promotion Organisation in Moscow (18 to 27 July 1994), the India Trade Fair at St Petersburg (5 to 11 August 1994), India in Dubai (17 to 23 September 1994), the 125th Death Anniversary Celebrations of Mirza Ghalib in Mauritius (12 to 18 September 1994) and the 'India Night' at Alter Opera, Frankfurt (24 September 1994).

During April-December 1994, the Council sponsored the visits of a number of cultural troupes abroad, details of which are given at Appendix XXII. During the same period, the Council also facilitated/organised performances by a number of incoming delegations, details of which are at Appendix XXIII. Finally, the Council organised several Indian cul- tural programmes in honour of visiting delegations/VVIP functions. Details of such programmes are at Appendix XXIV.


On the occasion of 125th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the Council organised a major exhibition in Japan titled 'Ashoka-Gandhi- Nehru-The Healing Touch' for display at the Tokyo Fuji Art Museum in October 1994. The exhibits reflect the Ashokan period, the lives and times of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru and their philosophy of humanism, pacifism and non-violence. Other exhibitions organised by the Council during April to October 1994 are the exhibition of Indian Children's Paintings (Republic of Korea) and the Children's Paintings (Cairo). The Council also presented busts of Gandhiji and Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. Details about such presentation of busts and the exhibitions are given in Appendix XXV.

Visitors Programme

During April-December 1994, the Council sponsored and assisted 45 Indian Scholars, intellectuals, academics and artistes to participate in seminars, symposia, study tours, etc abroad, the details of which are at Appendix XXVI. The Council received 78 visitors from 11 countries as per details indicated at Appendix XXVII

International Symposium on India Studies

The Council was the Secretariat for the International Symposium on India Studies (ISIS) which was organised from 28 November to 2 December 1994 at Kovalam in Kerala.

The Symposium was inaugurated by the Prime Minister at Kanakakunnu Palace, Thiruvananthapuram, Trivandrum on 28 November 1994. The Governor and the Chief Minister of Kerala attended and adressed the inaugural function.

A National Organising Committee was set up by the Prime Minister, Patron of the Symposium, to work out arrangements for the Symposium with the eminent scholar-philosopher Prof K Satchidananda Murty, as its Chairman.

The aims of the Symposium included (a) taking a critical review of the achievements and current work in studies relating to India (ancient, classical, medieval and contemporary) in all its aspects, (b) encouraging discovery of new dimensions of Indian life and thought, and (c) attempting to suggest new directions for such studies so that they become more comprehensive, multi-disciplinary and relevant for understanding the actualities that constitute present-day India. The idea of the Symposium was conceived during the visit of the Prime Minister to Germany. It reflected the need to encourage Indology studies and to give an impetus to an understanding and appreciation of modern India through India studies.

Special Issue of the Council's English language quarterly, 'Indian Horizons', titled Indian Realities and especially brought out on the occasion of the Symposium, was presented to the Prime Minister by Prof K Satchidananda Murty.

Thirty-one scholars from various parts of the world including Australia, Belgium, China, France, Germany, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Russia, UK and USA participated in the Symposium along with their counterparts from India.

All participants said the Symposium was a landmark event in area of India Studies and in promoting a holistic understanding of India. The Symposium closed with the unanimous recommendation that a permanent International Society of India Studies under the Chairmanship of Prof Satchidananda Murty be set up to monitor and coordinate activities related to India Studies worldwide and to act as a clearing house for information and ideas.

Cultural Centres Abroad

India's foreign policy has a cultural dimension for promoting greater people-to-people contact and an appreciation of India's cultural heritage. The Council has set up cultural centres in Georgetown (Guyana), Jakarta (Indonesia), Moscow (Russia), Port Louis (Mauritius), Paramaribo (Suriname), Cairo (ARE), Berlin (Germany), London (UK), Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and Almaty (Kazakhstan).

The activities in the Cultural Centres reflect the perceived and felt needs of the local population. The Centres with the exception of the ones in Berlin and London impart lessons in Indian music, dance, yoga and languages. All Centres have libraries and reading rooms, organise lectures, symposia, exhibitions, essay competitions, performances ' of dance and music, staging of plays, screening of films and publication of news bulletins. The Centres are expected to develop and maintain contacts with a wide cross-section of local citizens, including students, teachers, scholars and cultural personalities. While some Centres focus principally on the resident Indian population and help them maintain and strengthen cultural links with India, other Centres target the intelligentsia and opinion makers to project a holistic picture of India's rich and diverse cultural heritage.

Visiting Professors and Chairs of India Studies Abroad

The Council deputes visiting Professors abroad to teach Indology, Indian Languages and other related subjects. The deputation of Professors abroad is principally done under the bilateral Cultural Exchange Programmes, as also where there is a specific institutional arrangement with the Council. ICCR presently has several Professors abroad teaching Indian languages, Indology and allied subjects as per the list at appendix XXVIII.

Indo-US Sub-Commission on Education and Culture

In August 1994, Ted Tanen from American Secretariat of the Indo-US Sub- Commission on Education and Culture visited India and had meetings with Shri Ram Niwas Mirdha, Indian Co-Chairman of the Sub-Commission, Shri Salman Khurshid, Minister of State for External Affairs and several other leading persons in various cultural and academic fields to identify avenues for promoting greater exchange.

The Press Information Bureau in collaboration with the Council sponsored the visit of four women delegates from the media to participate in the 'Women & Media' programme in the USA from 15 to 27 October 1994. The American Secre-

tariat sponsored the visit of two more Indian women mediapersons to this event.

The Council hosted the visit of 4 Indian film directors from USA to India to participate in the film festival 'From India to America: New Directions in Indian American Films and Video' in New Delhi from 30 November to 4 December 1994 and in. Bombay from 7 to 11 December 1994. This festival was organised by the Smita Patil Foundation in collaboration with the Indo-US Commission and the Whitney Museum of American Art, USA.

Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding

The ICCR provides the Secretariat for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding.

The Jury for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding under the Chairmanship of Vice President of India unanimously nominated Maurice F Strong, the renowned environmentalist, for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for 1992. The Presentation Ceremony conferring the Award was held at Rashtrapati Bhavan on 17 November 1994.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Memorial Lecture

The Lecture series was instituted in 1958. Persons of eminence and stature have delivered the lectures over the years.

The 28th Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Memorial Lecture was delivered on 9 September 1994 by Dr Boutros-Boutros Ghali, Secretary General of the United Nations on the topic 'Current World Challenges as Reflected in the United Nations Today'.

The 29th Maulana Azad Memorial Lecture was delivered on 12 January 1995 by Tan Sri Ghazali Shafie, former Malaysian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Home and Education.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Essay Competition

The Council annually organises an Essay Competition for citizens of SAARC countries below the age of 30 years. The Essay

Competition is held in three languages-Hindi, Urdu and English. 'Mauling Azad and Secularism' is the topic for the 1993 Essay Competition. The Essays received from different parts of India and other SAARC countries are being evaluated by three separate juries specially nominated for the purpose.


To commemorate the International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian people, the Indian Council for Cultural Relations organised a function on 13 December 1994 at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi. Shri R L Bhatia, Minister of State for External Affairs was the Chief Guest at the function.


The Council has a major publications programme which has grown over the years.

The Council brings out six quarterly journals in different languages : English (Indian Horizons and Africa Quarterly), Hindi (Gagananchal), French (Rencontre Avec L'Inde), Spanish (Papeles de la India) and Arabic Quarterly (Thaqafatul Hind). A special issue of Indian Horizons on India-China Relations was brought out on the occasion of Festival of India in China and is considered to be one of the finest and most comprehensive books available on the age-old contacts between the two countries. Another issue of Indian Horizons titled 'Indian Realities' was especially brought out as a curtain raiser for the International Symposium on India Studies. Special issues on Indian cinema and on children's literature in India are due to come out shortly. In celebration of Gandhiji's 125th birth anniversary, an issue on how the world sees and remembers the Mahatma is being especially brought out. Two special issues of Africa Quarterly-one on the Horn of Africa and another especially dedicated to the memory, of late Appasaheb Pant were also brought out. An issue on Protest Literature in Africa is currently in the press. The Spanish Quarterly is bringing out an issue on India and the Hispanic World to coincide with the International Hispanic Conference due to be held in Delhi shortly.

In collaboration with MARG Publications the Council co-published 'India and Egypt: Influences and Interactions' and with Wiley Eastern Limited the Council published 'The Divine Peacock: Understanding Contemporary India'. A series titled 'Culture in the New Millenia' is also being brought out with Wiley Eastern Limited and at least two titles are expected to be ready by this year. A book on Indian Cinema is being co- published with UBS.

The Council also participated in the following national and international book fairs:

(i) 11th New Delhi World Book Fair in February 1994

(ii) Exhibition of Indian Books in China in May 1994

(iii) Australian Book Fair in Sydney in June 1994

(iv) 46th Frankfurt Book Fair in October 1994

(v) Exhibition of Indian Books in Male in November 1994

(vi) Special Book Exhibition at All India Fine Arts Building, Rafi Marg, New Delhi, in October 1994

(vii) Book Exhibition of ICCR publications at Azad Bhavan, New Delhi, from 11 to 17 November 1994

ICCR Library

The ICCR Library houses the rare and priceless personal collection of books and manuscripts of Maulana Azad in a special section in the library titled Gosha-E-Azad. The Library also has the single largest collection in India of books on Africa, apart from having a rich collection of books on art, literature, history, economics, politics, etc.

The rare books and manuscripts from Maulana Azad collection are being laminated to preserve them and to make them accessible to scholars and researchers. Around 90 such books were laminated and bound this year.

Presentation of Books and Musical Instruments

During the period April-December 1994, the Council under its presentation programme gifted 1050 books to institutions, distinguished persons, academicians and opinion makers in 35 countries. This does not include gifts of books published by the Council. In addition, the Council presented 200 musical instruments, audio/video tapes and art objects to institutions in 18 countries. Details of such presentations are given at Appendix-XXIX.

Regional Offices

The Council has regional offices in Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Madras, Chandigarh and Lucknow to enable regular contacts with State Cultural bodies as also to assist the foreign students in their admission and other activities. Throughout the year the Regional Offices carried out various programmes and intensified their contacts with the state and zonal Cultural Centres.


The meetings of Statutory Bodies of the Council viz Finance Committee and Governing Body were held on 8 and 9 November 1994.


APPENDIX-I List of Divisions.

Ministry of External Affairs-List of Divisions.

Specialized and Support Divisions

1 Administration Division
2 Bureau of Security
3 Coordination Division
4 CPV & 01 Division
5 Economic Division
6 Economic Coordination Unit
7 Establishment Division
8 External Publicity Division
9 Finance Division
10 Foreign Service Institute
11 Legal & Treaties Division
12 MER Division
13 Policy Planning & Research Division
14 Protocol (including Conference Division)
15 Special Kuwait Cell
16 SAARC Division
17 Special Unit
18 UN Division

Territorial Divisions

1 Africa Division
2 AMS Division
3 Asia Pacific Division
4 BSM Division
5 Central Asia Division
6 Europe East Division
7 Europe West Division
8 Gulf Division
9 IPA Division
10 LAC Division
11 North East Division
12 South East Asia Division
13 WANA Division.


APPENDIX-II Division-wise List of Countries
Ministry of External Affairs-Division-wise List of Countries and Regions.


1 Angola 16 Gabon 31 Nigeria
2 Benin 17 Gambia 32 Rwanda
3 Botswana 18 Ghana 33 Sao Tome & Principe
4 Burkina Faso 19 Guinea 34 Senegal
5 Burundi 20 Guinea Bissau 35 Seychelles
6 Cameroon 21 Kenya 36 Sierra Leone
7 Cape Verde Islands 22 Lesotho 37 South Africa
8 Central African Republic 23 Liberia 38 Swaziland
9 Chad 24 Madagascar 39 Tanzania
10 Comoros 25 Malawi 40 Togo
11 Congo 26 Mali 41 Uganda
12 Cote d'Ivoire 27 Mauritius 42 Zaire
13 Equatorial Guinea 28 Mozambique 43 Zambia
14 Eritrea 29 Namibia 44 Zimbabwe
15 Ethiopia 30 Niger  

1 Canada 2 United States of America 3 The Bahamas

1 Australia 7 Marshall Islands 14 Society Islands
2 Cook Islands 8 Nauru 15 Tonga
3 Democratic People's Republic of Korea 9 New Zealand 16 Tuvalu
 10 New Caledonia 17 UN Trust Territories in South Pacific
4 Fiji 11 Papua New Guinea  
5 Japan 12 Republic of Korea 18 Vanuatu
6 Kiribati 13 Solomon Islands 19 Western Samoa
1 Bangladesh 2 Maldives 3 Myanmar
4 Sri Lanka   
1 Azerbaijan                  4 Tajikistan            6 Turkmenistan 
2 Kazakhstan                  5 Turkey                7 Uzbekistan 
3 Kyrghyzstan 
1 Albania                     9 Georgia               15 Poland 
2 Armenia                     10 Hungary              16 Romania 
3 Belarus                     11 Latvia               17 Russia 
4 Bosnia-Herzegovina          12 Lithuania            18 Slovak 
5 Bulgaria                    13 Former Yugoslav      19 Slovenia 
6 Croatia                      Republic of Macedonia  20 Ukraine 
7 Czech Republic                (FYROM)               21 Yugoslavia 
8 Estonia                                          (FRY--Serbia and 
                               14 Moldova              Montenegro) 
1 Austria              10 Holy See, The         19 Norway 
2 Belgium              11 Iceland               20 Portugal 
3 Cyprus               12 Ireland               21 San Marino 
4 Denmark              13 Italy                 22 Spain 
5 Finland              14 Liechtenstein         23 Sweden 
6 France               15 Luxemberg             24 Switzerland 
7 Germany, Federal 
 Republic of           16 Malta                 25 United Kingdom of 
8 Gibraltar            17 Monaco                   Great Britain and 
9 Greece               18 Netherlands              Northern Ireland 
1 Bahrain               4 Oman                   7 Saudi Arabia 
2 Iraq                  5 Qatar                  8 United Arab  
3 Kuwait                6 Republic of Yemen 
1 Afghanistan            2 Iran                   3 "Pakistan 
1 Anguilla               14 Dominican Republic     27 Panama 
2 Antigua & Barbuda      15 Ecuador                28 Paraguay 
3 Argentina              16 El Salvador            29 Peru 
4 Barbados               17 Grenada                30 St Christopher 
5 Belize                 18 Guatemala                 and Nevis 
6 Bolivia                19 Guyana                 31 St Lucia 
7 Brazil                 20 Haiti                  32 St Vincent and  
8 Cayman Islands         21 Honduras                  the Grenadines 
9 Chile                  22 Jamaica                33 Suriname 
10 Colombia              23 Netherlands Antilles   34 Trinidad & Tobago 
11 Costa Rica            24 Mexico                 35 Turks and Caicos 
12 Cuba                  25 Montserrat                Islands 
13 Commonwealth of 
   Dominica              26 Nicaragua              36 Uruguay 
                                                   37 Venezuela 
1 Bhutan                  3 Hong Kong               5 Nepal 
2 China                   4 Mongolia                6 Taiwan 
1 Brunei                  4 Laos                     7 Singapore 
2 Cambodia                5 Malaysia                 8 Thailand 
3 Indonesia               6 Philippines              9 Vietnam 
1 Algeria                 7 League of Arab           13 SADR (Sahrawi  
                            States                      Arab Democratic 
2 Arab Maghreb Union      8 Lebanon  
3 Djibouti                9 Libya                    14 Somalia 
4 Egypt.                  10 Mauritania              15 Sudan 
5 Israel                  11 Morocco                 16 Syria 
6 Jordan                  12 Palestine               17 Tunisia 


APPENDIX-III Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India

Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded
or renewed by India with other countries in 1994. S NO TITLE OF CONVENTIONS/ DATE OF DATE OF DATE OF TREATIES/AGREEMENTS ETC SIGNATURE/ RATIFICATION/ ENTRY ADOPTION ACCESSION OR INTO ACCEPTANCE FORCE MULTILATERAL 1 Agreement between the Government of 7.4.1994 7.4.1994 India and United Nations regarding the Headquarters of the Asian and Pacific Centre for transfer of Technology 2 Convention on Nuclear Safety 20.9.1994 3 Agreement to establish the South Centre 30.9,1994 13.12 1994 4 International Coffee Agreement 1994 20.8.1994 15.9.1994 1.10.1994 5 United Nations Convention to Combat 14.10.1994 Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Droughts and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa 6 Agreement relating to Implementation 29.7.1994 of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 BILATERAL Andorra 7 Protocol on the establishment of 22.11.1994 Diplomatic Relations between the Government of India and the Principality of Andorra 8 Protocol on the establishment of 22.11.1994 Consular Relations between the Government of India and the Principality of Andorra Argentina 9 Letters of exchange between the 31.3.1994 Government of India and Republic of Argentina for: (a) abolition of visa for holders of diplomatic, officials and special passports; and -172> (b) setting up of a joint Commission for Indo Argentina Cooperation on economic, commerce and other matters Armenia 10 Agreement between Governments of the 25.3.1994 Republic of India and the Republic of Armenia on Cooperation in the Fields of Science and Technology Austria 11 Memorandum of Understanding between 30.6.1994 the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of the Republic of India and the Federal Ministry of Environment, Youth and Family Affairs of the Republic of Austria Belize 12 Agreement on Cultural Cooperation 15.6.1994 15.6.1994 between India and Belize 13 Agreement on Economic Cooperation 15-6.1994 between the Republic of India and Belize Bulgaria 14 Agreement between the Government of 26.5.1994 the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria on Combating Organised Crimes, International Terrorism and Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 15 Agreement on Tourism Cooperation 26.5.1994 between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria 16 Protocol for Consultation and 26.5.1994 Cooperation between the Ministry of External Affairs of the Republic of India and the Ministry of External Affairs of the Republic of Bulgaria -173> 17 Convention between the Government 26.5.1994 of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria for Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital 18 Agreement between the Government of 26.5.1994 the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria on Cooperation in the Area of Quarantine and Plant Protection 19 Veterinary and Sanitary Agreement 26.5.1994 between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria Canada 20 Treaty between the Government of the 24.10.1994 Republic of India and the Government of Canada on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters China 21 Memorandum of Understanding for 22.10.1994 developing Banking Relations with People's Republic of China 22 Memorandum of Understanding on 22.10.1994 Simplifying the Visa Procedures between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of China 23 Agreement between the Government of 18.7.1994 the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of China for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income 24 Trade Protocol between the Government 15.6.1994 of the Republic of India and the Government of the People's Republic of China for the year 1994-95 -174> Cyprus 25 Agreement between the Republic of 13.6.1994 India and the Republic of Cyprus for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital European Community 26 Cooperation Agreement between the 20.12.1993 8.3.1994 1.8.1994 Republic of India and the European Union on Partnership and Development Great Britain 27 Agreement between the Government of 14.3.1994 the Republic of India and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland on Promotion and Protection of Investments Honduras 28 Joint Communique between the Government 28.9-1994 of the Republic of India and the Government of the Republic of Honduras for establishing diplomatic relations Hungary 29 Protocol on Foreign Office Consultations 22.9.1994 22.9.1994 with Hungary Iran 30 Memorandum of Understanding between 19.8.1994 the Ministry of Railways of the Republic of India and the Ministry of Road and Transportation of the Islamic Republic of Iran
31 Air Transport Agreement between the          4.4.1994 
   Government of the Republic of India 
   and the Government of the State of 
32 Agreement between the Government of         29.11.1994   29.11.1994 
   Republic of India and the Government 
   of the State of Israel in the field of 
   Telecomunication and Posts 
33 Exchange of Notes between the Govern-       27.5.1994 
   ment of India and the Government of 
   Japan for the extension of Japanese Grant 
   Assistance to India of One billion and 
   fifty-eight million yen for improvement 
   of the Medical Equipment in the hospital 
   affiliated to the Insitute of Medical 
   Sciences, Banaras Hindu University 
34 Loan Agreement for Anpara B Thermal         24.1.1994 
   Power Station Construction Project (V) 
   between the Overseas Economic 
   Cooperation Fund, Japan and the 
   President of India 
35 Loan Agreement for Bakreswar Thermal        24.1.1994 
   Project between the Overseas Economic 
   Cooperation Fund, Japan and the 
   President of India 
36 Loan Agreement for Faridabad Gas Based      24.1.1994 
   Power Station and Associated Transmission 
   System Project between the Overseas 
   Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and 
   the President of India 
37 Loan Agreement for Construction of          24.1.1994 
   a Bridge over River Yamuna at 
   Allahabad/Naini with Approach Roads 
   between the Overseas Economic 
   Cooperation Fund, Japan and the 
   President of India 
38 Loan Agreement for National Highway-5       24.1.1994 
   Improvement Project between the Overseas 
   Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and 
   the President of India 
39 Loan Agreement for Small Scale Industries    24.1.1994 
   Development Programme (IV) between the 
   Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund, 
   Japan and the President of India 
40 Agreement between the Government of the     2.7.1994 
   Republic of India and the Government 
   of the Republic of Lithuania on Trade 
   and Economic Cooperation 
41 Agreement between the Republic of India     28.9.1994 
   and Malta for the Avoidance of Double 
   Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal 
   Evasion with respect to Taxation on 
42 Treaty of Friendly Relations and            22.2.1994 
   Cooperation between the Republic of 
   India and Mongolia 
43 Memorandum of Understanding between         2.9.1994       2.9.1994 
   the Government of the Republic of India 
   and the Government of Mongolia for the 
   Establishment of a Joint Trade Sub 
44 Memorandum of Understanding on              2.9.1994 
   Collaboration between the Planning 
   Commission, Government of the Republic 
   of India and the National Development 
   Board, Government of Mongolia 
45 Agreement between the Government of         22.2.1994 
   the Republic of India and the Government 
   of Mongolia for the Establishment of a 
   Joint Committee on Cooperation 
46 Programme of Cooperation in the field       22.2.1994 
   of Culture between the Government of 
   the Republic of India and the Government 
   of Mongolia for the years 1994,1995 
   and 1996 
47 Agreement between the Government of         22.2.1994 
   Republic of India and the Government of 
   Mongolia for the Avoidance of Double 
   Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal 
   Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income 
   and Capital. 
48 Programme of Cooperation between the        22.2.1994 
   Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 
   of the Republic of India and the 
   Ministry of Health of Mongolia in the 
   field of Health and Medical Science 
   for trhe period 1994-1996 
49 Agreement on Economic, Trade and            15.6.1994 
   Technical Cooperation between the 
   Government of the Republic of India 
   and the Government of the Sultanate 
   of Oman 
50 Agreement between the Government of         2.6.1994 
   the Republic of India and the 
   Government of Romania regarding 
   Cooperation in Combating Organised 
   Crime, International Terrorism, 
   Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs 
   and Psychotropic Substances and other 
   Illegal Activities 
51 Agreement on Tourism Cooperation            2.6.1994 
   between the Government of the Republic 
   of India and the Government of Romania 
52 Declaration of Principles and Directions    2.6.1994 
   of Cooperation between the Republic of 
   India and Romania 
   Russian Federation 
53 Agreement on Merchant Shipping with         23.12.1994 
   the Government of the Russian 
54 Memorandum of Understanding on              9.9.1994       9.9.1994 
   consultations between the Ministry of 
   External Affairs of the Republic of 
   India and the Ministry of Foreign 
   Affairs of the Republic of Singapore 
55 Agreement on Maritime Transport between     24.1.1994 
   the Government of the Republic of India 
   and the Government of the Republic of 
56 Agreement between the Republic of India     7.12.1993 
   and the Republic of Slovenia on Trade 
   and Economic Cooperation 
Slovak Republic 
57 Protocol for Consultation between the       7.7.1994 
   Ministry of External Affairs of the 
   Republic of India and the Ministry of 
   Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic 
58 Cultural Agreement between the              22-9.1992     8.11-1994 
   Government of the Republic of India 
   and the Government of the Republic 
   of Suriname 
59 Agreement between the Republic of           2.11.1994 
   India and the Swiss Confederation for 
   the Avoidance of Double Taxation with 
   respect to taxes on Income 
60 Agreement between the Government of        19.4.1994      19.4.1994 
   the Republic of India and the Government 
   of Ukraine on the Inter-Governmental 
   Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific, 
   Technological, Industrial and Cultural 
61 IND/93/035--Institute for Machine Tools     22.9.1993     22.9.1993 
62 IND/93/032--Development of Strategy for     1.11.1993     1.11.1993 
   Environmentally Sustainable Tourism in 
   the Andamans 
63 IND/93/018--Development and                30.11-1993    30.11-1993 
   Strengthening of Integrated Pest 
   Management (IPM) in India 
64 IND/94/003--Promoting Quality and          12.4-1994 
   Export of Indian Spices 
65 IND/94/004--Proinoting Export of           12.4.1994 
   Floriculture Products 
66 IND/94/007--Study for the Development      29.6.1994 
   of Comprehensive Strategy for Indian 
   National Railways to deal with HIV/ 
   AIDS at Workplace 
67 IND/94/012--Bio-village Demonstration      21.7.1994 
   Project in Pondicherry 
68 IND/93/019--Strengthening of National    22.2.1994 
   Facility for interactive Multi-media 
   Documentation of Cultural Resources 
69 Memorandum of Understanding between         5.1.1994       5.1.1994 
   the Government of the Republic of India 
   and the Government of Republic of 
   Uzbekistan on cooperation in the field 
   of Telecommunications 
70 Agreement between the Government of         5.1.1994 
   Republic of India and the Government 
   of Uzbekistan on Bilateral Cooperation 
   in the field of Post and Allied Matters 
71 Protocol between the Government of the      5.1.1994 
   Republic of India and the Government 
   of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the 
   Establishment of the Indo-Uzbek Centre 
   for the Promotion of Scientific and 
   Technological Cooperation 
72 Agreement between the Government of         5.1.1994 
   the Republic of India and the 
   Government of the Republic of 
   Uzbekistan on Cultural Cooperation 
73 Agreement on Principles of Development      5.1.1994 
   of Economic Links and Stengthening of 
   Comprehensive Cooperation between the 
   Republic of India and the Republic of 
74 Agreement between the Republic of India     7.9.1994 
   and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 
   for the Avoidance of Double Taxation 
   and the Prevention of fiscal evasion 
   with respect to taxes on Income 
75 Memorandum of Understanding between         7.9.1994       7.9.1994 
   the Ministry of External Affairs of the 
   Republic of India and the Ministry of 
   Foreign Affairs of the Socialist 
   Republic of Vietnam 
76 Agreement between the Government of         7.9.1994 
   the Republic of India and the Government 
   of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 
   Travel facilities for citizens of the 
   two countries 


APPENDIX-IV Full Powers Issued during 1994

Full Powers Issued during 1994.


1 Full powers issued in favour of Shri Tejendra Khanna, 18-1.1994
Commerce Secretary to sign the Agreement between
the Government of the Republic of India and the
Government of the Union of Myanmar on Border
Trade between the two countries

2 Full Powers issued in favour of Shri Ghulam Nabi 19.1.1994
Azad, Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism to sign the
tourism Cooperation Agreement between the Government
of Republic of India and the Government of Republic
of Singapore

3 Full Powers in favour of Shri B Shankaranand, Minister 9.3.1994
for Health and Family Welfare to sign the Agreement
between India and Nepal for assistance to the Koirala
Institute of Health Sciences

4 Full Powers in favour of Shri Prakash Shah, Ambassador 22.11.1994
of India to Japan to sign the
(i) Protocol on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations
between the Republic of India and the Federated States
of Micronesia
(ii) Protocol on the establishment of Consular Relations
between the Republic of India and the Federated States
of Micronesia

5 Full Powers, in duplicate, in favour of Shri Pranab Mukherjee,
Minister of Commerce to sign the Agreement between the
Government of the Republic of India and the Government
of the State of Israel on Trade and Economic Cooperation



APPENDIX-V Instruments of Ratification issued during 1994.

Instruments of Ratification issued during 1994. 
S NO CONVENTION/TREATY                                DATE OF INSTRUMENT 
1 Cultural Agreement between the Government  of the        2.2.1994 
  Republic of India and the Government of the State 
  of Israel 
2 Convention on Biological Diversity                        4.2.1994 
3 Acts of the Universal Postal Union as revised by the:     29.4.1994 
(i) XIX Congress of the Universal Postal Union held 
    in Hamburg in 1984; and 
(ii)  XX Congress of the Universal Postal Union held 
     in Washington in 1989 
4 Agreement on Economic, Trade and Technical                12.5.1994 
  Cooperation between the Government of the Republic 
  of India and the Government the Sultanate of Oman 
5 Protocol relating to an amendment to the Chicago           5.7.1994 
  Convention, 1944 (Article 83 bis) 
6 Agreement between the Government of the Republic           8.9.1994 
  of India and the Government of the Republic of 
  Bulgaria on Combating Organised Crimes, 
  International Terrorism and Illicit Trafficking 
  in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 
7 Agreement between the Government of the Republic           8.9.1994 
  of India and the Government of Romania regarding 
  Cooperation in Combating Organised Crime, International 
  Terrorism, Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and 
  Psychotropic Substances and other Illegal 
8 Agreement Between the Government of the Republic of        8.9.1994 
  India and the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand 
  and the Union of Myanmar on the determination of the 
  Trijunction Point between the three countries in the 
  Andaman Sea 
9 Agreement between the Government of the Republic of        8.9.1994 
  India and the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand 
  on the Maritime Boundary between the two countries in 
  the Andaman Sea from Point 7 to the Trijunction Point 
  (Point T) between India, Thailand and Myanmar 
10 Convention of the Republic of India and the Kingdom       22.9.1994 
   of Spain for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and 
   the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to 
   Taxes on Income and on Capital 
11 Agreement between the Government of the Republic of      14.11.1994 
   India and the Government of the Republic of Lithuania 
   on Trade and Economic Cooperation 
12 Agreement between the Republic of India and the          17.11.1994 
   Republic of Slovenia on Trade and Economic 

APPENDIX-VI Statement showing the Number of Fresh and Miscellaneous Applications

Statement showing the Number of Fresh and Miscellaneous Applications
received and the number of Passports issued and Services rendered during
the year 1994.



                NO OF             NO OF        NO OF         NO OF 
               RECEIVED             GRANTED     RECEIVED       GRANTED 
1 AHMEDABAD    98943               160000       55072            55433 
2 BANGALORE    82023               77646         31163           31995 
3 BAREILLY     46604               40154         16902           16713 
4 BHOPAL       20806               20690         11112           11264 
5 BHUBANESHWAR 7892                7706          3132             3112 
6 BOMBAY       202643             208282         140878         142055 
7 CALCUTTA     46752               43753         32236           31707 
8 CHANDIGARH   67098               95236         37069           33549 
9 COCHIN       94933               99410         75040           74610 
10 DELHI       110375             108249         54942           54860 
11 GOA         14051               13681         13266           11115 
12 GUWAHATI    7400                 7423          2807            2600 
13 HYDERABAD   131208             141610         79337           83967 
14 JAIPUR      64117               65127         25928           41376 
15 JALANDHAR   80102              111002         43758           51703 
16 KOZHIKODE   162795             179074         116692         109924 
17 LUCKNOW     109715             117649         34976           35008 
18 MADRAS      129139             134949         59417           57914 
19 NAGPUR      10118                9755         3420             3373 
20 PATNA       45518              70500          13800           14356 
21 TRICHY      169489             201055         73602           70886 
22 TRIVANDRUM  95691              97022          72422           72794 
23 JAMMU       10371              1431           1745             1348 
   GRAND TOTAL 1807783           2011404         998716        1014662 
*Regional Passport Offices/Passport Offices 


APPENDIX-VII Statement showing the Revenue and expenditure Figures of Passport

Statement showing the Revenue and expenditure Figures of Passport
Offices/Regional Passport Offices during the year 1994.

S NO OFFICE                         REVENUE            EXPENDITURE 
                                      EARNED              INCURRED 
1 AHMEDABAD                          42164844              7586039 
2 BANGALORE                          32338886              5444819 
3 BAREILLY                           18056163              3758334 
4 BHOPAL                             8532563               1685635 
5 BHUBANESHWAR                       2987105                940593 
6 BOMBAY                             90527896             16329146 
7 CALCUTTA                           22004684              2927602 
8 CHANDIGARH                         30663348              6392424 
9 COCHIN                             40536212              8147426 
10 DELHI                             46907953            223532492 
11 GUWAHATI                          2403065                873146 
12 HYDERABAD                         63467327              8842370 
13 JAIPUR                            24203460              4544451 
14 JALANDHAR                         33299220              7018506 
15 JAMMU                             3277774               1532145 
16 KOZHIKODE                         69031781              7016900 
17 LUCKNOW                           39723067              7559065 
18 MADRAS                            49963942              7221016 
19 NAGPUR                            3647733               1287653 
20 PANAJI (GOA)                      67191126              1645542 
21 PATNA                             14761249              3092442 
22 TIRUCHIRAPALLI                    71830155              7515753 
23 TRIVANDRUM                        40889792              6921714 
   TOTAL                             750236165           343635173 


APPENDIX-VIII > Consular Data for 1994.

Consular Data for 1994.

1 Number of Attestations 183007
2 Number of Indians repatriated at Government cost 2368
3 Number of Indians arrested aborad* 11705
4 Number of deaths of Indians reported to the Ministry* 2988
5 Number of foreigners in jails in India" 1856
6 Number of foreigners died in India*** 305
7 (i) Number of requests for extradition received 3
by Government of India from abroad#

(ii) Number of requests for extradition from Government 4
of India to Foreign Governments#
8 Number of lost/damaged passports cases received* 13741

* Figures are for Cases reported.
** Figures made available by Ministry of Home Affiars.
*** Figures made available by State Governments.
# Includes requests made to countries with which India does not have
Extradition Treaties.

APPENDIX-IX Names of Ambassadors/High Commissioners of India abroad

Names of Ambassadors/High Commissioners of India abroad who have taken
charge from 1-1-1994 to 20-12-1994.

S NO   COUNTRY             CAPITAL         AMBASSADOR/        DATE OF 
                                       HIGH COMMISSIONER   APPOINTMENT 
1 Argentina            Buenes Aires    Nathu Ram Verma      3.1.1994 
2 Belgium              Brussels        Amar Nath Ram       22.1.1994 
3 Cambodia             Phnom Penh      Dr G S Raj Hans       1.7.1994 
4 Colombia             Bogota          P Rath               3.10.1994 
5 Guyana               Georgetown      Narendra Kumar       31.8.1994 
6 Indonesia            Jakarta         S T Devare           10.9.1994 
7 Iran                 Tehran          Siddharth Singh      20.7.1994 
8 Iraq                 Baghdad         Arif Qamarain         6.6.1994 
9 Ivory Coast          Abidjan         P K Gupta             6.8.1994 
10 Jamaica             Kingston        V B Soni             12.4.1994 
11 Republic of Korea   Seoul           Shaoshank           24.11.1994 
12 Democratic People's Pyongyang       A N Jha               9.8.1994 
   Republic of Korea 
13 Kyrghyzstan         Bishkek         R S Mukhija           3.6.1994 
14 Libya               Tripoli         Surendra Kumar      23.11.1994 
15 Madagascar          Antananrivo     Dr P V Joshi         22.9.1994 
16 Malta               Valetta         P L Goyal            22.6.1994 
17 Mexico              Mexico City     Smt Chokila Iyer    10.12.1994 
18 Morocco             Rabat           G S Iyer             18.2.1994 
19 Mozambique          Maputo          P S Randhawa        27.10.1994 
20 New Zealand         Wellington      K M Meena            11.8.1994 
21 Oman                Muscat          I S Rathore          22.6.1994 
22 Panama              Panama City     Bal Anand            1.12.1994 
23 Poland              Warsaw          Smt S U Tripathi     13.8.1994 
24 Portugal            Lisbon          S K Arora             1.8.1994 
25 Romania             Bucharest       M L Tripathi         17.2.1994 
26 Senegal             Dakar           M S Malik            29.6.1994 
27 South Africa        Pretoria        M K Mangalmurti      18.7.1994 
28 Suriname            Paramaribo      Udai Singh           15.4.1994 
29 Switzerland         Berne           K P Balakrishnan     20.7.1994 
30 Tanzania            Dar-es-Salam    O P Gupta            24.8.1994 
31 Tajikistan          Dushanbe        B R Muthu Kumar     20.12.1994 
32 Thailand            Bangkok         Ranjit Gupta         16.2.1994 
33 Trinidad & Tobago   Port of Spain   J Doddamani          17.8.1994 
34 Turkmenistan        Ashgabat        Dr V P Sharma         8.6.1994 
35 United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi      M P M Menon          21.7.1994 
36 Venezuela           Caracas         V P Singh            21.7.1994 
37 Zimbabwe            Harare          S Kipgen             14.9.1994 


APPENDIX-X Cadre Strength at Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad during 1994-95

Cadre Strength at Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad during 1994-95
(including posts budgeted by Ministry of Commerce and excluding posts
held in abeyance/ex-cadred).

S NO  CADRE/POST      MISTS AT       POSTS AT             TOTAL 
                                     HEADQUARTERS      MISSIONS 
IFS (A) 
1 Grade-I                4            18                22 
2 Grade-II               3            25                28 
3 Grade-III              24           103               127 
4 Grade-IV               33           98                131 
5 Junior Administrative 
  Grade/Senior Scale     40           172               212 
6 (i) junior Scale       3            30                33 
  (ii) Probationers reserve 27        --                27 
  (iii) Leave reserve   19            --                19 
  (iv) Deputation reserve 20          --                20 
  (v) Training reserve   10           --                10 
IFS (B) 
7 (i) Grade-I             59          81                140 
  (ii) Deputation reserve  6          -                   6 
8 (i)  Grade-II/Ill       100         164               264 
  (ii) Leave reserve      30          --                 30 
  (iii) Deputation reserve 16         --                 16 
  (iv) Training reserve   25          --                 25 
  (No post has been ex-cadred in this grade) 
9 (i) Grade-IV            252         381               633 
  (ii) Leave reserve      60           -                 60 
  (iii) Deputation reserve 55          -                 55 
10 (i) Grade-V/VI         334         197               531 
   (ii) Leave reserve     60           -                 60 
   (iii) Deputation reserve 14         -                 14 
11 (i) Grade-II of Cypher Subcadre (Cypher Assistants) 
                          58         135                193 
   (ii) Leave reserve     23          -                  23 
12 Principal Private 
    Secretary              4          17                 21 
13(i) Private Secretary   27         179                206 
  (ii) Leave reserve      14          -                  14 
14 (i) Personal Assistant 156         188               344 
   (ii) Leave reserve      33           -                33 
   (iii) Training reserve (Hindi) 10    -                10 
   (iv) Deputation reserve 12          -                 12 
15 Stenographer (Grade-III of Stenographer Subcadre) 42  77 119  
16 Interpreters' Cadre     10          25                35 
17 L&T Cadre               17          -                 17 
TOTAL                     1600        1890             3490 


APPENDIX-XI List of Officers qualified in various foreign languages.
List of Officers qualified in various foreign languages.

1 Arabic 90
2 Bahasa Indonesia 10
3 Bulgarian 1
4 Burmese 1
5 Chinese 50
6 Dutch 1
7 French 84
8 German 36
9 Gorkhali/Nepali 1
10 Hungarian 1
11 Italian 5
12 Japanese 21
13 Kazakh 1
14 Kishwahili 9
15 Malay 1
16 Persian 13
17 Polish 1
18 Portuguese 15
19 Russian 71
20 Serbo-Croatian 3
21 Sinhalese 1
22 Spanish 51
23 Swedish 1
24 Thai 1
25 Tibetan 3
26 Turkish 5
27 Ukrainian 1
28 Vietnamese 2

APPENDIX-XII Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment

Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment and promotion) made in various groups in the Ministry of External Affairs and reserved vacancies filled by Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes during the year 1994.

                                       RESERVED         UN-RESERVED 
                                     SC       ST 
Group 'A'           47                8        3            36 
Group 'B'           140               23       11           106 
Group 'C'           121               27       10           84 
Group 'D'           30                4        3            23 
(Excluding Sweepers) 



APPENDIX-XIII Revenue Expenditure of the MEA during the Year 1994-95

Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry of External Affairs during the
Financial Year 1994-95.
                                                (IN CRORES OF RUPEES) 
Headquarters                                                 48.47 
Missions/Posts abroad                                        387.43 
International Conference and Meetings                        2.00 
Hospitality Charges                                          7.50 
Contribution to International Organizations (including UN)   37.38 
Central Passport Organization                                31.00 
Special Diplomatic Expenditure                               176.87 
Grants-in-Aid to ICCR                                        21.00 
Other Miscellaneous items                                    12.75 
Gulf Evacuation                                              15.43 
Payment to Indian Airlines for Charter Operations between    8.42 
Madras-Port Blair sector 
Aid to other Countries 
Aid to Bangladesh                                            0.50 
Aid to Bhutan                                                69.00 
Aid to Nepal                                                 19.00 
Aid to Sri Lanka                                             4.00 
Aid to Maldives                                              5.50 
Aid to Other Developing Countries                            28.60 
Aid to AFRICA Fund                                           6.90 
TOTAL REVENUE EXPENDITURE                                    881.75 


APPENDIX-XIV > Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters

Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters of the
Ministry of External Affairs in 1994-95.

The estimated expenditure on the Headquarters Organization of the Ministry during the current financial year (1994-95) is expected to be Rs 48.47 crore which is 5.50% of the total estimated revenue expenditure of the Ministry. Out of this Rs 11.57 crore will be on Salaries and Wages, Rs 10.32 crore on Travel Expenses, Rs 14.34 crore on Office Expenses, Rs 5.06 crore on Publicity and Rs 6.70 crore on Rent and Maintenance.

The total estimated expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts is expected to be Rs 387.43 crore during the current financial year which works out to 43.94% of the total revenue expenditure of this Ministry. Out of this, an amount of Rs 148.59 crore is for Salaries (including Foreign Allowances), OTA and Wages, Rs 40.27 crore for Travel Expenses (Transfer Passages/Home Leave Passages and Local tours), Rs 73.55 crore for Office Expenses and Rs 125.02 crore for Rent, Rates and Taxes as well as for Repairs and maintenance of Government owned/rented accommodation in Missions abroad. Average expenditure per Mission abroad (including Publicity) works out to Rs 2.62 crore.

The remaining 50.56% of the estimated revenue expenditure of the Ministry is being incurred on various aid programmes for neighbouring and other developing countries including ITEC programmes, Aid under AFRICA Fund, SAARC and SCAAP programmes, contribution to United Nations Organizations and other International bodies, Passport Organizations, Hospitality, Gulf Evacuation, Grants-in-Aid to Indian Council for Cultural Relations and other miscellaneous items.

In the Capital Section there is a total provision of Rs 45.15 crore in RE 1994-95, out of which Rs 45.00 crore are for construction and purchase of properties. Rest of the amount represents loan component for Indian Society of International Law (ISIL) and countries like


APPENDIX-XV VVIP Visits to India during 1994.

 VVIP Visits to India during 1994. 
S NO NAME OF VISITOR                                   DATE 
Heads of State, Vice President, Heads of Government and Members
of Royal  Families 
1 His Excellency Mr Islam Abduganievich     3 to 5 January 1994
  Karimov, President of Uzbekistan                       
2 Queen of Spain-Private                     14 to 20 January 1994 
3 His Excellency Mr Goh Chok Tong,    23 to 31 January 1994 
  Prime Minister of Singapore                           
4 His Excellency Mr Vaclav Havel,          6 to 11 February 1994
  President of Czech Republic                           
5 His Excellency Mr P Ochirbat,            21 to 25 February 1994
  President of Mongoloia and                            
  Mrs S Tsevelmaa 
6 His Excellency Mr Lech Walesa,         2 to 8 March 1994
  President of Poland                                      
7 His Excellency Mr M A Gayoom,       21 to 25 March 1994 
  President of Maldives                                   
8 President of Indonesia, Prime Minister   27 to 30 March 1994
  of Malaysia, President of Zimbabwe,                      
  President of Nigeria, President of 
  Senegal (G-15 Conference) 
9 His Excellency Mr Carlos S Menem, 30 March to 2 April 1994
  President of Argentina (G-15 Conference                
  and Bilateral) 
10 Prime Minister of Portugal (Transit)     20 April 1994 
11 His Excellency Mr Le Duc Anh,            30 April 1994 
   President of Vietnam (Transit) 
12 His Excellency Mr Le Duc Anh,         2 May 1994 
   President of Vietnam (Transit) 
13 His Excellency Mr Daniel Arap Moi,    2 and 3 
   President of Kenya May 1994 
14 His Excellency Mr Daniel Arap Moi,      8 May 1994 
   President of Kenya 
15 His Royal Highness Prince Norodom    4 to 7 June 1994
   Sirivuddh, Deputy Prime Minister and                     
   Foreign Minister of Cambodia 
16 His Excellency Mr Jozef Moravcik,     7 and 8 July 1994
   Prime Minister of Slovak Republic                        
17 His Excellency Mr B Compaore,           22 and 23 July 1994 
   President of Burkina Faso (Transit)                     
18 Mrs Uteem, Wife of President         15 to 21 August 1994
   of Mauritius (Private Bombay                           
   and Hyderabad) 
19 His Royal Highness Crown Prince of   30 August to 5 September 1994
20 His Excellency Mr Yoweri    6 and 7 September and 11 to 
   Museveni, President of Uganda        13 September 1994
21 His Excellency Dr Boutros Boutros Ghali, 8 to 10 September 1994
   UN Secretary General and Mrs Ghali                  
22 Lady Thatcher, Ex-Prime Minister of UK  18 to 24 September 1994
   (Citi Bank function)                                
23 President of Hungary (Transit          20 and 21 September 1994
   Madras and Bombay)                                  
24 His Excellency Gen Gnassingbe Eyadema,   26 to 29 September 1994
   President of Togo                                   
25 Princess Alexandria of UK (Private)      23 to 27 October 1994 
26 His Excellency Mr J R Ajodhia,          9 to 13 November 1994
   Vice President of Suriname and Mrs Ajodhia           
27 Duke of Edinburgh (Private)      22 to 27 November 1994 
28 His Excellency Chief Emeka Anyaoku,   3 to 6 December 1994
   Commonwealth Secretary General                       
29 Their Majesties the King and Queen     12 to 14 December 1994
   of Nepal (Private)                                   
30 His Majesty the King of Bhutan (Private) 12 to 15 December 1994
31 His Excellency the Prime Minister of Russia 22 and 24 December 1994
32 Bhutan Royal Family (Private)    27 December to 1 January 1996 
Deputy Prime Ministers, Foreign Ministers and Others 
1 His Excellency Prof B Andreata, Foreign    2 to 4 January 1994
Minister of Italy and Mrs Andreata                       
2 His Excellency Dr P Nababsingh,         24 to 31 January 1994
  Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign                      
  Minister of Mauritius 
3 His Excellency Mr Roberto Robaina,    16 to 18 March 1994
  Foreign Minister of Cuba                                 
4 His Excellency Mr A Juppe, Foreign      3 to 6 April 1994
  Minister of France                                       
5 His Excellency Mr Venancio de Silva,     5 to 8 April 1994
  Foreign Minister of Angola                               
6 His Excellency Mr Mohamed Salem,  10 to 12 April 1994
  Foreign Minister of Yemen                                
7 His Excellency Mr A M Zlenko,      18 to 21  April 1994
  Foreign Minister of Ukraine                             
8 His Excellency Mr Sayed Al-Sahaaf,      21 to 23 April 1994
  Foreign Minister of Iraq                                 
9 Hon A C S Hameed, Foreign Minister of    21 to 23 April 1994
  Sri Lanka                                                
10 His Excellency Mr Nguyen Cam,        23 to 29  May 1994
   Foreign Minister of Vietnam                              
11 His Excellency Mr Dean Barrow,       14 to 17 June 1994
   Deputy Prime Minister and                                
   Foreign Minister of Belize 
12 His Excellency Mr James A Michel,    19 to 25 June 1994
   Finance Minister of Seychelles                           
13 His Excellency Mr Qian Qichen,        17 to 19 July 1994
   Vice-Premier of China                                    
14 His Excellency Dr Klaus Kinkel,      27 to 29 July 1994
   Foreign Minister of Germany                              
15 Hon Dr A S Kasenally, Foreign Minister of   3 to 10 August 1994
   Mauritius and Mrs Kasenally                            
16 His Excellency Mr Yousaf Bin Alawi,     11 to 13 August 1994
   Foreign Minister of Oman                               
17 His Excellency Mr K B Saudabaev,     14 and 15 August 1994
   Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan                         
18 His Excellency Mr S L Gsavad,       16 to 23 August 1994 
   Foreign Minister of Laos                              
19 His Excellency Mr Rabani,          22 to 27 August 1994
   Deputy Speaker of Iran                                 
20 His Excellency Mr Subhas C Mungra,   5 to 8 November 1994
   Foreign Minister of Suriname and Mrs Mungra          
21 His Excellency Mr Surin Pitsuwan,     9 to 13 November 1994
   Deputy Foreign Minister of Thailand                  
22 His Excellency Mr U Sultanov,    21 to 26 November 1994
   Deputy Prime Minister of Uzbekistan                  
23 His Excellency Mr Lyompo Dawa Tsering,   23 to 26 November 1994
   Foreign Minister of Bhutan (Private)                 
24 His Excellency Mr Lakshman Kadirgamar,  6 to 10 December 1994
   Foreign Minister of Sri Lanka                        


APPENDIX-XVI visits abroad of the President, Vice President and Prime Minister

visits abroad of the President, Vice President and Prime Minister of
India during 1994.

APPENDIX-XVII List of Conferences/Seminars, etc organised by Conference Cell

1. IAEA Meeting 26 to 28 April 1994

2 Panchsheel and Global Diplomacy 27 and 28 June 1994

3 MEA Parliamentary Consultative 11 July 1994 Committee Meeting

4 Indo-Myanmar Survey Talks 18 and 19 July 1994

5 Seminar for State Protocol Officers 5 August 1994 6 Indo-Nepal Boundary Talks 23 to 26 August 1994

7 Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Memorial 9 September 1994 Lecture

8 UN Secretary General's Press Conference10 September 1994

9 Orientation Programme for Foreigns 24 to 28 October 1994 Diplomat

10 Inaugural Ceremony of the 50th 30 October 1994 Anniversary of the United Nations

11 Asian Organisation of Supreme Audit November 1994 Institutions (ASOSAI)

12 Meeting of Australian and Indian 8 and 9 November 1994 Human Rights Commissions

13 Familiarisation Programme for Foreign 16 November 1994 Service Probationers of other countries

14 From India to America: New Directions 30 November 1994 in IndianAmerican Film and Video

15 SAARC workshop to formulate a 12 and 13 December 1994 collective position for the World Summit for Social Development

16 International Day of Solidarity with the13 December 1994 Palestinian People 17 The Non-Aligned Labour Ministers 19 to 23 January 1995 Conference -201>

APPENDIX-XVIII Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc organised by Inter-Governmental Organisations at which the Government of India was represented in 1994-95.
1 3rd session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating 17 to 28 January 1994 New York Committee on the Convention for Desertification

2 First PREPCOM for the World Summit on 31 January to 10 February 1994 Social New York Development

3 50th session of the Commission on Human 31 January to 11 March 1994 Rights Geneva

4 4th session of INC on Convention to Combat Geneva 21 to 31 April 1994 Desertification

5 50th session of ESCAP New Delhi 5 to 13 April 1994

6 1994 session of the United Nations Disarmament 18 April to 9 May 1994 New York Commission

7 Conference on Sustainable Development Barbados 25 April to 6 May 1994 of Small Islands Developing States

8 47th session of World Health Assembly Geneva 2 to 11 May1994

9 Intemational Conference on Natural Disaster Yokohama May 1994 Reduction

10 12th World Meteorological Conference Geneva 30 May to 21 June 1994

11 5th session of INS on Convention to CombatParis 6 to 17 June 1994 Desertification

12 2nd Meeting of the Intergovernmental 20 June to 2 July 1994 Committeeb Nairobi on Convention on Biological Diversity

13 7th plenary session of the Preparatory 27 June to 1 July 1994 CommissionThe Hague of the organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) -202>

14 ECOSOC High Level Segment and 30th 27 June to 29 July 1994 anniversary New York commemorative meeting of G-77

15 2nd PREPCOM of World Summit on27 June to 2 September 1994 Social New York Development

16 21st Congress of Universal Postal Union 22 August to 14 September 1994 Seoul

17 International Conference on Population 5 to 13 September 1994 and Cairo Development

18 38th Regular Session of the General 19 to 23 September 1994 Conference Vienna of the IAEA

19 Special Conference of the BWC Geneva 19 to 30 September 1994

20 Plenipotentiary Conference ofl 19 September to 14 October 1994 Kyoto Internationa Telecommunication Union

21 Ministerial Conference on Space Application 19 to 24 September 1994 for Beijing Development in ESCAP region

22 63rd session of ICPO Interpol Rome 23 September to 4 October 1994

23 8th plenary session of the The Hague 26 to 30 September 1994 Preparatory Commission of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

24 14th session of the International Conference 3 to 8 October 1994 on Geneva Education

25 Meeting of the Special Finance Group The Hague 10 to 14 October 1994 of thePreparatory Commission of the Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapns (OPCW)

26 73rd session of the council of the London 14 to 18 November 1994 International Maritime Organisation

27 107th session of the Council of Food 15 to 24 November 1994 and Rome Agriculture Organization

28 19th meeting of Heads of National Wellington 14 to 18 November 1994 Drug Law Enforcement Agencies (HONLEA) Asia & Pacific -203>

29 World Ministerial Conference on Organized 21 to 23 November 1994 Naples Transnational Crime

30 Regional Seminar on Integrated f 16 to 19 November 1994 Applications o New Delhi Remote Sensing and GIS

31 First Meeting of the Conference 28 November to 9 December 1994 Nassau of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity

32 9th plenary session of the Preparatory 5 to 9 December 1994 The Hague Commission of the Organization for the Prohibition Of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

33 12th ICPO Interpol Asian New Delhi12 and 13 December 1994 Regional Meeting

34 Adhoc Group of the States PartiesC Geneva 4 to 6 january 1995 to BW

35 Annual meeting of the UN Centre for 13 to 15 February 1995 Disarmament Kathmandu Affairs -204>

APPENDIX-XIX Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars organised by Non-Governmental Organisations in which Indian Experts participated in their personal capacity with Government assistance in 1994.

1 91st Inter-Parliamentary Conference on Paris 21 to 26 March 1994 Environment

2 Global Tiger Forum New Delhi 3 and 4 March 1994

3 G-15 Summit New Delhi 20 to 30 March 1994

4 Meeting of a Workshop on the UN Arms Register Tokyo 29 and 30 June 1994

5 Special Session of Inter-Parliamentary Union on Tokyo 13 to 17 July 1994 Science and Technology for Regionally Sustainable Development

6 Conference of Health Ministers on InteRNational Paris 17 and 18 July 1994 Mobilisation Against AIDS

7 Second Regional Seminar on Traditional Practices Colombo 4 to 8 July 1994 affecting the Health of Women and Children

8 Conference on UN and the New World Order New Delhi 24 August 1994 organised by Indian Council of World Affairs

9 International Symposium on Assessing of Health Rome 13 to 17September 1994 Risks from Drinking Water Contamination

10 International Conference on Chemical and UK 30 September to 2 October 1994 Biological Weapons

11 World Symposium on Trade Efficiency Ohio (USA) 17 to 24 October 1994

12 Forum on Trade Envrionment and Sustainable Geneva 21 and 22 November 1994 Development

13 International Seminar on Science and Technology New Delhi 12 to 14 December 1994 for Social Development

14 Regional Conference on Sustainable Development Kathmandu 13 to 15 December 1994 and Fragile Mountain Areas (ICIMOD) -205>

APPENDIX-XX Miscellaneous major International Conferences etc

Miscellaneous major International Conferences etc in 1994-95 at which
the Government of India was represented or in which Indian experts participated in their personal capacities with Government of India's assistance.

1 International Conference on the Cultural of San Salvador 6 to 18 February 1994 Peace

2 UNDP & UNICEF Executive Board Meetings New York February 1994 14 and 15

3 International Conference on "The Security and Geneva Econimic Considerations of Arms and Technology February 1994 Among Exporting and Importing States" organised by UNIDIR

4 Workshop on Verification on a Comprehensive Tokyo 13 to 17 March 1994 Test Ban Treaty

5 144th session of the Executive Board on UNESCO Paris 25 April to 4 May 1994

6 5th Working Group Meeting of the MEPP on Arms Doha 2 to 5 May 1994 Control and Regional Security

7 First Meeting of the 38th session of the New York 16 to 23 May 1994 Committee on Programme and Coordination

8 Brain Storming Session on UN Peace Keeping Ottawa 29 May to 1 June 1994 Operations

9 UNDP Executive Board Geneva 6 to 17 June 1994

10 Fellowship Programme on Peace Making and Burg 27 june to 8 July 1994 Preventing Diplomacy Schlaining (Austria)

11 145th session of the UNESCO Executive Borad Paris 17 October to 4 November 1994

12 International Conference on Oceanographic Lisbon 14 to 19 November 1994 Research

13 18th session of the Management Committee of Bangkok 15 to 23 November 1994 Asian Pacific Telecommunity (APT) -206>

14 Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Social Society, Geneva 21 to 25 November 1994 Social Protection and Equality of treatment between Men and Women

15 ESCAP Committee on Statistics Dhaka 28 November to 2 December 1994

16 The 7th Meeting of the Arms Control and Regional Tunis 13 to 15 December 1994 Security Working Group (ACRS) of the multilateral track of the Middle East Peace Process

17 Seminar on "Cut-off of Fissile Material Toronto 17 and 18 January 1995

18 Seminar on "Monitoring a Comprehensive Test Portugal 23 January to 2 February 1995 Ban Treaty" organised by the NATO Advanced Study Institute -207>

APPENDIX-XXI Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis OF NAM

Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the Non-aligned Movement(NAM) during 1994-95.

1 Consultative Meeting of Foreign Ministers of NAM Jakarta 9 and 10 February 1994

2 11th Ministerial Conference of the NAM Cairo 31 May to 3 June 1994

3 NAM Ministerial Meeting on Debt Management, Jakarta 13 to 15 August 1994 Development and sharing of experiences

4 NAM Foreign Ministers' Meeting at the 49th New York 5 October 1994 General Assembly of the United Nations

5 Ministerial Meeting on Food and Agriculture Bali 7 to 10 October 1994

6 Fifth Conference of Labour Ministers of NAM and other New Delhi 19 to 23 January 1995 developing countries -208> INDONESIA EGYPT USA INDIA

APPENDIX-XXII Outgoing Performing Arts Delegations (ICCR)

Outgoing Performing Arts Delegations (ICCR) (April to December 1994).

S NO COUNTRY    TYPE OF GROUP          PERIOD                  REMARKS 
1 Trinidad  Pt Ram Mohan Mishra 13 to 20 April To give performances on 
                                                          the occasion 
  and Tobago & Parul Mishra,     1994 of "India Day" celebrated by the 
             Kathak Dancers with        International Exposition, 1994 
             two accompanists from                    at Port of Spain 
             Paramaribo, Suriname 
2 Australia  10-member Folk Dance and 15 April to  To participate in  
  Music Group of Rajasthan          15 May 1994 the "India Today 1994" 
  led by Rehmat Khan Langa, 
  New Delhi 
3 Australia Louis Banks with SANGAM 23 April to To participate in the 
                                                         "India Today 
  Featuring: Rama Mani and         5 May 1994         1994" Australia 
  10 other Members 
4 China  Louis Banks with SANGAM  5 to 21 May 1994  Festival of India 
                                                             in China 
  Featuring: Rama Mani and 
  10 other members 
5 China 14-Member Pung Cholam/  5 to 25 May 1994  Festival of India in 
  Dhol Cholam/Thang-Ta from 
6 China  5-member Kalaripayattu group  5 to 25 May 1994    Festival of 
                                                        India in China 
  from Kerala coordinated by 
  Shri Lokendra Arambam 
7 China  11-Member Manipuri Raas  5 to 25 May 1994   Festival of India 
                                                              in China 
  group led by Singhajit 
  Singh and Charu Mathur of 
  Triveni Kala Sangam, New Delhi 
8 China  12-Member Yakshagana   5 to 22 May 1994  Festival of India in 
  Group led by Shambu Hegde, 
9 China  8-Member Bhangra Group  5 to 21 May 1994     Festival of India 
                                                               in China 
  led by Rajpal Singh from 
  Patiala and 8-Member 
  Giddha Group 
10 Indonesia  8-Member Bhangra Group 21 to 26 May 1994         To give 
   led by Rajpal Singh from 
   Patiala and 8-Member 
   Giddha Group 
11 Thailand  8-Member Bhangra Group  26 to 28 May 1994         To give 
   led by Rajpal Singh from 
   Patiala and 8-Member 
   Giddha Group 
12 Belgium  Three desabled artistes from  May 1994   To participate in 
                                                     the International 
   Very Special Arts, New Delhi         Festival and Conference on the 
   i) Ms Meenakshi Mahwal                             Arts at Brussels 
   ii) Ms Renu Singh 
   iii) Ms Anjana Sharma 
13 Germany  6-Member Folk Group      July 1994   To give performances 
   from Rajasthan 
   Kohinoor Langa & Party 
14 Russia  6-Member Folk Group    July 1994   To give performances at 
                                                        the exclusive 
   from Rajasthan                     Commercial Indian Exhibition in 
   Kohinoor Langa & Party                    Moscow organised by ITPO 
15 France   Meera Kala Mandir,    07 July to  To give performances at 
   Udaipur                         24 August 1994            Festival 
16 USA   Shri Hridaynath Mangeshkar  23 July 1994 To give performance 
                                                      to coincide with 
   Singer from Bombay            the inauguration of branch of Jagatik 
                                               Marathi Parishad in USA 
17 Syria, Lebanon,  Ms Sunayna Hazarilal  9 to 24 To give performances 
   Qatar, Bahrain   Kathak Dancer        August 1994 
   and Oman 
18 Bhutan   10-Member Group of        11 to 18    For Independence Day 
   Folk Dance and Music            August 1994 
19 Russia  Ms Santosh Vyas         18 to 27    To give performances at 
   Kathak Dance Teacher in         August 1994   Fair at St Petersburg 
   Moscow alongwith her                     (Russia) organised by ITPO 
   Russian students 
20 Peru   Pt Ram Mohan Mishra and    24 to 28     To give performances 
   Bolivia  Ms Parul Mishra      August 1994 
   Ecuador   Kathak Dancers 
   from Paramaribo 
21 Trinidad and   Mahima Casewa   26 August 1994  To give performances 
   Tobago       Ghazal Singer and                              by NCIC 
                two other Members 
22 Mauritius   Ms Anjali Banerjee   12 to 18     To participate in the 
   Ghazal Singher and           September 1994       Death Anniversary 
                                                       Celebrations of 
   four other Members                                     Mirza Ghalib 
23 UAE (Dubai)  16-Member Folk Dance/  17 to 23   To perform at "India 
                                                        in Dubai 1994" 
    Music Group including            September 1994  organised by ITPO 
24 Germany   i) Ms Sonal Mansingh   22 September to  To participate in 
                                                     the "India Night" 
   and Region  Bharatanatyam/OdissiDancer  18 October 1994       on 24 
                                          September, 1994 at the Alter 
                                        Opera in Frankfurt to mark the 
   ii) Shri Amjad Ali Khan       18 to 25   celebrations of 1200 Years 
                                                          of Frankfurt 
       Sarod Player          September 1994                       City 
25  USA  Shri Rajeeb Chakraborty  26 September to To give performances 
                                                                at the 
    Sarod Player and     18 October 1994  invitation of USA University 
    Shri Kausic Sen                       Circuit for Indian Classical 
    Tabla Player                                                 Music 
26  USA       Pt V G Jog      September/          To give performances 
    (Violin Player),                                      October 1994 
    Shri Manilal Nag 
    (Sitar Player), 
    Shri Ulhas Kashalkar 
    (Vocalist) and 
    Shri A G Bandopadhyay 
    (Tabla Player) 
27  Sweden       Smt P Mallick  September 1994   To give performances 
    Finland    Rabindra Sangeet Singer 
    Norway  Calcutta 
28  Bangladesh   Ms Kanika Bandopadhyay  18 October 1994      To give 
    Rabindra Sangeet Singer 
    with 3 accompanists 
29  USA         Ms Malavika Sarukkai      October 1994        To give 
                                                  performances at the 
                Bharatanatyam Dancer       invitation of Asia Society 
                and 5 other Members 
30 Turkmenistan  Ms Malti Shyam           25 October to       To give 
                                                  performances on the 
                Kathak Dancer           5 November 1994   occasion of 
                                                      3rd Anniversary 
              and 5 other Members        of Turkmenistan Independence 
                                                     Day Celebrations 
31 Ghana    15-Member Haryana Folk       29 October to        To give 
   Nigeria   Dance/Music Group led       29 November 1994 
   Morocco   by Shri Kamal Tiwari 
32 South Korea   Ms Sarala Kumari        29 October to        To give 
   Indonesia     Kuchipudi Dancer       1 December 1994 
   Philippines    Hyderabad 
33 Thailand    30-Member Kalakshetra      13 to 18            To give 
                                                     performances for 
               Troupe from Madras       December 1994       'Ramayana 


APPENDIX-XXIII Incoming Performing Delegations (ICCR)

Incoming Performing Delegations (ICCR) (April to December 1994)

The Council organised the following events during period April-December 1994:

1 On & occasion of Nepalese New Year Day, the ICCR in collaboration with
the B P Koirala India-Nepal Foundation organised a cultural evening of folklores by a group of Bhanu Kala Kendra, Nepal on 14th April 1994 at Teen Murti Auditorium.

2 As an annual feature, Council held a formal function to observe the Africa Day on 24th May 1994 at Azad Bhavan Auditorium. The programme included formal speeches by Dean of African Heads of Mission in India, Ambassador of Egypt and Secretary (West), MEA.

3 In collaboration with the Alliance Francaise the Council sponsored the visit to India of a 5-member Dance Company 'Theatre Du Mouvement' from France from 7 to 25 September 1994. In addition to public performances, the company also arranged workshops in Calcutta, Bombay and Delhi.

4 The Council extended logistic and financial support to the Tibet House to organise a concert of Buddhist Music and Chanting on 4 October 1994 at Buddha Jayanti Park, New Delhi.

5 Council rendered financial support for a concert of Symphony Orchestra being organised by Delhi Symphony Society with Conductor Maestro Riccardo Cappaso from Italy on 29 October 1994 at Siri Fort Auditorium.

6 A special programme was organised to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of United Nations on 30 october 1994 at Teen Murti Auditorium. The programme included choir by children of Delhi Public School, R K Puram and Sarod Recital by Ustad Amjad Ali Khan.

7 The Council extended financial support in presenting a programme 'Dawn After' a dance drama featuring European classical ballet, Kathak, Flamenco by artistes from India, Spain and Columbia on 17 November 1994 at Siri Fort Auditorium. The artistes also presented their performances in Bangalore, Madras, Hyderabad, Bombay and Calcutta.

8 To commemorate the 125th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the Council in collaboration with the Embassy of Israel, the Shalom India- Israel Centre, OPO Committee in coordination with the Delhi Symphony Society presented a concert by the Israel Philharmoic Orchestra with Zubin Mehta as its conductor and Itzhak Perlman as Violinist on 27 November 1994, at I G Stadium, New Delhi.

9 The Council presented a Piano Concert by the eminent Pianist from Netherland-Mr Rian De Waal on 2 December 1994 at Teen Murti Auditorium. The visit was under CEP. Mr Waal also presented his performance in Goa, Bangalore, Pune, Bombay. He has also conducted workshops at Delhi and Bangalore.

10 7-member Balmuz Dance Company from France presented its performances at Bombay, Ahmedabad, Goa, Bangalore, Pondichery, Calcutta, Chandigarh besides Delhi. Their performance in Delhi was arranged on 9 December 1994 at Siri Fort Auditorium.

11 18-member Tomkins Vocal Ensemble from Hungary visited India under CEP for a period of 12 days and presented one performance each in Bangalore, Goa, Bombay and two in Delhi (one at Teen Murti Audiorium on 10 December and another on 12 December at the Church of Redemption).

12 15-member Theatre Group of Bharati Rang Mandir from Mauritius visited India under CEP and presented a play in Hindi 'Itihaas Sakshi hai' at Chandigarh, Lucknow, Bombay and Delhi. Their performance in Delhi was arranged on 15 December at FICCI Auditorium.

13 Under 'Bangladesh Festival of Arts' in India, three performing art groups viz 34-mernber Music & Dance Group, 10-member magic Group of Jewel Aich and 13-member Nagorik Natya Sampradaya Threate Group visited India under Bilateral Cultural and Education Exchange Programme.

The Festival was jointly inaugurated by the Minister of State for Culture, Govt. of Bangladesh Prof. Jahan Ara Begum and Km Selja, Deputy Minister for Education and Culture, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India with formal speeches followed by short performance by each of the three performing groups.

The 10-member Magic Group presented its individual performance on 21 December. The theatre group presented a play in Bangali 'Mukhosh' on 22 December and the Dance & Music group performed on 23 December at Mavalankar Auditorium and on 26 December at the lawns of Shiv Mandir, Chittaranjan Park. The itinerary of Magic & Theatre group includes only Calcutta because of their huge stage infrastructure while the Dance and Music Group presented at Chandigarh, Lucknow, Bhubaneshwar and Calcutta and its nearby stations.


APPENDIX-XXIV Special Programmes in honour of VVIP (ICCR) visitors/delegates

Special Programmes in honour of VVIP (ICCR) visitors/delegates

1 A programme of folk music and dances from Rajasthan on 21 July 1994 at Ashoka Hotel, in honour of the delegates to the Mango Festival.

2 A lecture-demonstration on Kathak by Shri Jiwan Pani, Director, Kathak Kendra, on 1 August 1994 at Ashoka Hotel, in honour of the Soka Gakkai Youth Cultural Delegation from Japan.

3 A programme by a folk group from Rajasthan to coincide with the launching of the International Family Year on 30 August 1994 at Azad Bhavan Auditorium.

4 A sarod recital by Ustad Amjad Ali Khan and a choir by the students of the Delhi Public School, R K Puram, on 30 October 1994 at Teen Murthi Auditorium on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations.

5 A performance by Pandit Shankar Ghosh and his group on the occasion of the International Students Day Programme on 11 November 1994 in the lawns of the Delhi College of Engineering.

6 A special programme of two dance dramas 'Shakuntalam' and 'Geet Govind' in Odissi style by the artistes of the Vikas Kala Kendra, Cuttack, at Rashtrapati Bhavan for the President of India.

APPENDIX-XXV Exhibition (Outgoing and Incoming) for 1994-95 (ICCR)

Exhibition (Outgoing and Incoming) for 1994-95 (ICCR).

      EXHIBITION                        COMMISSIONER/ 
1 Children's Painting  Seoul     April 1994   Nil   ICCR sponsored an 
                                                        exhibition of 
                       (SAARC)    Korea              25 award winning 
                                                         paintings of 
                                      Indian children (SAARC) 1992 to 
                                    Seoul Korea during April/May 1994 
2 Children's painting for Cairo  April 1994   Nil         A set of 20 
                                               children paintings was 
  long time display                     sent for long term display at 
                                       Maulana Azad Centre for Indian 
                                           Culture, E/l, Cairo during 
                                                            May 1994. 
3 Bust of Gandhiji      USA       May 1994      Nil  A bronze bust of 
                                                     Gandhiji made by 
                  (San-Francisco)   sculptor Shri Ram Suttar was sent 
                                 to USA (San Francisco) for installa- 
                                 tion. at International Peace Garden, 
                                   Salt Lake City, San Francisco, USA 
                                                      during May 1994 
4 Bust of Gandhiji     Cuba                      Nil      A life size 
                                              bronze bust of Gandhiji 
                                 was sent for installation at Central 
                                         Park in Cuba during May 1994 
5 Bronze Statue of    Japan      October 1994     Nil     A full size 
                                                bronze statue of Guru 
  Rabindranath Tagore                Rabindranath Tagore was preseted 
                                        to Soka University, Japan for 
                                installation at the University campus 
                                                    in October 1994 ' 
6 Ashoka, Gandhi, Nehru  Japan   October 1994  1 . Dr J  
                                               Halder, Keeper, On the 
                                             occassion of 125th Birth 
  The Healing Touch'                          Indian Museum,  Annive- 
                                            rsary of Mahatma Gandhiji 
                                            Calcutta  the council or- 
                                                      ganised a major 
                                              5 October 1994 to    e- 
                                  xhibition to Japan titlted 'Ashoka, 
                                              5 December 1994  Gandhi, 
                                            Nehru--The Healing Touch' 
                                               2. Shri V K Tewari  fo- 
                                       r display at the Tokyo Fuji Art 
                                                ASI, Sarnath    Museum 
                                                  in October 1994. The 
                                                3 December 1994  exh- 
                                            ibition presented exhibits 
                                                3. Shri J E 
                                                  Dawsan    reflecting 
                                                   the Ashokan period, 
                                                Museum,      lives and 
                                               times of Mahatma Gandhi 
                                               New Delhi   and Jawaha- 
                                                     rlal Nehru, their 
                                               30 January 1994 
                                               to            humanism, 
                                                       pacifim and non 
                                               31 March 1994  violence 
                                                collected from various 
                                    Indian Museum. The exhibition will 
                                      be on display at various museum/ 
                                  cities in Japan till March 26, 1995. 
7 Visit/ exhibition    UK        Ocober 1994            ICCR sponsored 
                                                    the visit/exhibits 
  of Smt Mrinalini                       of Smt Mrinalini Mukherjee to 
  Mukherjee                            the Yorkshire sculpture Park UK 
                                      to participate/permanent display 


APPENDIX-XXVI Outgoing Visitors (ICCR).

Outgoing Visitors (ICCR). S NO NAME OF PERSON COUNTRY PURPOSE PERIOD 1 Mrs Shashi Jain Italy To participate in the 7 to 10 Bologana April 1994 Writer (English) International Children's Book Association of Writers and Fair, Italy Illustrators for Children New Delhi

2 Ms Shailaja Nair -do- -do- -do Writer (Hindi) New Delhi

3 Prof Rasheedudin Khan U.K. To deliver lecture and seminar 13 to 24 April Director at Nehru Centre, London 1994 Indian Institute of Federal Studies

4 Shri Shanmugam Gangadaran U.K. To participate in 1994-95 18 April to 18 July Lecturer in Hinduism programme of the Ascension, U.K. 1994 Tamilnadu Theological Society

5 Dr (Mrs) Pratibha Ray Australia India Today 1994 21- April to Orissa (Cuttack) 3 May 1994

6 Ms Malika Sengupta -do- -do- -do Calcutta

7 Smt Shashi Deshpande -do- -do- -do Bangalore

8 Shri N V Sankaran 'Jnani' -do- -do- -do Madras -219>

9 Prof K Warikoo China To attend Central Asia 5 May to Professor cultural expedition 21 July 1994 Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi

10 Prof Y Alagh Geneva To deliver the annual May 1994 Vice-Chancellor Nehru lecture Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi

11 Shri Neb Raj Bhatia Colombia To participate in the 2 to 8 June 1994 New Delhi 4th International Festival of Poetry Modellen

12 Shri H K Kaul U.K. & USA To study the latest developments in 11 June 10 Librarian, IIC, New Delhi Library network 9 August 1994

13 Dr Suresh Rituparna Trinidad To participate in a Seminar on 29 june to New Delhi Indian Culture and Hindi 19 July 1994

14 Shri Jagdish Chandra Czech Republic To participate in a residential June-July 1994 New Delhi programme of artists in Czech Republic

15 Mrs Jyoti Subhash Australia To participate in 1 to 10 Mhapsekar Bombay the 3rd International Women Playwrights Conference July 1994

16 Ms Kamal Pathak -do- -do- -do Bombay

17 Prof N R Pattarkine USA To attend to 7-9 July International 1994 Secretary Conference on Early Literature Sanskrit Bhasha Pracharini Conference on Early Literature in Sabha Nagpur New Indo-Aryan Languages -220>

18 Shri Ashok Prajapati Canada To participate in the 15 July Art to Art Teacher Festival part of XV Commonwealth 28 August 1994 Delhi Public School Games, Victoria R.K. Puram New Delhi

19 Mrs Abha Awasthi Germany To attend XIII 18 to 28 July 1994 Professor, Deptt of Sociology Congress of Lucknow University sociology

20 Shri Jiwan Pani Kenya Adjudicator to Kenya 12 to 16 Director Music Festival August 1994 Kathak Kendra New Delhi

21 Dr M Hamidullah Bhat U.K. & Prague To participate in 14 to 18 Registrar the International Seminar on August 1994 Jamia Hamdard University University Adm- inistration in (London) Hamdard Nagar U.K. & Prague 21 to 26 New Delhi August 1994 (Prague)

22 Prof Amiya Dev Canada To attend International 15 to 20 Dean Comparative Literature August 1994 Faculty of Arts Association Jadavpur University

23 Dr (Mrs) Usha Mishra Thailand To participate in the 19 to 21 Lucknow International Seminar August 1994

24 Justice Shri S Mohan Taipei To attend the XII Sept- ember 1994 Judge (China) World Congress of Poets Supreme court of India New Delhi -221>

25 Prof S Mahmoodul Mauritius To participate in 12 to 19 Lucknow Mirza Ghalib Seminar September 1994

26 Prof Naeem Ahmed -do- -do- -do Aligarh

27 Shri L L Mehrotra Nepal Goodwill visit 23 September to New Delhi 2 October 1994

28 Ms Rekha Tandon U.K. To undertake the professional September 1994 (Odissi Dancer) diploma in dance studies at New Delhi the Laban Centre

29 Prof Madhavan K Palat ussia In connection with release September 1994 New Delhi of the IIC Quarterly on Russia in Moscow

30 Dr Geeti Sen -do- -do- -do New Delhi

31 Prof S M R Ansari Tashkent To participate in the 600th 12 to 16 Aligarh Muslim University Birth anniversary Celebrations October 1994 Aligarh of ULUGBEK

32 Ms Quarratullain Hyder U.K. To participate in the International 15 to 19 New Delhi Hindi Conference & Kavi Sammelan October 1994

33 Dr I Panduranga Rao -do- -do- -do Director Bharatiya Jnanpith New Delhi -222>

34 Dr C Narayana, Reddy U.K. To participate in the 15 to Intemational 19 Advisor on Cultural Affairs Hindi Conference & Kavi Sammelan October 1994 Govt. of Andhra Pradesh

35 Dr B K Bhattacharya -do- -do- -do Former President Sahitya Akademi New Delhi

36 Shri Ramnath Awasthi -do -do- -do New Delhi

37 Shri Ashok Sharma Chakradhar -do- -do- -do New Delhi

38 Shri L D Chaturvedi U.K. To participate in the 15 International to 19 New Delhi Hindi Conference & Kavi Sammelan October 1994

39 Mrs Karpoori Devi U.S.A. To participate in 23 the exhibition October to New Delhi of Indian Traditional 15 paintings at November University of Iowa, Chicago

40 Shri Satya, Narayan Lal Kam -do- -do- -do Bal Bhavan New Delhi

41 Ms Lalita Lajmi U.K. To attend the Retros- pective of late October 1994 Bombay Guru Dutt's Films and deliver lectures

42 Prof H S Shivaprakash U.K. To deliver a talk on October 1994 Department of English Kannada Maharani's Art College Bangalore -223>

43 Dr S K Sareen Malaysia To attend 1994 8 to 10 Associate Professor November 1994 Centre of Linguistics & English School of Languages, JNU, New Delhi

44 Shri Mahaveer Swami USA To demonstrate his 4 art at the November to Bikaner invitation of the 4 Hunt Institute December 1994 Rajasthan at Carnegie Mellon University & the Freer Gallery of Art

45 Shri Dilip Moulik Cairo To attend Cairo 28 November to Amrit Bazar Patrika International Film 11 December 1994 Calcutta Festival -224>

APPENDIX-XXVII incoming Visitors (ICCR).

incoming Visitors (ICCR).

1 52-member 4th SCI Youth Japan Goodwill visit 31 July to 10 August 1994 Cultural delegation

2 Dr. Mustafa Osman Ismail Sudan To attend the 20 to 30 August Symposium 1994 Secretary General organised by the Indian The Council for International Council of World Affairs People's Friendship, Khartoum

3 3-member Chinese delegation China To meet Scholar 29 August to 3 September 1994

4 Dr Brinsley Sawaroo West Indies August/September Acting Head 1994 History Department, African & Asian Studies, University of West Indies

5 Mr Moustapha Gueye Senegal Goodwill visit 7 to 12 Secretary General September 1994 Students & Teachers of Socialist Party & National Association of imam and Ulemas of Senegal

6 Mr A Tejan Kabbah Abidjan To meet scholars 10-16 September 1994 Chairman intellectuais Advisory Council/NPRC interaction views Sierra Leone -225>

7 H E Mr Son Soubert Cambodia Goodwill visit 11 to 20 Second Vice-President October 1094 National Assembly of the Kingdom of Cambodia

8 15-member delegation of Bhutan Goodwill visit 17 October to Heads Secondary Schools 1 November from Bhutan 1994

9 Dr Navin Ramgoolam Mauritius Goodwill visit 4 to 14 Leader of Labour Party & November 1994 Leader of Opposition in Mauritius and his wife

10 Mr Maurice F Strong Canada To receive the 15 to 20 Chairman of Ontario Hydro, jawahar Nehru Award November Toronto for International 1994 and his wife Understanding for 1992

11 Mr Syed Shamsul Haq Bangladesh To meet his 8 counterparts to 21 Theatre Expert November 1994 -226> JAPAN USA SUDAN INDIA CHINA SENEGAL SIERRA LEONE CAMBODIA BHUTAN MAURITIUS CANADA BANGLADESH

APPENDIX-XXVIII Visiting Professors--Chairs of Indian Studies Abroad (ICCR)

Visiting Professors--Chairs of Indian Studies Abroad (ICCR).

Under various schemes, the ICCR sends abroad Visiting Professions for teaching Indology, Indian Lahguage and allied subjects. During the period under report the following academics were in position abroad:

1 Dr Devendra Shukla Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the University of Sofia, Bulgaria.

2 Dr Jai Singh Yadav Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Jawa, Indonesia.

3 Dr Abdul Bismillah Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the University of Warsaw, Poland.

4 Dr Triloki Nath Singh Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Indian Cultural Centre, Paramaribo, Suriname.

5 Dr Y Venkataramana Rao Visiting Professor of Hindi at the School of Foreign Language (NIHERST), Port of Spain, Trinidad.

6 Dr N Jayaram Visiting Professor of Social & Cultural Anthropology at the University of West Indies, St Augustine Campus, Trinidad.

7 Dr V R Jagannathan Visiting Professor of Hindi at the University of West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Port of Spain, Trinidad.

8 Dr (Mrs) Kamlesh Singh Visiting Asstt. Professor of Hindi Languae and Literature at the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium.

9 Dr O P Singhal Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi Language & Literature at the Beijing University, China.

10 Dr (Mrs) Usha Satya Vrat Shastri Visiting Associate professor of Sanskrit at the Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

11 Dr Ramesh Chand Sharma Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Hankuk University of Foreign Languages, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

12 Dr (Mrs) Anita Ganguly Visiting Asstt. Professor of Hindi at the Helsinki University, Finland.

13 Dr (Mrs) Noorjahan Begum Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Ankara University, Turkey.

14 Dr (Miss) Geeta Sharma Visiting Professo of Hindi at the Jawaharlal Nehru Cultural Centre, Moscow, Russia.

15 Dr Syed Asghar Wajahat Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary.

16 Dr S K Lal Visiting Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Sorbone Nouvelle, Paris-III, France.

17 Dr Rewati Raman Pandey Designate Visiting Professor of Philosophy at Mahatama Gandhi Institute, Port Louis, Mauritius.

18 Dr Meera Sarin Designate Visiting Associate Professor of Hindi at the Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.



APPENDIX-XXIX Presentation of Books and Art Objects/Musical Instruments (ICCR)

Presentation of Books and Art Objects/Musical Instruments (ICCR) (April to December 1994).

Presentation of Books

1 Uzbekistan    To INION Library in Tashkent                  55 Books 
2 Egypt         To Indian Mission in Cairo and CCI            26 Books 
3 Guyana        To Indian Missionaries Guilds International   17 Books 
                in Guyana 
4 Ukraine       To Indian Mission                              8 Books 
5 Indonesia     To local Government Universities              16 Books 
                To Diponegoro University                A set of Books 
6 Canada        To Peel Board of Education in Toronto         13 Books 
7 Ecuador       To National University of Ecuador             40 Books 
8 Spain         To organise an Indian Cultural week in Madrid 10 Books 
9 Qatar         For Display in the Library of Embassy of 
                                              India           16 Books 
                and Indian Cultural Centre in Doha 
10 U.K.         To Indian Mission and Cultural Centre          2 Books 
11 Ghana        To Indian Mission Library                     15 Books 
12 Seychelles   To National Library of Seychelles             28 Books 
13 Latvia       To the University of Latvia                   30 Books 
14 Zimbabwe     To School of Gandhi Memorial Bussary Board    14 Books 
15 South Africa To University of Witswaterstand               54 Books 
                Gandhi Jayanti Function in Durban            850 Books 
16 Turkmenistan To the Dignitaries and leading Educational    12 Books 
17 Turkey       To Indian Mission Library in Istanbul         13 Books 
18 Kazakhstan   For presentation                             154 Books 
19 U.S.A.       For presentation                              40 Books 
                South Asian Studies in San Francisco          34 Books 
20 Jamaica      To VVIPs and Dignitaries                      36 Books 
21 Austria      For presentation                                1 Book 
22 Czech Republic To Libraries in Prague                      15 Books 
23 Romania      Various Libraries                164 Books on Arts and 
24 Thailand     For celebration of 125th Birth Anniversary of       37 
                                                        Photographs of 
                Mahatma Gandhi                                Gandhiji 
25 Lebanon      AUB Library                       35 Books on Gandhiji 
26 Namibia      Schools, Universities, Libraries 
                and Cultural                          44 Books, Folk & 
                Societies                              Classical Music 
27 Brazil       University of Rio De Janeiro in Brasilia      44 Books 
28 Botswana     For presentation to Dignitaries               46 Books 
29 Mexico       For presentation                              17 Books 
Presentation of Art Objects/Musical Instruments 
1 Sweden        For presentation                      A set of Musical 
2 Greece        To Museum of the Junior High School   A set of Musical 
3 Venezuela     To FL Tigre Hindu Society           One Harmonium, and 
                                                          a Tabla Pair 
4 Mozambique    Indian Association in Beira          One Harmonium and 
                                                          a Tabla Pair 
5 Ghana         To Ghanian Journalists                A set of Musical 
6 Mauritius     To Indian Mission for cultural programme    Artificial 
                                                 4 sarees and 5 pieces 
                                                            of Nalhani 
7 Kazakhstan    To Kazakh museum                      A set of Musical 
8 Japan         To Indian Mission                          Art objects 
                For presentation purposes            Two Tanjor plates 
9 Nepal         On the occasion of 
                125th Birth Anniversary              A bust of Mahatma 
                celebration of Mahatma Gandhi                   Gandhi 
10 South Africa  For presentation purposes                 Art objects 
                On the occasion of 125th Birth 
                 Anniversary                         A bust of Mahatma 
                celebration of Mahatma Gandhi                   Gandhi 
11 Uzbekistan   For presentation purposes            Two Tanjor plates 
12 Thailand     To Gandhi Research Centre            A bust of Mahatma 
13 Belgium      For exhibition                       Charkha, Books on 
                                                          Gandhiji and 
14 Uganda       To Sisukunj                     11 Musical Instruments 
15 Poland       To Indian Mission                5 Musical Instruments 
16 Turkmenistan   To Indian Culture Lover's Club 4 Musical Instruments 
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