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Library Bulletins

Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin (July 2015)

Ministry of External Affairs Library
Patiala House

Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin
(July 2015)



1. Hyden, Goran
Rethinking justice and institutions in African peace building

Third World Quarterly 36(5), 2015: 1007-1022
This article argues that conflicts in Africa need to be understood in the context of local conceptions of justice, which differ from those of the liberal peace model. Justice in African society is based on the notion of reciprocity which, when practised, tends to lead to solutions that resemble prisoner dilemma games. Because agreements are more like truces than true peace agreements they are easily abandoned when the costs of adhering are higher. Bringing in these local conceptions are vital for peacebuilding in Africa but so is the need to reform them so that they become more sustainable.
1. Africa-Peace building 2. Africa-State building


2. Pant, Girijesh
Globalising Asia and the politics of food security

World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(2), April-June, 2015: 24-43
This article analyses demographic factors particularly the population age structure in the political equation of nation-states. A large population of young adults creates social instability, particularly if employment opportunities are inadequate. In reaction to this threat, concerned states tend to become more authoritarian. Conversely, the decrease of the “youth bulge” favours stability and prosperity, thereby increasing the opportunity for liberal democracy. Examples are provided in contexts as diverse as the Congo, Palestine, Rwanda and Venezuela. The statistics are especially revealing if the relative cohort size comparison method is used. At the end, some policies and programmes are suggested for mitigating “excessive youth bulges”.
1. Asia-Food security 2. Liberal democracy


3. Ojendal, Joakim and Ou, Sivhouch
The ‘local turn’ saving liberal peacebuilding? Unpacking virtual peace in Cambodia

Third World Quarterly 36(5), 2015: 929-949
The trajectory of the liberal peacebuilding project has encountered a fundamental critique of its failure to deliver the expected sustainable peace. This paper questions the approach with which it has been, and largely still is, pursued. We reflect on a more communicative, nuanced, contextual and time-bound approach. In particular, we identify the failure of the liberal peace to localise peace and to make it a part of everyday life in Cambodia. Nevertheless, we claim that liberal peace has unintentionally created space for progress, while a ‘local turn’ has proved significant. We demonstrate empirically that certain forms of local and everyday peace have emerged for the ‘wrong’ reason, and may evolve further. Hence, a local peace has gradually sunk in, although its liberal foundations remain virtual.
1. Cambodia-Peace building 2. Cambodia-State building


4. Abdenur, Adriana Erthal
China in Africa, viewed from Brazil

Journal of Asian Studies 74(2), May, 2015: 257-267
In the Boane district of Mozambique, about halfway between Maputo and the border with Swaziland, the National Agrarian Research Institute in Umbeluzi hosts two experiments in development cooperation provided by fellow developing countries. Behind a gated wall, the Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center—built in record time by China—experiments with different techniques of vegetable cultivation. Barely 500 meters away, technicians from the Brazilian Corporation of Agricultural Research, known as EMBRAPA, work with Mozambican counterparts from a food security program, installing an irrigation system along an open field. Taken together, the two projects are emblematic of an emerging tension within Brazil's and China's presence in Africa: does development cooperation in Boane represent competition or complementarity between these providers of development cooperation? In addition, does their proximity suggest a possibility of collaboration between these two providers?
1. China-Cooperation-Africa 2. China-Cooperation-Brazil


5. Wang, Yuhua and Minzner, Carl
The Rise of the Chinese Security State

China Quarterly 222, June, 2015: 339-359
Over the past two decades, the Chinese domestic security apparatus has expanded dramatically. “Stability maintenance” operations have become a top priority for local Chinese authorities. We argue that this trend goes back to the early 1990s, when central Party authorities adopted new governance models that differed dramatically from those of the 1980s. They increased the bureaucratic rank of public security chiefs within the Party apparatus, expanded the reach of the Party political-legal apparatus into a broader range of governance issues, and altered cadre evaluation standards to increase the sensitivity of local authorities to social unrest. We show that the origin of these changes lies in a policy response to the developments of 1989–1991, namely the Tiananmen democracy movement and the collapse of communist political systems in Eastern Europe. Over the past twenty years, these practices have developed into an extensive stability maintenance apparatus, whereby local governance is increasingly oriented around the need to respond to social unrest, whether through concession or repression. Chinese authorities now appear to be rethinking these developments, but the direction of reform remains unclear.
1. China-Domestic security 2. Tiananmen democracy movement


6. Honig, Emily and Zhao, Xiaojian
Sent-down Youth and Rural Economic Development in Maoist China

China Quarterly 222, June, 2015: 499-521
This article explores the relationship between the sent-down youth movement and economic development in rural China during the Cultural Revolution. It examines ways in which sent-down youth themselves initiated improvements in rural life, and more importantly, how local officials used both their presence to acquire equipment and technical training and their skills and education to promote rural industry. The sent-down youth offices established in the cities and the countryside inadvertently provided connections between remote rural counties and large urban centres that enabled the transfer of a significant quantity of material goods, ranging from electrical wires and broadcast cables to tractors and factory machinery. Ultimately, we show how individual sent-down youths, their families, and both urban and rural officials – none of whom had a role in determining government policies – identified and made use of resources that those policies unintentionally produced.
1. China-Economic development 2. China-Rural development


7. Cooper, Luke
The international relations of the ‘imagined community’: Explaining the late nineteenth-century genesis of the Chinese nation

Review of International Studies 41(3), July, 2015: 477-501
Benedict Anderson's Imagined Communities has long been established as one of the major contributions to theories of nations and nationalism. Anderson located the rise of national identities within a long-evolving crisis of dynastic conceptions of identity, time, and space, and argued print-capitalism was the key cultural and economic force in the genesis of nations. This article offers a critical appropriation and application of Anderson's theory through two steps. Firstly, it evaluates the conceptual underpinning of his approach through an engagement with recent scholarship on the ‘theory of uneven and combined development’. The fruits of this interchange provide a deeper analytical framework to account for what Anderson calls the ‘modularity’ of national identity, that is, its universal spread across the globe. Modularity is now reconceptualised as a product of combined development with its causal efficacy derived from the latent dynamics of a geopolitically fragmented world. The latter gave shape and form to the new national communities. Secondly, this revised framework is applied to the emergence of Chinese national identity in the late nineteenth century. This allows Chinese nationalism to be recast as an ideological amalgam of indigenous and imported elements that emerged out of the crisis-ridden encounter between Imperial China and Western imperialism in the nineteenth century.
1. China-National identity 2. Chinese nationalism


8. Wallace, Jeremy L and Weiss, Jessica Chen
The Political Geography of Nationalist Protest in China: Cities and the 2012 Anti-Japanese Protests

China Quarterly 222, June, 2015: 403-429
Why do some Chinese cities take part in waves of nationalist protest but not others? Nationalist protest remains an important but understudied topic within the study of contentious politics in China, particularly at the subnational level. Relative to other protests, nationalist mobilization is more clustered in time and geographically widespread, uniting citizens in different cities against a common target. Although the literature has debated the degree of state-led and grassroots influence on Chinese nationalism, we argue that it is important to consider both the propensity of citizens to mobilize and local government fears of instability. Analysing an original dataset of 377 anti-Japanese protests across 208 of 287 Chinese prefectural cities, we find that both state-led patriotism and the availability of collective action resources were positively associated with nationalist protest, particularly “biographically available” populations of students and migrants. In addition, the government's role was not monolithically facilitative. Fears of social unrest shaped the local political opportunity structure, with anti-Japanese protests less likely in cities with larger populations of unemployed college graduates and ethnic minorities and more likely in cities with established leaders.
1. China-Nationalist protest 2. China-Anti-Japanese protests


9. Noesselt, Nele
Revisiting the Debate on Constructing a Theory of International Relations with Chinese Characteristics

China Quarterly 222, June, 2015: 430-448
After decades of policy learning and adoption of “Western” theories of international politics, the Chinese academic community has (re-)turned to the construction of a “Chinese” theory framework. This article examines the recent academic debates on theory with “Chinese characteristics” and sheds light on their historical and philosophical foundations. It argues that the search for a “Chinese” paradigm of international relations theory is part of China's quest for national identity and global status. As can be concluded from the analysis of these debates, “Chinese” theories of international politics are expected to fulfil two general functions – to safeguard China's national interests and to legitimize the one-party system.
1. China-Theories of international politics 2. China-National interests 3. China-One party system


10. Bishku, Michael B
The Middle Eastern Relations of Cyprus and Malta: From Independence to Nonalignment to the European Union

Mediterranean Quarterly 26(2), June, 2015: 42-62
Cyprus and Malta are small Mediterranean states located on the periphery of Europe that have had unusual political affiliations following independence from Great Britain in 1960 and 1964, respectively. Historically and culturally they have had Middle Eastern connections. Cyprus was the scene of Arab settlement and later Ottoman rule, and today one-fifth of the population is Muslim Turkish, while the rest is predominantly Greek Orthodox. Malta was under direct Arab rule and its language is Semitic in origin, although its population today is almost exclusively Roman Catholic. Both countries used membership in the Non-Aligned Movement and later their connections with the European Union to gain leverage in foreign relations with more powerful states, especially in matters involving the Mediterranean region. During the Cold War and its aftermath, their ties with Middle Eastern neighbors have also brought economic benefits and a greater sense of security without their having to join military alliances.
1. Cyprus-European Union 2. Malta-European Union 3. Cyprus-Non-Aligned Movement 4. Malta-Non-Aligned Movement


11. Park, Johann and James, Patrick
Democracy, Territory, and Armed Conflict, 1919–1995

Foreign Policy Analysis 11(1), January, 2015: 85-107
Democracy and territory are two of the most important factors that affect conflict and war. Yet no research design looks directly at a possible interaction between these two variables to influence occurrence of armed conflict. This study seeks to answer the following question: “How do two democracies behave when a contentious issue such as territory arises as the source of conflict between them?” Results based on Militarized Interstate Dispute data from 1920 to 1996 produce the conclusion that the pacifying effect of democracy stands up for both territorial dyads and non-territorial ones in spite of the imperatives toward militarization created by territorial conflict. However, territory of high salience still appears to increase the likelihood of armed conflict between two democracies.
1. Democracy 2. Militarized Interstate Dispute, 1919-1995

12. The population age structure, liberal democracy and civil war

World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(2), April-June, 2015: 10-23
This article analyses demographic factors particularly the population age structure in the political equation of nation-states. A large population of young adults creates social instability, particularly if employment opportunities are inadequate. In reaction to this threat, concerned states tend to become more authoritarian. Conversely, the decrease of the “youth bulge” favours stability and prosperity, thereby increasing the opportunity for liberal democracy. Examples are provided in contexts as diverse as the Congo, Palestine, Rwanda and Venezuela. The statistics are especially revealing if the relative cohort size comparison method is used. At the end, some policies and programmes are suggested for mitigating “excessive youth bulges”.
1. Democracy 2. Liberal democracy


13. Bürgin, Annina and Schneider, Patricia
Regulation of Private Maritime Security Companies in Germany and Spain: A Comparative Study

Ocean Development & International Law 46(2), April-June, 2015: 123-137
The use of private military and security companies (PMSCs) has become an increasingly popular measure to counter maritime piracy. This article examines how two established maritime nations, Germany and Spain, have approached the regulation of maritime PMSCs. The article demonstrates that there are similarities but also significant differences between the two regulatory systems and concludes that the governance frameworks that emerged are tailored to the needs of each state. While Germany underwent a long process to establish a sophisticated licensing scheme specifically designed for maritime PMSCs, Spain swiftly applied the framework that governs PMSCs active on land to those companies operating at sea.
1. Germany-Maritime security 2. Spain-Maritime security


14. Jander, Martin
German Leftist Terrorism and Israel: Ethno-Nationalist, Religious-Fundamentalist, or Social-Revolutionary?

Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38(6), June, 2015: 456-477
The relationship of the three leftist terrorist organizations in the Federal Republic of Germany to Israel can be summarized, in somewhat abbreviated fashion, as follows: All three groups, the Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion; RAF), June 2 Movement (Bewegung 2. Juni), and Revolutionary Cells (Revolutionäre Zellen), and the milieu from which they emerged in West Berlin, Munich, Heidelberg, Hamburg, and Frankfurt, hated America, Americans, Israel, and Jews. They participated in the international terror war against Israel and did not shy away from attacks on Jews and Jewish facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany. The three organizations mentioned, for all their differences, are, to be reckoned among the organizations coming out of leftist traditions that, like the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands), after the end of the Shoah and the Second World War, and in the name of a supposed struggle against fascism, conducted antisemitic propaganda, supported the war of terror against Israel, and publicly justified and supported those groups and institutions working in the same direction.
1. Germany-War against terrorism 2. Israel-War against terrorism


15. Tziampiris, Aristotle
In the Shadow of a Long and Glorious Past: Understanding Greek Foreign Policy

Mediterranean Quarterly 26(2), June, 2015: 63-79
This essay presents the major factors that make up the framework in which Greek foreign policy operates and explores whether they have any connections to past centuries, especially to Antiquity. They include Greece’s consequential geographical location between East and West and the fact that the country has often found itself at the center of international developments and debates. It is argued that Greece’s relative weakness demands strong alliances, elicits compensatory actions, and often allows individual politicians to play an outsized role in diplomatic affairs. Finally, the salience of nationalism, the current return to a more active participation in the eastern Mediterranean, and the extraordinary resilience of the Hellenes complete an explanatory framework for Greek diplomacy with specific historic antecedents.
1. Greece-Foreign Policy 2. Greece-Diplomacy


16. Arandel, Christian, Brinkerhoff, Derick W and Bell, Marissa M
Reducing fragility through strengthening local governance in Guinea

Third World Quarterly 36(5), 2015: 985-1006
Improving state–citizen relations at the local level is posited as one of the pathways out of fragility towards peace and stability. This article explores this premise by examining the experience of a recent donor-funded project in Guinea that combined improvements in sectoral service delivery with new modes of collaborative governance between local officials and communities. The analysis finds that the project’s focus on citizen engagement with local officials, coupled with transparency and mutual accountability, led to better services, changed attitudes and increased trust. Individual agency and leadership emerged as important success factors. Prospects for sustainability of these local reforms are challenged by Guinea’s weak state capacities and poverty. Lessons for donors include supporting stability-enhancing governance through incremental interventions that create relationships and coalitions among local actors.
1. Guinea-Peace building 2. Guinea-State building


17. Burns, John P and Wei, Li
The Impact of External Change on Civil Service Values in Post-Colonial Hong Kong

China Quarterly 222, June, 2015: 522-546
Scholarly work in the 1990s indicated that the values of civil servants in late colonial Hong Kong were evolving from those of classical bureaucrats to those of more political bureaucrats as the political and social environment changed. Based on in-depth interviews with 58 politicians and senior civil servants carried out between 2009 and 2012, we argue that Hong Kong civil service values have adapted owing in part to external shocks such as regime change and governance reform. Still, traditional civil service values such as fiscal prudence and balancing various community interests continue to be prominent. We illustrate the influence of civil service values in two policymaking cases: small-class teaching and minimum-wage legislation.
1. Hong Kong-Civil service 2. Hong Kong-Minimum-wage legislation


18. Narwaria, Satyendra Singh
Environmental security in South Asia: An analysis of India and Bangladesh

World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(2), April-June, 2015: 100-111
The fast depletion of natural resources has resulted not only in the degradation of the environment but also in scarcity and growing conflict over resources within and between states. Satyendra Singh Narwaria lays out environmental issues particularly in India and Bangladesh.
1. India-Environmental security 2. Bangladesh-Environmental security


19. Khobragade, Vinod
India's engagement with the world: Contemporary foreign policy interests

World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(2), April-June, 2015: 44-59
Author discusses India’s contemporary prime foreign policy interests. While keeping its democratic setup alive, India has shed traditional foreign policy objectives and made new choices reflecting the changing patterns of international politics. The aim is to boost holistic development and make the country one of the leading though benign powers of the world.
1. India-Foreign policy


20. Joshi, Shashank
India and the Middle East

Asian Affairs: Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs 46(2), July, 2015: 251-269
This article traces the outlines of India's engagement with the Middle East, focusing on security-related aspects of that engagement. First, it argues that India's approach towards the Middle East has undergone less transformation than that seen in Indian policy towards other key regions, notably the United States and Asia. Second, it describes how India has responded to recent, and older, episodes of political disorder in the region, and what patterns might be identified from these. Third, it traces aspects of India's relationships with Iran and Saudi Arabia, an exercise that brings some of those patterns into sharper relief. Fourth, and finally, the paper concludes by asking how India might orient itself in the region in the future.
1. India-Security engagement-Middle East 2. India-Bilateral Security Agreement-USA 3. India-Look west policy


21. Lee, Doreen
A Troubled Vernacular: Legibility and Presence in Indonesian Activist Art

Journal of Asian Studies 74(2), May, 2015: 303-322
Activist art and political resistance became popular aesthetics in the work of Indonesian artists after the fall of the New Order in 1998. In subsequent years, more art alternatives have emerged in cities and small towns across Indonesia, including diverse and vernacular modes of artistry such as street art and community-based international festivals. Where artists formerly focused their energies on critiquing the state, present art initiatives have become far more diffuse, counter-establishment, and localized in their approach. Local artists started the Jogja mural movement to rebrand Yogyakarta as a city of murals, while Jatiwangi Art Factory, an arts collective founded in a semi-industrialized village in West Java, has become a haven for performance arts and community-based projects for Indonesians and foreign artists in residence. This article looks at such experiments of legibility and

presence as a new means of redefining publics and broadening the domain of political participation in Indonesia.
1. Indonesia-Activist art


22. Quirk, James M
Angell and Mahan: Technology, Globalization, and International Security Today

Mediterranean Quarterly 26(2), June, 2015: 80-98
Norman Angell and Alfred Thayer Mahan were two of the leading thinkers on pre–World War I “interdependence,” offering competing lessons on the changes in technology, economics, and security. At different times during the twentieth century, each one’s ideas seemed to best explain global politics and strategy. This essay reconsiders their ideas in the current era of globalization and global threats.
1. International security 2. Cybersecurity 3. International trade


23. Celso, Anthony N
Zarqawi’s Legacy: Al Qaeda’s ISIS “Renegade”

Mediterranean Quarterly 26(2), June, 2015: 21-41
This essay studies the rise, decline, and rebirth of al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and its transformation into the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS). It first examines AQI’s distinctive vision and its defiance of al Qaeda central. Abu Musab al-Zarqawi’s anti-Shiite jihadist perspective, dramatized by AQI’s use of social media, attracted thousands of foreign fighters to Iraq. The Jordanian’s struggle against Shiite apostates and 2006 martyrdom in a US airstrike continues to dazzle young militants. Second, the essay analyzes AQI’s regeneration and metamorphosis into ISIS and its challenge to al Qaeda’s central command. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi’s refusal to recognize the authority of al Qaeda’s Ayman al Zawahiri and Baghdadi’s violent resistance to reconciliation measures has sparked destabilizing intrajihadist warfare. Third, the essay examines ISIS’s position as it resists attacks by Iraqi regime forces, rebel groups, Kurdish militants, and US-led coalition air strikes. The essay’s concluding observations analyze the parallels and differences between the Armed Islamic Group’s campaign in Algeria in the 1990s and ISIS’s position in Iraq and Syria in 2015.
1. Iraq-Al Qaeda 2. Iraq-Jihad


24. Llewellyn-Jones, Rosie
The British raj and the British mandate in Iraq

Asian Affairs: Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs 46(2), July, 2015: 270-279
Nearly a century before the 2003 invasion, the western powers, in the form of the British, were required to form a government of Iraq following the occupation of the region in the First World War. This government was led by personnel and doctrines which came not directly from western states, but from the British Raj of India. This article examines the historical links between Iraq and India, how Indian templates of government were imposed on Iraq by the British after the First World War, why these templates of government were ultimately ineffective for Iraq, and the long-term impact on Iraq of the pursuit of these methods of government.
1. Iraq-British India Government 2. Iraq-British mandate 1920-192242304


25. Peresin, Anita and Cervone, Alberto
The Western Muhajirat of ISIS

Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38(7), July, 2015: 495-509
An unprecedented number of Western women have recently joined the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The group has envisaged strictly non-combat roles for them, but violence is an essential part of their embraced ideology and several signs suggest that they could claim a more militant role. Their marginalization, however, is essential for the preservation of ISIS's power system and it is consequently unlikely that it would accommodate such aspiration, at least in the areas of the proclaimed caliphate. It could be different in the West, where women returning from conflict areas or those, even more numerous, anxious to join but unable to travel, could engage in violent acts.
1. Iraq-Islamic state 2. Syria-Islamic state 3. Western women-Jihad


26. Pennington, Kenneth and Lynch, Orla
Counterterrorism, Community Policing and the Flags Protests: An Examination of Police Perceptions of Northern Ireland's Operation Dulcet

Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38(7), July, 2015: 543-559
In 2013 Northern Ireland (NI) witnessed the most protracted period of public-disorder ever seen in the United Kingdom. After Belfast City Council voted to fly the Union flag in-line with the manner adopted in the rest of the United Kingdom, loyalist protestors blocked roads, attacked offices, and held marches through Belfast city center. During what became known as Operation Dulcet, police had to respond to the protests and violence, mindful of existing tensions in NI. This article reports on data collected from interviews conducted with officers involved in the policing of these events. The findings demonstrate that the police response was understood using narratives concerning the primacy of human rights, a focus on perceived proportionality, and ultimately, related to the potential violence linked to historic conceptions of community divisions in NI.
1. Ireland-Terrorism 2. Ireland-Counterterrorism


27. Cusumano, Eugenio and Ruzza, Stefano
Contractors as a Second Best Option: The Italian Hybrid Approach to Maritime Security

Ocean Development & International Law 46(2), April-June, 2015: 111-122
Initially based mainly on the use of Navy Vessel Protection Detachments (VPDs) paid by shipowners, Italian maritime security legislation also allows for the use of Privately Contracted Armed Security Personnel (PCASP) when VPDs are not available. Hence, Italy has adopted a hybrid antipiracy approach that entails two different forms of private sector involvement: the financing and partial control of public military forces by the maritime industry and the provision of armed security by PCASP, an option that includes Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs). This opening to the commercial sector is significant as one of the first of its kind in a state that has adopted a tight monopoly over the provision of armed services and can be explained as the interplay between the willingness to respond to the needs of the maritime industry and a long-standing resistance against loosening state control over the use of force.
1. Italy-Maritime security


28. Paramore, Kiri
“Civil Religion” and Confucianism: Japan's Past, China's Present, and the Current Boom in Scholarship on Confucianism

Journal of Asian Studies 74(2), May, 2015: 269-282
This article employs the history of Confucianism in modern Japan to critique current scholarship on the resurgence of Confucianism in contemporary China. It argues that current scholarship employs modernist formulations of Confucianism that originated in Japan's twentieth-century confrontation with Republican China, without understanding the inherent nationalist applications of these formulations. Current scholarly approaches to Confucianism trace a history through Japanese-influenced U.S. scholars of the mid-twentieth century like Robert Bellah to Japanese imperialist and Chinese Republican nationalist scholarship of the early twentieth century. This scholarship employed new individualistic and modernist visions of religion and philosophy to isolate fields of “Confucian values” or “Confucian philosophy” apart from the realities of social practice and tradition, transforming Confucianism into a purely intellectualized “empty box” ripe to be filled with cultural nationalist content. This article contends that current scholarship, by continuing this modernist approach, may unwittingly facilitate similar nationalist exploitations of Confucianism.
1. Japan-Confucianism 2. Japan-Civil religion

-WAR 1950-1953

29. Morris-Suzuki, Tessa
Prisoner Number 600,001: Rethinking Japan, China, and the Korean War 1950–1953

Journal of Asian Studies 74(2), May, 2015: 411-432
Among more than 100,000 prisoners captured by United Nations forces in the Korean War, there was just one Japanese prisoner of war (POW). Matsushita Kazutoshi, Prisoner Number 600,001, had served in the Japanese army in China, both Nationalist and Communist armies in the Chinese Civil War, and in the Chinese People's Volunteers in North Korea, and was to end his military career in the ranks of the South Korean army. Using his forgotten story as a prism, this article explores neglected transborder dimensions of the Korean War. It argues the need to pay closer attention to the historical continuities linking the Asia-Pacific War and Chinese Civil War to the Korean War; it reconsiders the nature of Japan's connections to the conflict in Korea and reconceptualizes the UN POW camps as sites of ongoing Chinese and Korean civil wars.
1. Korea-War 1950-1953 2. China-Civil war 3. Korea-War Prisoner42317


30. Ralph, Jason and Gallagher, Adrian
Legitimacy faultlines in international society: The responsibility to protect and prosecute after Libya

Review of International Studies 41(3), July, 2015: 553-573
There is a perceived legitimacy deficit in contemporary international society. A symptom of this is the political contestation surrounding the 2011 Libyan crisis and its influence on the 2011–13 Syrian crisis. This involved criticism being levelled at the coalition led by the so-called Permanent-3 for the way they implemented the protection of civilians mandate, as well as for the referral of the Libyan situation to the International Criminal Court. How the P3 respond to these developments will be driven in part by how this ‘legitimacy fault line’ is interpreted. The purpose of this article is to first give an interpretation that is informed by the work of contemporary English School scholars and the political theorists they draw on; and second to provide the context in which specific policy recommendations may guide the response of the P3 states. We argue that because the new legitimacy fault line divides on the procedural question of who decides how international society

should meet its responsibilities rather than substantive disagreements about what those responsibilities are (that is, human protection and justice) the challenge to the liberal agenda of the P3 is not radical. However, we also argue that ignoring the procedural concerns of the African and BRICS states is not outcome neutral and could in fact do harm to both the ICC and the wider implementation of R2P. We consider two proposals for procedural reform and examine how the P3 response would impact on their claim to be good international citizens.
1. Libya-Legitimacy 2. Libya-International society


31. Vergani, Matteo and Collins, Sean
Radical Criminals in the Grey Area: A Comparative Study of Mexican Religious Drug Cartels and Australian Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs

Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38(6), June, 2015: 414-432
This article defines and assesses the ideal-type of the radical criminal as the analytical framework for a comparative qualitative study of Mexican religious drug cartels and Australian outlaw motorcycle gangs and concludes that radical criminals operate in both weak and failed states and stable democracies. The article participates in the wider discussion concerning the existence (and the features) of a grey area between criminal and political violence, through the lens of the radical criminal ideal-type.
1. Mexico-Criminal-political groups 2. Mexico-Religious drug cartels 3. Australia-Motorcycle Gangs


32. Bolton, Kerry R
Western duplicity and Middle east crisis

World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(2), April-June, 2015: 72-85
Author contends that the present so-called “conflict of civilisations”, a concept promoted by neoconservatives to lend historic inevitability to the tumult among Muslims, the contrived “war on terrorism” and the Arab–Israeli conflict, has its origins in the diplomatic machinations of the Great War.
1. Middle East-War on terrorism 2. UK-France-Foreign policy-Middle East


33. Harrison, John
Burma 50 Years on: The RSSA 2014 tour

Asian Affairs: Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs 46(2), July, 2015: 280-303
This article describes the recent RSAA visit to Myanmar (Burma). The author, who served in the country as a diplomat in the 1960s, not only narrates the tour with many observations of architecture, history, and culture, but discusses the main changes of the last 50 years, and, with reference to the recent transformations in government, the state of infrastructure, education, tourism growth and the increasing regional presence of Myanmar, examines whether the country is now in a sustainable new phase of political and economic development.
1. Myanmar-Travel-John Harrison 2. Burma-Memorizing42305


34. Deckard, Natalie Delia, Barkindo, Atta and Jacobson, David
Religiosity and Rebellion in Nigeria: Considering Boko Haram in the Radical Tradition

Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38(7), July, 2015: 510-528
Testing social movement theory positing that radical organizations are ideologically driven at their core, but are supported by civilians who are driven by social factors, this research interrogates the disparity between radical group ideology and supporter belief set in the context of present-day Nigeria. Content analysis of randomly selected Boko Haram publications establishes the high, and increasing, levels of religiosity exhibited by the violent social movement itself. In contrast, a large-N survey of Nigerians conducted in 2012 and 2013 shows that high levels of religiosity do not significantly predict willingness to justify violence, commitment to non-state violent actors, or positive attitude toward Boko Haram among Nigerians as a whole, but rather the opposite. Given these findings, Boko Haram may be better understood within the tradition of radical extremist movements across the ideological spectrum, even while it frames its struggle as that of a distinctly religious movement.
1. Nigeria-Religion 2. Nigeria-Violence


35. Pogodda, Sandra and Richmond, Oliver P
Palestinian unity and everyday state formation: subaltern ‘ungovernmentality’ versus elite interests

Third World Quarterly 36(5), 2015: 890-907
With Palestine gaining increasing international recognition for its sovereignty aspirations, this paper investigates the ongoing Palestinian state-formation process. It examines how far grassroots movements, domestic political leaderships and international actors have promoted or undermined intra-Palestinian unity and societal consensus around the rules, design and extent of a future Palestinian state. The paper introduces the novel concept of everyday state formation as a crucial form of grassroots agency in this process. Moreover, it illustrates the internal tensions of contemporary statebuilding: without reconciliation across multiple scales – local to global – the complex interactions of structural, governmental and subaltern power tend to build societal fragility into emerging state structures.
1. Palestine-Peace building 2. Palestine-State formation


36. Rafael, Vicente L
The War of Translation: Colonial Education, American English, and Tagalog Slang in the Philippines

Journal of Asian Studies 74(2), May, 2015: 283-302
This paper examines the role of language in nationalist attempts at decolonization. In the case of the Philippines, American colonial education imposed English as the sole medium of instruction. Native students were required to suppress their vernacular languages so that the classroom became the site for a kind of linguistic war, or better yet, the war of translation. Nationalists have routinely denounced the continued use of English as a morbid symptom of colonial mentality. Yet, such a view was deeply tied to the colonial notion of the sheer instrumentality of language and the notion that translation was a means for the speaker to dominate language as such. However, other practices of translation existed based not on domination but play seen in the classroom and the streets. Popular practices of translation undercut colonial and nationalist ideas about language, providing us with an alternative understanding of translation in democratizing expression in a postcolonial context.
1. Philippines-Decolonization


37. Hasselskoga, Malin and Schierenbeck, Isabell
National policy in local practice: the case of Rwanda

Third World Quarterly 36(5), 2015: 950-966
Far reaching decentralisation reform has been launched in Rwanda, intended to contribute to socioeconomic development as well as to reconstruction and reconciliation. While the reform is well in line with the international trend of a ‘local turn’, the Rwandan government makes a point of not letting donors or other external actors set the agenda. Determined to formulate its own policies, thus claiming ‘national ownership’, it has, within the frame of decentralisation, launched several development programmes to be locally implemented and to promote local participation and downward accountability. However, the reform and programmes are designed and decided upon in a top-down manner by the central national leadership. This article analyses local experiences and perceptions of decentralisation and related programmes, and investigates whether and how such reform provides for local participation and downward accountability. It concludes that nationally owned reform is not necessarily an alternative to externally initiated and driven reform; neither local participation nor downward accountability was enhanced. The study builds on official policy documents and semi-structured interviews with Rwandan residents and local officials.
1. Rwanda-Socioeconomic development 2. Rwanda-Peace building


38. Matthiesen, Toby
Shi’i historians in a Wahhabi state: identity entrepreneurs and the politics of local historiography in Saudi Arabia

International Journal of Middle East Studies 47(1), February, 2015: 25-45
This article analyzes how Saudi Shiʿi historians have adapted tools associated with nationalism to create distinct historical narratives for the Shiʿa of Eastern Arabia. State-sponsored narratives have either left out Shiʿi Muslims or cast them as unbelievers and alien to the Saudi body politic. In contrast, historical narratives written by Shiʿi authors emphasize the Shiʿa's long history of sedentarization, their cultural heritage, and their struggles against foreign occupation. The article is based on fieldwork in Saudi Arabia and a close reading of hundreds of articles and books on local history published mainly since the 1980s. Through the Saudi Shiʿi case, I show that “identity entrpreneurs,” or activists who create, politicize, and profit from identities to further political aims, understand local historiography to be crucial to their overall projects.
1. Saudi Arabia-Historiography 2. Saudi Arabia-Wahhabi state


39. Berndtsson, Joakim and Ostensen, Ase Gilje
The Scandinavian Approach to Private Maritime Security—A Regulatory Façade?

Ocean Development & International Law 46(2), April-June, 2015: 138-152
This article analyzes the legislative processes and the creation of security governance structures in a recent move by Scandinavian countries to authorize the use of armed guards on commercial vessels. Findings reveal that while there are many similarities, the cases (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) differ in terms of government control, oversight, and governance of private security providers, as well as in the management of firearms and the use of force. The article concludes that all three countries have adopted an approach that creates a “semblance” of state control and regulation but which also entails substantial delegation of authority to private actors.
1. Scandinavia-Maritime security


40. Kataria, Shyamal
Serbian Ustashe memory and its role in the Yugoslav Wars, 1991–1995

Mediterranean Quarterly 26(2), June, 2015: 115-127
The Nazi German entry into the Balkans in the spring of 1941, together with the complete dismemberment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, heralded the birth of the Nezavisna Drzava Hrvatska (NDH) or “Independent” State of Croatia. Run by the Ustashe, the NDH was an ideologically fascist state that, during its brief existence between April 1941 and May 1945, subjected its minority Serbian population to genocide. In addition to many hundreds of thousands being killed or forcibly converted to Roman Catholicism (the religion of the Croats), many Serbs fled the territory of the NDH for neighboring Serbia. The bitter memory held by these Serb survivors of the Ustashe regime, in particular the refugees, constituted a subversive force throughout the period of the second Yugoslavia, culminating in the Yugoslav Wars between 1991 and 1995.
1. Serbia-Ustashe regime 2. Yugoslav Wars-1991-1995


41. Krishna, Kamini
Women of Indian descent in Southern Africa

World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(2), April-June, 2015: 124-135
Author investigates the different roles played by women of Indian origin in Southern Africa. Along with their men folk, these women actively participated in various economic sectors that helped them establish a firm footing in the new countries. While they also took active part in political life in South Africa, they remained silent in the political arena elsewhere in the region.
1. South Africa-Indian-Origin women


42. Muroa, Diego
Healing through Action? The Political Mobilization of Victims of Al Qaeda-Inspired Violence in Spain and the United Kingdom

Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38(6), June, 2015: 478-493
Spain and the United Kingdom have experienced similar types of political violence. Since the 1960s, both countries have suffered casualties as a result of long-standing ethno-nationalist conflicts as well as terrorist attacks by Al Qaeda–inspired groups. In spite of these similarities, the two countries display a striking variation in the attitudes to victims. In Spain, Associations of Victims of Terrorism have been highly visible and influential, whereas United Kingdom-based organizations have not captured the public's imagination and the attention of policymakers in the same way. Spanish associations of victims have been present in the public sphere and have routinely provided their opinions on counterterrorist policy and appropriate government legislation whereas this sort of political activity is difficult to trace in the United Kingdom. As a result of this puzzle, the article tries to answer the following question: Why are associations of victims of terrorism by Al Qaeda–inspired attacks more influential in Spain than in the United Kingdom? The article will argue that political and sociocultural variables account for the difference. More specifically, the article demonstrates that the experience of both ethno-nationalist and jihadist political violence has affected party systems and cultural frames differently, hence providing distinct sets of political opportunities for victims’ associations to carry out their lobbying strategies.
1. Spain-Political violence 2. UK-Political violence 3. Spain-Terrorism 4. UK-Terrorism


43. Mukarji, Apratim
Sri Lanka-correcting the wayward state

World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(2), April-June, 2015: 60-71
According to author the mid-term presidential elections held in Sri Lanka on 8 January 2015 not only brought to power a new president but also the prospects of an equitable and inclusive state with the democratic and human rights of the citizens of every community restored. The Sirisena government is determined to bring the divided country together by implementing the postponed devolution package and introducing a federal structure.
1. Sri Lanka-Politics and government 2. Sri Lanka-Presidential election


44. Franz, Barbara
Popjihadism: Why Young European Muslims Are Joining the Islamic State

Mediterranean Quarterly 26(2), June, 2015: 5-20
Thousands of young Europeans have joined the jihad. This essay looks at the reasons why the holy war is so popular among this cohort. While failed integration policies and widespread online media recruitment remain crucial for understanding this popularity, these explanations alone are too simplistic. Personal knowledge of other young fighters and fundamentalist imams, a lack of guidance resulting from the absence of fathers, trauma, and a kind of “outsiderism” akin to the one seen among early Nazi recruits in the 1920s are also similarities found in many of the young volunteers’ biographies.
1. Terrorism-Islamic state 2. European Muslim Youth-Jihad


45. Nassif, Hicham Bou
A military besieged: The armed forces, the police, and the party in Bin “Ali” Tunisia, 1987-2011

International Journal of Middle East Studies 47(1), February, 2015: 65-87
This article draws on extensive fieldwork and original data to trace the transformation of civil–military relations in Tunisia during the tenure of the former president Zayn al-ʿAbidin bin ʿAli (1987–2011). The republican ethos of the Tunisian Armed Forces (al-Quwwat al-Musallaha al-Tunusiyya) is often stressed to explain its traditional political quiescence. However, I maintain that it was the active hostility of the military's rivals within the Bin ʿAli regime that prevented Tunisian generals from playing a greater role in their country's public life. I disaggregate Bin ʿAli's regime into its fundamental institutional components—namely, the presidency, the party, the police, and the military—and investigate rivalries and alliances that structured the struggle for influence and power between Bin ʿAli's rise to the presidency and his downfall. I argue that there is a direct and causal relationship between the 2010–11 uprising and inter- and intrainstitutional dynamics within the regime. In other words, the study of contemporary Tunisian civil–military relations is critical to understanding the breakdown of the Bin ʿAli regime.
1. Tunisia-Civil–military relations 2. Tunisia-Bin Ali regime42288


46. Kemerli, Pınar
Religious militarism and Islamist conscientious objection in Turkey

International Journal of Middle East Studies 47(2), May, 2015: 281-301
This article focuses on Islamist conscientious objectors (COs) in Turkey who have resisted both mandatory conscription and the Turkish state's use of Islamic discourses of jihad and martyrdom to legitimize it. Examining military conscript training and the post-1980 coup national school curriculum, the article first outlines the Turkish state's production of a particular interpretation of Islam and its dissemination of it through nationalist and militarist discourses and practices. The article then pursues an ethnographic analysis of Islamist COs’ resistance to conscription through nonviolent civil disobedience based on antiauthoritarian and antinationalist interpretations of Islam. Weaving together their own interpretations of jihad and martyrdom with transnational theories and ideologies, Islamist COs present a powerful critique of Turkish militarism and its religious claims. A focus on Islamist COs potently highlights the diversity of Islamic groups and sensibilities in contemporary Turkey, and the difficulties faced by nationalist projects to discipline religious imaginaries and put them to the service of the modern state.
1. Turkey-Islamist conscientious objectors 2. Turkey-Militarism42289


47. Barrington, Sir Nicholas
Reflections of a diplomat in Asia

Asian Affairs: Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs 46(2), July, 2015: 199-211
Sir Nicholas Barrington served in a number of Asian postings throughout a 40-year career with the British Foreign Office. In this article, he reflects on his experiences as a diplomat in Iran pre- and post-1979 Revolution, Afghanistan, and finally as High Commissioner to Pakistan, with observations on Benazir Bhutto and General Pervez Musharraf. He concludes with an independent and critical discussion of western policy towards the Middle East and South and Central Asia, and the rise of Islamic State.
1. UK-Diplomat expiricism 2. UK-Diplomacy-Asia 3. UK-Foreign Policy-Middle East 4. Islamic State42301


48. Gruenewald, Jeff, Allison-Gruenewald, Kayla and Kleina, Brent R
Assessing the Attractiveness and Vulnerability of Eco-Terrorism Targets: A Situational Crime Prevention Approach

Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38(6), June, 2015: 433-455
This study assesses the vulnerability and attractiveness of eco-terrorism targets in the United States based on a Situational Crime Prevention approach. Data from the American Terrorism Study are extracted for eight different attributes of terrorism targets, including exposed, vital, iconic, legitimate, destructible, occupied, near, and easy. Descriptive findings generally support expectations that eco-terrorists select targets based on their vulnerability and attractiveness. The study concludes with several implications for homeland security policy and a call for further exploration into new and alternative operationalizations of eco-terrorism target attributes.
1. USA-Eco-terrorism 2. USA-Homeland security policy


49. Blank, Stephen
US Policy, Azerbaijan, and the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict

Mediterranean Quarterly 26(2), June, 2015: 99-114
Even as the world focuses on Ukraine, Washington has conspicuously ignored resolute action to resolve existing conflicts in the Caucasus, in particular the so-called frozen conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh. Here, Washington has refused to see that Russia is playing a malignant role in perpetuating the conflict and has refused to act on its own to help prevent either a new Russian domination of the Caucasus or a new war. Indeed, Washington sees Moscow as playing a constructive role. As a result, US relations with Azerbaijan and Baku’s willingness to take heed of American lectures on human rights have all suffered.
1. USA-Foreign policy-Azerbaijan 2. USA-Foreign policy-Armenia 3. Russia-Foreign policy-Azerbaijan 4. Russia-Foreign policy-Armenia


50. Bettiza, Gregorio
Constructing civilisations:Embedding and reproducing the ‘Muslim world’ in American foreign policy practices and institutions since 9/11
Review of International Studies 41(3), July, 2015: 575-600
Since 11 September 2001, the ‘Muslim world’ has become a novel religio-culturally defined civilisational frame of reference around which American foreign policy has been partly reoriented and reorganised. In parallel, the ‘Muslim world’, is increasingly becoming, at this historical juncture, a civilisational social fact in international politics by being progressively embedded in, and enacted onto the world by, American foreign policy discourses, institutions, practices, and processes of self-other recognition. This article theoretically understands and explains the causes and consequences of these changes through an engagement with the emerging post-essentialist civilisational analysis turn in International Relations (IR). In particular, the article furthers a constructivist civilisational politics approach that is theoretically, empirically, and methodologically oriented towards recovering and explaining how actors are interpreting, constructing, and reproducing – in this case through particular American foreign policy changes – an international society where intra- and inter-civilisational relations ‘matter’.
1. USA-Foreign policy-Muslim World42338


51. Capellan, Joel A
Lone Wolf Terrorist or Deranged Shooter? A Study of Ideological Active Shooter Events in the United States, 1970–2014

Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 38(6), June, 2015: 395-413
This study explores the threat of ideological active shooter attacks in the United States. In particular, to understand if these events constitute a new brand of “lone wolf terrorism” or if they are simply “deranged shooters” that happen to be ideological. The results show that ideological and non-ideological active shooters share very similar profiles. Despite the similarities, ideological extremism seems to influence the way these offenders prepare, execute, and conclude their attacks. Most ideological active shooters are “loners” whose attacks tend to be motivated by ideology. Given their sophistication and lethality, ideological active shooters represent a serious threat to national security.
1. USA-Lone wolf terrorism 2. USA-National security


52. Brehony, Noel
Yemen and the Hutis: genesis of the 2015 crisis

Asian Affairs: Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs 46(2), July, 2015: 232-250
This article gives a comprehensive overview of the genesis of the current crisis in Yemen, from the pre-1990 situation to the March 2015 airstrikes on Yemen by Saudi Arabia. The author dissects the country's party politics, the Yemen Spring, the north-south divide, and the development of Huthi power from a regional insurgency in the early 2000s to being able to launch a full coup in February 2015. He also discusses the long-term impact of the crisis, including economic collapse, the impact on oil production, the terrorist threat, and the prospects for foreign intervention.
1. Yemen-Huthi rebellion 2. Yemen-Civil war 3. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula

Abdenur, Adriana Erthal4
Allison-Gruenewald, Kayla48
Arandel, Christian16
Barkindo, Atta34
Barrington, Sir Nicholas47
Berndtsson, Joakim39
Bettiza, Gregorio50
Bishku, Michael B10
Blank, Stephen49
Bolton, Kerry R32
Brehony, Noel52
Brinkerhoff, Derick W16
Burns, John P17
Bürgin, Annina13
Capellan, Joel A51
Celso, Anthony N23
Cervone, Alberto25
Collins, Sean31
Cooper, Luke7
Cusumano, Eugenio27
Deckard, Natalie Delia34
Franz, Barbara44
Gallagher, Adrian30
Gruenewald, Jeff48
Harrison, John33
Hasselskoga, Malin37
Honig, Emily6
Hyden, Goran1
James, Patrick11
Jander, Martin14
Joshi, Shashank20
Kataria, Shyamal40
Kemerli, Pınar46
Khobragade, Vinod19
Krishna, Kamini41
Lee, Doreen21
Llewellyn-Jones, Rosie24
Lynch, Orla26
Matthiesen, Toby38
Minzner, Carl5
Morris-Suzuki, Tessa29
Mukarji, Apratim43
Muroa, Diego42
Narwaria, Satyendra Singh18
Nassif, Hicham Bou45
Noesselt, Nele9
Ojendal, Joakim3
Ostensen, Ase Gilje39
Ou, Sivhouch3
Pant, Girijesh2
Paramore, Kiri28
Park, Johann11
Pennington, Kenneth26
Peresin, Anita25
Pogodda, Sandra35
Quirk, James M22
Rafael, Vicente L36
Ralph, Jason30
Richmond, Oliver P35
Ruzza, Stefano27
Schierenbeck, Isabell37
Schneider, Patricia13
Tziampiris, Aristotle15
Vergani, Matteo31
Wallace, Jeremy L8
Wang, Yuhua5
Wei, Li17
Weiss, Jessica Chen8
Zhao, Xiaojian6



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Middle East 
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Saudi Arabia 
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Sri Lanka 
-Politics and government43
-Islamic state44
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