Annual Report 1991-92
|S.NO. CHAPTERS PAGE No.|
|1||India's Neighbours, ||1-9|
|2||South-East Asia and the Pacific, ||10-15|
|3||East Asia, ||16-23|
|4||West Asia and North Africa, ||24-29 |
|5||Africa (South of the Sahara), ||30-34|
|6||Europe, || 35-44 |
| || Erstwhile USSR, || 35|
| ||Eastern Europe,||39|
| ||Western Europe, ||42|
|7 ||The Americas, || 45-50|
| ||North America, ||45|
| ||Central and South America and the Caribbean, || 48|
|8 ||United Nations and International Conferences, ||51-64|
| ||Political Issues, ||52|
| || Disarmament Issues, || 54|
| || Economic Issues, || 56 |
| || Administrative and Budgetary Matters, ||58|
| ||Social and Humanitarian Issues, ||59|
| || Apartheid, || 66 |
| || Decolonisation, ||59|
| || Election to UN Bodies and other International Organizations, ||60|
| ||Activities of the Non-Aligned Movement, ||60|
| ||Commonwealth, ||61|
| || Conferences, || 62|
| || International Law: Development and Activities, ||63|
| 9 ||Foreign Economic Relations,||65-67|
| 10 ||Policy Planning and Research, ||68-70 |
|11 ||External Publicity, ||71-75|
| 12 ||Indians Overseas, ||76-77|
| 13 ||Protocol, || 78|
| 14 ||Passport and Consular Services, ||79-82 |
| 15 ||Administration and Organization, || 83-84|
| 16 ||Foreign Service Training Institute, ||85-87 |
| 17 ||Use of Hindi in Official Work,||88-89|
| 18 ||Cultural Relations, ||90-99|
| ||APPENDICES, A-1--A-30 |
|I N T R O D U C T I O N
The world scene witnessed momentous changes during the year under
review with far-reaching implications for India's foreign policy. These
changes have reaffirmed the need, given the state of ferment and
metamorphosis in which the world is in today, to utilise foreign policy as an
instrument to further our national interest in a dynamic manner. The upsurge
of democratic sentiment, together with a renewed and focussed desire for
peace, not only globally but at the sub-regional and regional levels,
the demand for greater economic justice and the desire to uphold human
dignity, provide both the background and setting for such changes. These
aspirations have naturally led to replacement of outmoded state structures,
and policies with new approaches for frameworks of political and economic
The disintegration of the erstwhile Soviet State structure and emergence
of the Commonwealth of Independent States, comprising individual,
constituent republics, constitutes, the most profound of such developments. Th
modalities for mutual interaction among the republics and for their inter-
action, in turn, with the community of nations is still in a state of
The perception that the world has become unipolar, needs to be
taken note of in the context of the strategic, political and economic inter-
dependence among countries. Unified Germany and Japan are on the road
to becoming still more important centres of economic power. The
rapid process of integration of the European Economic Community is
likely to enhance its importance as yet another major important centre of
The improvement of relations between the United States and the former
Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War and newer diplomatic initiatives have
facilitated the resolution of several outstanding problems. And yet, the
lowering and elimination of East-West tensions, and the renewed quest for
solutions to sub-regional and regional conflicts, have not brought solutions to
the basic and fundamental problems of development faced by the large
majority of countries.
The successful conclusion of the Paris Conference on Cambodia in which
India was proud to have played an important role renewed hopes for return of
peace in that war-torn country and emergence of a sovereign, independent,
non-aligned and democratic Cambodia.
India welcomed the convening of the Middle-East Peace Conference and
hoped that this would successfully lead to a just, comprehensive and mutually
acceptable settlement of the Middle-East problem and the Palestinian issue.
India's decision to establish full diplomatic ties with Israel was a natural
concomitant to the evolution of the politcal moves for restoration of peace in
the war-torn region.
The Government carefully examined the evolving international situation
and took timely initiatives to adapt our policies to obtain maximum benefits
for the country in the changing situation. At the macro-level, the foreign
policy was directed at achieving three important objectives: maintaining the
territorial integrity of India, ensuring her geo-political security by creating
durable environment of peace and stability in the region and to build a
framework for the economic well-being of the poeple by encouraging a
healthy external economic environment.
The Government attached the highest priority to further improvement of
our friendly relations with our neighbours in South Asia and to expansion of
our mutually beneficial cooperation with them. Several high level exchanges
were undertaken to acheive these objectives.
The visit of the Prime Minister of Nepal to India in December 1991
ushered in a qualitatively new era of relations between the two countries.
This has opened very important areas of cooperation which will fortify the
unique closeness of our ties which have been strengthened by the emergence
of multi-party democracy in Nepal.
India's traditionally close and cordial relations with Bhutan were further
strengthened by the visit of His Majesty the King of Bhutan to India in
September 1991. Through intensive economic and technical cooperation, India
has sought to make its contribution to the economic development of Bhutan.
The visit of Bangladesh Foreign Minister to India in August 1991
resulted in a mutual understanding on the need for adopting a fresh approach
for immediate removal of some irritants through dialogue and enhanced
cooperation. It was significant that the first ever visit of an Indian Chief of
Army Staff to Bangladesh took place in July 1991. The tempo of bilateral
talks on the problems of sharing of the river waters was maintained. Further
momentum was lent to the bilateral relations when the Indian Prime Minister
met Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia at Harare during the Commonwealth
Heads of Government Meeting in October 1991. India is keen that its
traditionally friendly relations with Bangladesh are further expanded.
advent of democracy in Bangladesh has become an additional bond between
the two countries.
India continues to sustain her keen interest in a peaceful resolution of
the ethnic issue in Sri Lanka. India has reiterated to Sri Lanka her faith in
the need for a negotiated political settlement within the framework of the
unity and territorial integrity of Sri Lanka for arriving at a lasting and
permanent solution to the ethnic problem. The Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement of
1987 and the 13th amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution provide the
framework for a solution to Sri Lanka's ethnic crisis. India is simultaneously
committed to the strengthening and consolidation of bilateral relations with
Sri Lanka in keeping with the traditional and historic ties between the two
countries. It was against this background that both India and Sri Lanka
signed, in July 1991, an agreement for establishment of an Indo-Sri Lanka
Joint Commission. The voluntary return of Sri Lankan refugees to their
homeland, based on assurances received from Sri Lanka Government
commenced on Jan 20, 1992 and is continuing.
India has consistently maintained closest understanding with Maldives at
the highest level and continues to pursue ongoing multi-dimensional
cooperation programmes with that country encompassing a wide-range of
fields of infrastructural development.
Pakistan's undiminished support to terrorism in Punjab and Jammu &
Kashmir and its mischievous attempts to internationalise the Kashmir issue
with hostile and misleading propaganda in violation of the Simla Agreement
have further exacerbated the already strained relations between India and
Pakistan. Pakistan Foreign Secretary's assurances to India in August 1991 to engage in constructive dialogue and approach issues with a new mindset have
failed to get reflected on the ground. Despite the continuous tension in
relations, India, aware of the imperative necessity of establishing good
neighbourly relationship, has continued with her efforts to carry the
confidence building process and the bilateral dialogue forward. A positive
development in this direction was the signing of the two agreement in April
1991 relatng to (i) advance notification of military exercises and manoeuvres
and (ii) prevention of air space violations by military aircraft. In addition,
on 1 January 1992, lists of nuclear installations and facilities in India and
Pakistan were exchanged in pursuance of the bilateral Agreement on Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities which had been signed in December 1988. Although the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan reiterated after their meetings in October and December 1991, and
February 1992 the need to reduce tensions and resolve issues bilaterally and peacefully, Pakistan's actions have not yet matched its stated desire to bring about any improvement in bilateral relations. India hopes that Pakistan would abandon its negative policies and join her in serious endeavours to establish tension-free and good neighbourly relations between the two countires.
India views with regret that political power yet remains untransferred, to
the people's representatives after the general elections in Myanmar in May
1990. India is equally distressed at the continued house detention of Ms Aung
San Suu Kyi. Despite its policy of non-interference in the affairs of other
countries, India cannot ignore the democratic aspirations of the people of
Myanmar and has, therefore, expressed her strong apprehensions about the
lack of progress towards democracy and infringement of human rights in
Myanmar. India hopes that the ruling Government would release Ms Aung San
Suu Kyi and pave the way for the introduction of the democratic processes of
India continued to extend full support to the political settlement of the
Afghan crisis based on her conviction that any such settlement should
recognize the legitimate interests of all concerned and be arrived at by the
Afghans themselves without any external interference. India, therefore,
welcomed the UN Secretary General's Five-Point Peace Proposals announced
in May 1991. While continuing her endeavours to further cement the
traditionally warm relations with Afghanistan, India pursued her efforts to
promote bilateral cooperation in various fields.
The Sixth Summit of SAARC countries was held at Colombo in December
1991. India continued to play an active role to expand further mutually
beneficial cooperation among SAARC countries.
Positive steps were taken in several areas of regional cooperation. The
most laudable step forward was the approval by the Sixth SAARC Summit of
the recommendation of the Committee on Economic Cooperation to set up an
Inter-Governmental Group to formulate and seek agreement on an institutional
framework under which specific measures for trade liberalization could be
initiated. Another decision of far-reaching importance was to institute a Fund
by pooling regional resources and to constitute a SAARC Regional Council of
Development Financial Institutions to manage the Fund. Under the 13 agreed
areas of technical cooperation, 62 SAARC activities were held during 1991; of
these nearly a quarter were held in India. The Sixth SAARC Summit also
decided to set up a South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation, which
would present a report to the Seventh SAARC Summit. The year 1992 is to be
observed as the "SAARC Year of Environment". India views SAARC as an
important instrument for realising collective self-reliance and accelerating socio-economic development, and is convinced that the SAARC cooperation should
envelop further the core economic areas so as to percolate benefits to the
common man in an effective and palpable form.
India attached particular significance to strengthening her traditionally close
and warm relations with countries in South-East Asia and the South Pacific. The
bilateral talks with Mr Hun Sen, Prime Minister of Cambodia, during his visit to
India in October 1991 and his appreciation of India's role in the Cambodian
settlement and his call for a major Indian presence in the UN Transitional
Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) reflected the high regard and esteem enjoyed
by India. India has contributed civilian and military personnel for the UN
Advance Mission in Cambodia. India has expressed her readiness to actively
participate in the UNTAC operation to the extent requested by the United
Nations. India participated in the Second Session of the Paris International
Conference on Cambodia held in October 1991. India was one of the countries especially mentioned at the Paris Conference for facilitating the peace process.
The visit of the President of India to Vietnam in April 1991 lent special
emphasis to enhancing bilateral cooperation with Vietnam. The State visit of t
he President of India to the Philippines in April-May 1991 was the first ever visi
t by an Indian Head of State to that country. It generated considerable goodwill and understanding between the two countries.
Visit of the Minister for External Affairs to Singapore in August 1991 laidspecial stress on increasing investment from the region in India in context of the new liberalised economic environment. The return visit of the Foreign Minister of Singapore to India in December 1991 gave further momentum to expanding our bilateral cooperation.
The sectoral dialogue partner relationship between India and ASEAN is not only a development of importance but is likely to strengthen India's relationsh ip with ASEAN countries.
Despite the earlier temporary set-back in bilateral relations with Australia,
on account of the sale of Mirage aircraft by Australia to Pakistan, subsequent interactions at higher level have improved our relations.
Fiji has become a source of constant concern to India in view of the fact
that the illegal Government of Fiji installed after the coup in 1987 has
institutionalised racial discriminatiion. India has readily extended moral sup
port to the democratic forces in Fiji by taking up this matter at the UN General
Assembly from 1987 onwards and by opposing the re-entry of Fiji into the
The momentum of bilateral exchanges with China initiated with the visit of
late Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in December 1988 was further
increased. The visit of the Chinese Premier Mr Li Peng to India in December
1991 was an important milestone and it resulted in several positive achievement:
the re-establishement of Consulates General in Shanghai and Bombay, a
Consular Convention, a memorandum on the resumption of border trade, the
Trade Protocol for 1992 and a memorandum of cooperation in the field of space
were agreed to. The Joint Working Group on the Boundary Question held its
third session in Beijing in May 1991 and fourth session at New Delhi on 20 and
21 February 1992. The two sides continued their discussions aimed at arriving
a mutually acceptable settlement of the boundary question and to ensure peace
and tranquillity in the areas along the Line of Actual Control. They agreed th
the military personnel of the two sides would have regular meetings in June and
October every year and additional meetings whenever need arises at Bumla Pass
in the Eastern Sector and in the Spanggur Gap area in the Western Sector. They
also agreed to establish telephone communication links to facilitate easy conta
between the border personnel on each side. India conveyed to China her
concern about its arms supplies to Pakistan.
A new era was introduced in the history of the Soviet Union with the
dissolution of the USSR founded in 1922. The emergence of the Commonwealth
of Independent States heralded an end of the political and economic structures
established in the erstwhile USSR on socialist ideology. President Gorbachev's
relinquishment of office marked the end of a decisive phase in domestic and
international politics initiated by him in April 1985. India's response to the
developments was dictated by her national interests including geopolitical,
strategic and economic imperatives. On 26 December 1991, India announced her
decision to accord formal recognition to the Russian Federation and to all the
other Republics of the former Soviet Union. Russia has assumed the role of a
successor State and has taken over the seat of the erstwhile Soviet Union in the
UN Security Council. India has sought to maintain her traditionally close
relations not only with Russia but with the other Republics as well. The visit
the Minister for External Affairs in November 1991 and his meetings with
President Yeltsin were a step towards laying the foundation for further
enhancement of relations between India and the Russian Federation. A multi-
sectoral team of senior officials led by the Foreign Secretary visited Russia a
Ukraine in January 1992 to establish a new framework of political relations wit
these independent Republics and to review arrangements for maintaining our
long-standing trade and economic links with them. Several delegations from
India have visited the Central Asian Republics. The Presidents of Uzbekistan
and Kazakhstan visited India in August 1991 and February 1992 respectively and
more visits by leaders from the Central Asian Republics are expected in the
near future. These visits are aimed at concluding appropriate agreements to
promote our political, economic and cultural tics with these countries with
whom we share historic bonds of friendship. India has also decided to open
Embassies in Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus and upgrade its Consulate
General at Tashkent in Uzbekistan to Embassy level.
There has been a significant and perceptible improvement in Indo-US
relations. Our shared values of democracy, individual liberty and respect for
human rights provide a strong basis for close cooperation between the two
largest democracies of the world. Political and official contacts in both bila
and multilateral fora on a wide-range of issues including peace, security and
threats emanating from terrorism and drug trafficking have contributed towards
a greater appreciation of each other's views and interests.
The United States is our largest trading partner and a major source of
technology. It has been supportive of our efforts to overcome our temporary
economic difficulties and programme of economic reform. A new feature in
Indo-US relations was the cooperation initiated on the defence side. The visit
our Chief of Army Staff to the USA in August 1991 and the visit of the
Commanding-General and the US Commander-in-Chief of Pacific Command to
India are noteworthy. The Prime Minister had a very useful meeting with
President George Bush in New York during the UN Security Council Meeting in
January 1992. There was a strong mutual desire expressed in further expanding
our bilateral and multi-dimensional ties. India's liberalised economic policie
have opened new possibilities of a long-term mutually beneficial economic
partnership with the United States.
India viewed with concern the political and constitutional crisis in
Yugoslavia and expressed herself in favour of a restructured federal framework.
India adopted a principled and constructive approach in the United Nations
Security Council on Yugoslavia; the Indian stand emanated from her basic belief
that the crisis in Yogoslavia was essentially an internal matter.
India views the Maastricht Summit of December 1991 as a watershed in the
history of Europe in the post-World War II era. The European Community
embarked on a new chapter in its move towards the creation of a political,
economic and monetary union. India maintained an intensified political dialogu
with the European countries through frequent high-level exchanges. India
viewed with satisfaction the positive response in Western Eruope to the new
economic policies and liberalisation measures announced by India. Prime
Minister Shri Narasimha Rao's visits to Germany and France in September and
November 1991 respectively were undertaken with a view to exploring the
promising prospects for strengthening of multifaceted cooperation. The visit o
the President of Portugal to India in January 1992 was another landmark in
relations with Portugal.
Increased momentum was established in India's bilateral relations with
Japan. The visit of the Minister for External Affairs, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki
to Japan in January 1992 has helped deepen the political and economic dialogue
with Japan and helped promote better mutual understanding between India and
Japan, countries that share democratic values and whose cultural interaction has
spanned the centuries. Japan has emerged as India's largest bilateral donor and
has reacted favourably to India's new policy initiatives in economic
liberalisation. It has indicated its desire to take steps to enable the inflow
of Japanese investment to India.
In recognition of the positive and balanced nature of the relationship that
India always enjoyed with the two Koreas, India supported the entry of both the
Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea to the
United Nations. Both the DPRK and the ROK have expressed their
appreciation of India's position on this subject. Bilateral cooperation with t
Republic of Korea in the economic sphere continued to surge.
India attached special importance to its relations with countries of West
Asia and North Africa. India maintained her consistent and unequivocal support
to the Arab cause particularly to the Palestinian struggle for their just and
inalienable rights. This was reiterated during the visit of the PLO Chairman
Yasser Arafat to India in January 1992. India has welcomed the reactivation of
the West Asian peace process and the ongoing dialogue between Arab States
and Israel to find a just and equitable settlement to the Arab-Israeli dispute.
India supported the revocation of the 1975 UN resolution equating Zionism with
Racism, based on her perception that it would remove an obstacle in the path to
peace in West Asia and facilitate a larger UN role in the peace process. Upon
establishment of diplomatic relations with Israel, India looks forward to
establishing a comprehensive and multi-faceted relationship with that country.
India's close tics with the Gulf region have now acquired a strong economic
and social dimension. The liberation of Kuwait was an act of affirmation of
international legality. The Minister for External Affairs visited Kuwait on 15
16 February 1992 and an agreement for establishing a Ministerial-level Joint
Commision was signed during the visit. India also made all possible efforts to
facilitate the return of Indian nationals earlier employed in Kuwait.
The rapid developments in sub-Saharan Africa crystallised in further
accentuation of the trends towards political pluralism, economic liberalisation
and the resolution of internal conflicts. India viewed with satisfaction the
growing acceptance of multiparty democracy in Africa although its progress in
different countries was uneven. India intensified her efforts to expand bilate
cooperation with African countries. The reform process in South Africa
gathered further momentum with the prospects of a constitutional settlement
getting brighter. The political reforms in South Africa acted as a catalyst to
India's decision to lift all "people-to-people sanctions". India welcomed the
signing of the Lisbon Peace Accords which finally brought peace to Angola after
16 years of cruel civil strife.
In an effort to strengthen our rlations with Latin America and the
Caribbean, we applied for permanent Observer status at the Organisation of
American States. Immediately after this was accepted, we attended the OAS
General Assembly meeting in Chile in June 1991. Our association with the OAS
is expected to provide an additional forum for interaction with the countries i
the region, 15 of which are members of NAM and six share membership with us
in the G-15.
India continued to play a constructive role in the deliberations of the UN
Security Council on a number of major political issues. On the political issue
continuing sanctions against Iraq, India urged that the humanitarian aspect of
the situation should also be taken into consideration while all efforts are mad
for creating conditions for lasting peace.
The Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992 served to
highlight the new and effective role that the UN has assumed in the wake of
momentous changes in the international situation. India asked for an expansion
in the membership of the Security Council to make the UN not only more
representative but also to ensure its moral sanction and political effectivenes
The Prime Minister set forth at the Council meeting India's position on
certain vital issues such as need for a new international consensus on a global
non-proliferation regime, harmonisation of the defence of national integrity wi
respect for human rights and a just and fair world economic order.
At the 46th United Nations General Assembly, India effectively
participated in all deliberations, emphasising urgent need to address
development issues. In the meetings of the General Assembly and its main
Committees and the Group of 77, India pointed out that the developing
countries had become increasingly vulnerable with inadequate financial and
resource flows, high debt burdens, worsening terms of trade, problems in access
to technologies, and continued protectionism. It had, therefore, become
imperative for the developing countries to display solidarity and articulate th
common interests through constructive and meaningful proposals for
negotiations with the industrialised North. India also voiced her concern at t
growing tendency to shift the focus away from development issues and to attach
non-economic conditionalities to development assistance.
At the second G-15 Summit at Caracas in November 1991, the Prime
Minister was the lead speaker on the subject of a new international consensus on
development. He emphasised the need to restore the centrality and criticality
of development issues on the multilateral agenda.
The Non-Aligned Movement crossed another landmark in 1991 when it
completed 30 years of sustained activities since its inception. At the 10th
Ministerial Conference of Non-aligned countries held in Accra in September
1991, a reassessment of the role, objectives and activities of NAM brought outa
reaffirmation of the role and continuing relevance of the Movement in the
changed international situation as a political forum of the developing world. A
major achievement was the Movement's endorsement of the Indian proposal on
the democratisation of the UN and expansion of the Security Council. Further
emphasis was given to the need for greater North-South cooperation, issues
relating to disarmament, environment and development and giving greater
priority to economic issues.
India believes that global environmental issues cannot be isolated from the
general issue of development. India made a constructive contribution to the
preparatory meetings of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and
Development to ensure that the twin issues of environment and development are
addressed in a balanced way and in their totality in the 1992 Conference.
India continued to play a significant role in the three main multilateral
disarmament fora. India's approach to this issue has been guided by the basic
philosophy that given the global reach of nuclear weapons, we need to follow a
global approach in regard to nuclear disarmament issues. Partial or piecemeal
measures such as Limited Nuclear Weapons Free Zone, therefore, are of little
utility and could even detract us from our ultimate goal.
In his statement at the UN Security Council, the Prime Minister emphasised
the need for a new global nonproliferation regime which must be universal,
comprehensive and non-discriminatory and linked to the goal of complete
nuclear disarmament. He also proposed that the target date for the Action Plan
put forward by the late Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi for complete
elimination of nuclear weapons by the year 2010 could now be advanced to the
end of the present century.
The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting was held in Harare in
October 1991. The Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao put across the
perspective of the developing world on the issues and challenges facing the
world today. India made a significant contribution by securing a balanced
declaration which reflected the concerns of India and other developing countrie
on issues such as imposition of non-economic conditionalities to development
During the year under review, our endeavour has been to provide an
increased economic content to our diplomatic efforts, while at the same time
vigorously pursuing our basic foreign policy goals in the political field. The
comprehensive changes in India's economic, industrial and trade policies made
imperative re-orientation of priorities in our activities in the area of foreig
policy as well. The Ministry of External Affairs through our Missions abroad
launched a programme to inform the potential investors, the NRIs and other
target audiences in the OECD, ASEAN, Gulf and other countries of these
policy changes and new climate and opportunities for investment and trade with
India. Missions in target countries were geared to work towards increasing
investment flows and export growth; visits of private trade and industry
delegations to these countries for direct talks with their counterparts were
actively organized and promoted.
INDIA, in pursuance of her policy of according consistent importance to
relations with the neighbouring countries of South Asia, continued her efforts
to forge friendship, cooperation and mutual understanding. High-level contacts
were consistently maintained to accomplish these objectives.
The year under review witnessed substantial progress in consolidating
Indo-Nepal relations and establishing a durable framework for expanding all-
round bilateral cooperation. After the general elections under the new politic
system in May 1991, the Government of Prime Minister G P Koirala assumed
office in Nepal. A new stage was thus set for both countries to focus on
maximising mutually beneficial cooperation in a variety of fields. The goal wa
to usher in a new era in Indo-Nepal cooperation to which both Governments
had committed themselves in the Indo-Nepal Joint Communique of Jun 10, 1990.
The visit of Prime Minister Koirala to India from 5 to 10 December 1991
was preceded by four months of active and extensive consultations between the
two sides. For the first time, an Indo-Nepal High-Level Task Force had been set
up--chaired by the Cabinet Secretary or equivalent on both sides and including
the Foreign Secretary, the Finance Secretary and the Commerce Secretary--
which prepared a comprehensive programme for bilateral cooperation. This was
a unique effort, for this was the first time such an approach had been adopted
between Nepal and India. The emphasis on expanding economic and industrial
cooperation was highlighted by the fact that Prime Minister Koirala was
accompanied by a delegation of Nepalese industrialists and businessmen besides
Ministers and senior officials. The Indo-Nepal Joint Commission met just before
his visit to finalize a comprehensive set of recommendations to the two Prime
The subsequent discussions at the Prime Ministerial level resulted in a wide
ranging set of decisions of crucial significance for intensifying Indo-Nepal
cooperation for mutual benefit. As many as five important treaties and
agreements were signed. These included a new trade treaty, a new transit treaty,
an agreement for cooperation in controlling unauthorised trade, a Memorandum
of Understanding for cooperation in agriculture meant to promote rural
development and rural employment in Nepal and another Memorandum of
Understanding for the establishment of the B P Koirala India Nepal Foundation,
in the memory of the great Nepalese statesman and patriot who had also been
closely involved with the Indian independence movement. A number of
decisions were also taken regarding various aspects of cooperation in water
resources development. This is the area with the maximum potential for
revolutionising the Nepalese economy while also benefitting India greatly, The
trade and transit treaties provide substantial new tariff concessions and
procedural simplifications which, if fully exploited by Nepalese trade and
industry, should substantially boost Nepalese exports to the large Indian marke
next door. An especially favourable access regime has been provided for the
products of approved Indo-Nepal joint ventures. Thus, a solid framework has
been set up for Nepal and India to work together for the benefit of both
peoples, and the overall prospects of such Indo-Nepal cooperation are bright.
The traditionally close and friendly relations between India and Bhutan
were further strengthened. In May 1991, His Majesty Jigme Singye Wangchuck-
led a delegation to India to attend the funeral of the former Prime Minister,
Shri Rajiv Gandhi. He again visited India in September 1991 and held extensive
discussions with the President, Prime Minister and others. The discussions on
bilateral and multilateral issues of mutual interest were marked by a close
identity of views and great warmth and cordiality.
The growing economic and technical cooperation between the two countries
was maintained and intensified further. The highlights were the inauguration i
March 1991 of the 50 KW Bhutan Broadcasting Station built entirely with Indian
assistance and the handing over to Bhutan in June 1991 of the 336 MW Chukha
Hydel Project which provide half of Bhutan's national revenue. The confluence
bridge, another Indian aided project, was inaugurated in June. India continued
to cooperate with Bhutan in various other fields such as telecommunications,
health services, industrial estates, hydel projects, livestock breeding, solar
In view of Bhutan's forthcoming 7th Five Year Plan (1992-97), extensive
discussions were held with the Royal Government of Bhutan to finalize Indian
aid to Bhutan for this Plan. This was in pursuance of India's traditionally
intensive involvement with the economic development process in Bhutan,
especially through substantial infrastructural development. In this context, the
Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, visited
Bhutan in December 1991, and the Special Secretary (Planning Commission)
had led a delegation to Bhutan earlier in October 1991 for detailed technical
discussions. The Indian aid package, to be finalized soon, will help Bhutan s
up greater revenue earning projects, especially in hydropower and industry,
besides taking up some in the social sector and meeting continuing
During the visit of the King of Bhutan to India in September 1991, a new
Air Services Agreement was signed between the two countries. India continued
to offer Bhutanese students opportunity for secondary as well as higher
education and training in various fields. Nearly 100 Bhutanese students are
availing of scholarships tinder the Government of India schemes and the
Colombo Plan. The number of Indian lecturers on deputation to Slerubtse
College under Colombo Plan was increased from 9 to 13. India continued to
supply Bhutan with essential commodities at controlled prices under a special
The advent of democracy in Bangladesh gave a new impetus to
Indo-Bangaladesh relations. Bangladesh's Foreign Minister paid an official vis
to India in August 1991 at the invitation of the Minister for External Affairs.
Wide-ranging discussions were held on bilateral issues and both sides agreed to
further strengthen their relations by removing immediately some of the
outstanding irritants through dialogue and by adopting a fresh approach for
enhancing economic cooperation. A Credit Agreement and an Avoidance of
Double Taxation Agreement were also signed.
| The Indian Chief of Army Staff visited Bangladesh at the invitation of the
Bangladesh's COAS in July 1991-the first ever visit by an Indian COAS.
Secretary-level talks on the sharing of river waters were also held in Dhaka in
April 1991, New Delhi in October 1991 and Dhaka in February 1992. The
meeting of the Prime Minister with Prime Minister of Bangaldesh, Begum
Khaleda Zia, at Harare during the Commonwealth Heads of Government
Meeting in October 1991 lent further momentum to India's relations with
During the earlier part of the year, Bangladesh remained preoccupied with
bringing about constitutional and political changes in order to revert to the
Parliamentary system of Government. Policies to restructure the economy with a
view to introducing requisite liberalisation were continued. On 16 December
1991, the nation celebrated two decades of independence. Bangladesh media
took a special notice of the significance of this occasion and highlighted India's role in the liberation war and assistance given to the country at the dawn of freedom.
More than a year and half after the general elections in Myanmar in May
1990, power remains yet to be transferred to the elected representatives of the
people. The 1991 Nobel Peace Prize winner Ms Aung San Suu Kyi continues to
suffer under house arrest. The National League for Democracy (NLD)
leadership has been pressurised into expelling her from the party's membership.
Other leaders and supporters of democracy are either in prison or in exile, or
continue facing political repression.
India would like to maintain a working relationship with the Government of
this important neighbouring country with whom she shares historical and cultura
ties of long-standing. However, despite India's policy of non-interference in
internal affairs of other countries, she cannot ignore the democratic aspiratio
of the people of Myanmar who continue to suffer. Over the past few months,
India-both on her own through public statements and in concert with other
like-minded countries through a resolution adopted in the third committee of th
UN-expressed concern about the absence of democracy and widespread
infringement of human rights in Myanmar. India also called upon that
Government to release Ms Aung San Suu Kyi unconditionally and to pave way
for setting up a multi-party democratic system of governance. India's concerns
were reiterated through the speech delivered by the President on the occasion o
the acceptance of credentials presented by the new Myanmar Ambassador on 3
Fabruary 1992, in which he also praised the non-violent, Gandhian leadership of
Ms Suu Kyi. India sincerely hopes that State Law and Order Restoration
Council (SLORC) would take necessary steps, enabling the country to take up
its rightful place among the community of nations.
India's sincere interest and concern in a peaceful resolution of the ethnic
issue in Sri Lanka which meets the broad aspirations of the Tamils continue. A
the same time, India is equally committed to develop bilateral relations with
Sri Lanka in their widest sense, particularly in commercial, economic, industri
scientific, technical and cultural fields. It was against this background that
India and Sri Lanka signed an agreement in July 1991 during the visit of
Sri Lanka Foreign Minister, Mr Harold Herat to establish Indo-Sri Lanka Joint
Commission. Its Sub-Commissions on Trade, Investment and Finance, and on
cultural, educational and social matters met in Colombo in October 1991 and
discussed measures to strengthen cooperation in various spheres. A Cultural
Exchange Programme was signed between the two countries for the years 1992
to 1994. The First Session of the Indo-Sri Lanka Joint Commission was held in
Delhi on 6 and 7 January 1992. The Joint Commission gave directions for future
bilateral cooperaiton and further agreed to set up a Sub-Commission on Science
| The process of voluntary return of Sri Lankan refugees back to their
homeland, based on the assurances received from the Sri Lanka Government
regarding their safety and appropriate arrangements for their rehabilitation,
commenced on 20 January 1992 and is continuing according to schedule.
India has reiterated to Sri Lanka her conviction that only a negotiated
political settlement within the unity and integrity of Sri Lanka would bring a
lasting solution to the ethnic problem. It is her view that the political fram
created by the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lanka Constitution following the
1987 Indo-Sri Lanka Agreement remains a constructive point of reference for
any future negotiations which must include all Tamil Groups, especially those
who have eschewed violence and joined the democratic mainstream.
| The existing close and friendly relations between India and Maldives were
further consolidated and reinforced by regular consultations and meetings which
resulted in a close understanding at the highest level.
This cooperation has provided the opportunity to assess the ongoing multi-
dimensional cooperation programmes which encompasses infrastructure
development, health and welfare, civil aviation, communication and manpower
|President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom visited India on 15 and 16 June 1991 to
pay condolences on the sad demise of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv
Gandhi. He again visited India from 18 to 20 August 1991 for consultation on
SAARC and bilateral relations. The Minister for External Affairs visited Male
on 3 and 4 July 1991 for the SAARC Ministerial Council meeting.
Kum. Girija Vyas, Deputy Minister for Information and Broadcasting,
visited Maldives from 6 to 9 September 1991 to handover the fully aided
Television Reception Centre installed and commissioned by Doordarshan.
Shri A Arunachalam, Minister of State for Urban Development, visited
Maldives from 28 to 31 October 1991 to inspect and review progress on the
prestigious 200-bed Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital, an Indian-aided project,
due for completion in September 1992.
The second Indo-Maldives Joint Commission for Economic and Technical
Cooperation met at New Delhi on 2 and 3 March 1992. Minister for External
Affairs, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr
Fathulla Jameel, led the respective delegations.
| India's relations with Pakistan continued to be under stress and strain on
account of its undiminished support to terrorism in Punjab and Jammu &
Kashmir, directed against India, and its attempts to internationalise the Kashm
issue in violation of the Simla Agreement. Pakistan has also continued with its
hostile anti-India propaganda, misrepresenting the situation in Jammu &
Kashmir, and seeking to spread distorted and exaggerated accounts of alleged
atrocities by security forces.
| Pakistan's Foreign Secretary visited India from 18 to 21 August 1991 as
Special Envoy of the Pakistan Prime Minister and conveyed the desire of his
Government to engage in a serious and constructive dialogue with India and to
approach issues with a new mindset. He asserted that Pakistan's new approach
would be reflected on the ground. However, all evidence point towards the
contrary and shows that Pakistan's support to terrorism and subversion
| Convinced of the imperative necessity of establishing a tension-free and
good neighbourly relationship with Pakistan, India has persisted with efforts to
reduce tensions with Pakistan and carry the bilateral dialogue forward. In
accordance with this approach, India proposed a Confidence Building Package
in May 1990 and in its pursuance five rounds of Foreign Secretary level talks
have been held between the two countries. Some forward move could also be
made. In April 1991, during the fourth round of discussions, two agreements
were signed on (i) Advance Notification of Military Exercises and Manoeuvres
and (ii) Prevention of Air Space violations by Military Aircraft. The Directors
General Military Operations of the two countries have been in regular weekly
telephonic contact since 1 January 1991. Military delegations have paid
reciprocal visits in March and September 1991. Both sides have agreed to
consider a joint declaration and a bilateral agreement banning the production,
development, deployment and use of chemical weapons. The lists of nuclear
installations and facilities, to be covered under the Agreement on Prohibition
Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities, were exchanged on 1 January
| Discussions have also been held on several pending issues such as
demarcation of the boundary in the Sir Creek area, controlling drug trafficking
and smuggling and the Tulbal, Navigation Project. Both sides have agreed in
principle to resume discussions on the Siachen issue at the appropriate time an
to reconvene meetings of the Sub-Commissions of the India-Pakistan Joint
Commission on mutually convenient dates.
The Minister for External Affairs met the Pakistan Minister of State for
Foreign Affairs in New York on 30 September 1991 and called for the cessation
of Pakistan's support to subversion and terrorism in Punjab and Jammu &
The Prime Ministers of the two countries met in Harare on 17 October 1991
and in Colombo oil 21 December 1991 and reiterated the need to reduce
tensions and resolve issues bilaterally and peacefully. The Prime Minister
reminded the Pakistan Prime Minister that despite assurances, Pakistan
continued with its support to terrorism, and that these actions of Pakistan do
match with Pakistan's stated desire to improve bilateral relations with India.
two Prime Minister had another useful meeting at Davos (Switzerland) on 2
February 1992. However, immediately thereafter, the Government and the
National Assembly of Pakistan regrettably chose to associate themeselves with
statements and actions that vitiated the atmosphere in bilateral relations.
India hopes that Pakistan would abandon its negative approach and join in
the endeavour to establish friendly and cooperative relations in the interest o
the peoples of the two countries and of peace and stability in the region.
India maintained her endeavours to strengthen the traditionally close
relations with Afghanistan. There were regular high-level exchanges. The
Vice President of Afghanistan visited India in September 1991. Agreements
were concluded to promote bilateral cooperation in the economic, cultural and
other fields. India also continued to extend economic assistance to Afghanista
which, inter alia, included relief assistance for refugee rehabilitation, deput
of experts and scholarships for Afghan nationals. The Government of India
agreed to supply 50,000 tonnes of wheat to Afghanistan on a grant basis.
| India continued to extend full support to the political settlement of the
Afghan crisis. India believes that a political settlement taking into account
legitimate interests of all concerned should be arrived at by the Afghans
themselves without any form of external interference. In this context, India
welcomed the UNSG's five-point peace proposals announced in May 1991.
During the year under review, South Asian Association of Regional
Cooperation (SAARC) made notable progress in different areas of regional
cooperation. The Sixth SAARC Summit was held at Colombo on 21 December.
The Colombo Declaration, which was issued from the Summit, contained several
decisions of far-reaching significance.
Several steps in regional economic cooperation were initiated. In June 1991
a Regional Study on Trade, Manufactures and Services, first proposed to be
undertaken in 1987, was finalized at an Expert level meeting in New Delhi. Its
recommendations were endorsed "in principle" at the Ninth Session of the
Council of Ministers held in July 1991, in Maldives, and it was decided to set
a high-level Committee on Economic Cooperation (CEC) to examine the
recommendations and identify measures for immediate implementation from out
of the Study. The CEC, composed of Secretary-level officials from member-
states, met in Kathmandu on 15 and 16 September 1991. Its most important
recommendation, to set up an Inter-Governmental Group (IGG) to formulate
and seek agreement on an institutional framework under which specific
measures for trade liberalisation could be furthered, was approved by the Sixth
SAARC Summit. The First Meeting of the IGG is to be held shortly in India.
At this Meeting, a Sri Lankan proposal to establish a SAARC Preferential
Trade Arrangement (SAPTA) by 1997 will also be comprehensively examined.
| Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) hosted, on 3 and 4 October
1991, a meeting of national development institutions to decide the modalities o
a Fund to finance the Identification and Development of Regional Projects, an
Indian proposal accepted in the Male Declaration. It was agreed to institute a
Fund of US $ 5 million to begin with, by pooling regional resources, and to
constitute a SAARC Regional Council of Development Financial Institutions
(RCDFI) to manage the Fund. The first meeting of the RCDFI is due to take
place in India in Februray 1992, also under IDBI auspices.
Pursuant to an earlier decision, SAARC member-states had prepared
National Studies on `Causes and Consequences of Natural Disasters and
Protection and preservation of Environment', which were synthesized into a
Regional Study in 1991. The Sixth SAARC Summit agreed to set up a SAARC
Committee on Environment to examine the recommendations of this Study
comprehensively and to identify measures for its implementation.
Another Study under preparation is on the Greenhouse Effect or Global
Warming, with particular reference to its impact on the region. National Studi
are to be synthesized into a Regional Study in time for UNCED Meeting at Rio
in June 1992. The Colombo Declaration considered it useful to hold a
Ministerial meeting to harmonise views of SAARC member-states for effective
projection at the UNCED Meeting. India will host a Ministerial-level Meeting
for this purpose in April 1992. The year 1992 is to be observed as the SAARC
year of Environment. As in the past, both National and Regional Programmes
in this field are proposed for implementation in India.
In order to promote people-to-people contact, a Visa Exemption Sticker
(also called SAARC Travel Document) will become operational from 1 March
1992. This will enable visa-free travel within the region to Members of Nation
Parliaments, Supreme Court Judges, Heads of National Academic Institutions,
their spouses and dependent children.
| A laudable decision of the Sixth SAARC Summit was to set up a South
Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation consisting of eminent persons from
this region who would draw upon the region's experiences gained in Poverty
Alleviation Programmes and present its Report to the Seventh SAARC
Under the 13 agreed areas of technical cooperation of which the Integrated
Programme of Action is composed, 62 SAARC activities such as workshops,
training programmes, seminars, symposia and conferences were held during
1991, out of which nearly a quarter were held in India. In Tourism, a newly
identified area of technical cooperation, India will be hosting a Meeting of
Experts to devise strategies for marketing SAARC abroad in order to promote
tourist arrivals from developed countries.
| As decided by the Fifth SAARC Summit, 1991 was observed as `SAARC
Year of Shelter' in order to focus attention on and redress the grievances of t
homeless in the SAARC region. A SAARC Workshop on `Appropriate
Building Materials and Technologies' was held in Madras earlier this year, and
documentary film on `Slum Upgradation' was telecast on the National Network
on 8 December, the anniversary of the signing of the SAARC Charter. The
Sixth SAARC Summit has directed the establishment of "Shelternet", a shelter
information network, to pursue some of the activities initiated in the SAARC
Year of Shelter.
India is firmly committed to regional cooperation under SAARC. The
Government of India view SAARC as an instrument of realising collective self-
reliance and accelerating socioeconomic development. India believes that
SAARC cooperation should be extended as expeditiously as possible to the core
economic areas of trade, manufactures and services, so that the benefits of the
Association reach the common man in an effective and palpable form.
South-East Asia And The Pacific
SOUTH-EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFICINDIA'S traditionally close and friendly relations with countries in South-E
Asia and the South Pacific were maintained and broadened by numerous
high-level contacts with countries in this region.
Relations with Cambodia continued to be close and friendly. Mr Hun Sen,
Prime Minister of the State of Cambodia (SOC), visited India from 3 to
Oct 95, 1991. During the visit, he met Prime Minister, Minister for External
Affairs and other Ministers, and held discussions on bilateral issues as well a
prospects for a Cambodian settlement. He expressed deep appreciation of
India's role and called for a major Indian presence in the UN Transitional
Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). India assured Cambodia that she would
continue to play a keen role along with other countries to ensure the emergence
of a sovereign, independent, non-aligned and democratic Cambodia. India
stressed her readiness to actively participate in the UNTAC operations and to
share her experience in peace keeping and in the conduct of elections, to the
extent she is called upon to do so by the United Nations.
| India continued to extend bilateral assistance to Cambodia. A gift of 5,0
MT of rice, which was offered during Prime Minister Hun Sen's October 1990
visit, was handed over in June 1991. An agreement in respect of the Rs 1.5
crore commercial credit extended by India in October 1990 was signed in July
1991. The credit is to be utilised, at the Cambodian request, for aluminium
coils. Action is under way to supply these items and the medicines, requested
Cambodia under the Rs 1.5 crore grant also extended in October 1990. In
response to an appeal, relief supplies worth Rs 5 lakhs are being despatched fo
flood victims in Cambodia. Arrangements are also being made to hold artificial
limb fitment camps in Cambodia.
| India continued to play an active role in the efforts to achieve a Cambodian
settlement, through frequent official interaction to promote her views on
issues including the need for an early ceasefire, cessation of arms supplies to
the factions and demobilization. As part of the efforts, Secretary (East) visi
Bangkok in May and Beijing and Pyongyang in July 1991 and held consultations
which paved the way for a meeting between Prime Minister Hun Sen and Prince
Sihanouk. On 22 July 1991, Secretary (East) personally conveyed Prime
Minister's felicitations to Prince Sihanouk on his election as Chairman of the
Cambodian Supreme National Council (SNC). In August 1991, India decided to
accredit a representative to the SNC, a decision which Prince Sihanouk greatly
welcomed. In August 1991, immediately prior to the meeting of SNC at Pattaya,
India made a suggestion for phased demobilization. This was
subsequently accepted by the SNC and the Five Permanent Members of the UN
Security Council (P-5).
A delegation led by Minister for External Affairs participated in the seco
session of the Paris International Conference on Cambodia (PICC) from 21 to
23 October 1991. Prime Minister sent congratulatory messages to President
Mitterrand and President Soeharto conveying India's appreciation of the role
played by France and Indonesia as Co-Chairmen of the Conference and offered
all possible Assistance in the implementation of the Agreement and in the
reconstruction of Cambodia.
| India's constructive contribution has been widely acknowledged and
appreciated by all parties. India was among the countries specially mentioned
the PICC for facilitating the peace process in Cambodia. At the request of the
UN, India has contributed civilian and military personnel for the United Nation
Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC), and has conveyed her willingness to
participate in UNTAC. An Indian election expert was a member of the UN
Election Survey team which visited Cambodia in October 1991 to study the
preparations required for the holding of UN supervised elections, which are
likely to be held in 1993.
The Minister of State for External Affairs visited Cambodia from 12 to 15
December 1991 and had meetings with Prince Sihanouk, Prime Minister Hun
Sen and other Members of the SNC. He reaffirmed India's continued support
for peace and reconstruction in Cambodia as per the Paris Accords. India's
representative to the SNC presented his credentials to Prince Sihanouk in
December 1991. In his communications to the President and the Prime Minister,
Prince Sihanouk has paid handsome tributes to the active role played by India i
the negotiations leading to the signing of the Paris Accord. He has expressed
hope that India would continue to play a leading role in the reconstruction of
India's traditional relations with Vietnam were further strengthened by
exchange of high-level visits with special emphasis laid on enhancing bilat
economic, scientific and technical cooperation. The President of India paid a
highly successful visit to Vietnam from 24 to 28 April 1991. He had discussion
with the Vietnamese leadership on bilateral and regional issues. A delegation
led by the Vice President of the State Council of Vietnam attended the funeral
of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in May 1991.
Following the President's visit, India agreed to assist Vietnam in
establishing an industrial estate at an estimated cost of Rs 1 crore. It was
decided that talks on Civil Aviation and Banking would be held with the
objective of establishing air links and opening a branch of the State Bank of
India in Vietnam. The Civil Aviation talks were held in November 1991 and an
Air Services Agreement providing for the establishment of air links between the
two countries was initialled.
India's friendly relations and economic cooperation with Laos were
maintained. Laotian trainees continued to visit India for training in diverse
under Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) and other
programmes. Deputation of Indian experts to Laos also continued.
The President accompanied by an official delegation, paid a State visit to
the Philippines from 28 April to 1 May 1991, which was the first ever visit by
Indian Head of State to that country. During the visit, bilateral, regional an
international issues of mutual interest were discussed. An Agreement for
Cooperation in Utilization of Atomic Energy for peaceful purposes and a
Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of Agricultural
Science and Technology were signed during the visit. The Philippines also
extended support to India's principled position on the institutionalisation of
racism in Fiji. An official announcement was later made by the Philippines sid
including Fiji in their restricted list because of Fiji's policy of racial
discrimination. One of the highlights of the President's visit was his address
the University of Philippines on the subject "Developing Countries in the
Changing World" and conferment on him of the Degree of Doctorate of Laws
(Honoris Causa) by the University. The President also extended an invitation t
the President of the Philippines to visit India. The visit has resulted in gre
degree of goodwill and understanding between the leaders of the two countries.
India is also providing an assistance of about Rs 42 lakhs to the Philippines f
setting up a Handtool and Design Centre at Angels City under the ITEC
| India has extended a token relief assistance of Rs 5 lakhs worth of essenti
medicines for the quake victims due to the massive volcanic eruptions of Mt.
Pinatubo in June 1991. The President also sent a message of sympathy to the
Philippines President on this natural calamity.
Relations with Singapore became more friendly and close through several
exchanges of ministerial level visits. Singapore Minister for Health, Mr Yeo
Cheow Tong, attended the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv
Gandhi. The Minister for External Affairs visited Singapore on 12 August
1991. He called on Singapore's Prime Minister, Mr Goh Chok Tong and
Foreign Minister, Mr Wong Kan Seng and had discussions with them on
matters of mutual concern, including an invitation to Singapore to consider
investing in India in view of her liberalised economic environment.
Subsequently, a Seminar on "Investing in India: New Business Opportunities",
was held in Singapore on 18 October, which was jointly organized by the
Singapore Trade Development Board in association with High Commission of
India and the Ministry of External Affairs. The official delegation at the
Seminar was led by the Finance Minister and included the Minister of State for
Commerce and senior representatives from the concerned Government
departments, trade and industry and financial institutions. The Seminar was
highly successful in its objective of dissemination of information about India'
new trade, economic and investment policies to the investors in Singapore and
its neighbouring countries.
Singapore Foreign Minister, Mr Wong Kan Seng, later visited India on 5
and 6 December 1991. He called on the Prime Minister, Minister for External
Affairs, Finance Minister and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and had very
useful exchange of views with them for promoting bilateral cooperation in
economic and other areas, including Singapore's investment in India. The visit
of Singapore Foreign Minister which took place after about 20 years has
generated further momentum in the friendly and cooperative relations between
India and Singapore.
Relations with Malaysia continued to be friendly. Malaysian Minister for
Human Resource attended the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv
Gandhi. The Prime Minister had bilateral meeting with the Malaysian Prime
Minister, Dr Mahathir during the CHOGM Summit at Harare in October 1991
when both leaders exchanged ideas for further promotion of cooperation in
economic and other fields as an example of South-South Cooperation.
Indonesian Coordinating Minister for Security, Mr Sudomo, attended the
funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi. Other visits from
Indonesia included the visit of a delegation led by Secretary General in
Indonesian Ministry of Defence and Security, Gen. I B M Sudjana, in May
1991 and the transit visit of Director General in the Indonesian Foreign Office
Mr Wiryono, in October 1991.
The Fifth Meeting of the Indo-Thai Joint Trade Committee was held in
New Delhi in November 1991. Earlier, Mr Kasem Kasemsri, Minister in the
Thai Prime Minister's Office visited India to attend the funeral of former
Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi.
Brunei's High Commissioner in Kuala Lumpur, Mr Pengiran Haji Abdul
Momin, visited India to attend the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri
Rajiv Gandhi. A resident Assistant High Commissioner of Brunei will
commence operations in Delhi from 1992.
| India's proposal to have sectoral dialogue with ASEAN in the areas of
trade, technical and manpower development,. technology and tourism was
accepted by ASEAN in January 1992. This significant development would open
up avenues of improving India's relations with ASEAN in economic and other.
Bilateral relations with Australia progressed towards normalcy after the
temporary set back in 1990-91 on account of the sale of Mirage aircraft by
Australia to Pakistan. Various bilateral meetings postponed last year were
revived. The Joint Working Group on Coal met in Australia in May 1991. The
5th Joint Business Council Meeting took place at New Delhi on 3 and 4
Septemebr 1991. High-level economic consultations were held in Delhi on 13
and 14 November 1991, followed by the second round of senior official-level
talks on 18 and 19 November 1991. The Council for Scientific and Industrial
Research signed a Memorandum of Understanding with its Australian
counterpart, Department of Industry, Technology and Commerce in April
1991. An Avoidance of Double Taxation Agreement was signed on 25 July
Australian Foreign Minister, Senator Gareth Evans, and Mrs Hazel
Hawke, wife of the then Australian Prime Minister, represented Australia at
the funeral of Shri Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991. Senator Evans again visited
India in September 1991 for the meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of
Foreign Ministers on South Africa. The Prime Minister met the then
Australian Prime Minister, Mr Bob Hawke, at the Commonwealth Summit in
Cordial relations with New Zealand were maintained. The Prime Minister
met New Zealand Prime Minister, Mr Bolger, at the Commonwealth Summit
in Harare. New Zealand Deputy Prime Minister, Mr Don Mckinnon, visited
India in May 1991 to attend the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv
Gandhi. He also met several Indian leaders.
Fiji remained a matter of intense concern to India. The Minister for
External Affairs in his statement at the UN Generaly Assembly (1991)
underscored the institutionalised racial discrimination being perpetuated in Fi
by the illegal Government installed after the coups in 1987. India continued
extend moral support to democratic forces in Fiji. Indian Missions in Canberra
and Sydney retained contact with senior coalition leaders from Fiji.
The ban on commercial, economic and technical cooperation with Fiji was
maintained. Scholarships were given to deserving Fijian students.
|THE visit of the Chinese Premier Mr Li Peng to India from 11 to
Dec 16, 1991 was a significant milestone in India-China relations. This
was the first visit by a Chinese Premier to India in thirty one years. The
visit was in return for the one undertaken by the former Prime Minister,
Shri Rajiv Gandhi, to China in December 1988.
The Chinese Premier's visit was an expression of the continuing positive
momentum in India-China relations. The leaders of India and China
reaffirmed the desire of both countries to further strengthen their friendly,
good neighbourly and mutually beneficial relations.
| During the year under review, India and China maintained high level
exchanges. The then Commerce Minister visited China for the second
session of the Joint Group on Economic Relations & Trade and Science &
Technology in February 1991. In March 1991, Mr Li Ximing, member of
the Politburo of the Communist Party of China, paid a visit to India at the
invitation of the Congress (I) Party. The Acting Culture Minister of China
also visited India in March 1991. Vice Premier Wu Xueqian represented the
Chinese Government at the funeral of the former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv
Gandhi. Peacetime exchanges in the defence field also continued with a visit
by the National Defence University delegation to India in November 1991 in
return for a visit made by the National Defence College in 1990. The
Director of the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Chinese Ministry of National
Defence and the Director General of Military Intelligence of India also
exchanged visits in 1991.
The Cultural Exchange Programme for 1991-93 was signed in March
1991 and a two year Programme for Science and Technology was signed in
July 1991 for the promotion of research exchanges in the fields of lasers,
sensing, new materials, bio-engineering and agriculture.
The Joint Working Group on the boundary question held its third session in
Beijing in May 1991. Both sides also held the second set of meetings between
the border security personnel in the Eastern and Western sectors in July 1991.
On his visit to India in December 1991, Premier Li Peng was accompanied
by a high level delegation including the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the
Minister for Foreign Economic Relations and Trade. He held wide-ranging talks
with the Prime Minister and called on the President and the Vice President. He
also met the Ministers for External Affairs, Defence and Finance and leaders of
major political parties. Separate talks were held between the Foreign Minister
and the Commerce Ministers of the two countries.
The visit had a positive and notable outcome. An Agreement on the Re-
establishment of Consulates General in Shanghai and Bombay, a Consular
Convention, a Memorandum on the Resumption of Border Trade, the Trade
Protocol for 1992, and a Memorandum of Cooperation on the Peaceful
Applications of Outer Space Sciences and Technology were signed during the
visit. An India-China Joint Communique was also issued at the conclusion of
Mr Li Peng's visit to India.
On the crucial boundary question, both India and China reaffirmed the
need for an early and mutually acceptable settlement and to keep the border
areas free from tension pending a final settlement of the issue. China agreed
that meetings between the border security personnel should be held on a regular
basis to ensure peace and tranquillity in the border areas. It was further agr
that the Joint Working Group will hold its next session in New Delhi in the fir
half of 1992.
| On the issue of Tibet, the Chinese Premier said that China is willing to
have a dialogue with the Dalai Lama on all issues with the exception of Tibet's
independence. India reiterated her long standing and consistent position that
Tibet is an autonomous region of China and that she will not allow Tibetans to
engage in anti-China political activities in India. This position of the
Government does not conflict with the religious and cultural affinities that In
has had with Tibet through the centuries.
The third session of the Joint Group on Economic Relations & Trade and
Science & Technology was held in New Delhi in December 1991. The two sides
signed the Trade Protocol for 1992. New areas of cooperation in the fields of
agriculture, energy, education and public health have been identified. The
Chinese have agreed on the need for a dynamic increase and diversification of
trade relations, and have expressed their willingness to redress the present
adverse balance of trade which affects India. The Chinese have shown interest
in the steel and power sectors in India and it has been agreed to jointly bid f
project exports in third countries. A Festival of India is to be held in China
and a Festival of China is to be held in India.
India and China signed a Memorandum on the Resumption of Border
Trade. Initially the trade will be carried out at one point across the Uttar
Pradesh-Tibet border. There are provisions for the expansion of border trade
to other areas along the frontier. India's desire to expand the scope of borde
trade to cover other areas along the border was emphasised to the Chinese
During the visit of the Chinese Premier, India's standpoint on relations
with Pakistan, her concerns about Pakistan's continued support to militant and
terrorist activity in Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir were frankly conveyed to
the Chinese side. The Chinese Premier said that China is opposed to terrorism
since it does not solve problems and only sharpens contradictions. It was also
stated that China would convey India's concerns to Pakistan when the
India's concerns about arms supplies to Pakistan and Myanmar were also
conveyed to the Chinese side. The Chinese side has said that they want to see
peace and stability in South Asia and do not wish to see an escalation of the
arms race in the region. It was also mentioned that China would abide by the
Missile Technology Control Regime guidelines in missile exports to Pakistan.
During discussions on the international situation, both India and China
expressed the hope that the changes in the international situation will lead to
the establishment of a New World Order based on the Five Principles of
Peaceful Co-existence and the principles of the UN Charter, and an equitable
and mutually beneficial economic order in which the concerns of the
developing countries will be addressed.
The momentum in relations between India and Japan was further
intensified during the year under review. Exchanges and interaction continued
at the highest level. Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu warmly congratulated Prime
Minister P V Narasimha Rao on his assumption of the office of Prime
Minister. Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao's message of felicitation to
Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa on his election as Prime Minister of Japan
elicited a warm and cordial response from the latter who expressed the hope
for further strengthening and adding new content to bilateral ties so that the
two countries could contribute jointly to stability and peace in Asia and the
whole world. Former Prime Minister of Japan, Mr Noboru Takeshita,
represented the Government of Japan at the funeral of former Prime Minister,
Shri Rajiv Gandhi, in May 1991.
The Minister for External Affairs, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, visited Japan
from 18 to 24 January 1992 and had wide-ranging discussions with the top
Japanese leadership. The entire gamut of bilateral relations was examined and
areas of further cooperation in the emerging international order were explored.
The year 1992 marks the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic
relations and the signing of separate peace treaty between the two countries.
The visit also provided the first opportunity for a visiting Indian Minister to
explain the recent economic changes in India to the Japanese Government and
The then Finance Minister accompanied by Finance Secretary visited Japan
from 10 to 12 April 1991. He met the then Finance Minister of Japan,
Mr Ryutaro Hashimoto, the then Foreign Minister, Mr Taro Nakayama and
Speaker of the House of Representatives, Mr Yoshio Sakurauchi, who is also
the President of the India-Japan Association. The Petroleum Minister,
Shri B Shankaranand also visited Japan in October 1991.
In the economic sphere, Japan reacted favourably to Government's new
policy initiatives in economic liberalisation and opening up of the Indian
economy and indicated its intention of studying the situation in further detail
as to enable inflow of investment from Japan to India. A high-level 101-member
Economic Mission led by Dr Rokuro Ishikawa, President of the Japan and
Tokyo Chambers of Commerce and Industry, visited India from 27 to 31
January 1992. The Economic Mission was able to study the impact of the recent
liberalisation measures and explore further areas of economic cooperation
particularly in the area of direct foreign investment from Japan. The visit al
coincided with the 23rd Joint Meeting of the India-Japan Business Cooperation
Committee represented by FICCI and the Japan and Tokyo Chambers of
Commerce and Industry.
Indo-Japan cooperation in the field of development continued to be one of
the important aspects of the bilateral relationship. Japan remained India's
largest aid donor. At the Aid India Consortium in Paris in September 1991,
Japan pledged a total of 106.6 billion Yen for 1991-92 which was marginally
higher than 104.8 billion Yen pledged in previous year. Though the figure
indicated a marginal increase over the previous year in Yen terms, in Rupee
terms it indicated a 50% increase. During the year Japanese loan assistance wa
announced for the following projects:
(i) The Gandhar Gas Combined Cycle Project.
(ii) National Highway No. 2 Improvement Project (Mathura-Agra Section).
(iii) Aravalli Hills Afforestation Project.
(iv) Urban City Water Supply Project.
(v) The Ajanta-Ellora Conservation and Tourism Development Project.
At the official level, visits were exchanged in the economic, trade, scientific
technological and defence fields. The Mixed Commission for exchanges in the
field of culture and education held its meeting in Tokyo in December 1991. The
commemoration of the 40th Anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic
relations between India and Japan in 1992 figured on the agenda of these
discussions. The Third India-Japan Joint Committee for Cooperation in Science
and Technology met in New Delhi on 15 and 16 April 1991. In addition to
reviewing in detail the progress made, it discussed new proposals for further
cooperaion and interaction in science and technology.
The Chief of Army Staff briefly visited Tokyo in September and held useful
discussions with senior defence officials of the Government of Japan. In
addition, reciprocal arrangements for exchange of research scholars/officials i
defence studies were initiated with an Indian scholar visiting Japan in June 19
and a Japanese scholar visiting India in December 1991.
| The Third India-Japan Working Group for Railways met in Tokyo in
December and reviewed the progress made in areas of cooperation identified in
earlier meetings and also discussed new areas where cooperation could be
extended particularly in specialised areas and new technology in the Railways.
Bilateral consultative talks of the economic Ministries took place in New
Delhi on 19 and 20 November 1991 where the two sides reviewed
implementation of assistance-related projects and discussed future projects whi
could be covered under grant-in-aid assistance.
The interaction at the non-governmental level in the spheres of economy
and trade was also substantive in nature. The India-Japan Joint Study
Committee met in Tokyo under the Co-Chairmenship of Dr V Krishnamurthy,
Member, Planning Commission, and Mr Eijiro Noda, former Japanese
Ambassador to India, on 26 and 27 November 1991 and discussed inter-alia new
developments in the international political and economic order, India's new
economic policies from the respective vantage points of the two countries,
establishment of an Industrial Model Town in India, ways to commemorate the
40th Anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and the
intensification of exchanges particularly in the field of science and technolog
The Committee decided to meet biannually. The Standing Committee of the
India-Japan Joint Business Cooperation Committee (IJBCC) held its 14th
Meeting in New Delhi from 23 to 25 July 1991; The Japanese delegation led by
Mr Eme Yamashita called on the Finance Minister, Minister for External Affairs
and Ministers of State for Commerce and Industry. A 9-member delegation
from the Punjab, Haryana and Delhi Chambers of Commerce and Industry
visited Tokyo and Osaka and had meetings with Tokyo Chamber of Commerce
and Industry, the Osaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry, officials in
Ministry of International Trade & Industry and Japan External Trade
In recognition of the positive and balanced nature of the relationship tha
India has always enjoyed with the two Koreas, both the Democratic People's
Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea sought India's understanding on
the question of their entry to the United Nations. India was also requested by
both the Koreas to initiate the resolution admitting them in the United Nations
as full-fledged members in September 1991. Both the DPRK and the ROK
expressed appreciation of India's position on the subject of their entry to the
| India's bilateral relations with the Republic of Korea were marked by
friendship and cooperation and increased interaction particularly in the
economic sphere. Former Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea,
Mr Shinyong Lho, visited India as Special Envoy of President Roh Tae Woo
from 30 April to 3 May 1991 carrying a message seeking India's support for the
ROK to join the United Nations. He called on the President and Vice President
The bilateral trade figures showed an upward trend. Given the
complementarity of India's economy with the ROK, the potential for enhancing
trade, cooperating in joint ventures and attracting ROK investment were also
explored in depth. The Trade Development Authority (TDA) and its Korean
equivalent the Korea Trade Promotion Corporation (KOTRA) organized a
conference on "Industrial Cooperation and Investment Promotion between India
and Korea" in New Delhi on 4 and 5 September 1991 in which 33 Korean firms
and 500 Indian firms participated.
The then Minister of Commerce, Law and Justice visited Seoul from 1 to 1
April 1991 for the ESCAP Ministerial Meeting and utilised the opportunity for
discussions on bilateral matters of mutual interest with Foreign Minister Lee
Sang Ok and Trade and Industry Minister Lee Bong Suk.
In the academic and cultural fields too there was a discernible trend of
gradually increasing interaction. Of significance was the 3rd India-Korea
Conference held at Yonsei University where various facets of bilateral relation
were examined in depth and the potential for future cooperation explored
particularly in the light of India's new liberalised economic policy.
Bilateral relations with the DPRK progressed well during the year under
review. Vice President Li Jong Ok visited India from 7 to 11 May 1991. He
called on the President, Shri R Venkataraman, Vice President, Dr S D Sharma
and also met the then Deputy Minister for External Affairs. Two documents
were signed during the visit, namely, the Plan of Cooperation in Science and
Technology and the Cultural Exchange Programme for 1991-92. During the visit,
the adherence of both sides to the principles of the non-aligned movement of
which both are members was reaffirmed.
| Secretary (East), Shri L L Mehrotra, paid an official visit to Pyongyang
from 19 to 23 July 1991 and called on Vice President Li Jong Ok, Vice Premier
and Foreign Minister Kim Yong Nam. He held in-depth discussions on the
current international situation, bilateral matters and issues of common concern
with his counterpart, Vice Minister Cha Bong Ju. Secretary (East) also met
Prime Minister Hun Sen of Cambodia and Prince Norodom Sihanouk who were
in Pyongyang at that time.
India was represented at the Asian Ministerial meeting of G-77 in
Pyongyang held from 10 to 12 September 1991 by Special Secretary
(Commerce), Shri S Kanungo, leading the delegation as Ministerial
Contacts at both the official and non-official levels continued in diverse
fields. A Parliamentary group led by Shri M A Masodkar attended the 85th
International Parliamentary Union Conference in Pyongyang in April 1991. As
in past years, India took part in the April Spring Friendship Art Festival in
The year was marked by a continuation of traditional ties of friendship and
cordiality with the Mongolian People's Republic and steady contacts at both the
official and people-to-people levels were maintained. Prominent visitors to
(i) A 3-member Parliamentary group led by Shri Bhaktacharan Das
visited Mongolia to attend an international conference on new
democracy in Mongolia.
(ii) Shri L L Mehrotra, Secretary (East), attended the National Day
celebrations of Mongolia in July 1991 and also held extensive
consultations on matters of bilateral and mutual interest with his
Mongolian counterpart, Vice Minister Doljintseren. Secretary (East)
also called on President P Ochirbaat, Prime Minister D Bymbasuren,
Foreign Minister Ts. Gymbasuren and Minister of Trade Bayer
Baataar. Three agreements were signed during the visit, namely, (i)
Cultural Exchange Programme for 1991-93, (ii) Plan of Cooperation
in the field of Health and Medical Sciences and (iii) Protocol on the
Equivalence of Degrees and Diplomas.
(iii) Secretary, Planning Commission, Shri N Sengupta visited Mongolia to
give a series of lectures on the market economy to Mongolian
Government and administration officials.
(iv) The former Chief Justice of India, Justice P N Bhagwati, visited
Mongolia in connection with the drafting of the new constitution.
Prominent among the visits from Mongolia was that of the Minister for
Labour, Mr Ts. Tsolomon, in November 1991 who had meetings with the
Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, and Minister of
State for Industry, Shri P K Thungon, and with other Government officials in
addition to meeting private business entrepreneurs.
Efforts were directed towards increasing cooperation in the economic and
trade fields. Broad areas of cooperation were identified, with Mongolia showin
particular interest in the agricultural sector and in the small scale and mediu
sectors of industry. Special stress was laid on assistance to Mongolia in trai
and management under the ITEC Programme.
West Asia And North Africa
|DURING the year under review, India's relations with countries of West
Asia and North Africa continued to flourish within the parameters of
normal friendship and cooperation. In the beginning of the year, the impact of
the Gulf Crisis was felt in the region, with new friendship made and old
alliances readjusted between Arabic speaking countries, even far removed from
the Gulf region, as a result of the new and emergent realities. In the latter
half of the year, the joint US and Soviet initiative to restart Middle East tal
bore fruit with the principal antagonists gathering in Madrid on 30 October,
for the first ever face to face talks. The preoccupation of the countries in
West Asia and North Africa with regional politics perforce led to their
distraction from enlarging their traditional friendship with countries like Ind
India also continued to monitor the role of the countries in West Asia and
North Africa in the Organization of Islamic Countries, at which Pakistan
continued to drum up support for its stand on the Kashmir issue. This complex
mossaic of international motives presented to Indian diplomacy a fresh
| Indian solidarity with the people of Palestine was highlighted by the visit
of Shri Eduardo Faleiro, Minister of State for External Affairs, to Tunisia
from 11 to Oct 13, 1991, when he called on Mr Yasser Arafat, the
President of the State of Palestine, and Mr Farooq Qadumi, the Palestinian
Foreign Minister. The two sides exchanged views on the then upcoming Middle
East Peace Conference and the PLO shared with India their perspective of the
US-Soviet initiative and the options available to them at that crucial juncture
India reiterated her support for the Palestinian people and their cause. On 29
November 1991 a function was held in New Delhi to observe the Indian
Solidarity Day with the Palestinian people. Shri Eduardo Faleiro, Minister of
State for External Affairs, in his address reiterated the Indian solidarity wit
the Palestinian people. Dr Najma Heptulla, Deputy Chairman of the Rajya
Sabha, recalled the background of the Palestinian struggle and India's consiste
support for the Palestinian rights.
President Yasser Arafat visited India from 20 to 22 January 1992 on a State
visit. Besides calling on the President, he had discussions with the Prime
Minister and also met with the Vice President, the Minister of State for Extern
Affairs, and the Ministers for Finance and Human Resource Development.
Leaders of some political parties i.e. CPI, CPM, Janta Dal and BJP, also called
on him. During his stay, President Arafat was also presented the Indira Gandhi
International Award by the Indian Council for World Affairs. He held a Press
Conference, at which he clearly articulated the Palestinian stand that the
presence of India at the Middle East peace talks was desirable and that any
sovereign step that India might take by way of establishing diplomatic relation
with Israel would be totally within India's prerogative. His visit provided an
opportunity for an intense exchange of views and reaffirmation of confidence
and support for each other. This was significant as the politics in the Middle
East are rapidly evolving with the traditional alignments between the Arabs,
overtaken by these events.
| Two rounds of talks between Arab and Israel have been held, the first one
at Madrid from 29 October to 5 November, and the second one in Washington
from 11 to 17 December. The Palestinians had earlier agreed to be a part of th
Jordanian delegation. The outcome of the Washington Session has been less
satisfactory than the one in Madrid, which had raised hopes of noticeable
progress in the peaceful resolution of Arab-Israeli differences, dating from th
birth of the State of Israel. The next Session is expected by a wider number o
countries, even other than Israel's immediate Arab neighbours, in order to
discuss multilateral issues of disarmament, utilisation of water resources, etc
India has welcomed the Middle East peace talks and voted for the rescinding of
UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 hoping that this would enable the
United Nations to play a role in the talks and lead to the lessening of acrimon
Mr Hocinedjoudi, Secretary General of the Algerian Foreign Ministry,
visited India from 18 to 21 April 1991 to hold official level bilateral talks.
discussions centred on the role of the Non-Aligned Movement. The two sides
agreed to strengthen and promote bilateral cooperation. Mr Hocinedjoudi also
called on the then Minister of State for External Affairs and discussed a wide
range of international issues, including the post-Gulf crisis situations.
Symbolising the traditional friendship between India and Egypt was the
presence of the Egyptian Speaker of Shura, Dr Mustafa Kamal Helmi, as a
representative of the Egyptian President at the funeral of Shri Rajiv Gandhi.
|The two countries signed in July 1991 a new Air Agreement to provide
reciprocal bi-weekly air services between India and Egypt. Dr Boutros Ghali,
the Egyptian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for External Affairs,
visited India in August 1991 for soliciting Indian support for his candidature
for election to the post of Secretary General of the United Nations. On his
election subsequently, the Egyptian Foreign Minister conveyed Egypt's grateful
thanks to the Minister for External Affairs for India's role in Dr Ghali's
Minister for External Affairs, Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, visited Egypt from
12 to 16 January 1992 at the invitation of his Egyptian counterpart. This visi
was in line with periodic bilateral exchanges between India and Egypt at the
political level. He was accompanied, amongst others, by Shri I P Khosla,
Secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs. Six prominent businessmen also
visited Egypt at the same time for the inauguration of the Indo-Egypt Business
Forum. Shri Solanki launched an Indian Film Week. The Minister also
inaugurated the Maulana Abul Kalam Cultural Centre in Cairo, which would
provide a window to the Egyptians to the vast riches of Indian culture. The
complete gamut of bilateral relations and important international issues were
discussed in detail during the Indo-Egyptian talks. He called on President
Hosni Mubarak and Speaker of the People's Assembly, Mr Ahmed Fathi
Sarour. He also met the Arab League Secretary General, Dr Esmat Abdel
Meguid. Shri Solanki delivered a talk at the Cairo University on `India's
perception on the new international scenario' and the role of NAM with Egypt
and India in it. A subject of common concern discussed by the Minister for
External Affairs with both President Mubarak and his counterpart was the
danger to secular societies from the rising crest of fundamentalism. The two
sides also agreed that the Indo-Egyptian Joint Commission should meet this
year in New Delhi.
A six member Parliamentary Delegation from Jordan visited India in
December 1991. They called on the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the
Minister for External Affairs. They emphasised the role of Parliamentarians in
building bridges between countries and the need to maintain these exchanges.
Brig. General Mahmooud Mattar, the Chief of the Lebanese Air
Force, was in India in November-December 1991. He called on the Indian Air
Chief and discussed matters of mutual concern. He expressed interest in the
purchase of essential items required by Lebanese Defence Services like the
Kiran Mark II aircraft.
Mr Rafiq Haddaoui, Minister in the Moroccan Prime Minister's Office,
visited India in August 1991 as a Special Envoy of King Hassan II. The visit
was part of Moroccan demarches with the members of UN Security Council on
Western Sahara. Shri Jagdish Tytler, Minister for Surface Transport, visited
Morocco from 22 to 28 September 1991 to participate in the 19th Permanent
International Association of Road Congress.
Dr Mohd. Zuhair Masharqah, Vice President of the Syrian Arab Republic,
transited through India on 27 and 29 July 1991 on his way to and back from
Kabul. During his stay, he called on the Vice President of India and discussed
bilateral and multilateral issues. On 8 October 1991, an agreement was signed
Damascus between India and Syria for cooperation in the field of tourism.
Shri Eduardo Faleiro, Minister of State for External Affairs, visited Tuni
in October 1991 for the annual political consultations, the second round of
which was held in Delhi in 1989. Shri Faleiro was received by President Ben Al
to whom he handed over a letter from the Prime Minister. President Ben Ali
conveyed his greetings to Prime Minister and accepted the invitation to visit
India. Shri Faleiro also had wide-ranging discussions with Mr Habib Ben Yahia,
Tunisian Foreign Minister and the Secretary of State. The Tunisian leaders
expressed admiration for India and its contribution to the improvement in
international relations. They also expressed keen interest in the new politica
and economic initiatives undertaken by India. Relations with their respective
neighbours were also discussed as well as the possibility of inter-regional
economic cooperation. Shri Faleiro brought up the question of Tunisia importin
more from India to offset the imbalance in the bilateral trade as India is the
largest importer of phosphoric acid from Tunisia as well as of expanding and
diversifying economic cooperation to include joint industrial and technical
collaboration in areas already identified by the Joint Committee. There was
general satisfaction at the present state of bilateral relations and keenness t
strengthen and promote them further.
| Mr Abdus Salaam Al Jalloud, Vice President of the People's Bureau of
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, paid a transit visit to India on 22
January 1992. A working lunch was hosted by the Prime Minister, at which the
two leaders exchanged views on a number of bilateral and multilateral issues.
Mr Jalloud, in particular, conveyed the Libyan perception of the situation that
has developed following the allegations levelled by the USA, UK and France
that two Libyan agents had complicity in the Pan Am/UTA air crashes. The
three Western Powers have demanded the handing over of these two suspects.
Contemporaneously with the visit of Mr Jalloud, UN Security Council passed
Resulution 731, endorsing unanimously the above demand. India voted in favour
of the Resolution. Mr Jalloud reiterated the Libyan resolve to reinvigorate th
bilateral relations and that there should be regular political level bilateral
consultations and exchange of high level visits. Earlier, Libya had dropped th
reference to Kashmir in a document on terrorism introduced by it in the UN
General Assembly. He also suggested that the Non-Alignment Movement
needed to be revitalised.
India decided to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel and an
announcement to this effect was made on 29 January 1992 by Foreign Secretary,
indicating that Embassies would be set up by India in Tel Aviv and by Israel in
New Delhi as soon as physically feasible. India's decision reflects the change
international situation and the ongoing Arab-Israel dialogue on a West Asian
settlement and her desire to encourage these peace talks.
India has had a longstanding tradition of close and friendly tics with the
Gulf region. During the last two decades, her ties with the countries of the
region have acquired a strong economic and social dimension. It has been
India's endeavour to encourage this trend towards mutually beneficial
India welcomed the liberation of Kuwait on 28 February 1991 as a
reassertion of international legality. Subsequently, India was also gratified
note the fast pace of restoration of normal life in that country. India and Ku
resumed their economic ties. The Government made all possible efforts to
facilitate the return of Indian nationals earlier employed in Kuwait. As a res
of these efforts, the number of Indians in Kuwait by the end of December 1991
was estimated at 70,000. The then Minister for Commerce visited Kuwait in May
1991 with a number of Indian businessmen to hold indepth discussions with the
Kuwaiti leaders on Indian participation in the reconstruction of that country.
The third session of Indo-Saudi Joint Commission was held from 12 to 14
November 1991. During the session, the two sides signed a Double Taxation
Avoidance Agreement on Aircraft Profits and agreed to consider a bilateral
Comprehensive Double Taxation Agreement. This session was conspicuous for
inclusion in the Saudi delegation of 20 businessmen who interacted extensively
with their Indian counterparts. The session also afforded an opportunity for
exchange of views on issues of mutual interest.
A delegation of Staff and Command College of the Sultanate of Oman
visited India in July 1991. This was followed by an official visit to India in
October 1991 by the Commander of the Royal Navy of Oman, Rear Admiral
Sayyid Shihab bin Taimour Al-Said.
The second session of the Indo-Bahraini Joint Economic Committee was
held in Manama in November 1991.
The Indian Red Cross Society sent a consignment of relief supplies
comprising food and medicines to Iraq by sea in May 1991. India, a member of
the United Nations Security Council, made sincere efforts to alleviate the
sufferings of Iraqi people through relaxation of sanctions against Iraq followi
the termination of hostilities.
There was a steady progress in Indo-Iranian relations. There were several
high-level exchanges. In the latter half of 1991 the Minister for External Aff
met his Iranian counterpart thrice, the last occasion being the Fifth Session o
the Indo-Iranian Joint Commission which was held in Tehran during November
1991. Substantive results were achieved during this meeting with agreements
being signed on cooperation in the cultural, economic, industrial, technical,
scientific, agricultural and consular fields which augur well for further
diversification and expansion of relations between the two countries.
Africa (South Of The Sahara)
|DURING the year, sub-Saharan Africa witnessed an accentuation of the
trends towards political pluralism, economic liberalisation and the
resolution of internal conflicts. The reform process in South Africa gathered
some momentum with the prospects of a constitutional settlement appearing
brighter in a land devastated by decades of apartheid.
While India welcomed the growing acceptance of multi-party democracy in
Africa, its progress in different countries was uneven. The smooth transfer of
power, resulting from the Presidential and Parliamentary elections held in
Zambia in October 1991 was noteworthy. During this period, other countries
like Kenya and Seychelles announced preparations for the adoption of multi-
party systems. Nigeria kept a steady course towards the return of democratic
rule by the end of 1992. However, civil strife complicated attempts at politic
liberalisation in a number of other countries.
The Peace Accord concluded between the MPLA Government and UNITA
in May 1991, and the promise of elections during the second half of 1992, final
brought peace to Angola after 16 years of cruel civil conflict. Attempts at
achieving some agreement between the Mozambican Government and the
RENAMO rebels have, however, not succeeded so far. Years of civil war ended
in Ethiopia with the collapse of President Mengistu's regime in May 1991 and
the assumption of power by a transitional government under President Meles
Economically, the Continent in general continues to suffer from a crippling
debt burden, balance of payments difficulties, unfavourable terms of trade and
an overall decline in foreign aid. The majority of African countries have
embarked on economic adjustment or restructuring programmes under
agreements with the IMF. There has also been a trend towards greater regional
cooperation, whether through ECOWAS in West Africa, SADCC in Southern
Africa, the Preferential Trade Area covering 19 Eastern, Central and Southern
African countries, or the Indian Ocean Commission covering the Indian Ocean
Island States. The OAU is also actively considering an African Economic
Community to come into being, in phases, over the next three decades.
India continued to intensify efforts to convert the historic goodwill exist
in African countries for her into mutually beneficial economic, technical and
cultural cooperation. Despite severe constraints of resources on both sides,
India's efforts are bearing fruit. Nearly 10,000 African students are studying
India on various Government of India scholarship schemes and on self-financing
basis. A large number of Indian scientific and technical experts are working i
Africa and trade is expanding quite satisfactorily. It is being increasingly re
that India possesses the appropriate technology for employment generation in
resource-deficient countries and that her "Green Revolution" is worthy of
Noting that the statutory pillars of apartheid in South Africa have alrea
fallen and some further progress registered towards the emergence of a fully
democratic South Africa at the Convention for a Democratic South Africa,
several steps have been undertaken by India to encourage the process. The
recommendations made by the New Delhi Meeting of the Commonwealth
Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Africa (CCFMSA) in September
last year for a phased lifting of sanctions against South Africa were adopted b
the Commonwealth Summit (CHOGM) in Harare in October 1991. In
consonance with the CHOGM decision, India lifted all "people to people"
sanctions, including visa and consular restrictions against South Africa.
Economic sanctions would also be lifted when further progress is made towards
some form of interim government on which the black majority would be
represented. Given her historic links, India is intensifying assistance to the
African National Congress by providing vocational, technical and administrative
training to representatives of the black majority.
| India has welcomed the holding of the convention for a Democratic South
Africa (CODESA) in Johannesburg on 20 and Dec 21, 1991. CODESA
marked the first substantive step towards the establishment of a non-racial
democracy based on universal suffrage in South Africa. At the Convention, 17
political organizations led by the ANC and the ruling National Party signed a
Declaration of Intent which commits CODESA to the basic tenets of a non-
racial democratic and undivided South Africa based on multi-party democracy,
regular elections, an independent judiciary, the supremacy of the Constitution
and a division of executive, legislative and judicial powers. India has applau
these decisions since it has been in the forefront of the struggle against apar
for about a century now.
President Sam Nujoma of Namibia was awarded the Indira Gandhi Prize for
Peace, Disarmament and Development for 1990. He visited India in February
1992 to receive the award.
President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe paid a State visit to India from 14
to 16 November 1991. During the visit, President Mugabe was awarded the
Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for 1989. Leaders of
the two countries reaffirmed their desire to intensity bilateral, economic and
India welcomed the signing of the Lisbon Peace Accords which brought an
end to 16 years of civil strife in Angola.
Widespread rioting and looting erupted in Zaire on 23 and 24 September
1991 as a result of a revolt by some sections of the Zairean army. Residences
and property of Indians and other foreign nationals were destroyed and looted.
No Indian was, however, physically harmed. France and Belgium rushed troops
to Zaire and law and order was restored to a large extent by 24 September 1991.
With the help of the French, Congolese and Belgian authorities, the Ministry
arranged the evacuation of Indian nationals and dependents of Indian Embassy
staff from Kinshasa.
The Nigerian Minister of External Affairs, Major-General Nwachukwu, led
an official delegation to New Delhi to attend the Commonwealth Conference of
Foreign Ministers on South Africa (CCFMSA) on 13 and 14 September 1991.
During his visit, he had bilateral discussions with the Minister for External
The Ghanian Minister for Energy, Mr Ato Ahwoi, visited India in
September-October 1991. During his visit, he discussed the possibilities of
procurement of equipment for electrification from India and of the
establishment of joint ventures in Ghana.
The Tanzanian Foreign Minister, Mr Hassan Diria, visited India to attend
the CCFMSA Meeting in September 1991. During his meeting with the Minister
for External Affairs, the ways and means to further bilateral relations includi
the problem of blocked funds, were discussed.
The civil war led to the defeat and collapse of the Mengistu regime and the
EPRDF forces took control of Addis Ababa on 28 May 1991. Simultaneously,
the EPLF took control of the Eritrean capital of Asmara. Since then the countr
has been divided into two de-facto administrations. A multi-party conference o
national reconciliation was held in Addis Ababa in the first week of July 1991.
This conference, inter alia, accepted the right of the Eritrean people to self-
A Special Envoy of President Meles Zenawi, the Ethiopian Minister for
Housing and Construction, Mr Ato Aragaw Tiruneh, visited India in November
1991. He called on the Prime Minister and the Minister for External Affairs.
The Indian leaders assured the Special Envoy of India's desire to maintain
assistance to Ethiopia, especially in the small-scale industry sector, water
resources management and agriculture.
Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth of Mauritius visited India from 23 to 26
July 1991 to further forge ties with the new Indian Government. He was
accompanied by Foreign Minister Jean Claude L' Estrac and Home Secretary
Bhinod Bacha. Mr Jugnauth called on the President and also had discussions
with the Vice President, Prime Minister and the Minister for External Affairs.
The Minister for External Affairs visited Mauritius in August 1991 for the
sixth session of the Indo-Mauritian Joint Commission. The on-going programmes
of economic and technical cooperation between the two countries were reviewed
and it was agreed to expand bilateral cooperation in the sectors of computer
software, remote sensing, water resources education and health.
The Deputy Prime Minister and Health Minister of Mauritius visited India
from 15 to 20 December 1991, and had wide-ranging discussions with Minister of
Health on bilateral cooperation in the field of health. He also called on Vice
President and Prime Minister. He also had a meeting with Minister for External
A constitutional amendment Bill was passed by Mauritius to proclaim itself
a Republic from 12 March 1992. The Prime Minister, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao,
has been invited as a chief guest on the occasion.
The only legal party in Seychelles decided in December 1991 to adopt a
multi-party democratic system. It was decided that the constitution would be
amended to allow the registration of political parties and the election of a Co
tutional Commission, which would draft a new constitution. A referendum would
field on the new constitution and elections held before the end of 1992.
The Action for Resisting Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid (AFRICA)
Fund was constituted by the 8th Summit of the Heads of State/Government of
Non-Aligned countries in Harare in September 1986 and its mandate was
renewed by the 9th NAM Summit in Belgrade in 1989. The AFRICA Fund was
the political expression of the Movement's support and solidarity to the frontl
African states to fight the apartheid policy of Pretoria regime and to assist
liberation movements in South Africa in their unrelenting struggle against raci
and colonialist oppression.
The Government of India contributed a sum of Rs 50 crores in 1987. In
addition, a sum of Rs 2.6 crores was contributed by individuals and orgaization
in India to the AFRICA (Public Contributions-India) Fund, set up under the
Societies Registration Act. During the year, a large number of multually
identified projects have been implemented in the Frontline States and assistanc
has been provided to the liberation movements in South Africa. The projects
implemented include supply of transport vehicles, essential commodities, mobile
clinics, medicines, mining equipment, etc. A project on feasibility study for
refractory brick plant in Zimbabwe and setting up of a Vocational Training
Centre in Namibia have also been undertaken. A project to supply various
essential commodities including medicines to ANC is also being financed front
the contributions made by the Indian public.
The senior officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee at their eighth
meeting held in Kuala Lumpur in May 1991, had recommended issuing of
a Joint Appeal by the Foreign Ministers of the Committee member countries.
The Foreign Ministers of the Committee member countries, who attended
the NAM Ministerial Meeting in Accra in September 1991, met under the
Chairmanship of the Minister for External Affairs of India and issued
a Joint Appeal for additional contributions to the Fund by the International
The ninth meeting of senior officials of the AFRICA Fund Committee held
in Harare, Zimbabwe from 9 to 13 December 1991 was a crucial one as it took
place after a series of positive developments in South Africa such as the repea
of some important legislative pillars of apartheid, the formation of the Patrio
Front, all Parties Conference, etc. The meeting concluded that the AFRICA
Fund could not continue further without additional funds and considered that it
is necessary to change the form and content of the Fund if the donor community
were to make fresh contributions. It was further felt that the Fund will have
be completely reconstituted and restructured if it were to assist the people of
South Africa in addressing the residual problems of Apartheid such as
resettlement, rehabilitation and human resource development. The next meeting
will give due consideration to these and other new suggestions for making
suitable recommendations on the mandate of the Fund to the 10th NAM
Summit to be held in Jakarta in 1992.
THE year 1991 proved to be historic. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
founded in 1922 following the October Revolution of 1917 was dissolved.
All the 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union emerged as independent States.
Eleven of these States came together to establish a Commonwealth of
Independent States pledging themselves to abide by the universally-recognized
principles and norms of international law. The emergence of the independent
Republics also heralded the end of the political and economic structures create
in the erstwhile USSR on socialist ideology.
After the formation of the Commonwealth, President Gorbachev, who had
all along advocated the preservation of the Union, relinquished his post, there
marking the end of a phase in domestic and international politics which was
begun by him in April 1985. The Prime Minister, in his message to
Mr Gorbachev, noted his epoch-making role, unparalleled in recent history, in
making the world a safer and more peaceful place for all mankind.
Events in the erstwhile USSR moved at a repid pace. In a nationwide
referendum held in March 1991, a majority of those who voted, favoured the
preservation of the Union. In April, President Gorbachev initiated what has
been termed as the Novo-Ogarevo process in which he sought to persuade the
Republics to come together in a Union under a new Union Treaty. Many of the
Republics agreed to sign the new Union Treaty on 20 August. However, this
move was pre-empted by an attempted coup on 19 August.
The August developments marked a turning point in the history of the
erstwhile USSR. The coup fizzled out within 72 hours and Mr Gorbachev, who
had been placed in a sort of preventive custody, returned to Moscow in his
capacity as the President of the Soviet Union. President B N Yeltsin of the
Russian Federation, displaying rare courage and qualities of outstanding
leadership, played a crucial role in bringing about the collapse of the coup.
restoration of constitutional order following the abortive coup marked the
victory of the will of the people and a reassertion of democratic values.
The abortive coup accelerated the process of the emergence of independent
Republics. In the aftermath of the coup, new political, legislative, executive
economic structures were created with varying degrees of success. However,
with the declaration of independence by Ukraine in December, it became clear
that these structures which presumed the existence of a Union would not
survive. On 8 December, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine signed an agreement in
Minsk creating a Commonwealth of Independent States which was later joined
by the Republic of Armenia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan,
Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Kirghizstan on 21 December at the Alma Ata
The Commonwealth leaders have been engaged in discussing issues of
mutual interest, viz, defence policy, future of strategic weapons, economic
reforms, foreign policy, social policies, etc. They have stressed that they wo
not like to recreate the Centre. Instead, they would like to resolve these iss
in the spirit of mutual cooperation mid accommodation but preserving at the
same time their independence and sovereignty. The Commonwealth has been
formaly declared to be neither a State nor a Superstate. Its exact shape and
indentity is yet to develop.
During the year, developments of far-reaching importance took place in the
different Republics. The actions of their governments and leaders were directe
at reassertion of their independence and sovereignty. Direct Presidential
elections, changes in the structure of the political parties and movements,
religious revivalism in some Republics and opening to the outside world were
the characteristic features of the developments in the Republics.
The economic situation in the different Republics deteriorated. The
Republics reacted by resorting to concluding mutually beneficial agreements
with other Republics and countries. There was also a distinct accent on market
oriented economic reforms, although the exact method and pace of making this
transition continue to be debated.
| India's response to the developments in the erstwhile Soviet Union was in
keeping, inter alia, with her geopolitical, strategic and economic imperatives.
India has in the past had wideranging and intensive cooperation with different
Republics under the overall umbrella of Indo-Soviet cooperation. The
Government thus undertook the task of disaggregating, Republic-wise,
In September, India recognized the independence of the three Baltic States.
In December, India positively assessed the proposed Commonwealth of
Independent States and accorded diplomatic recognition to all the Republics of
the former Soviet Union. It is intended to establish diplomatic relations with
15 Republics. Accordingly, it was decided to concurrently accredit India's
Ambassador in Helsinki to Estonia, India's Ambassador in Stockholm to Latvia
and India's Ambassador in Warsaw to Lithuania. A decision was also taken to
open, at this stage, new Embassies in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus and
upgrade India's Consulate General in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and to open
Consulates/CGs in Vladivostok and St. Petersburg. For the present, the other
countries, viz, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Kirghizstan,
Turkmenistan and Tadjikistan would be covered by concurrent accreditation.
President Karimov of the Republic of Uzbekistan paid an official visit to
India from 17 to 19 August. India signed two framework agreements with
Uzbekistan on economic and cultural cooperation. This was followed by visits o
a senior official of the Ministry of External Affairs and of a commercial
delegation to the Republics if Uzbekistan. Kazakhstan and Kirghizstan to
explore the possibilities of direct, inter alia, economic and cultural ties wit
these Republics. A trade protocol between India and Uzbekistan was signed in
President Nazarbaev of Kazakhstan, on his first State visit abroad since th
declaration of Kazakh independence, chose to visit India on 21 and 22 February
at the invitation of the Prime Minsiter. During the visit, India and Kazakhsta
signed 5 Agreements, including a Declaration on Basic Principles of Inter-
Governmental Relations, Diplomatic and Consular Protocols, and two
framework agreements in the cultural and economic spheres. In addition, an
agreement between the State Bank of India and the Kazakh Foreign Economic
Relations Bank concerning correspondent relations was also signed. A trade
delegation from Kazakhstan is expected to visit India shortly.
A goodwill inter-Ministerial delegation led by the Minister of State for Ci
Supplies, Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution, Shri Kamaluddin Ahmed
visited Azerbaijan from 26 February to 1 March. During the visit, he called on
President Mutalibov and other Ministers. Two Protocols were signed on the
establishment of diplomatic and consular relations. Draft framework agreements
on economic and cultural cooperation were handed over for consideration of the
Government of Azerbaijan.
India also offered technical assistance to the Central Asian Republics.
Already 12 trainees from Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Tadjikstan, Turkmenistan
and Uzbekistan are undergoing training in India in different fields.
Drafts of framework for economic and cultural agreements were sent for
consideration to the Republics of Kirghizstan, Turkmenistan and Tadjikistan.
The Government also received proposals for political, economic and cultural
exchanges from different Republics. India is very keen to enter into detailed
cooperation arrangements based on mutual benefit with all the Republics of the
Kirghizstan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan were
admitted to the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) at its first summit
held in Teheran on 16 and 17 February. It may be recalled that in 1985, the
ECO replaced the former Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD)
grouping founded by Iran, Turkey and Pakistan some 27 years ago. The ECO is
primarily an economic grouping aimed at forging stronger economic and
commercial tics amongst the member-States and also with the outside world.
The 5 Caspian Sea littoral States (Iran, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and
Kazakhstan) formed the Caspian Sea Cooperation Organization in Tehran on 19
February to reportedly "better handle the geopolitical situation in the region"
It is also understood that cooperation between these States would have an
economic foundation with a focus on shipping, fisheries, environmental
protection and oil exploration.
India is carefully monitoring these fast-moving developments and has
undertaken a number of initiatives to establish various linkages with the above
mentioned Republics of the former USSR with which we have historical,
cultural and commercial contacts of long-standing.
The Minister for External Affairs visited Moscow from 14 to 19 November.
He held extensive, and useful discussions with the Soviet and Russian leaders o
International and bilateral issues. His meetings with President Yeltsin and oth
senior leaders of the Russian Federation were extremely useful as they laid the
foundation for further development of relation between India and the Russian
Federation, The Russian leadership conveyed that it attached priority to
development of multi-sectoral ties with India. President Yeltsin also accepted
Prime Minister's invitation to visit India.
The Prime Minister met President Yeltsin in New York on 31 January.
Russian Deputy Prime Minister Burbulis is expected to come to India in the
near future for discussions on economic and other related issues. President
Yeltsin's visit is expected in the Autumn/Winter of 1992.
The Prime Minister also met President Kravchuk of the Ukraine in Davos
on Feb 02, 1992. The two leaders discussed issues relating to further
development of relations in diverse fields and expressed the intention to devel
close relations with each other. An early visit to India by the Ukrainian
President is expected.
Invitations have been extended to the Presidents of Belarus, Ukraine,
Kirghizstan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan to visit India. The Government
intend to also invite the leaders of the other Republics.
Foreign Secretary led a high-level multi-sectoral team of officials to R
and Ukraine in January 1992. The visit provided a useful opportunity for gaini
a first hand assessment of the developing situation in Russia and Ukraine and t
initiate the process of drawing up cooperation arrangements in diverse sectors
with a view to ensuring continuity in bilateral relationships and for laying th
foundation of long term relationships with these countries. A new Treaty on
Friendship and Cooperation with Russia has been finalized. A Treaty on
Friendship and Cooperation with Ukraine is also under consideration. Russia
and Ukraine, the two largest Republics of the erstwhile Soviet Union, together
account for an extremely high proportion of India's interchanges in diverse fie
of activity with the erstwhile USSR.
India offered humanitarian assistance to the Russian Federation amounting
to Rs 15 crores. The purpose was to offer some succor to those sections of the
population which have been adversely affected by the dislocation of economic
activities following the recent political and economic changes in the erstwhile
USSR. The amount is to be used to supply urgently required items including
baby food, rice, standard medicines, including sulphur drugs and antibiotics.
India also contributed an amount equivalent to US$ 250,000 for assistance
those affected by the Chernobyl disaster. This pledge was made in the context
the United Nations' efforts towards this end.
|A Russian delegation visited India from 14 to 22 February and finalized the
first-ever India-Russia Trade Protocol. The Protocol is valid for 1992.
The Russian Coal Mining Engineer, My Sergei Grishchenko was kidnapped
and reportedly killed by ULFA extremists in Assam. This was a matter of great
concern and distress to the Government.
India's traditionally friendly relations with Hungary received a strong
positive impetus with the visit of President of Hungary, Dr Arpad Goncz, in
April 1991. The visit reflected the desire on the part of both countries to ta
advantage of the opportunities opened up by democratisation and economic
liberalisation in Hungary to strengthen and further develop existing tics, inte
alia, of solidarity, culture, trade and economic cooperation which have been
nurtured over the years. Trade, which is conducted in hard currency, continued
to show a favourable trend, while new possibilities for cooperation with a high
potential were explored, laying the basis for a further consolidation of bilate
relations. The 10th Joint Business Council session, held in India from 21 to 2
January 1992, was well received by the business community in Bombay and
Delhi. Political contacts are to be furthered by a visit to India of a Hungari
parliamentary delegation in 1992.
| Relations between India and Poland have been traditionally friendly and
cooperative. The year 1991 witnessed major political developments reflecting a
phase of adjustment and transition as a result of the process of democratisatio
and radical economic reforms that were initiated by Poland in the last couple o
years. The first fully free parliamentary elections held on 27 October 1991
resulted in it parliament in which no single party or coalition could claim a
majority. In spite of this political uncertainty, the desire of both sides to
maintain high-level political contacts was reflected in a meeting of the Foreig
Ministers of Poland and India in New York in September and preparations for a
visit of President Walesa to India some time in 1992. Trade was affacted by th
switch over from rupee to hard currency. At the same time, efforts were
directed at stimulating the business sector in both countries to explore new
opportunities for trade and economic cooperation with a view to sustaining and
developing the existing basis for economic cooperation. Wide-ranging
programme on scientific cooperation between the Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research and the Polish Academy of Sciences was finalized in New
Delhi for the years 1992-94.
Bulgaria has been no exception to the shift to democracy in Eastern
Europe. The second democratic elections were held on 13 October 1991 in a
peaceful manner, with the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) forming the
Government headed by Mr Filip Dimitrov. Subsequently, President Zhelev was
re-elected after the second round of voting in mid-January 1992.
Relations between India and Bulgaria continued to be warm and friendly
during the year. The now Bulgarian Government has reiterated its desire to
consolidate the relations further.
Romania maintained the momentum of political and economic reforms,
introduced in the wake of December 1989 events and the general elections of
May 1990. The highlights of reforms in 1991 were the adoption of a new
Constitution, and of privatisation of agricultural land and small industries. A
programme of privatisation of some of the state-owned enterprises, in 1992, has
been drawn up.
Indo-Romanian relations received a boost during the year with the official
visit of the Romanian Foreign Minister, Mr Adrian Nastase to India from 30
October to 1 November 1991. This was the first visit of a Romanian Foreign
Minister to India in ten years and also the first since the momentous events of
December 1989. It was a successful and useful visit. The meeting of Indo-
Romanian Joint Commission was held in New Delhi from 18 to 20 December
1991 in which both sides discussed new avenues of diversifying and further
strengthening economic cooperation. Substantial progress has taken place in
discussion for signing a programme of cultural exchanges between the two
A Romanian diplomat, Mr Liviu Radu, was kidnapped by terrorists in New
Delhi on 9 October 1991. This evoked great anxiety and concern for his safety
and well-being. As a result of intensive efforts made by the Government of
India, Mr Radu was released on 26 November after 48 days of captivity.
The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic adopted both economic and
political reforms. While in the political arena, the scene was dominated by th
process of drawing up a new Constitution and the debate on redefinition of
federal and repbulican powers, in the economic sector, price decontrols were
introduced and the pace of privatisation of agriculture and industry hastened.
Inviting foreign investment was accorded priority on the economic agenda. The
country has drawn up an ambitious programme of privatising all state enterprise
over the next few years. These reforms have received a boost with the signing
an Association Agreement with the European Community in December 1991.
Relations between India and the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic remained
close and friendly. Both countries negotiated a Plan of Cooperation in the fie
of health, which is expected to be initiated soon. Trade Plan for 1992, betwee
the two countries, under the Trade and Payment Agreement was negotiated in
November 1991. A Czech and Slovak defence delegation led by the Chief of
General Staff visited India in December 1991, and the meeting of the Joint
Commission is likely to be held in March 1992. Bilateral exchanges, covering
artists, academicians, museums, archaeology and other fields took place under
the cultural exchange programme. An exhibition of Indian handicrafts was
organized in Prague. In the field for science and technology, there was a regu
exchange of scientists between the two-countries under the agreement between
the CSIR and the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.
Yugoslavia faced a severe political and constitutional crisis during the y
Two of its republics, Slovenia and Croatia, declared independence on 26 June
1991. Efforts by the European Community countries, under a mandate from the
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and through the
mechanism of a Conference on Yugoslavia, to arrive at a political settlement
have been under way. The United Nations Security Council, of which India
is currently a member, has also adopted five Resolutions 713, 721, 724, 727
and 740 relating, inter alia, to imposing an arms embargo against
Yugoslavia, the possible deployment of UN peace-keeping forces and
sending UN military personnel to monitor the ceasefire there. The
independence of the republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Macedonia has been recognized by a varying number of countries.
The situation in Yugoslavia, with whom India has traditionally friendly
relations, bilaterally as well as in the non-aligned movement, remains a
cause for distress and concern to India. India had expressed herself in
favour of a restructured federal framework. The restructuring should be
done in a peaceful and democratic manner to be worked out primarily
between the different republics and peoples of Yugoslavia. India adopted a
principled and constructive approach in the UN Security Council. India
voted for all the resolutions on Yugoslavia. India's position was that this
essentially being an internal crisis of Yugoslavia, a discussion on this subjec
in the Security Council could be undertaken only after a formal request
from Yugoslavia. This condition was met as Yugoslavia formally requested
the President of the Security Council to discuss the Yugoslav situation,
Yugoslavia, too, supported the provisions of the Security Council resolutions.
However, India did not favour the moves by some countries attempting to
impose an oil embargo against Yugoslavia as this move would have severely
and adversely affected the Yugoslav people who are already undergoing the
suffering of a civil war.
India signed an agreement for cooperation in the field of tourism, and
a sports protocol with Yugoslavia in April 1991. The Minister of
International Cooperation of the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina visited
India, at the invitation of the ICCR in August 1991.
|The Maastricht Summit meeting on 9 and 10 December 1991 was a
watershed in the history of Europe in the post-World War II era. The
European Community has embarked on a new chapter in its history with its
decision to move towards the creation of a political, economic and monetary
union. A single currency (ECU) will be introduced and a European Central
Bank established latest by 1999. The EC has expressed its intention to
steadily move towards a common foreign and security policy. At the same
time the EC and EFTA countries have agreed to create by 1993 a
European Economic Area comprising a large market of 380 million people.
With these developments, the EC, which is already India's largest trading and
economic partner, offers additional opportunities for even closer cooperation
During the year under review, India upgraded its relations with the EC and
maintained active contact with the individual members of the Community. An
intensive political dialogue with the European countries was maintained through
frequent high-level visits and exchanges. European Governments, business and
industry reacted positively to the new economic policy and liberalisation
measures initiated by the new Government. Many business and industrial
delegations were exchanged between India and the European countries to
explore and exploit the new opportunities for trade and investment.
Germany remains India's largest trading and economic partner in Europe.
The President of Germany, Dr Richard von Weizsaecker, paid a visit to India in
February-March 1991. The successful visit of the Prime Minister to Germany in
September 1991 underlined the importance of the growing Indo-German
bilateral relations and gave a fresh impetus to Indo-German cooperation. Durin
the visit, the Festival of India in Germany was inaugurated by the Prime
Minister and Chancellor Kohl. It was decided to set up an Indo-German
Consultative Group to advise both the Governments regarding upgrading the
bilateral relations in various fields in a long-term perspective. Minister for
External Affairs paid a visit to Germany in September 1991. The Indo-German
Joint Commission meeting and the visit of the German Minister of Economics in
November 1991 accompanised by a high-level business delegation have opened
new perspectives for strengthening bilateral economic ties.
Indo-UK relations were marked by growing understanding and cooperation
in diverse fields. It is a matter of considerable satisfaction that UK has bee
closely cooperating with India in countering terrorism and has taken stern acti
against terrorists based in UK. The Minister of State for External Affairs vis
UK in November 1991. Matters relating to the conclusion of the Extradition
Treaty and Agreement for the tracing, restraint and confiscation of the proceed
and instruments of crime and terrorist funds with UK were discussed in depth
during the visit of the British Home Secretary in January 1992. The Foreign
Secretary of UK visited India also in January 1992 and had extensive and fruitf
discussions with Indian leaders on a wide range of issues. The Prince and
Princess of Wales visited India in February 1992. India and UK agreed to
institutionalise political dialogue at different levels.
Prime Minister's transit visit to France in November 1991 and his meeting
with President Mitterand brought about better understanding and opened
promising prospectives for strengthening multi-faceted cooperation with France.
Indo-French Foreign Secretary level consultations were held in May 1991 in New
Delhi. The Minister of State for External Affairs visited France in October 199
Indo-French trade and economic coperation was reviewed in the Joint
Commission meeting held in Paris in November 1991.
Relations with Portugal improved during this period. During the visit of
Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, to Portugal in Ju
1991 an agreement was signed on the return of the gold ornaments which got
shifted to Portugal after the liberation of Goa in 1961. The gold ornaments ha
since been returned to India. The President of Portugal paid a State visit to
India in January 1992, the first such visit by a Portuguese President. He was
Chief Guest at India's Republic Day celebrations.
The President of Malta paid a State visit to India in January 1992. He ha
friendly and useful discussions with the President, Prime Minister and other
Indian leaders. A Cultural Agreement and an Agreement on Economic,
Industrial, Scientific and Technological Cooperation were signed during the vis
A European Parliamentary delegation visited India in November 1991. The
Indo-EC Joint Commission meeting was held in New Delhi in November 1991.
Earlier Mr Andriessen, Vice President of EC, visited India in October 1991 and
had extensive discussions with Commerce Minister on multilateral trade issues.
An Indo-EC Business Forum is being established for regular interaction between
the businessmen and the Government of India with the EC and the European
business leaders. This will be inaugurated by Mr A Matutes, Commissioner EC,
in March 1992 in New Delhi. The next round of Indo-EC Troika talks are to be
held in March 1992.
The end of the Cold War, which brought about a qualitative change in the
international situation, has had a positive impact on Indo-US relations and
has contributed to the consolidation and strengthening of bilateral ties.
Contacts at political and official levels have been frequent. Vice Presi
Dan Quayle attended the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi.
Among other prominent visitors were Senators Daniel P Moynihan and Larry
Pressler, Congressman James Mcdermott, former Senator Charles Percy,
Congressman Mike Kopetski and the US Trade Representative, Ms Carla Hills.
The Minister for External Affairs visited New York for the annual session
of the UN General Assembly. He met Secretary of State James Baker for
discussions on bilateral and multilateral issues. He also visited Chicago for
discussions with businessmen and non-resident Indians. The Ministers of State
for Commerce and Finance also visited the USA for bilateral trade talks and for
the promotion of investment from NRIs.
The Prime Minister met President George Bush at New York during the
summit meeting of the members of the UN Security Council.
At the official level, there were visits by the US Under Secretary of St
for International Security Affairs, the Permanent Representative to the UN, the
Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs and the Director of the US
Information Agency. The US Deputy Assistant Secretaries of State for Consular
Affairs and Near East and South Asia Bureau were also among the visitors.
On the defence side there was an exchange of high level visits. The
Commanding General, US Army Pacific Command and the US Commander-in-
Chief, Pacific Command visited India. The US Chief of Naval Operations
returned the visit of Indian Chief of Naval Staff. Among the other noteworthy
visits was that of a team from the US National War College. India's Chief of
Army Staff visited the USA in August 1991. Indo-US cooperation in the field of
defence technologies have progressed mainly in the Light Combat Aircraft
Project. Commercial purchases of defence items from the USA have continued
but there has been no major acquisition of military hardware of US origin. In
the-fields of training and other professional military interaction, cooperation
between the Armed Forces of the two countries has expanded to some extent.
The annual review meeting of the Indo-US Memorandum of Understanding
on transfer of high-technology was held in Delhi. The meeting covered a whole
range of issues and sought to smoothen the flow of high-technology trade
between the two countries. However, US concerns on nuclear and missile
proliferation have impeded the trade in high technology items. Negotiations on
the upgradation of the Supercomputer at the National Centre for Medium
Range Weather Forecasting, Department of Science and Technology at Delhi
have been concluded. Negotiations for the second Supercomputer for the Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore are continuing. Indo-US cooperation in joint
projects in the agricultural and medical sciences have continued satisfactorily
The USA is India's largest trading partner with total trade turnover in
1990-91 of around Rs 10,040 crores. India has had a favourable balance of trad
over several years. This trend was reversed in 1990-91. Indian exports were o
the order of Rs 4,796.48 crores and imports around Rs 5,244.64 crores. Trade
protectionism in the USA and stringent health and sanitary regulations have
inhibited faster growth of Indian exports to the USA.
In April 1991, the US Government named India as "Priority Foreign
Country" under the so-called Special 301 provision of a US Trade Act. The
USA cited India's laws on Intellectual Property Rights, such as patents,
copyrights and trade marks as inadequate. Consultations have been held with
the USA in the context of the multilateral negotiations on these issues at the
Uruguay Round of GATT. While there has been a narrowing of differences on
copyrights, trade marks, etc discussions have continued to seek mutually
acceptable solutions on certain aspects of patents.
The USA is an important source of investments and technology for India.
The liberalised policies on foreign investment and technology tie-ups have give
a new impetus to Indo-US cooperation in these areas. Several important
investment proposals from US companies have been approved by the
Government. In 1991, investment proposals worth Rs 186 crores were approved.
The US attitude in multilateral financial institutions towards India's req
for assistance to tide over the temporary adverse balance of payments situation
has been sympathetic and helpful. Bilateral US assistance to India is marginal
consisting mainly of food aid and some funding for military exchanges and
Indo-Canadian relations have been traditionally friendly. The Government
new economic policies have given a fresh impetus in strengthening the economic
ties between the two countries.
The Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs visited India twice.
She represented Canada at the funeral of former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv
Gandhi, in May 1991, and chaired the meeting of the Commonwealth
Committee of the Foreign Ministers on South Africa held in Delhi in September
1991. A Canadian Parliamentary delegation participated in the 37th
Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference at New Delhi.
The Minister for External Affairs visited Canada in October 1991 for
bilateral talks. The Prime Ministers of the two countries met at the Harare
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in October 1991.
The Indo-Canadian Joint Business Council met in September 1991 to review
trade and economic relations in the aftermath of new economic policies on
investments and technology cooperation.
India has appreciated the stand taken by Canada in multilateral financial
institutions on India's request for loans.
The total trade turnover with Canada has gone up to around Rs 840 crores
in 1990-91. India's exports have increased marginally to around Rs 280.875
crores, whereas imports have been relatively higher at around Rs 559.231 crores
leaving an adverse trade balance of around Rs 278.356 crores. India's adverse
trade balance has been a consistent trend in Indo-Canadian trade. Renewed
efforts to address and rectify this trend have been made. Quota restrictions o
certain exports from India and protectionist measures are factors inhibiting
Canadian investments in India are minimal. Canada is interested in
participating in infrastructural projects in India in the fields of Power,
Telecommunications and Urban Transport Systems.
An Indo-Canadian Memorandum of Understanding on Cultural Exchanges
is under negotiation. The new building of the Shastri Indo-Canadian Institute
was inaugurated by the President in Delhi. To mark the occasion, an academic
seminar was held at Simla to discuss educational and cultural issues.
Security cooperation with Canada in tackling terrorism has been
Three members of the Canadian Parliament visited Punjab in January 1992
to see for themselves about the alleged human rights violation by Indian securi
forces. During their stay, they had meetings with Central and Punjab
Government officials in New Delhi, Chandigarh and Amritsar. They also met
other private individuals and groups.
|Central and South America and the Caribbean|
During the period under review, India's relations with the countries in
Latin America and the Caribbean progressed satisfactorily. In order to intensi
her relations with these countries, India interacted with them through
international organizations, like the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned
Movement and at various international fora as well as at bilateral levels throu
exchange of visits and delegations in diverse areas of mutual interest.
Prospects of cooperation in defence were explored by the then Chief of Air
Staff of India during his visit to Argentina and Brazil in April 1991, the firs
ever visit by an Indian Air Chief to Latin America.
Following the grant of permanent observer status to India in May 1991 by
the Organization of American States (OAS), India attended for the first time
the OAS General Assembly session in Chile in June 1991. India's association as
the 27th permanent observer to the 35-member body with headquarters at
Washington will provide an opportunity for enhancing the political and
economic links with the region.
Dr Reinaldo Figuerado, Venezuela's former Foreign Minister, visited New
Delhi in June 1991 as President's special envoy to convey that country's
condolences on the sad demise of the former Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi.
He called on the President and had also meeting with the Foreign Secretary.
The Panamanian Foreign Minister deeply appreciated Indian consignment
of medicines and medical equipment handed over to him in July 1991 for the
relief of earthquake victims in Panama.
Guyana and Nicaragua closed down their Missions in New Delhi due to
resources constraints but assured India of reopening them when their economic
Minister for External Affairs received Dr Cedric Grant, Special Adviser on
Foreign Affairs to the President of Guyana, who brought a written message
from his President for Prime Minister. The Special Adviser was in New Delhi to
attend the meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on
Southern Africa held on 13 and Sep 14, 1991. Trinidad and Tobago's
Junior Minister of Tourism and Industry led his country's delegation to the 37t
Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference held in New Delhi from 23 to 29
Argentina's withdrawal from the Non-Aligned Movement on 19 September
1991 reduces the number of member-states from the Latin America and the
Caribbean to 16. However, Chile's participation in the Movement after many
years and the admission of Guatemala and Honduras as observers demonstrated
the region's continuing interest in the Movement.
While in New York in September/October 1991 for the UN General
Assembly session, the Minister for External Affairs met with the Foreign
Ministers of Colombia and Cuba. At the Harare CHOGM in October 1991, the
Prime Minister had talks with the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago.
Four countries from the region, viz Argentina, Cuba, Mexico and Peru
were represented in the International Conference on Hispanism in the 20h
Century organized in New Delhi in November 1991 by the Jawaharlal Nehru
University in collaboration with the Indian Council for Cultural Relations. Pr
Rene Maria Cura (Padma Shree) of Argentina was among the 30 eminent
The Prime Minister accompanied by the Minister for External Affairs
attended the second G-15 Summit in Caracas in November 1991. His bilateral
discussions with President Perez of Venezuela and President Salinas of Mexico
covered various issues of common interest.
The Prime Minister in his meeting with the Indian businessmen who were in
Caracas during the G-15 Summit highlighted the prospects for Indian exports
and investments in Latin America and the Caribbean and assured them of the
Government's encouragement and support to new ventures.
Cuba's Foreign Minister, Mr Isidoro Malmierca, called on the Prime
Minister and the Minister for External Affairs when he visited New Delhi from
16 to 26 December 1991. He also had meetings with the Commerce Minister and
the Minister of State for External Affairs. Views were exchanged on the latest
developments in the international scene, especially the transformations in the
former Soviet Union.
A 6 member delegation from the Engineering Exports Promotion Council
undertook an export promotion tour of Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil. Measures
for improving bilateral and economic relations with Argentina were discussed at
the second meeting of the Indo-Argentine Joint Trade Committee held in
Buenos Aires in August 1991.
Indian exports to the region are on the rise but the imports are increasing
a higher rate. In 1990-91, India's exports to the region accounted for 0.6 per
cent of her total exports while imports from the region were 2.44 per cent of t
The first ever cultural agreement between India and Colombia was signed in
New Delhi in August 1991. Peru's Vice President inaugurated the "Images of
India" exhibition at the National Museum in Lima. Cultural links with the
Caribbean countries were maintained through the two Indian Cultural Centres in
Guyana and Suriname. A project for constructing a similar Centre in Trinidad
and Tobago was set in motion when their Minister of External Affairs and
International Trade and Indian High Commissioner signed the requisite protocol
in Port of Spain on 29 November 1991. The Minister described the event as "a
significant and historical day" in his country's cultural life.
Enhancing India's ties with the countries in the region through various
academic and cultural programmes will be a major objective of the recently
reconstituted ICCR Advisory Panel for Latin America and the Caribbean.
United Nations And International Conferences
|The deliberations and decisions of the United Nations (UN) in 1991 were
wide-ranging, substantive, and often precedent setting. The reinvigoration
of the UN and its energetic activities were, at one level, reflective of the ma
changes in the world, at the same time, at another level, these UN activities
themselves influenced changes in many parts of the world. During the year, fou
new UN Peace-Keeping Operations were launched. UN was involved in conflict
resolution and peace keeping in diverse situations, such as Iraq-Kuwait crisis,
Central America, Cambodia, Yugoslavia, Western Sahara and Angola.
Apart from the heavy political agenda and significant activities in the
maintenance of international peace and security, UN focussed on diverse issues
such as development, human rights, economic issues, environment and drug
abuse control. The issue of restructuring of the UN system, rationalisation of
work of the UN bodies and the UN Secretariat reforms were also discussed.
At the end of 1991, Dr Boutros Ghali of Egypt had been elected as
Secretary-General of the UN, the first representative of Africa and the Arab
world to assume this high office.
India continued to play an active and constructive role in multilateral for
including the UN, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth. India
became a member of the Security Council of the UN for the period 1991-92 and
in this capacity was actively engaged in the deliberations of the Council on a
number of major political issues. India also urged an expansion in the
membership of the Security Council to make it more representative as also to
reflect the changing international realities.
The Prime Minister, Shri Narasimha Rao, attended the unprecedented
summit level meeting of the Security Council held on Jan 31, 1992. The
theme of the meeting was "The responsibility of the Security Council in the
maintenance of international peace and security". At the end of the meeting,
the President of the Security Council read out a statement which referred to th
UN's role in peace making and peace keeping, collective security, disarmament
and arms control. The leaders collectively agreed to further strengthen the ro
of the UN in carrying out its activities in accordance with the UN Charter. Th
Prime Minister's address at the meeting put across effectively the point of vie
of India, of the Non-aligned and developing countries on a number of global
issues, and the role of the UN in addressing these issues.
The Prime Minister led the Indian delegation to the Commonwealth
Summit of in Harare, Zimbabwe.
Pakistan's efforts to bring the Kashmir issue to the fore in the UN and
other multilateral fora were effectively countered by India.
|The Gulf crisis was a major issue, which engaged the UN throughout 1991.
Once the military action against Iraq was launched on 16 January 1991 with the
objective of forcing a withdrawal from Kuwait in accordance with Security
Council Resolutions, India supported the twin objectives of limiting the armed
conflict and minimising human suffering. India's initiatives in the Security
Council were aimed at ensuring that the Council was fully briefed on the
military action and underscoring its role in bringing about a ceasefire and
restoration of peace. India welcomed the liberation of Kuwait and restoration
its independence. Since then the Security Council has taken a series of
innovative and far-reaching decisions which affect Iraq, the region, and other
countries of the international community as well.
| The Sanctions against Iraq have continued as Iraq has not accepted all the
Security Council Resolutions. India's approach has been to support all the
efforts at creating conditions for lasting peace. At the same time, India has
addressed the humanitarian aspects of the situation, including the plight of th
Iraqi civilians. India also called for remedial measures for countries adverse
affected by the Sanctions.
Initiatives on the Cambodian issue culminated in a comprehensive Peace
Agreement signed in Paris on 23 October 1991. Since then the UN has begun
preparations for a major deployment of UN personnel in Cambodia. The United
Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) has been deployed, to which
India has also made a contribution. India will also participate in the United
Nations Transitional Authority for Cambodia (UNTAC), the authority which
will help administer Cambodia in the interim period upto consitution of a new
The violent internal conflict in Yugoslavia has been a cause of concern.
Towards the end of 1991, the UN endorsed in principle the idea of a UN Peace
Keeping Force if conditions for a ceasefire were favourable. India's view is t
any multilateral effort to promote peace should be undertaken in the context of
a request and with the agreement of the Government of Yugoslavia and the
India maintained its consistent position of support for the 1971 Declara
of the Indian Ocean as Zone of Peace. The adhoc committee on the Indian
Ocean continued its deliberations on the convening of the proposed Conference
on the Indian Ocean. However, the prospects for an early Conference remained
uncertain since many Western and major maritime users of the Ocean continued
to have reservations on participation. The General Assembly adopted a
Resolution which reflected the Indian position that the cooperation and
participation of the major powers was essential for the success of the
The situation in West Asia, particularly Palestine, has remained an
unresolved issue for long. India has supported a larger UN role in the US-USSR
sponsored peace process which was launched in October 1991. India maintained
her principled position of support to the cause of the Palestinian people,
including their right to their homeland, as well as the recognition of the righ
all States in the region, including Palestine and Israel, to live in peace with
internationally recognized and secured boundaries. India's consistent position
was given expression through her various statements, co-sponsorships and votes
in the General Assembly, Security Council and other fora.
The consideration by the UN of issues relating to South Africa and the
apartheid took note of the rapid changes in the situation. Though several lega
pillars of the apartheid had been dismantled, the consequences of the apartheid
in the form of socio-economic inequities continue and need to be redressed. Th
UN adopted a resolution for selective removal of people to people sanctions
against South Africa, but continuing trade, financial and military sanctions ti
such time as further progress is achieved towards the establishment of non-raci
and democratic South Africa. India continued to play an active role in the UN
Special Committee against the apartheid.
The UN involvement in finding a durable settlement to the conflict in
Afghanistan gathered momentum as UNSG sought to reconcile differences
between the various parties. The General Assembly adopted a Resolution on
Afghanistan, as in previous years.
There was some forward movement on the United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS). During the year, there were detailed
discussions on possible amendments which would enable the US and some
industrialised countries to become members of the Convention. The US, which
had all along voted against the Resolution on UNCLOS, changed its vote to
abstention. India played a significant role in the informal discussions as als
the negotiations prior to voting in the UNGA.
One important issue during the year was the initiative in the General
Assembly to revoke a Resolution passed in 1975 equating Zionism with Racism.
The revocation of the determination was approved with a large majority. In
keeping with her position that it is certain policies and practices attributed
Zionism which are discriminatory, and in the hope and expectation that this
would remove an obstacle in the path to peace in West Asia and facilitate more
active role for the UN in the peace process, India voted for the proposal.
India welcomed the admission of North and South Koreas to the UN, as
also the membership of the three Baltic States, the Marshall Islands and the
Federated States of Micronesia. In the wake of the collapse of the USSR and
the emergence of Commonwealth of Independent States, the Russian Federation
has assumed the duties and obligations of the erstwhile USSR, including
permanent membership of the Security Council.
|Disarmament Issues |
|During 1991, India continued to play a leading role in the three main
multilateral disarmament fora, viz. the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva,
the UN Disarmament Commission and the First Committee of the UN General
Assembly. In addition, India also made significant contributions at the 3rd
Biological Weapons Review Conference held at Geneva from 9 to 27 September
The Indian approach to disarmament continued to be guided by the basic
philosophy that in the nuclear age and especially after the end of the cold war
disarmament measures should be taken in a time bound manner for the survival
of mankind and for promoting development. India maintains the view that the
priorities for disarmament are postulated in the consensus final document of th
1978 first session devoted to disarmament. The Indian approach to disarmament
is best reflected in the "Action Plan" for a "Nuclear-weapon free and Non-
violent World Order" that was tabled at the Third Special Session of the
General Assembly devoted to Disarmament and also in the Conference on
Disarmament in the same year.
In the Conference on Disarmament, which is the sole multilateral
negotiating body, India played a leading role in the group of neutral and non-
aligned countries otherwise known as G-21. The Indian delegation chaired the
Ad hoc Committee on the crucial issue of "Nuclear Test Ban". An ad hoc
Committee on this issue was re-established in the Conference on Disarmament
after a gap of seven years at the end of 1990 and functioned during the three
sessions of the Conference on Disarmament in 1991. India continued to highligh
the urgent need for commencing negotiations for a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,
stressing that its scope should be consistent with what the preamble of the
Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963 seeks to achieve, viz. a total ban on all tests
nuclear weapons in all environments and for all time. India also coordinated t
G-21 position on the agenda item relating to the "cessation of the Nuclear Arms
Race and Nuclear Disarmament". In the Ad hoc Committee on Chemical
Weapons Convention India endeavoured to ensure that discriminatory and
short-term measures are effectively rejected. India also continued to be
associated with the meetings of the Ad hoc Group of Scientific Experts working
towards the eleboration of a global seismic monitoring system for a
comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and their related experiments. India was also
represented in the meeting with the chemical industry held in June 1991 at
Geneva in the context of the chemical weapons negotiations.
At the 46th session of the UN General Assembly, India introduced two
resolutions in the First Committee. The first resolution, entitled "Convention
the Prohibition of the use of Nuclear Weapons" highlights the threat which
nuclear war poses to the life on the planet and the urgent task of preventing
such a war. The resolution contains a draft convention which could form the
basis for such an agreement. It enjoyed broad support with 112 countries votin
in its favour. The second initiative taken by India and Mexico following SSOD-
II in 1982 for drawing the attention of the world community towards the
important aspect of nuclear disarmament. The Resolution enjoyed wide-spread
support with 119 countries voting in its favour.
India participated actively in the deliberations of the UN Disarmament
Commission, which met in New York from 22 April to 13 May 1991. The
agenda included "Role of Science and Technology in the context of
International Security, Disarmament and Related Fields", a topic based on the
Indian sponsored resolution entitiled "Scientific and Technological
Developments and Their Impact on International Security".
At the 3rd Biological Weapons Review Conference held at Geneva in
September 1991, India was elected as one of the Vice-Chairmen and introduced
a number of proposals which were reflected in the final declaration and which
helped in strengthening the role of the Biological Weapons Convention.
Outside the three main multilateral disarmament fora, India continued to
support disarmament initiatives taken by non-governmental organizations and
participated actively in the meetings organized by them.
|The year under review saw significant developments in the economic field.
A number of important meetings took place, including the meeting of the
Economic and Social Council, the negotiations in the Second Committee of the
General Assembly, the meeting of the subsidiary bodies and the traditional
meeting of Foreign Minister of G-77 on the eve of the 46th General Assembly.
| India participated in a number of multilateral meetings of global
environmental issues held during the year. The Indian approach was based on
her conviction that environmental problems cannot be isolated from the general
issue of development and must be viewed as an integral part of development
efforts. India constructively contributed to the meetings of the Preparatory
Committee for the 1992 UN Conference on Enviornment and Development with
the expectation that the twin issues of environment and development would be
addressed in a balanced way and in their totality at the 1992 Conference. Indi
also actively projected her concern and promoted her interests while
participating in the intergovernmental negotiating sessions for drafting a
Framework Convention on Climate Change and a Convention on Biological
The second regular session of ECOSOC was held in Geneva in June 1991.
India has been elected as a member for a 3-year term beginning 1992. For the
first time ECOSOC held a special high-level meeting on the impact of the recent
evolution of East-West relations on the growth of the world economy and its
implications for developing countries. It also considered the report of the So
Commission, the economic, social and environmental consequences of the Iraq-
Kuwait war and the strengthening of multilateral cooperation. At the summer
session of the ECOSOC, UNSG suggested the convening of an international
conference on the financing of development. This proposal was welcomed by
India and endorsed in the Ministerial Declaration of G-77
On the eve of 46th General Assembly, Foreign Ministers of G-77 met in
New York and adopted a Ministerial Declaration which expressed concern at the
deteriorating economic situation. The Minister for External Affairs addressed
At the 46th General Assembly, the issues of special focus were: the long-
standing proposal for restructuring and revitalisation of the UN in socio-
economic fields (with the emergence of the contours of consensus resolution
which will oversee expertisation of subsidiary bodies); the report of the
ECOSOC (which included a resolution on the impact of East-West relations and
on convening of an international conference on financing of development); trade
and development (with specific reference to the problems of the land-locked
developing countries); international code of conduct on transfer of tecnology;
economic and technical cooperation among developing countries; environment
(large scale pellagic drift net fishing); science and technology for developmen
entrepreneurship and operational activities for development; and better
coordination of humanitarian assistance.
The Indian delegation actively participated in all deliberations, emphasisin
the urgent need to address development issues. India's efforts for a greater
integration into the international economy as well as far-reaching macro
economic and domestic reforms were brought to the attention of the General
In the context of South-South Cooperation, progress was made with regard
to the specific projects identified at the first meeting of the Summit Level Gr
on South-South Consultation and Cooperation (G-15), which was held in Kuala
Lumpur in June 1990. The Heads of State/Government of G-15 member
countries had mandated India to develop projects on the establishment of a
Gene Bank for Medicinal Plants and Herbs in developing countries and Solar
Energy Applications for fabrication of Small Refrigerators. In pursuance of th
mandate, a meeting of the Group of Experts from G-15 member countries was
convened by the Government of India in New Delhi from 23 to 25 September
1991 to define and finalise these two projects. The meeting was attended by
Experts/Senior Officials from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia,
India, Mexico, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, Venezuela, Yugoslavia and Zimbabwe.
|At the Second G-15 Summit held in Caracas, Venezuela from 27 to 29
November 1991, the Heads of State/Government approved the two Indian
projects. The Summit also approved other specific projects to promote South-
South Cooperation and decided on a series of follow-up measures to coordinate
future activities of the G-15. India articulated the position of the G-15 coun
on the evolution of a consensus on ensuring that development remained at the
centre of international attention and that modalities were found to place the
issues of economic development and international cooperation at the centre of
the multilateral agenda. This was fully reflected in the Joint Communique
adopted at the end of the Summit. Decisions arrived at during the Caracas
Summit have led to a further institutionalisation and consolidation of G-15 to
as a catalyst to promote South-South Cooperation and to constitute a credible
platform to act as an interlocutor with the industrialised countries.
The Summit level meeting of the Association of South East Asian
Nations (ASEAN), which met in Singapore on 27 and 28 January 1992,
approved that India would be a sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN. The
sectoral dialogue is expected to commence as soon as modalities for these are
mutually finalised. The sectoral dialogue will strengthen India's economic
cooperation in various fields with the ASEAN countries, including in the
areas of trade, human resource development, science and technology, and
tourism. Besides ASEAN, India has been making efforts to associate itself
with other regional and sub-regional groupings in the region, such as Asia
Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
As far as developments in the international trading system were
concerned, the Uruguay Round of Multilatral Trade Negotiations continued to
be a focus of attention. The outcome of these negotiations, however, remain
uncertain, especially for the developing countries. Apart from the impasse
over agricultural, trade and subsidies, agreement in the so-called new areas of
TRIPS, TRIMS and Services have continued to elude the negotiators. There
are apprehensions that a failure of the Uruguay Round would lead to a
break-down of multilateralism, further fragmentation of the international
trading system and an increasing resort to unilateral and bilateral measures.
Little progress was made in the area of North-South Cooperation. The
external environment facing the developing countries continued to be adverse
and was characterised by a lack of resource flows and access to markets and
technologies. The debt problem of the developing countries remained a cause
of worry. There was also a growing tendency on the part of developed
countries to shift the focus away from hard development issues to issues like
popular participation, political pluralism, human rights, environment, military
expenditures, etc and to attach non-economic conditionalities to development
|Administrative and Budgetary Matters|
The two most important issues before the 5th Committee in 1992 related
to the programme budget and the scale of assessment for contributions to the
UN regular budget. Argeement on both issues was reached without recourse
to voting. The budget resolution included a chapter on the proposed structure
and policies of the UN Drug Control Programme. India played an important
role in striking a balance between the need for managerial flexibility for the
programme and the need for adherence to UN financial rules and regulations
and personnel policies. India's concern relating to the need for devising ways
and means for increasing access to licit opiates for medical purposes in
developing countries was endorsed by the General Assembly and the budget
resolution stressed the need for allocation of adequate resources for activitie
The scale of assessment for the contribution to the UN regular budget was
adopted for the period 1992-94. India's contribution has declined from 0.37% i
the previous scale to 0.36% in the present scale. This would not only reduce h
contributions to the UN regular budget but also to various specialised agencies
of the UN whose contributions are linked to the UN regular budget.
The financial crisis affecting the UN was also highlighted. The UN
Secretary General made a number of new suggestions to overcome the serious
problems faced by the UN due to paucity of funds. Discussions on this issue
|Social and Humanitarian Issues|
India continued to play an active role in the consideration by the UN bodies
such as the General Assembly, ECOSOC and the Commission on Human
Rights of social and humanitarian issues. India's stand on such issues was bas
on her principled position on matters pertaining to human rights and social
justice and her deep and abiding commitment to democracy, the rule of law and
the protection and promotion of human rights, and fundamental freedoms. India
welcomed changes around the world that served to strengthen human rights.
India played an important role in the deliberations of the Third Committee
at the 46th Session of the UN General Assembly and participated actively in the
43rd Session of the UN Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and
Protection of Minorities held in Geneva in August 1991 and the 48th Session of
the Human Rights Commission also held in Geneva from 27 Janaury to 6 March
India continued to play an active role in the UN Committee on
Decolonisation. Of the 18 remaining non-governing territories on the UN
agenda, the focus was primarily on the Western Sahara, where preparations for
a referendum on self-determination are underway under the supervision of the
Security Council. India has traditionally supported the Saharawi self-
determination and is amongst the countries expected to participate in the UN
Peace Keeing Operation (MINURSO) which will organize and supervise the
Elections to UN Bodies and other International Organisations|
In 1991 India was elected to the Economic and Social Council of the
UN winning 127 votes, the highest for any contesting candidate. Previously
India was member of this body during 1988-90 and with this selection she
would be member of both the main charter organization of the UN, i.e. the
Security Council and the ECOSOC during 1992.
Dr P S Rao was re-elected as member of the Internaitonal Law
Commission on 14 November 1991. India was also reelected to the UN
Commission on International Trade Law, the Governing Council of the UN
Environment Programme, the UN Commission on Human Rights and the UN
Commission on Narcotic Drugs.
India was elected as a Category 'B' member in the International
Maritime Organization Council.
|Activities of the Non-aligned Movement|
The major event during the year was the 10th Ministerial Conference of
Non-aligned countries which was held in Accra from 2 to 7 September 1991.
In many ways this was a landmark event for the Movement which has
completed 30 years since its inception. The meeting took place against the
backdrop of far-reaching changes in the international political scenario. The
Conference undertook an indepth assessment of the role, objectives and
activities of NAM while reaffirming the continuing relevance of its principles
and agenda. The Conference took several important decisions to strengthen
the capacity of the Movement to respond effectively to the emerging
opportunities in the evolving world order. It also considered issues relating
international security, disarmament, external aid, North-South and South-
South cooperation, the situation in South Africa, human rights, drug abuse,
environment and other emerging issues on the international agenda. It also
took special position to convene a special Ministerial meeting of Non-aligned
countries prior to 1992 UNCED, as also to hold 7th meeting of the
coordinating countries of the Action Programme for Economic Cooperation
before the Ministerial meeting of the Coorodinating Bureau which is held
prior to a Summit. It was also decided that the 10th Summit would be held
in Indonesia in 1992.
During the year, the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement
met regularly in New York to deal with matters of concern to the Movement.
In addition, in December 1991 the Coordinating Bureau adopted a statement
on the situation in Yugoslavia The non-aligned members of the Security
Council remained active during the year taking initiatives and adopting common
positions wherever possible on issues that came up before the Council.
India played a leading role in the deliberations of the Ministerial meetin
Accra as also in the Non-Aligned Coordinating Bureau meetings. As a member
of the Security Council, India played a leading role in the formulation of
common positions and in maintaining the unity of Non-aligned countries - a
role which attracted appreciation from other Non-aligned countries.
Other Non-Aligned Meetings which were held during the year included the
meeting of the Committee of 9 NAM countries on Palestine held in September
1991, Ministerial meeting on the eve of 46th General Assembly held in
September 1991, 15th Meeting of Health Ministers of NAM countries held in
May 1991, NAM News Pool Agency Meeting in Havana held in the last quarter
of 1991 and 10th meeting of NAM Foreign Ministers in Accra held in September
The 6th meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on
Southern Africa (CCFMSA) was held in New Delhi on 13 and 14 September
1991. The Foreign Ministers of 8 countries - Canada, Australia, Guyana,
Malaysia, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Zambia took part in the
deliberations. Canada is the Chairman of the Committee. The Prime Minister
inaugurated the meeting. The Minister for External Affairs participated in its
The meeting decided to recommend to the Commonwealth Heads of
Government the need to lift people to people related sanctions in view of the
substantial progress that had been made in South Africa. However, it was
decided that trade and financial sanctions would continue till a transitional
mechanism satisfactory to the majority community parties were agreed upon. It
was also decided that the arms embargo would not be lifted till a non-racial an
post-apartheid new South African Government was established with full
The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) was held in
Harare from 16 to 22 October 1991. The meeting adopted the Harare
Declaration which identified priorities of the Commonwealth in 1990s and
beyond. Apart from reaffirming the traditional emphasis on such issues as the
struggle against apartheid and cooperation for development, the declaration
stressed the importance of democratic institutions, human rights and the rule o
law. On South Africa, the CHOGM endorsed the recommendations of the New
Delhi Meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on
Southern Africa for a "programme management" and phased easing of
sanctions. A wide range of international issues and Commonwealth matters were
The Indian delegation, led by the Prime Minister, which also included
Minister for External Affairs, played an active part. As a lead speaker on glo
review (political), the Prime Minister put across the perspective of the
developing world on the issues and challenges facing the world today. The
Indian delgation made a significant contribution to securing a balanced
declaration, fully reflecting the priorities India attaches to the issues on th
agenda of the Commonwealth.
Conference Division is entrusted with the responsibility of providing the
logistical support and managerial assistance in the organization of internation
conferences convened by the Ministry of External Affairs and other Ministries/
Departments of the Government of India. During the year, following
international conferences/meetings were organized:
(i) SAARC Meeting of Experts to Prepare Plan of Action for Children
pertaining to South Asian countries was held in New Delhi on 10 and
11 April 1991. The Department of Woman and Child Development,
Ministry of Welfare was also associated.
(ii) SAARC Meeting of National Coordinators to finalise Regional Study
on Trade Manufacturers and Services was held in New Delhi from 3
to 5 June 1991. Delegates from SAARC countries and Secretary
General, SAARC Secretariat participated.
(iii) The Meeting of Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on
Southern Africa was held in New Delhi on 13 and 14 September
1991. The meeting was attended by Foreign Ministers of 11 countries
and Commonwealth Secretary General.
(iv) International Meeting of Experts of G-15 Countries on Science and
Technology Projects-Gene Bank and Solar Energy-was held in
New Delhi from 23 to 25 September 1991. The Meeting was attended
by 48 experts from India and abraod.
(v) UN Conference on Environment and Development convened by the
Department of Bio-Technology was held at Surajkund (Haryana)
from 23 to 26 October 1991.
(vi) Indo-EEC Joint Commission Meeting convened by the Ministry of
Commerce was held in New Delhi on 13 and 14 November 1991.
(vii) Indo-German Joint Commission Meeting was held at New Delhi on
18 and 19 November 1991 under the auspices of the Ministry of
Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Secretariats were advised and assisted in
organizing Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference which was held in New
Delhi from 23 to 29 September 1991.
Advice and assistance were also tendered to the Indian Association of
Diplomats for organizing the Fifth Indira Gandhi Memorial Lecture by the
President of Hungary, Mr Arpad Goncz.
The Division was also entrusted with the task of making boarding, lodging
and transport arrangements for a large number of delegations, many of them led
by Heads of State/Government, during the funeral of former Prime Minister,
Shri Rajiv Gandhi.
|International Law : Development and Activities|
The United Nations General Assembly (Sixth Committee) at its 46th
Session considered 13 agenda items during its deliberations from 17 September
to 28 November 1991. The important items among these related to the work of
the International Law Commission (ILC), the United Nations Commission on
International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the United Nations Special Committee
on the Charter and the Strengthening of the Organisation, measures to prevent
international terrorism, New International Economic Order and United Nations
Decade of International Law. The Indian delegation expressed its happiness
over the work done by the ILC in completing the draft text on jurisdictional
immunities of States and their property and commented on the progress made
by the Commission in its 43td Session in the areas of draft Code of Crimes
against peace and security of mankind, on the non-navigational uses of
international rivers and the international liability for injurious consequences
arising out of acts not prohibited tinder international law. On other items, t
Indian delegation actively participated in the deliberations of the Committee,
including its consultations in several areas concerned.
The 30th Session of the Legal Sub-Committee of the UN Committee on
Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was held in New York from 25 March to 19 April
1991. The Sub-Committee discussed the issues concerning the development of
the draft principles on Nuclear Power Sources (NPS), Geo-Stationary Orbit
(GSO) and definition and delimitation of Outer Space, and Outer Space benefits
taking into account the needs of the developing countries. Consensus was
reached on some outstanding principles dealing with the guidelines and
standards for safe use in NPS in space objects. On the other two items, the
discussions held have yet to achieve agreement.
The 30th Annual Session of Asian African Legal Consultative Committee
(AALCC) was held in Cairo from 22 to 27 April 1991. As in the past, the
AALCC provided a forum for the Legal Experts of the two continents to come
together to exchange views on several contemporary legal issues, such as the
status and treatment of refugees, law of the sea, definition of terrorism and
distinguish it from liberation struggles, Geneva Conventions on law of war and
deportation of Palestinians, environment and development, and UN Decade of
International Law. Views were also exchanged on legal issues concerning
international trade law being discussed in UNCITRAL and other fora.
India participated in a meeting of legal experts held in Colombo from 30
September to 2 October 1991 to review the implementation of the SAARC
Convention on Suppression of Terrorism.
India has actively participated in several meetings and consultations hold i
connection with the developments in the law of the sea, especially under the
aegies of PREPCOM, Antarctica Treaty and the development of environmental
law, in general, as well as in specific field such as climate change and bio-
diversity. India has also played an active role in the various Working Groups,
Groups of Legal Experts and the PREPCOM for UN Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED), 1992.
As in the past years, the Ministry undertook drafting and processed for
signature, ratification/accession of several bilateral and multilateral agreeme
involving India. The bilateral treaties which India entered into with other
countries include Consular Convention and Memorandum of Understanding on
Cooperation in Space Activities with China, Treaties on Trade and Transit, and
Curbing of Unauthorised Traffic with Nepal. At the multilateral level, India
became a party to the Vienna Convention for Protection of Ozone layer, the
International Labour Organization Convetion No. 136 concerning Protection
against Hazards and Poisoning arising from Benzens, and INMARSAT
Agreement on Ship-Earth Stations within the Terrorial Sea and Ports. A
complete list of treaties entered into by India during the year is placed at
Foreign Economic Relations
|During the year, the commercial content of the Economic Division's work
has been further augmented with a view to assisting in the efforts to
optimise exports. Commercial queries and information about possible
business opportunities abroad were regularly received by the Division and
disseminated to the concerned parties. To assist commercial representatives
in Indian Missions, the Division compiled and circulated a Trade Directory
containing references of export promotion bodies, commodity boards,
important public sector organizations, institutions dealing with credit and
finance besides references of Government officials dealing with the foregoing
subject matter. The Directory has been found to be a handy guide by
India's commercial representatives abroad.
Approximately 600 nominees (including some from the previous year)
underwent training under Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation
(ITEC) programme and Special Commonwealth African Assistance
Programme (SCAAP) for a period ranging from six months to one and a
half years. A broad range of training courses from small scale industries to
advance level telecommunications, legislative drafting to foreign trade,
diplomacy and civil aviation were covered under the programmes.
During the year, 57 experts were on deputation under ITEC programme
to various countries. The major beneficiaries have been Afghanistan,
Cambodia, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles,
Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen and Zambia. The areas of their specialisation
include engineering, medicine, small scale industry and general academic
Over 300 military personnel from nearly 30 countries underwent training
in defence courses of instructions in India. A large number of them came
from South Asian and African countries. Sustained interests continued to
exist to avail of training facilities at India's military establishments.
Major projects completed during the year with ITEC assistance included
the Farmers Service Centre in Mauritius and Common Facility Centre for
the Industrial Estate Project and a Chalk Manufacturing Unit in
Afghanistan. The Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health Expansion project
in Kabul is nearing completion. The sixth phase of the Angkor Vat
restoration project in Cambodia is in progress.
Emergency relief assistance was extended to Afghanistan, Bangladesh,
Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Iran, Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines and
Zambia. These countries had suffered either natural calamities or epidemics,
resulting in large scale destruction of property and loss of human lives. The
assistance given included medicines, milk powder, food items and blankets.
The sixth meeting of the India-Mauritius Joint Commission was held in
August 1991 in Port Louis. Several areas of future cooperation were
identified at the meeting. It was also decided that India would give priority
in helping Mauritius in human resource development programmes in future.
The ITEC programme was extended to China, Soviet Republics,
particularly Central Asian Republics and East European countries like Czech
and Slovak Federal Republic, Hungary, etc during the year.
For the first time since the inception of the programme in 1964, ITEC
"Alumni Associations" were formed by Indian Missions. It was also decided
to celebrate 15 September every year as the "ITEC Day". According to
reports received ITEC Day was celebrated with much, enthusiasm in some
30 Missions this year. The scheme is expected to be extended to remaining
Missions being covered under ITEC programme next year. A handbook on
guidelines for the trainees who come to India under ITEC/SCAAP
programme and a presentation brochure on the ITEC/SCAAP programme
were also produced and distributed during the year.
The Division in collaboration with XP Division has produced a 30
minute film on the ITEC programme. The film projects the philosophy
behind the inception of the ITEC programme besides of recounting its
Under the scheme of inviting foreign delegations from developing
countries aimed at exposing them to the industrial progress made in India,
study visits from Uganda, Mongolia, Indonesia and Botswana were
conducted. The visits were found to be helpful in identifying areas in which
future collaboration may be developed.
The Economic Coordination Unit (ECU) was set up in August 1990. Its
original mandate covered studying from the economic standpoint and
formulating appropriate policy orientations on a range of specific issues such
EC-92, the Gulf crisis, the changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe,
etc. During the first six months of its inception, the ECU prepared indepth
studies on each of these issues. It also became the nodal Unit for a number of
specific subjects which were of an inter-departmental nature and which had a
substantial economic content. These included the proposals for forging a speci
relationship with the EC, the setting up of an Indo-EC Business Forum and
membership of the EBRD, apart from coordinating the participations of the
Ministry of External Affairs in the India-Japan Study Committee and dealing
with issues such as the non-economic conditionalities being attached to foreign
aid. It also monitored major international developments such as the trend
towards formation of regional economic groupings and attempted to analyse the
implications of these developments for India.
Since July 1991, the activities of the ECU have acquired a new dimension
as a result of the changes in economic policy announced by the Government.
ECU has played a major coordinating role in obtaining details of the new
policies from the concerned ministries and quickly transmitting them to India's
Missions abroad. It has also assisted in the formulation of guidelines for
Missions so that they can reorient their priorities in line with the new econom
policies and the changing global economic situation. Action on the responses
received from Missions has already been initiated.
| In addition, the ECU has also been playing the role of an investment
promotion agency at a time when there is no established institutional framework
for performing this important activity. A major investment seminar was held in
Singapore in October to attract FDI to India and to create greater awareness of
the new economic policies among potential investors. A Composite media
package entitled "Doing Business with India" comprising a set of brochures, a
floppy diskette and a video film was prepared especially for this occasion. Bo
the seminar and the package were regarded as a success. Proposals for similar
seminars in Japan and the USA have already been approved and preparations
have been initiated, Action-has also been initiated to update the media package
in the light of changes in economic policies made during the last two months,
and to prepare Japanese, German, French and Arabic versions of the package.
Apart from this promotional work, ECU has also been servicing investment
related queries from the Missions by liaising with the concerned Ministries
through an informal inter-ministcrial group which is coordinated by the ECU.
Policy Planning And Research
|The Policy Planning Division was actively engaged in preparing briefs and
background papers on wide-ranging issues concerning India's Foreign Policy.
and her role in the rapidly evolving international situation.
The Division is also the nodal point for interaction with the Joint
Intelligence Committee, the University Grants Commission and its affiliated
Area Study Centres attached to various Universities. These activities were
strengthened during the year.
The Historical Division, which provides research input to the Ministry,
prepared research papers and background notes on various issues relating to
international developments. The Division interacts with the Territorial Divisi
of the Ministry in the preparation of the research papers and background notes.
The Division also renders all possible help to the Territorial Divisions as wel
Indian Missions abroad whenever specific information or documents on
international relations are required.
During the year, the Division extended all required assistance to the
concerned Territorial Divisions on India's international boundary problems.
The Division examines the incorrect depiction of India's international
boundaries in foreign publications-private as well as official-and maintains
contacts with the Missions abroad for taking up the matter with the concerned
publishers or the Government authorities for proper depiction and necessary
The Division also closely coordinates with the Survey of India and the
Ministry of Defence on the question of supply of map sheets to various
Government and semi-Government agencies for use in their official work,
The Division deals with the requests from research scholars in consultatio
with the concerned Territorial Divisions for access to the records of the
Government of India relating to the restricted areas or the closed period as la
down in the Access Rules. It also scrutinises the excerpts of the closed perio
records submitted by the research scholars and gives final clearance in
consultation with the concerned Territorial Divisions.
An important task of the Division is to edit and supervise printing of the
Annual Report of the Ministry on the basis of the material prepared by the
The Printing of Old Records (POR) Unit of the Division edits and prints
selected old policy files of the Ministry. The POR Unit also undertakes the
review/weeding of old files in the Record Management Section of the Ministry
and also coordinates with the Missions abroad in the same work. Similarly, the
Unit reviews old records of the Ministry which were transferred to the National
Archives of India in the past.
Research Section of the Division coordinates the distribution Of Periodic
reports received from Indian Missions abroad.
To support the research efforts, a library equipped with modern facilities
and large resource material is maintained with over one hundred thousand
books and documents in its collection. During the last year 1350 books, 60
maps, 500 pamphlets, and 30 reels of microfilm were added. The Library
subscribes to 600 periodical titles.
Library is equipped with in-house computer system with 9 terminals two of
which support data entry and retrieval in Indian languages; a microfilm/fiche
reader printer and a plain paper photocopier.
Documentation/Bibiliographic Services as well as other library operations
and services were computerised using an integrated software package developed
in India. Information about books and selected periodical articles received in
Library since 1986 is available on-line through each terminal. All new
documents received in Library-books, maps, microfilms, selected articles from
periodicals, etc are being fed into the in-house computer system to create
Database on Foreign Affairs. Using this Database, the Library provides Current
Awareness Service and Bibliographical Services. In additions, the Library
regularly issued a monthly Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs
Documentation Bulletin and an annotated monthly list of recent additions to the
Library users including Research Scholars can have access to on-line
computer-based information held in Library in different databases through
Foreign Affairs Information Retrieval System (FAIRS). Photocopying and
Computer Print-out facilities are also available to all Library users including
|THE External Publicity Division is charged with the responsibility of
projecting India's position on various issues and developments in India;
different aspects of Indian life, art and culture; as well as countering distor
and malicious propaganda against India, sponsored by vested interests overseas.
In order to meet these objectives the XP Division utilises a variety of channel
which include: briefing of journalists, transmission of information to Indian
Missions, purchase and publication of books, and production of documentaries
and audio visual material.
The XP Division conducts regular briefings for foreign and Indian journa-
lists on developments that impinge upon India's foreign policy interests. In
addition to the regular briefings, the Division also arranges detailed backgrou
briefings for select foreign and Indian journalists on topical issues so that a
accurate perception of India's position is projected in the media. For instanc
during the Gulf War, regular background briefings were conducted to emphasise
India's stand on the conflict, her support for the UN Resolutions and her
commitment to ensuring that all disputes are resolved without recourse to force
The Government of India's success in taking care of the Indians stranded in the
war zone was particularly emphasised and the foreign media lauded the manner
in which the Government had executed such a difficult undertaking. Other
issues on which special briefings were held included the developments in the
former USSR, Yugoslavia, India's views on NAM, Indo-Pak relations, Indo-US
relations, Kashmir and Punjab, etc.
The Division also continued its programme of inviting foreign journalists
visit India. During. the year, the Division hosted 25 journalists from differe
countries including Germany, Japan, Switzerland, China, Vietnam, Bangladesh,
the USA and the United Kingdom. Visits to different cities and industrial unit
meetings with government officials and media personnel and briefings on issues
of concern to India as well as on developments in India were organized for the
visiting journalists. The articles written by these journalists on return to t
countries testify to the positive results of the programme. In addition, the
Division cleared temporary accreditation for 571 visiting foreign journalists.
large number of proposals from foreign producers to make documentaries on
different aspects of India were examined and cleared. These included
documentaries on culture, tourism, environment, etc as well as current affairs
On the domestic front, the assassination of Shri Rajiv Gandhi, and the
Indian General Elections attracted considerable international media attention.
the aftermath of the assassination nearly 400 foreign journalists arrived in In
to cover the funeral rites. All arrangements for the visiting journalists were
made by the XP Division. The Division's efforts were well appreciated by the
journalists who even wrote about it.
Many of the journalists who covered the assassination of Shri Rajiv Gandhi
stayed on to cover the General Elections. The Division briefed the visiting
journalists about the democratic traditions of India, the strengths of the Indi
polity and the manner of the conduct of elections. A major effort was
undertaken to dispell gloomy predictions of imminent chaos following the
assassination of Shri Gandhi. Its success was underscored by the articles in m
foreign publications which stressed that the democratic tradition in India had
strength to withstand such shocks and India would remain true to its secular
ethos. In connection with the General Elections the Division produced a ten
minute news clip on India's democratic system which was sent to Missions
abroad to be used by local television stations. In addition, the Division prin
brochures giving basic facts about India, the different parties, the results of
previous elections, and a brief write up on the Indian polity. These brochures
were distributed abroad to journalists and writers by the Indian Missions.
On the new Government taking office, the division briefed the international
media on the Government's priorities and programmes and its foreign policy
concerns. Special emphasis was laid on the economic initiatives taken by the
new Government. A brochure entitled "Doing Business with India" and a
documentary "India: The Land of New Opportunities" highlighting the new
policy initiatives and the viability of India as an economic and trade partner
were produced and distributed overseas. This material was also distributed at
the Seminar organized in Singapore on Oct 18, 1991. The package of
material was well received and complimented upon by the media. Detailed
briefings were arranged for select foreign and Indian journalists to acquaint
them with the Government's economic programmes. The foreign media's
coverage of the Government's economic policy initiatives has been uniformly
positive and in some cases laudatory.
The Division looked after the media arrangements during the visits
abroad of the Prime Minister to Bonn for the Festival of India in October
1991, Caracas for the G-15 Summit in November 1991, Colombo for the
SAARC Summit in December 1991, New York in January 1992, Davos
(Switzerland) in February 1992 and Port Louis (Mauritius) in March 1992.
Similarly, it organized media coverage of the visits of the German President
in February-March 1991; the President of Malta, President Yasser Arafat
and the President of Portugal in January 1992; and the Prince and Princess
of Wales, and the Presidents of Kazakhstan and Namibia in February 1992.
The year witnessed an escalation of propaganda against India on the
Kashmir and Human Rights issues, and attempts by interested parties to
internationalise the Kashmir issue. The Division through its audio visual
programmes and print programmes and briefings of the foreign media
highlighted the fact that the problem in Kashmir and Punjab was the result
of direct interference by Pakistan which was training and arming the
militants. Independent producers were encouraged to make documentaries
which projected a true historical perspective of the Kashmir issue and Pak
involvement. While in the past the foreign media had tended to give
Pakistan the benefit of doubt by stating that India "alleged" that Pakistan
was involved, during the year there was increasing and categorical
acknowledgement in the foreign media of Pakistan's training and arming the
terrorists. This shift in the reporting in the international media was a major
achievement and possibly, influenced the position taken by many
governments on Pakistan's involvement in subversion in Kashmir and Punjab
and their response to Pakistan's attempts to internationalise the Kashmir
|The Division continued to send on a daily, weekly or bi-weekly basis
detailed news to Indian Missions on developments in India. Material on the
situation in Kashmir and Punjab was sent to select Missions to enable them
to counter anti-Indian propaganda and to accurately brief their host
governments and the media.
The publication of books, the production of documentaries and the
dissemination of audio visual and printed material formed Part of the
programme to create a greater awareness abroad of the different facets of
Indian life. In addition to sending presentation books and books on topical
issues to Indian Missions, the Division's publication "Muslims In India" was
printed in Urdu, Hindi, Arabic and French. The book highlighted the
contribution of Indian Muslims to the making of modern India and
projected India's secular polity. The publication was highly appreciated by
all recipients abroad including in Pakistan.
The Second edition of "Muslims In India" and a similar book on "Christians
In India" are nearing completion.
The Division's monthly magazine "India Perspectives" which has a
circulation of 37,000, was highly commended in reviews in the Indian Press and
in letters received from readers in different countries. The magazine which is
published in English, French, Urdu, Arabic and Spanish focuses on different
aspects of Indian life, art and culture and also includes material of touristic
interest. The emphasis has been on obtaining the maximum number of articles
by foreign authors on different topics and during the year authors from
Germany, Bangladesh, Nepal, Australia, Afghanistan and France contributed to
the "India Perspectives". The Government has agreed to the publication of the
"India Perspectives" in Hindi, Bhasa Indonesia, Russian and Portugese and the
first issues in these languages are likely to be brought out in the first quart
1992. The magazine is being subscribed to by public sector units, the hotel
industry, etc and has attracted advertisements from State Governments and
Public Sector units. During the year, a total revenue of Rs. 1,60,000 was earn
Six special feature articles were commissioned and sent to Indian Missions/
Posts abroad for publication on the Republic Day, 1992. These articles were
widely read and appreciated.
On the audio visual front a number of documentaries were produced by the
Division either directly or by encouraging independent producers. "Pastures
New", on Indian Muslims settled abroad was telecast in the USA.
Documentaries on the Environment, Telecommunications, Indian Democracy,
etc were distributed for screening by Indian Missions. A documentary on three
contemporary painters, entitled "Figures of Thought" won the First Prize for
non-feature films at the 38th National Film Festival during the year. It also
the first prize for short documentaries at the Athens (Ohio) Film Festival 1991
This documentary was telecast in Ireland and sent to many other countries
where TV Networks had shown interest in its telecast. Under an arrangement
entered into with the producer of the documentary, the Division received 60 per
cent of the royalty from the telecast. Another documentary "Sanchari" on the
Bharat Natyam dancer, Leela Samson, was released during the year and
received excellent reviews in the media. The Division's film "People of
Peace-Christianity in India" was released on 2 February 1992. In addition, a
film "Bhavantarana", on the Odissi maestro Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra
sponsored by this Division, was screened at the Bangalore Film Festival and the
Bombay International Festival of Documentary, Short and Amination Films and
had won an International Critics Prize award at the latter festival. Projects
nearing completition include among others documentaries on Indian Muslims
and the ITEC programme. The Division also supplied films to Missions abroad in connection with Film Festivals organized in the host countries. Film Festiv
als were held in Muscat, Windhoek, Port of Spain, Abu Dhabi amongst others.
|It is estimated that there are about 12 million persons of Indian origin resi-
ding in different parts of the world. It is the consistent policy of the
Government that persons of Indian origin who have taken foreign nationality
should identify themselves with and integrate in the mainstream of social and
political life of the country of their domicile. The Government naturally rema
alive to their interests and general welfare and encourages cultural contacts w
them. As far as Indian citizens residing abroad are concerned, they are the
responsibility of the Government of India and the Government continue to
exercise due care for their safety and welfare and takes all necessary steps in
Wherever they may be living, people of Indian origin have always cherished
and retained their cultural and personal ties with their motherland. The
Government of India consciously and on a continuous basis strives to strengthen
their cultural and emotional tics by setting up cultural centres, exchange of
cultural troupes, and teaching of Indian music, languages and philosophy in
The Overseas Indians Division was set up to develop social, economic and
cultural contacts between India and the Overseas Indians. Indian Missions have
been instructed to maintain close contacts with Overseas Indians and render
them all possible assistance. The Division also disseminates information about
matters of interest to Overseas Indians like investment procedures in India
through the Missions abroad.
The Overseas Indians have been projecting a number of demands to the
Government of India relating to further liberalisation in the Indian economy,
relaxation in the rules and regulations in respect of taxation, Foreign Exchang
Regulation Act (FERA), bank and portfolio investment, project and industrial
investment, educational needs of the children of Overseas Indians and
resettlement requirements including housing. The revised economic policy of th
Government has acceded to a number of these demands by encouraging
investment in new sectors such as housing, infrastructure and real estate
development on a repatriation basis, remittances in foreign exchange to any
person in India without being subject to gift tax and total immunity from any
investigation/enquiry, issue of India Development Bonds, investment upto 100%
equity in high priority industries with full benefit of repatriation of capital
invested and income accruing thereon including investments for extension and
diversification of existing industrial undertakings.
To discuss the remaining problems and demands of the Overseas Indians,
for the first time an All-India meeting of organizations representing Overseas
Indians was convened under the Chairmanship of the Minister of State for
External Affairs in September 1991 after an Inter-Ministerial meeting in July.
As a follow-up to the points which emerged at the meeting, favourable decisions
have resulted in placing six more categories of emigrants comprising supervisor
skilled workers, semi-skilled workers, vehicle drivers, clerical workers includ
store keepers, etc and cooks excluding those in domestic employment, under the
"Emigration Clearance not required" category on an experimental basis and
formulation of guidelines for setting up of schools, colleges, etc with NRI fun
where a certain number of seats could be reserved for children of Overseas
Indians. A scheme for Overseas Indians and Non-Resident Indians relating to
housing and real estate development is being finalized by the Ministry of Urban
Development in consultation with the Overseas Indians Division.
|During the year under review, Heads of Mission of the following 22
countries left India on completion of their tenure:
Nigeria, Peru, Kuwait, Yemen, Belgium, Yugoslavia, China, Republic of
Korea, Algeria, EEC, Arab Republic of Egypt, Finland, Tunisia, the
USSR, Myanmar, the UK, Uganda, Cambodia, Nepal, Saudi Arabia,
Thailand and Turkey.
During the same period, Heads of Mission of the following 22 countries
presented their Credentials to the President of India:
Colombia, Sri Lanka, Bulgaria, Nigeria, Kuwait, Czech & Slovak Federal
Republic, Swaziland (non-resident), Yemen, Finland, China, Republic
of Korea, Arab Republic of Egypt, the USSR, EEC, Belgium,
Romania, Uganda, Turkey, the UK, Tunisia, Nepal and Benin (non-resident).
India decided to grant diplomatic status to the Asian African Legal
Consultative Committee in New Delhi with effect from February 1991. It was
decided to extend privileges and immunities granted to the International
Committee of Red Cross in New Delhi for another 5 years starting June 1991.
A list containing names of foreign dignitaries who visited India during 1991
along with the dates of such visits is at Appendix XV.
Passport And Consular Services>
|The year 1991 witnessed heavy increase in number of input applications
for passports and miscellaneous services. During the year, a total of
35,02,973 applications were received compared to 24,25,604 received in 1990,
registering a growth of 44%. During the same period total output of all the
Passport Offices in India also increased by about 3 lakh services, from 23.8
lakhs in 1990 to 26.9 lakhs in 1991, registering a growth of about 13%.
During the last year several measures were introduced by the Consular,
Passport & Visa (CPV) Division to further simplify the passport procedures.
Attestation of photograph of applicant by any Gazetted Officer for
submission alongwith application form has been dispensed with. The
application forms complete in all respects will be accepted at counters of
Passport Offices even from persons other than applicants. But passports will
be despatched only through Registered Post to avoid any malpractices where
applications were not submitted by recognized travel agents.
Passport Officers have been instructed to accept a copy of letter of
employment from, reputed employers towards proof of stay of applicant
within jurisdiction of a Passport Office. Sitting MPs, MLAs and MLCs have
been exempted from the requirement of prior police verification where they
choose to apply for ordinary passports. Relevant guidelines to fill an
application form have been printed and appended to each EAP (1)
application form so that an applicant on his own may fill up the application.
This form was introduced from June 1991. The recognized travel agents
have also been authorised to print application forms and give to public free
of any charge. Some Passport Offices have been able to arrange sale of
blank application forms through branches of some backs. Attempts are
being made to resume sale of application forms through head post offices all
over India. In case of Gulf evacuees it has been decided to issue police
clearance certificate based on verification certificates issued by concerned di
Superintendent of Police.
| Indian passports have been made valid for travel to South Africa. Indian
nationals therefore can feely travel to South Africa. Indian Missions have bee
authorised to issue Indian visas to South African nationals on the same basis a
Indian tourist visas are given to other foreign tourists. Tourist visas will a
given to South African diplomats and officials wishing to visit India for touri
With a view to further facilitate foreign travel of Indian nationals, it has
been decided that Indian nationals who earlier required special approval from a
Protector of Emigrant will no longer require it if travelling to North America
Passport Offices have been authorised to grant "Emigration Clearance not
required" (ECNR) on passports of Iraq/Kuwait evacuees for Gulf region for a
period of one year with effect from Apr 18, 1991 provided such applicants have
any documentary evidence of offer of employment.
Six categories of workers have been added to the existing list of persons
eligible for ECNR for a period of six months from 4 October 1991. Such persons
have to apply to Protector of Emigrant or Passport Office through an authorised
recruiting agent with passports having valid employment visa.
The visa fee structure was rationalised and made universally applicable to
all foreign countries except those with which India has gratis visa or bilatera
llyagreed visa fee agreements.This step will help Indian Missions to respond
more quickly to visa fee queries and also help maintain proper internal accounting supervision.
During 1991, 3,335 cases of lost passports were referred to the CPV Division by various Passport Offices in India and Indian Missions/Posts abroad.
After consulting the concerned authorities, clearance for issue of passports
was accorded in respect of 2,921 cases. For convenience of some category of
applicants, it has been decided that where clearance is not received from
concerned authorities within six weeks, the CPV Division may issue clearance.
As a part of programme of expansion of computer based, data processing,the Regional Passport Office in Delhi has been computerised. It is proposed to
undertake similar computerisation at other Passport Offices.
The prevention of photo substitution and other types of forgeries on passports has been one of the prime concerns. Introduction of MSP in Indian ssions/Posts abroad has been taken up in phased manner. About 415 cases of forgery on non-MSP passports were detected during the year and concerned Passport Offices were asked to take necessary action in all cases.
Four hundred and fifty cases for issue of identity certificates were proce
ssed and approval conveyed to concerned Passport Offices.
Prior to removal of restrictions on travel to South Africa, 75 requests for
allowing endorsements on Indian passports for travel to South Africa were
processed and approved.
Twenty seven appeals tinder Section 11 of the Passport Act were received during the year, of which 14 appeals have been decided.
About 700 complaints in respect of delay in issue of passports by various Passport Offices were received in the CPV Division. Out of which 400 cases
have been settled. This number of complaints received is negligible when
seen in the light of 35 lakh input applications received and 26.9 lakh services rendered during the year.
Licences of 172 travel agents were renewed and 71 fresh licences were
issued to travel agents.
The Passport Liaison Office at Trivandrum has been upgraded to a full-
fledged Passport Office w.e.f. 10 January 1992.
At a conference of the Passport Offices held in October 1991 ways and means to further increase productivity Of the Central Passport Organization was discussed and concrete measures taken which is reflected in the increased
During the year, Passport Offices in Goa, Bombay, Kozhikode, Cochin,
Bareilly, Jalandhar, Chandigarh, Patna and Delhi were inspected. The Minister
of State for External Affairs inspected the Passport Offices at Goa and Bangalore. "Open Passport Houses" on passport matters were organized at Goa
and Bangalore. Based on inspection reports, necessary administrative actions
were initiated against officers and staff found indulging in malpractices.
At present three officials are tinder suspension.
During the year, 16,15,019 new passports were issued and 10,75,384 scellaneous services were rendered by all Passport Offices in India. Detailed
input-output figures in respect of passports and miscellaneous services are
given at Appendix VII. In addition, a total of 969 diplomatic passports and 3669 official passports were issued by the CPV Division. About 6,000 ellaneous
services pertaining to official and diplomatic passports were also rendered. A
ll the 21 Passport Offices and 2 Passport Liaison Offices functioned normally
except the Passport Office in Srinagar which continued to remain non-nctional. Presently, the work of Srinagar office is being looked after by the Passport Office, Delhi. A statement showing revenue earned and expenditure incurred by Passport Offices from 1 January to 31 December 1991 is at Appendix VIII.
During 1991, 1,171 cases of deportation of Indian nationals by foreign
Governments were brought to the notice of the Government of India. Indian
Missions and Posts abroad repatriated 214 Indian nationals on Government cost.
During the year, approximately 1,584 cases of Indian nationals arrested in
foreign countries had conic to the notice of the Ministry. All possible
consular assistance was rendered to them and in some cases their release and return to India was facilitated.
Four hundred and five cases of death of foreign nationals in India were also
handled. About 972 cases of death compensation in respect of Indian nationals
(tied abroad were processed. One lakh fourteen thousand four hundred eighty
documents received from the public for submission to foreign authorities were
attested/authenticated by the CPV Division.
Administration And Organization
|SHRI Madhavsinh Solanki assumed charge as Minister for External
Affairs on Jun 21, 1991 following change in the Government at the Centre.
Shri Eduardo Faleiro assumed charge as Minister of State for External Affairs
also on 21 June 1991. Earlier, Shri Digvijay Singh demitted charge as Deputy
Minister for External Affairs on 21 June 1991.
| Shri J N Dixit assumed charge as Foreign Secretary on 1 December 1991.
He took over from Shri Muchkund Dubey who retired on 30 November 1991.
Shri J R Hiremath relinquished the charge of the office of Special Envoy of
Prime Minister to Africa on 14 November 1991 on expiry of his term.
Following internal disturbances in Somalia India's Mission in Mogadiscio
was temporarily closed on 8 January 1991.
The Ministry now has 139 Resident Missions/Posts abroad manned by
officials from India.
In keeping with the economic austerity measures being undertaken by the
Government of India, the Ministry is committed to meeting the requirements of
the new Missions being opened in the countries of the Commonwealth of
Independent States (former Soviet Union) as well as in sonic other countries
within the existing budgetary provisions and existing personnel strength as far
possible by reducing expenditure and posts in other Missions.
The total sanctioned strength of the IFS and IFS(B) at Headquarters and
Indian Missions/Posts abroad is 3409. This includes certain posts borne oil th
budget of Ministry of Commerce but excludes posts held in abeyance
ex-cadered. The cadrewise strength is at Appendix IX. The list of officers in
Ministry qualified in various foreign languages is at Appendix X.
On account of a freeze owing to budgetary constraints, fresh proposals for
the acquisition of properties and commencement of construction were not taken
up till recently. However, construction activity on ongoing projects continued
The Chancery-cum-residential complex at Lagos was completed and occupied.
The construction of an office-cum-residential block in New York for the
Permanent Mission of India to the UN is at an advanced stage. The Chancery-
cum-residential building for CGI, Dubai has been functionally completed and
the offices occupied in December 1991. The Chancery-cum-residential building
at Kuala Lumpur is expected to be completed in the first half of 1992. The new
building at Kuwait suffered a setback due to the Gulf War during which the
building sustained some damage. Repair work has been started and the building
is expected to be ready for occupation by mid 1992.
The construction of Embassy complexes at Riyadh, Kathmandu and Abu
Dhabi and a residential block at Islamabad are at an advanced stage of
planning. Tenders for the construction of the Indira Gandhi Cultural Centre at
Mauritius are due to be floated soon. In India, the construction of buildings
the Regional Passport Offices in Cochin and Calicut is in progress and the
construction of the Foreign Service Training Institute in New Delhi and the
Regional Office of the ICCR at Calcutta are at advanced stages of planning.
Administrative inspections of the Indian Missions at Kathmandu,
Windhoek, Abidjan, Dakar, Accra, Prague, Sofia, Budapest, Thimpu, Mexico,-
Kingston, Georgetown and Port of Spain were conducted during the year with a
view to reviewing and improving the functioning of and working conditions in
Efforts continued to streamline and simplify procedures in several areas and
to upgrade the quality of office equipment. Work in several areas of the
Ministry and various Missions is being computerised. Proposals have been made
to decentralise and to delegate decision-making powers to Missions abroad on
various administrative matters.
Foreign Service Training Institute
|During the year under review, the Foreign Service Training Institute re-
designed and restructured the existing training curricula for the IFS
Probationers in tune with the evolving international realities and the current
economic and commercial priorities of the Government. In order to enhance the
capabilities of the trainees in major foreign languages, the FSTI introduced
during the year language classes in French for IFS Probationers and in spoken
Arabic for newly recruited Assistants. The Basic Professional Course meant for
IFS(B) personnel being posted abroad was rehashed and retooled with more
stress on finance, accounts and cash-book management. The computer Courses
were made hands-on oriented so that the participants become familiar with real
life situation from the very first day. The Refresher Course for Commercial
Representatives was modified to help acquaint the CRs with the new monetary,
fiscal, commercial and industrial policies of the Government and their
implications for enhancing India's export, attracting foreign investment and
facilitating technology transfer.
The FSTI organized the following training programmes during the year:
(i) Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for IFS
Probationers (1990 and 1991 batches)-2 courses;
(ii) Orientation Programme for Spouses-1 course;
(iii) Refresher Course for Commercial Representatives-1 course (to be
held in March 1992);
(iv) Familiarization Programme for Resident Foreign Diplomats-1 course
(to be conducted in February 1992);
(v) Orientation Programme for Central Trade Service officers-1 course;
(vi) Basic Professional Course for IFS(B) Personnel being posted
(vii) Induction course for Assistants-1 course;
(viii) Computer Courses-10 courses;
(ix) French Language Course for IFS (Probationers)-1 course; and
(x) Arabic Language Course for Assistants-1 course.
The year-long Professional Course in Diplomacy and International
Relations for 12 IFS Probationers of the 1990 batch consisted of 22 modules
covering the following areas: International Relations; International Economic
Relations; Multilateral Diplomacy; International Law; Cultural Diplomacy;
Diplomatic Practice and Protocol; Representational Skills; Hindi;
Administration/Establishment/Finance and Accounts; Commercial Work and
International Marketing; Parliamentary Processes and Procedures; External
Publicity; Indian Foreign Policy and National Security Isues; Consular Work;
Overseas Indians; Effective Communication; and Typing and Driving. The
Institute also organized a comprehensive Bharat Darshan-cum-Study Tour and
District Training Programme for the IFS Probationers (1990 Batch) during the
summer months. Young diplomats from Botswana, the Maldives and Vietnam
also attended a part of this Programme.
The Programme for the IFS Probationers of the 1991 batch commenced on
Dec 23, 1991 and will continue till December 1992. As in the past, a
number of young diplomats from friendly countries attended this Programme
from January to March 1992.
As part of FSTI's ongoing Programme, a total of 185 persons to be posted
abroad attended the basic Professional Course which covered all aspects of
functioning in Missions abroad. In collaboration with the BPC, short courses o
Computer Appreciation, Word Processing and Data base Management were
organized so as to enable the participants familiarize themselves with modern
office management tools and techniques.
Under the UNDP Project No. IND/90/017, four IFS officers were sent for
higher learning and training to the following Institutes:
(i) MIPP Programme - Johns Hopkins University, the USA;
(ii) M.A. Degree Course in International Relations - Fletcher School of
Law and Diplomacy, the USA;
(iii) Diplomatic Associates Programme - Georgetown University, the
(iv) Mid Career MPA - Harvard University, the USA.
Also under the same project, indents were placed with the UNDP for
purchase of a state-of-the-art computer assisted audio-visual equipment for the
Language Laboratory to be set up, and softwares for setting up a Self Access
Pair Learning (SAPL) Language booth.
The FSTI continued to maintain contacts with other training institutes both
in India and abroad. As a part of this ongoing process, the Dean of the Instit
visited various institutions in Geneva, London, Washington, Boston and New
York in July-August 1991 under grants made available through the UNDP
Project No. IND/90/017.
As a part of its publication programme, the FSTI brought out a written
symposium entitled "The Head of Mission". In addition, the FSTI also brought
out the following background materials for its trainees:
(i) Fifth Refresher Course for Commercial Representatives;
(ii) Computer Appreciation Programme for Senior Officers;
(iii) Basic Data Management Course;
(iv) Introduction to Passport, Consular & Visa work in Missions;
(v) Fifth Orientation Programme for spouses;
(vi) Programme on Crisis Management;
(vii) Basic Professional Course: A Handout; and
(viii) Professional Course in Diplomacy and International Relations for
entrants to the Indian Foreign Service.
Use Of Hindi In Official Work
|The Ministry of External Affairs is charged with the dual responsibility of
implementation of official language policy of the Union of India at
Headqarters, Regional Passport Offices located in India and Indian Missions/
Posts abroad and propagation of Hindi abroad. The aforesaid work is
accomplished by the Hindi Section of the Ministry. In addition, Hindi Section
also caters to the entire translation work in the Ministry from English to
Hindi and vice-versa.
A Hindi Advisory Committee is working in the Ministry under the
chairmanship of Minister for External Affairs to render advice and guidance to
the Ministry in the field of implementation of Official Language Policy and
allied matters. An Official Language Implementation Committee headed by
JS(AD) is also working to oversee the progress in the progressive use of Hindi
in the official work.
During the year, Ministry continued with various schemes of progressive use
of Hindi at headquarters as well as at its various Passport Offices. Workshops
for those who have attained working knowledge of Hindi were organized with a
view to removing their hesitation in doing their official work in Hindi. In
pursuance of the provisions of official language rules, PE Section of the Minis
try has been nominated for doing its entire work in Hindi.
English typists were nominated for Hindi typing training and officers not possessing working knowledge of Hindi were also sent for Hindi training. In
compliance of the Department of Official Language's instructions Hindi week
was observed and various competitions were organized at the Headquarters, in
some of the Indian Missions abroad and also in some of the Passport Offices
located in India. Special Consultation Cell was set up at Akbar Bhavan during
the week to remove the problems faced by the employees intending to do their
official work in Hindi. On this occasion an appeal from the Minister for
External Affairs was issued to all officers and employees requesting them to do
their maximum work in Hindi. JS(AD) also took an active part in the
organization of Hindi Week and. held a meeting of officers with a view to
request them to encourage the use of Hindi. In addition, High Commission of
India, Dhaka, Embassy of India, Tokyo, Embassy of India, Paramaribo and
Passport Offices situated at Bhopal, Bareilly, Lucknow, Ahmedabad and Delhi
have celebrated Hindi Week/Day and organized various competitions with a
view to create suitable atmosphere for use of Hindi in the official work.
This year too the Ministry continued with a Rajbhasha running shield
scheme for its Regional Passport Offices located in India to encourage them to
do their maximum work in Hindi. As a result Passport Offices in Ahmedabad,
Bhopal, Bareilly, Lucknow and Delhi gave a good account of themselves in this
In discharge of its obligation regarding propagation of Hindi abroad, the
Ministry processed the demands received from the Governmental and Non-
Governmental bodies and individuals engaged in the propagation of Hind
abroad and sent the required Hindi teaching aid material, Hindi typewriters, etc
to them through Indian Missions abroad free of cost. In addition, the Ministry
donated kits of Hindi teaching aid material to a large number of Universities/
Institutions teaching Hindi abroad.
During the year, Indian Missions were requested to further improve the
work of propagation of Hindi in the countries of their accreditation. Embassy
India, Seoul organized debates in the Hangcook University and the foreign
Participants were suitably awarded. Hindi classes for children continued to be
held in the Missions abroad and this scheme produced good results.
The aforesaid efforts have resulted in an atmosphere conducive to the use
of Hindi in official work at headquarters, Indian Missions abroad and Passport
Offices located in India.
|The Indian Council for Cultural Relations was established in 1950 to foster
and strengthen the cultural relations and mutual understanding between
India and other countries. The Council continued to work towards these
objectives steadily during 1991-92 by further strengthening and expanding its
activities through its various Wings like publications, incoming and outgoing
cultural troupes, incoming and outgoing distinguished visitors, incoming and
outgoing exhibitions, foreign students, cultural centres abroad, etc. While
maintaining the traditional and historical ties with all countries in the field
culture and education, the Council continued to make special efforts to
strengthen its interaction and projection of culture in Asia, Africa and Latin
America with particular emphasis on neighbouring countries. Among the
highlights of this year's activities, the Council, as part of the Maulana Abul
Kalam Azad Centenary Celebrations, organized an International Seminar on
Sufism in New Delhi in November 1991. The participants in the Seminar
included about 30 delegates from 18 countries and over 50 participants from
India. The foreign delegates came from Afghanistan, France, Pakistan, Iraq, th
UK, Russia, Bangladesh, Iran, Turkey, Japan, Malaysia, Czech and Slovak
Federal Republic, the USA, Nepal, Thailand, Italy and the Sudan. Fifty papers
were presented on the three major themes: "History and Philosophy of Sufism",
"Contemporary Relevance of Sufism" and "Sufism and the Arts". A unique
Exhibition of Calligraphy and Manuscripts pertaining to Sufism was arranged on
the occasion in collaboration with the National Museum, New Delhi. A
publication entitled `The Rubiyat of Sarmad' containing select qatrains of the
Sufi Saint and Poet, Sarmad, with Maulana Abul Kalam Azad's essay `Sarmad
Shaheed' rendered into English, was released on the occasion. The book, with a
special Foreward by the Vice President, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, is being
published in Urdu as well.
As part of the Seminar, the ICCR organized performing arts events based
on Sufi music, literature and poetry. Baul songs, Sufiana Kalam, Tarana,
Qawwali, the musical `Sulagde Darya' based on Bulle Shah's verses, Lallan
Geeti from Bangladesh and dances of the Whirling Dervishes from Turkey were
presented on the occasion.
| It was the first time ever that an International Seminar on Sufism on such
broad scale had been organized in India.
The Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for 1989 was
awarded to President Robert Gabriel Mugabe of Zimbabwe at a function held
on Nov 14, 1991 at Rashtrapati Bhawan. The President, Shri R
Venkataraman, presented the Award in the presence of the Vice President, Dr
Shanker Dayal Sharma, Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao and a large
number of high dignitaries.
The Jury for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award, chaired by the Vice President,
announced its decision to confer the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International
Understanding for 1990 on Dr Helmut Kohl, Federal Chancellor of Germany.
During the year, a 55-member ballet group led by the renowned Bolshoi
Ballet Soloist V Gordeev and a 22-member music group led by popular singer,
V Leontiev, from Russia visited India on the occasion of the 20th Anniversary
of Indo-USSR Treaty for Peace, Friendship and Cooperation. As a part of the
Swedish Cultural Manifestation in India, a composite group of Swedish dance
and music visited India during December 1991 and performed in Delhi,
Ahmedabad, Bombay, Calcutta and Imphal. In August 1991, the prestigious
dance and music group `Amandla' of the African National Congress visited India
and performed in Delhi, Calcutta and Bombay.
The Council played its part in observing the Bicentennial of Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart by sponsoring visit and performances by two quartets from
Austria, two Chamber Orchestras from Germany and the noted Pianist Kjell
Baekkelund from Norway.
As a part of the "Switzerland in India", two groups of BRYNOSPOERRI
RETO WEBER DUI and KURT HESS/SUE LOH visited India to give
Apart from this, cultural groups from Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh,
France, Germany and Portugal were invited by the Council for performances in
Delhi and other cities of India. In connection with the visit of foreign and o
dignitaries, the Council organized six performances by Indian artists in Delhi.
The Council collaborated with the Centre for Spanish Studies of Jawaharlal
Nehru University in organizing the Second International Conference on 20th
Century Hispanism in November 1991 in New Delhi. A one-day colloquium on
Victoria Ocampo, the Argentinian poetess, and her interaction with Gurudev
Rabindranath Tagore was held on this occasion. The Council invited eminent
and distinguished scholars from Latin America and the Philippines in addition t
several Indian scholars.
The Council collaborated with the National Centre for Performing Arts,
Bombay, in organizing a 7-day Seminar on the subject `Actor at Work' in
In 1989, the Council started conducting an essay competition to coincide
with the centenary year of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. The second essay
competition for 1990 on `The Philosophy of Humanism as expressed in the Holy
Quran' was conducted in English, Hindi and Urdu. The competition was open
to the nationals of ail SAARC countries. The Council received a total of 54
entries in English, 39 in Hindi and 25 in Urdu.
The Council was entrusted by the Department of Culture, Ministry of
Human Resource Development, with the presentation of the entire performing
arts component of the Festival of India in Germany, which was by far the single
largest component of the Festival. A special Selection Committee under the
Chairmanship of Shri H Y Sharada Prasad was set-up. The conceptualisation,
selection and presentation of the Performing Arts Section involved painstaking
efforts over a one year period. The Festival was inaugurated in Bonn on 7
September 1991 by the Prime Minister, Shri P V Narasimha Rao, and the
Federal Chancellor of Germany, Dr Helmut Kohl. About 150 artists, in 16
groups, participated in the inaugural phase of the Festival. Four classical gr
were part of "Leela", the inaugural presentation. Twelve folk groups from
different States of India participated in "Ranjani", the outdoor presentation h
in squares and market places in eight cities of Germany. These and subsequent
performing arts events have received an overwhelmingly Warm response and
positive acclaim from the public and in the electronic and print media.
Three groups, i.e. puppet, chhau and kathakali were sent between October
and December 1991 under the Indian Traditional Theatre & Puppet Series.
The closing phase of the Festival of India in Germany in February and
March 1992 include a joint theatre production where Girish Karnad's
'Nagamandala', translated into German, is being presented by the Leipzig
Theatre Company directed by Vijaya Mehta. The premier will be followed by a
Seminar on theatre with the participants of Indian and German theatre experts,
directors and critics.
There will be a major presentation of Indian classical music both
Carnatic and Hindustani and of classical dance.
Even before the Festival was formally inaugurated, the Council
participated in several curtain raising events in Berlin including the Indian
Music Village Project, special events on Independence Day (August 1991)
and the Popular Music Festival.
Taken as whole, the performing arts events of the Festival of India in
Germany have generated tremendous goodwill and interest, and will now be
followed up with new series of collaborated projects through ICCR's
Cultural Centre in Berlin.
Apart from the Festival of India groups, the Council sponsored over 85
performing arts groups during the year for participation in important
international festivals and to give performances at the invitation of foreign
Governments and private institutions. The Council participated in the
Limasol Festival in Cyprus, the Manila International Festival of Dance
Academics, the Cerventino Festival in Mexico, the International Ramayana
Festival in Thailand, the April Spring Friendship Art Festival in Pyongyang
(DPRK), the Alma-Ata Festival in Kazakhstan, the Festival of Experimental
Theatre in Cairo, the Autumn Festival of the University of Witwatersand in
Johannesburg, the International Puppet Festival in Bilbao (Spain), the
Carthage Festival in Tunisia and others.
At the request of the Mauritian Government, the Council sent a
delegation of eminent scholars, led by Mohd. Shafi Qureshi, Governor of
Bihar, to participate in the World Urdu Conference in Mauritius in
December 1991. Urdu books, dictionaries and typewriters from India were
presented during the Conference. An exhibition on Urdu calligraphy
together with a calligrapher to conduct master classes was also sent on the
occasion of the Conference. Renowned ghazal singer, Talat Aziz,
participated in the cultural events held during the Conference.
The ICCR in collaboration with the Government of Egypt and the
Embassy of India in Cairo organized a major Seminar in Cairo on
"Historical and Cultural Relations between Egypt and India through the
Ages", A high-level delegation of scholars, academicians and writers, led by
Dr Najma Heptulla, Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, participated in
Similarly, in Ankara (Turkey) a Symposium on "Cross-Cultural
Influences on Indo-Turkish Relations" was organized by the Council in
collaboration with the Government of Turkey and the Embassy of India in
Ankara to commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the Indo-Turkish Cultural
Agreement signed during the visit of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to that country
These events in Cairo and Ankara were the first of their kind ever to be
held. The resultant interaction between the intellectuals of India and these
countries have had a positive resonance and has created the environment for
establishing institutional linkages and continuing the exchanges further. Alre
with Egypt, it has been decided to bring out a joint publication on the result
As in the past, the Council under its Distinguished Visitors Programme se
out and received scholars, writers, intellectuals, academicians and creative
individuals from different walks of life during 1991-92. Under the Outgoing
Visitors Programme, the ICCR sent out 77 persons. Out of this, 20 were sent to
Asia, 18 to Africa, 3 to Australia, 1 to Latin America, 3 to USA and 32 to
European countries. Eight Scholars were sent to Mauritius to participate in th
Second World Marathi Conference and a 3-Member Delegation of the
Association of Writers & Illustrators for Children was sent to Italy to partici
in the Children's Book Fair at Bologna.
Under its Incoming Visitors Programme, the Council received a total
number of 100 visitors. Out of this, 53 persons were from Asia, 15 from Africa
1 from Australia, 3 from USA, 9 from Latin America and 19 from European
countries. This include the visits of Dr Raymond Ranjeva, Judge of the
International Court of Justice, and Mrs Ranjeva from Madagascar, Dr Haris
Silajdzic, Minister for International Cooperation of the Republic of Bosnia and
Herzegovina and his wife from Yugoslavia, Princess Wizdan Ali from Jordan,
Mr Mir Hussain Musavi, the former Prime Minister of Iran, Dr Daisaku Ikada
of Japan, Dr Jose V Abveva, President of the University of Phillippines, Mr
Justice Ismail Mahomed, Judge of the Supreme Court of South Africa, Fatima
Meer (biographer of Dr Nelson Mandela) from South Africa and Dr Jairam
Reddy, Vice Chancellor, University of Durban, West Ville.
During the year, the Council sent abroad 12 exhibitions of contem-
porary arts and traditional Arts and crafts and provided travel grants for 16
artistes/commissioners. During the year 5 exhibitions of contemporary
art/crafts were received from abroad for display in India and two foreign
commissioners were accorded local hospitality.
|Some of the important exhibitions sent abroad were on small sculpture
(curated by Nagji Patel) to Namibia and Zimbabwe, graphics by Bimal Das to
Egypt, cartoons by Sudhir Dar and Abu Abraham to Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and
Turkey, an exhibition on the life and works of Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore to
China and Egypt, separate exhibitions on contemporary Indian art and Indian
handicrafts to Cuba, contemporary paintings to Sri Lanka, and a major
exhibition of contemporary art, curated by Jogen Choudhry, to Bangladesh.
An exhibition of 29 original works by Rabindranath Tagore, together with a
photographic exhibition on the life of Tagore, prepared in collaboration with
Rabindra Bharati University, Calcutta was sent to Beijing and Cairo. The Vice
Chancellor of Rabindra Bharati University visited the two places on the occasio
of the exhibition and gave talks on Gurudev Tagore. In China, the exhibition
was also accompanied by a specialty choreographed production of Tagore's
dance drama "Tasher Desh", done by Manjushree Chaki Sircar of Dancers'
Guild, Calcutta. Both in Egypt and China, this exhibition has created a specia
impact and been enthusiastically received.
Equally well-received was the exhibition of contemporary arts sent to Dac
in January 1992.
Some of the incoming exhibitions organised were the exhibitions of
Portuguese tiles and paintings, handicrafts/photographs from Cyprus,
contemporary clay works from Japan, etc.
The Council is now the nodal agency for administering all the major
scholarship schemes for foreign students offered by the Government of India.
During 1991-92, the Council, for the first time, administered these schemes ful
including seeking nominations from foreign Governments, corresponding with
over 75 Universities and arranging admissions of the foreign students in the
courses requested. Over 1000 scholarships are offered each year by the
Government of India to students from over 84 countries. This year, for the fir
time, the utilisation rate of the scholarships crossed the 50% mark and went as
high as 60%. Payment of scholarships at a substantially enhanced rates has bee
fully implemented during the year. In order to strengthen the office of the
Foreign Students Advisers in different Universities, the Sumptuary Allowances
at enhanced rates has also been paid to the Advisers. The details of each scho
have been computerised by the Computer Wing of the Council in order to
further streamline payments and other requirements of foreign scholars.
For the welfare of foreign students, the Council organized two Summer
Camps during the year. One Summer Camp was held in North India covering
Simla, Kulu and Manali and the second covering Mysore, Ooty and Bangalore
in South India. About 75 foreign students from different countries participate
in these two camps. Foreign Student's Day, as in the past, was celebrated by t
Council on 11 November 1991 at the Headquarters and at the Regional Offices
and various Indian Universities. Functions were also organized in a large
number of Indian Missions abroad. The Council, financially and otherwise,
assisted different foreign students organizations and individual foreign schola
in distress. Regional Offices also organized orientation courses and other get
to-gethers for the benefit of the foreign student.
The Publications Wing of the Council continued to remain active during
the period. Important publications released (luring this period were-
"Discovery of India" (3rd Abridged Edition), "Vision of India" (Arabic
Edition) with the assistance of the Embassy of India in Damascus, and "The
Rubiyat of Sarmad".
Two other publication entitled "Science - A Supranational Activity"
(Azad Memorial Lecture by Sir Andrew Huxley) and "Jawaharlal Nehru : An
Anthology" (Arabic Edition) are under print.
The Council participated in the International Book Fairs in Moscow and
Frankfurt through the National Book Trust.
The council continued to publish six quarterly journals: `Indian Horizons'
and `Africa Quarterly' in English, `Gagananchal' in Hindi, `Taqafat-ul-Hind' in
Arabic, `Rencontre avec l Inde' in French and `Papeles de la India' in Spanish.
During the year, the Audio Visual Reference Unit of the Council was
further strengthened by adding recordings of 10 Indian performances and 22
performances by foreign groups in U-matic tapes. During the International
Seminar on Sufism two short films, namely, `Sufism and the Composite Culture
of India' by Saeed Naqvi and `Lamp in the Niche' by Girish Karnad were
brought out in a special edition for distribution to all participants.
In collaboration with Doordarshan, a Panel discussion and a special
programme on the International Seminar on Sufism as well as interviews by
some distinguished visitors were arranged for telecast. With extracts from the
Audio Visual material of the Council, requisite media publicity was given to
the Nehru Award Ceremony, the Sufism Seminar and World Urdu Conference
held in Mauritius to ensure widespread dissemination of these events.
The Library of the Council continued to be used by the scholars interested
in all aspects of India's cultural heritage, in the original works of Maulana
Abul Kalam Azad and on African Studies. The Library added about 1,000
titles to its existing 75,000 volumes during the year. More than 2,000 readers
including leading scholars and researchers utilised the library services and ha
acknowledged the library's contribution in their specialised publications. The
Azad Collection which has been given special importance by establishing the
Gosh-e-Azad, is now being utilised by large number of scholars. During the
year, 60 documents (57 manuscripts and 3 books) from the Azad Collection
were laminated and bound as part of a special drive to preserve these rare
documents, which include his hand-written manuscripts.
The Council which provides the Secretariat for the Indo-US Sub-
Commission continued to coordinate its activities with a wide cross section of
Departments/Organizations. The Joint meeting of the Indo-US Sub-Commission
on Education & Culture was held on 9 and 10 April 1991 in the USA and from
3 to 5 February 1992 in India.
Meetings of the Indian Panel of the Sub-Commission on Education &
Culture were held under the Chairmanship of Shri Ram Niwas Mirdha on 8 July
1991 and 8 January 1992 to deliberate and evolve joint postures on the items
under the Joint Media Committee and the Joint Committee on Cultural
Heritage and Endeavour.
The Meeting of the Joint Committee on Culture was held on 18 and 19
November 1991 and the meeting of the Joint Media Committee was held of 21
and 22 November 1991 both in New York.
The Council continued to supervise the work of Foreign Cultural Centres in
India especially the operation of British Libraries at Ahmedabad, Bangalore,
Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Thiruvananthapuram, Hyderabad and Pune. The
Council supervised and gave clearance for the activities of Alliance Francaise,
Max Muller Bhawan, Japan Cultural Centre and Portugal Cultural Centre. The
Council provides administrative support to these foreign centres and also
collaborated with them whenever possible in organizing Cultural programmes.
The Council was actively involved in completing the administrative work relatin
to closure of House of Soviet Culture in Trivandrum.
The Presentation Unit of the Council arranged to send books on various
aspects of Indian culture and handicrafts, musical instruments and art objects
totalling approximately Rs 15 lakhs to Indian Missions abroad for presentation
to institutions and universities. Reproduction of paintings, art objects, stat
items and music cassettes were also sent for various essay competitions
organized by Indian Missions abroad. Twenty sets of Indian Musical Instruments
were sent to Mauritius for presentation to different organizations for Promotio
of Indian music and dance in Mauritius.
For promoting greater awareness and appreciation of Indian cultural
heritage abroad, the Council has established Indian Cultural Centres in
Georgetown (Guyana), Jakarta (Indonesia), Moscow (Russia), Port Louis
(Mauritius) and Paramaribo (Suriname). During 1991-92, two new Cultural
Centres were opened, respectively in Berlin (Germany) and Cairo (Arab Republic of Egypt). The Cairo Centre, named after Maulana Abul Kalam Azad,was augurated by Shri Madhavsinh Solanki, Minister for External Affairs, on 14 January 1992.
The Centres are expected to develop and maintain contacts with a wide
cross-sections of local citizens including students, teachers, scholars and cul
tural personalities, Universities and allied Institutions. Books, cassettes, video tapes and musical instruments have been sent to these cultural centres separately under various schemes.
The Council also deputes to Universities and other interested institutions
abroad visiting Professors for teaching Indology, Indian languages and allied
subjects. During the year under review, over 22 academicians were in position
in Belgium, France, Finland, Turkey, Bulgaria, Czech & Slovak Federal Republic,
Poland, Russia, China, South Korea, Indonesia, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago.
During the year, three advisory panels, viz, that of Africa, Latin America
and the Caribbean, and South and South-East Asia have been reconstituted. In
addition, the Advisory Panel for Overseas Indians to look after the interests
of the Indians abroad as well as to foster better relationship with them has been
constituted. Shri Eduardo Faleiro, Minister of State for External Affairs, is
the Chairman of all the four panels. There have been two meetings of the Advisory
Panel for South and South-East Asia on 23 October and 4 December 1991.
Under the Chairmanship of Shri H Y Sharada Prasad, Vice President of
ICCR, the major Advisory Panels of the Council on the performing arts side
met during the year. The meeting of the Advisory Panel for Theatre was hold
on 3 May 1991 and the meeting of the Advisory Panel for Folk Art and
Puppetry was held on 27 June 1991. The Advisory Panel on Music met on
28 February 1992 and the Advisory Panel on Dance met on 3 March 1992.
The Joint Meetings of the ICCR Advisory Panel on Contemporary Arts and
Traditional Arts & Crafts were held on 8 August 1991 and 29 January 1992 at
Azad Bhawan. These two meetings were charred by Smt. Pupul Jayakar, Vice
President of ICCR.
During the year, the General Assembly of the Council met on 24 October
1991 and the Governing Body met twice on 25 April and 24 October 1991. The
other statutory body known its Finance Committee had its meeting of]
24 February 1991.
Within India, the Regional Offices of the Council are located at Bangalore,
Bombay, Calcutta, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Thiruvananthapuram and Madras.
During the year, a new Regional Office of the Council was opened in Hyderabad. The Hyderabad Regional Office was inaugurated by the Vice President of India, Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma, in the presence of the Governor and Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. The Ground Breaking Ceremony of the Calcutta Cultural Complex-cum-Regional Office Project as designed by Shri Charles Correa was performed in August 1991 by the Vice President of India Dr Shanker Dayal Sharma in the presence of the Governor and the Chief Minister of West Bengal. The Regional Offices continued to remain active in promoting the Council's work in their respective areas in India.
Cape Verde Islands
Central African Republic
United States of America
Cote d' Ivoire
EAST ASIA DIVISION
Republic of Korea
Republic of Korea
Sao Tome & Principe
Czech and Slovak
United Kingdom of Great
and Northern Ireland
Republic of Yemen
United Arab Emirates
Antigua & Barbuda
Germany, Federal Republic of
Holy See, The
Commonwealth of Dominica
St Christopher and Nevis
St Vincent and the Grenadines
UN Trust Territories
Territories in South Pacific
Trinidad & Tobago
League of Arab States
Papua New Guinea
SADR (Sahrawi Arab
Appendix II Treaties/Conventions/Agreements
Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India with
other countries in 1991.
Sl Title of Convention/ Date of Date of
No Treaty/Agreement etc Signature Ratification
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
MULTILATERAL Ozone Layer
1 Vienna Convention for the Protection of Mar 18, 1991
International Labour Organization
2 Convention concerning Protection against 2.6.1991 8.5.1991
Hazards of poisoning arising from Benzene
(Convention No. 136)
3 International Agreement on the Use of 10.5.1991 21.6.1991
INMARSAT Ship Earth Stations within the
Territorial Sea and Ports
International Sugar Agreement
4 Extension of the International Sugar 30.7.1991 1.1.1991
United Nations Development Programme
5 Agreement between India and the United 13.2.1991 25.7.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/002-Modernization of the
Patent Information System (PIS), Nagpur
6 Agreement between India and the United 25.2.1991 25.2.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/005-Strengthening of
Fluid Control Research Institute, Palghat
7 Agreement between India and the United 12.4.1991 12.4.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/010/A/01/11-Improve-
ment of Working Conditions and Productivity
in Small Scale Enterprises
*This list is not exhaustive.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
8 Agreement between India and the United 14.4.91 14.4.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/90/042-Transfer of Know-
ledge through Expatriate nationals (TOKEN-
India) Pb. II
9 Agreement between India and the United 19.4.1991 19.4.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/008/-Developrnent and
use of Hybrid Rice Technology (old number
10 Agreement between India and the United 24.7.1991 24.7.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/025/A/101/99-Computer
11 Agreement between India and United Nations 29.8.1991 29.8.1991
Development Programme regarding Project
No. IND/91/026-Metals and Plastics Industries
Services and Training Centre, Goa
12 Agreement between India and the United 8.10.1991 8.10.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/007-Upgradation of AIR
Archives with Refurbishing and Optical Disc
13 Agreement between India and the United 29.11.1991 29.11.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/040-Leather Sector
14 Agreement between India and the United 13.12.1991 13.12.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/058-Microprocessor
Application Engineering Programme (Phase
15 Agreement between India and the United 13.12.1991 13.12.1991
Nations Development Programme regarding
Project No. IND/91/093-Establishment of an
Experimental/Demonstration Unit for
manufacturing Super-purity Aluminium and
Condensor Foils from it--Feasibility Study
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
16 Agreement between the Government of India 20.12.1991 20.12.1991
and the Austrian Federal Government on
Financial Assistance to India
17Protocol on Inland Water Transit and Trade 8.10.1991 8.10.1991
between Government of India and
Government of Bangladesh
18 Convention between the Government of the 27.8.1991
Republic of India and the Government of the
People's Republic of Bangladesh for the
Avoidance of Double Taxation and the
Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to
Taxes on Income
19 Credit Agreement between the Government of 27.8.1991 27.8.1991
the Republic of Idnia and the Government of
the People's Republic of Bangladesh
20 Memorandum of Understanding between the 13.12.1991 13.12.1991
Department of Space (DOS) of the Republic
of India and the Ministry of Aero-Space India
(MAS) of the People's Republic of China on
Cooperation in the Peaceful Application of
Outer Space Science and Technology
21 Consular Convention between the Republic of 13.12.1991
India and the People's Republic of China
Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
22 Trade and Payments Agreement between the 17.1.1991 1.1.1991
Republic of India and Czech and Slovak
23 Memorandum of Understanding on Consular 11.11.1991 11.11.1991
Matters between the Government of Islamic
Republic of Iran and the Republic of India
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
24 Memorandum of Understanding between the 11.11.1991 11.11.1991
Government of the Republic of India, Ministry
of Agricultural Research and Education, and
the Government of Islamic Republic of Iran
for Cooperation in the field of Agricultural
Research and Education
25 Memorandum of Understanding of the Fifth 11.11.1991 11.11.1991
Session of Joint Ministerial Commission
between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the
Republic of India
26 Agreed Minutes of the Committee on 11.11.1991 11.11.1991
Cultural, Consular, Information, Scientific and
27 Exchange of Notes between the Government 22.1.1991 22.1.1991
of India and the Government of Japan for
extension of grant of 981 million Yen for the
project for provision of programme production
Equipment for Mass Communication Research
Centre in Jamia Millia Islamia Central
28 Exchange of Notes between the Government 22.1.1991 22.1.1991
of India and the Government of Japan for
Extension of 375 million Yen for Expansion of
Fish-Net making Machine Project
29 Loan Agreement between the Government of 23.1.1991 23.1.1991
India and the Government of Japan for
Afforestation and Pasture Development
Project along Indira Gandhi Canal Area
30 Loan Agreement between the Overseas 23.1.1991 23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India
for Teesta Canal Hydroelectric Project (II)
31 Loan Agreement between the Overseas 23.1.1991 23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India
for Anpara `B' Thermal Power Station
Construction Project (III)
32 Loan Agreement between the Overseas 23.1.1991 23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India
for Power System Improvement and Small
Hydro Electric Project
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
33 Loan Agreement between the Overseas 23.1.1991 23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India
for Housing Programme for Low and Medium
34 Loan Agreement between the Overseas 23.1.1991 23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India
for Small Scale Industries Development
35 Loan Agreement between the Overseas 23.1.1991 23.1.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India
for Quality Control of Health Technologies
36 Exchange of Notes between the Government 8.5.1991 8.5.1991
of India and the Government of Japan for
Extension of the grant of 39,000,000 Yen to
the National Museum for Import of Photo-
Documentation Equipment for the year 1991
37 Exchange of Notes between the Government 29.5.1991 29.5.1991
of India and Overseas Economic Cooperation
Fund, Japan for Commodity Loan Assistance
of 20,256 million Yen for the year 1991-92
38 Loan Agreement between the Overseas 31.5.1991 31.5.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India
for Emergency Commodity Loan
39 Notes of exchange between the Government 11.6.1991 1.10.1990 to
of India and the Government of Japan for
Extension of the Debt Relief Grant Aid of
Yen 373,050,000 for the period
40 Exchange of Notes and Loan Agreement 13.6.1991 13.6.1991
between the Government of India and the
Government of Japan for the Assistance of the
Indian Project: Small Scale Industries
Development Programme (III)
41 Loan Agreement between the Overseas 13.6.1991 13.6.1991
Economic Cooperation Fund, Japan and India
for Anpara Power Transmission System
42 Exchange of Notes between the Government 2.7.1991 2.7.1991
of India and the Government of Japan for
Extension of the Japanese Giant of Assistance
of 600 million Yen for increasing food
production for the year 1991-92
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Democratic People's Republic of
43 Agreement between the Government of the 8.5.1991 8.5.1991
Republic of India and the Government of
Democratic People's Republic of Korea on
Co-operation in the fields of Science and
44 Protocol for Educational and Cultural Co- 24.1.1991 24.1.1991
operation between the Government of the
Republic of India and the Government of
Mauritius for the years 1990-92
45 Treaty of Trade between the Government of 6.12.1991 6.12.1991
India and His Majesty's Government of Nepal
46 Treaty of Transit between the Government of 6,12.1991 6.12.1991
India and His Majesty's Government of Nepal
47 Protocol of the Treaty of Transit between the 6.12.1991 6.12.1991
Government of India and His Majesty's
Government of Nepal
48 Agreement of Cooperation between the 6.12.1991 6.12.1991
Government of India and His Majesty's
Government of Nepal to control Unauthorised
49 Agreement on Prohibition on Attack Against 31.12.1991 27.1.1991
Nuclear Installations and Facilities between the
Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of
50 Agreement between the Government of tire 29.4.1991 29.4.1991
Republic of India and the Government of the
Republic of Philippines for Cooperation on
Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
51 Memorandum of Understanding on 8.4.1991 8.4.1991
Cooperation in the fields of Agriculture,
Science and Technology between the
Government of the Republic of India and the
Government of the Republic of Philippines
52 Agreement on Cooperation in Tourism 29.7.1991 29.7.1991
between India and Portugal
53 Agreement between the Republic of India and 14.11.1991
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for Avoidance
of Double Taxation by Reciprocal Exemption
of Taxes on Income on the Activities of Air
Transport Enterprises of the two countries
54 Agreed Minutes of the third Session of the 14.11.1991 14.11.1991
Indo-Saudi Joint Commission of Economic and
United Arab Emirates
55 Agreement Concerning International Money 1.4.1991 1.4.1991
Order Services from the United Arab Emirates
Appendix III Major International Conferences/Meeting/Seminars
Major International Conferences/Meeting/Seminars etc Organized by Inter-
Governmental Organizations at which Government of India was Represented
Sl No Title of Conference Venue Date
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1 Seminar on the use of multiround Surveys Bangkok 20 to
, ˙śĆ˙19910524 e ,
e of multiround Surveys Bangkok 20 to @@for
2 First Research Coordination Meeting of Kuala Lumpur 9 to 13
International Atomic Energy Agency September 1991
3 TCDC Programming Exercise in New Delhi 7 to 11 October 1991
4 Workshop on Asian Sugar Cane
Industry Islamabad 5 to 9 May 1991
5 FAO/AFMA/AMIS/BULOG Regional Jakarta 20 to 24 August 1991
6 Social Meeting of SAARC Food Security Paro 1 to 2 October 1991
7 Third Session of the SAARC Colombo 2 to 6 November 1991
Food Security Board
8 Tenth Session of the Colombo 2 to 6 November 1991
Council of Ministers
9 66th Session of the London 10 to 14June 1991
International Maritime Organisation Council
10 16th Extraordinatary Session London 25 October 1991
of the IMO Council
11 17th Session of the London 28 October to 8 November 1991
12 67th Session of the IMO Council London 8 November 1991
13 Seminar-cum-Study Tour in the 7 to 12 April 1991
Development of Inland Waterways under
the aegis of ESCAP
14 Third IWT Training of Trainers Bangkok 12 to 28 June 1991
Programme under the aegis of ESCAP.
15 Regional Seminar on Dredging Bangkok 11 to 15 November
relatedSediment Transport and 1991
Siltation Problem under the aegis of ESCAP
16 Thirty Eighth Session of the New York 3 to 28 June 1991
Governing Council of UNDP
(1) (2) (3) (4)
17 Inter-sessional Meeting of New York 6 to 10 May 1991
the Governing Council of UNDP
18 Fifth TOKTEN Committee Manila 14 to 18 November 1991
19 Fifth Meeting of Aid- Manila 20 to 23 January 1992
20Symposium on Economic Growth, Bombay 3 to 6January 1992
Sustainable Human Development of
Poverty Alleviation in India
21 Senior Postal Ghaziabad 18 November to 14 December 1991
22 SAARC Study Tour "New Mail and 23 April to 7 May 1991
Financial Services" organised by Pakistan
23Seminar on "Postal Operations Colombo 9 June to 21 June 1991
and Future Challenges" of SAARC Countries
24 Tenth Meeting of Technical Kathmandu 11 to 12 June 1991
Committee on Postal Service
25 Annual Session of CCPS Berne 13 to 26 October 1991
26ICTP Workshop on Long Range Weather Trieste 8 to 12 April 1991
27 Ninth Meeting of SAARC Technical Karachi 24 to 25 April 1991
Committee on Meteorology
28 Meeting of Ad-hoc Group of Experts Pasadena 23 to 26 April 1991
on TOGA Data management and TOGA
29 Agroclimate & Climate Impact Melbourne 22 April to 3 May 1991
30 Eleventh WMO Congress Geneva 1 to25 May 1991
31 Forty Third Session of E C Geneva 27 May to1 June 1991
32 Symposium on Trupospheric Colorada 3 to 6 June 1991
Chemistry of Antarctic Region
33 WMO Ozonesonde Intercomparison Saskatoon 13 to 24 May 1991
34 WMO Training Workshop Wageningen 29 July to 9 August 1991
35 International Symposium on Perugia 4 to 9 August 1991
Geophysical Hazards in Developing Countries
36 XXth General Assembly on IUGG. Vienna 11 to 13 August 1991
37Symposium on Methods of Meteorological Toronto 19 to 23 August 1991
Education & Training
(1) (2) (3) (4)
38 Meeting of Directors/ Toronto 24 August 1991
Principals of RMTCs
39 Meeting of Experts to Helsinki 26 to 30 August 1991
Prepare a Review of
Global Climate System for 1989-91
40 WMO Technical Conference on Shanghai 23 to 27 September 1991
Development of National Meteorological
Services in Response to users' needs
41 Workshop on Wind Extraction from Washington 17 to 19 September 1991
Operational Satellite Data
42 First Session of RA-II Working Tokyo 30 September to 4 October 1991
Group on Planning & Implementation of WWW in
43 WMO/RA-I Training Seminar Maputo 28 October to 1 November 1991
on Tropical Cyclone Forecasting
44 First Session of Working Group Geneva 21 to 25 October 1991
on Climate Change Detection
Appendix IV |
Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars
Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc Organized by Non-
Governmental Organizations in which Indian experts participated in their
personal capacity with Government assistance in 1991-92.
Sl No Title of Conference etc Venue Date
1 Regional Expert Consultation of Asian Bangkok 23 to Jul 29,
Network for Food and Nutrition on the 1991
Progress in Nutrition improvement in Asia
and Pacific Region
2 6th Asian Congress of Nutrition organized Kuala Lampur 16 to 19
by UNICEF September
Appendix V Miscellaneous Major International Conferences
Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc in 1991-92, at which
Government of India was represented or in which Indian experts
participated with Government of India's assistance in their personal
Sl No Title of Conference Venue Date
1 International Congress on Oral Cancer New Delhi 2 to @
ress on Oral Cancer New Delhi 2 to @
2 International Symposium on Mechanical Koto 7 to 10 May 1991
3 Workshop on Solidstate Amorphisation Kyoto 11 May 1991
4 The Royal Society Meeting on Science, Cambridge 8 to 10 July 1991
Technology and International Security
5 International Conference on Radar Beijing 22 to 24 October 1991
6 Meeting of the Royal Academy of 11 November 1991
7 International Joint Conference Singapore 18 to 21 November 1991
on Neural Networks (IJCNN)
8 Singapore Robotics Festival Singapore 22 November 1991
9 17th Ministerial Session of the Helsingor 5 to 8 June 1991
World Food Council
10 Council Session of the International London 24 to 29 November 1991
11 116th Session of the International London 3 to 4 December 1991
12 Bilateral Meeting for Renewal of Dhaka 26 to 29 August 1991
Protocol on IWT and Trade between
India and Bangladesh
13 International Symposium on the Kobe 17 to 21 June 1991
Mathematical Theory of Networks and
Appendix V-A Major Commonwealth Conferences in 1991-92
Major Commonwealth Conferences in 1991-92 in which Government of India
1 Special Meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on South A
London--Feb 16, 1991
2 Meeting of the Commonwealth High Level Appraisal Group, London--10 to 12 June
3 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Harare--16 to 22 October 1991
Appendix VI Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of NAM
Jan 01, 1991
Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) during 1991-92.
1 15th Meeting of the Health Ministers of Non-Aligned Countries-May 1991
2 Meeting of the Committee of 9 Non-Aligned Countries on Palestine-September 1
3 Ministerial Meeting on the eve of 46th General Assembly-September 1991
4 10th Meeting of the Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers in Accra--September 1991
5 NAM News Pool Agency Meeting in Havana-last quarter 1991
Appendix VII Statement showing the number of Fresh and Mis. Appl.
|Jan 01, 1991
Statement showing the number of Fresh and Miscellaneous applications received
and services granted in each passport office during the year 1991.
Appendix VIII Statement showing the Revenue earned
|Jan 01, 1991
Statement showing the Revenue earned and Expenditure incurred by each
passport office (faring the year 1991.
Appendix IX Cadre Strength at Headquarters
|Jan 01, 1991
Cadre Strength at Headquarters and 139 Missions/Posts abroad during 1991-92
(including posts budgeted by Ministry of Commerce and ending posts held in
Sl No Cadre/Post Posts at Posts at Total
Headquarters Missions abroad
1 Grade I 3 18 21
2 Grade II 3 25 28
3 Grage III 31 86 117
4 Grade IV 31 78 109
5 Jr Administrative
Grade/Sr Scale 47 187 234
6 Jr Scale 5 28 33
7 Training Reserve
(Prob) Jr Scale 27 27
8 Training Reserve for all Grades 10 10
9 Leave Reserve 19 19
10 Deputation Reserve 20 20
1 Grade I 62 63 125
2 Grade II/III 171 153 324
3 Grade IV 367 355 722
4 Grade V/VI 459 134 593
5 Grade 11 of
Cypher Sub Cadre 81 123 204
6 Principal Private Secretary
Grade of Stenographers Cadre 3 18 21
7 Grade I of Stenographers Cadre 32 176 208
(including the erstwhile Selection Grade)
8 Grade 11 of Stenographers Cadre 212 177 389
9 Grade III of Stenographers Cadre 42 77 119
Combined Research Cadre 22 2 24
Interpreters' Cadre 14 21 35
L & T Cadre 17 17
Ex-Cadre HOMs 10 10
Total 1678 1731 3409
Appendix X Foreign Language Chart
|Jan 01, 1991
Foreign Language Chart
Compulsory Foreign Language
No. of Officers
Appendix XI Statement showing the number of appointments
|Jan 01, 1991
Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment
and promotion) made in various groups in the Ministry of External Affairs
and reserved vacancies filled by scheduled castes/scheduled tribes
during the year 1991.
Vacancies de-reserved due to Number of Number of reserved
non-availability of Total No. vacancies candidates
of vacan- reserved for appointed
Group filled SC ST SC ST SC
Group 'A' 152 7 6 25 9
Group 'B' 167 40 38 31 12 2
Group 'C' 135 29 26 19 6 3
Group 'D' 23 5 5 5 4
Appendix XII Revenue Expenditure of the MEA
Jan 01, 1991
Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry of External Affairs during the
Financial Year 1991-92.
Revised Estimate 1991-92
(In Crores of Rupees)
Missions/Posts abroad 209.25
Contribution to international Organizations 13.21
Central Passport Organization 15.85
Special Diplomatic Expenditure 93.80
Grant-in-Aid to ICCR 13.50
Other Miscellaneous items 12.67
AID TO OTHER COUNTRIES
Aid to Bangladesh 2.88
Aid to Bhutan 63.02
Aid to Nepal 14.13
Aid to Sri Lanka 8.25
Aid to Maldives 16.55
Aid to Cambodia 1.50
Aid to other Developing Countries 20.50
ITEC Programmes 13.41
Aid under AFRICA Fund 10.30
Total Revenue Expenditure 540.25
Appendix XIII Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad
|Jan 01, 1991
Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters of the Ministry
of External Affairs in 1991-92.
The estimated expenditure on the Headquarters Organization of the Ministry during the Current
Financial Year (1991-92) is expected to be Rs 31.43 Crs. which is 5.82% of the
revenue expenditure of this Ministry. Out of this, Rs 9.62 Crs. will be on Sal
aries and Wages, Rs
4.11 Crs. on Travel Expenses, Rs 11,53 Crs. on Office Expenses, Rs 3.77 Crs. on
Publicity, and Rs
2.00 Crs, on Rent and Maintenance.
The total estimated expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad including India
London and Washington, is expected to be Rs 209.25 Crs. during the Current Fina
ncial Year which
works out to 38.73% of the total estimated Revenue Expenditure of this Ministry
. Out of this, an
amount of Rs 76,57 Crs. is for Salaries (including Foreign Allowance) and Wages
, Rs 28.10 Crs. for
Travel Expenses (Transfer Passages/Home Leave Passages and Local Tours), Rs 45.
61 Crs. for
Office Expenses and Rs 57.67 Crs. for Rent, Rates and Taxes as well as for Repa
Maintenance of Government owned/rented accommodation in Missions abroad. Avera
expenditure per Mission abroad (including Publicity) works out to Rs 1.49 Crs.
The remaining 55.45% of the Estimated Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry is be
ing incurred on
various Aid Programmes for neighbouring and other developing countries includin
Programmes, Aid under AFRICA Fund, SAARC and SCAAP Programmes, contribution to
Nations Organisation and other international bodies, Passport organization, Hos
Grant-in-Aid to Indian Council of Cultural Relations and on other miscellaneous
Appendix XIV International Conferences/Meetings and Functions arranged
International Conferences/Meetings and Functions arranged during the year
1991-92 with the assistance of the Conference Cell, Ministry of External Affair
1 SAARC Meeting of Panel of Experts to prepare Plan of Action for Children in
the context of
South Asian Countries--10 and Apr 11, 1991
2 Indira Gandhi Memorial Lecture-11 April 1991
3 SAARC Meeting of National Coordinators for finalising the Regional Study on
Manufacturers and Service-3 to 5 June 1991
4 Meeting of the Commonwealth Committee of Foreign Ministers on Southern Afric
a-13 and 14
5 Meeting of Experts of G-15 Countries on Science & Technology Projects-Gene B
ank & Solar
Energy-23 to 25 September 1991
6 UN Conference on Environment Development, convened by Department of Bio-
Technology-23 to 26 October 1991
7 Indo-EEC Joint Commission Meeting, convened by Ministry of Commerce-13 and 1
8 Indo-German Joint Commission Meeting, convened by Ministry of Finance-15 Nov
Appendix XV VVIPs Visits to India
VVIPs Visits to India during 1991.
Sl Heads of State, Heads of Government Date
(1) (2) (3)
1 H.E. Mr Ion Iliescu, Jan 16, 1991
President of Romania
2 H.E. Mr Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, 25 to 27 January 1991
President of the Republic of Maldives
and Mrs Nasreena M A Gayoom
3 H.E. Dr Richard von Weizsaecker, 28 February to 6 March 1991
President of the Federal Republic
of Germany and
4 H.E. Mr Arpad Goncz, 10 to 15 April 1991
President of the Republic
of Hungary and
Madame Arpadne Goncz
5 H.E. Mr Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, 15 and 16 June 1991
President of the Republic of Maldives
and Mrs Nasreena M A Gayoom
6 H.E. My Anerood Jugnauth, 23 to 26 July 1991
Prime Minister of Mauritius
and Mrs Sarojini Jugnauth
7 H.E. Mr Islam A Karimov 17 to 19 August 1991
President of the Uzbek SSR and
Mrs Tatyana A Karimova
8 H.E. Mr Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, 18 to 20 August 1991
President of the Republic of Maldives
and Mrs Nasreena M A Gayoom
9 H.M. Jigme Singye Wangchuck, 9 to 12 September 1991
King of Bhutan
10 H.E. Mr Hun Sen, 3 to 5 October 1991
Prime Minister of Cambodia and
Mrs Bun Sam Hieng
11 H.E. Mr Robert G Mugabe, 14 to 16 November 1991
President of the Republic
12 H.E. Mr G P Koirala, 5 to 10 December 1991
Prime Minister of Nepal
13 H.E. Mr Li Peng, 11 to 16 December 1991
Premier of the State Council of
the People's Republic of China
and Madame Zhu Lin
Deputy Prime Ministers, Foreign Ministers
1 Prince Claus and Crown Prince 11 to 21 January 1991
Willem Alexander of the
2 H.E. Mr Pertti Paasio, 12 to 14 January 1991
Minister of Foreign Affairs of
Finland and Mrs Passio
3 H.E. Mr Abdul Wakil, 7 to 9 February 1991
Foreign Minister of Afghanistan
4 H.E. Mr Gerard Collins, TD 20 to 25 February 1991
Foreign Minister of Ireland
and Mrs Hilary Collins
5 H.E. Mr Shahryar Khan, 4 to 7 April 1991
Foreign Secretary of Islamic
Republic of Pakistan
6 H.E. Mr Li Jong Ok, 7 to 11 May 1991
Vice-President of the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea
7 H.E. Dr Reinaldo Figueredo Planchart, 10 June 1991
Special Envoy of the President
8 H.E. Dr Nathan M Shamuyarira, 5 to 7 July 1991
Minister of Foreign Affairs of
Republic of Zimbabwe
9 H.E. Mwalimu Julius K Nyerere, 14 to 16 July 1991
Former President of United Republic
10 H.E Mr Harold Herat, 27 to 31 July 1991
Minister of Foreign Affairs of
11 H.E. Dr Boutros Boutros Ghali, 11 to 17 August 1991
Deputy Prime Minister for Foreign
Relations of Arab Republic of
(1) (2) (3)
12 H.E. Mr Shahryar Khan, 18 to 21 August 1991
Foreign Secretary of Pakistan
as Special Envoy
13 H.E. Mr A S M Mostafizur Rahman, 26 to 29 August 1991
Minister for Foreign Affairs of
People's Republic of Bangladesh
and Begum Sufia Rahman
14 H.E. Mr Rene Felber, 4 to 13 October 1991
Minister of Foreign Affairs and
Vice-President of Switzerland
and Mrs Luce Felber
15 H.E. Mr Adrian Nastase, 29 October to 1 November 1991
Minister of Foreign Affairs
16 H.E. Mr Fathulla Jameel, 19 to 22 November 1991
Minister of Foreign Affairs of
the Republic of Maldives
17 H.E. Mr Wong Kan Seng, 5 to 8 December 1991
Minister of Foreign Affairs of
Singapore and Mrs Seng
18 H.E. Mr Isodoro P Malmierca, 16 to 27 December 1991
Minister of Foreign Affairs of