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Library Bulletins

Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin, June - 2015

Ministry of External Affairs Library
New Delhi
(Foreign Affairs Documentation Bulletin)
(JUNE 2015)




1.    Kamal, Rifat Darina and Kaiser, Z R M Abdullah
        RMG in Bangladesh : A Study into the Effects of Pre-election (2014) Political Turmoil

        Foreign Trade Review 50(2), May, 2015: 135-147

Hostile political conflicts have caused Bangladesh to miss out many global economic opportunities despite much achievements made since independence. Its evolving readymade garments (RMG) sector is one of the most affected sectors of this malicious politics. The focal point of this article is to demonstrate the recent violence of vicious politics of Bangladesh and its effect on the evolving RMG sector. The result shows that the average losses in this sector due to the recent political turmoil are very alarming. Moreover, foreign buyers have cancelled their orders from Bangladesh for uncertain shipment for the same reason. It is an ominous sign for a developing sector. So, the main objective of this article is to figure out the losses and missed opportunities of the RMG sector caused by the political impasse and to provide some suggestions to protect the RMG sector from these political atrocities.

***1. Bangladesh-Readymade garments sector 2. Bangladesh-Politics and government 3. Bangladesh-Political turmoil

2.    Friedberg, Aaron L
        The Debate Over US China Strategy

        Survival 57(3), June-July, 2015: 89-110

The United States should pursue a strategy towards China that combines continued attempts at engagement with expanded and intensified balancing.

***1. China-Bilateral diplomacy-USA 2. USA-Trade Policy-China
3.    Zhao, Minghao
        “March Westwards” and a New Look on China’s Grand Strategy

        Mediterranean Quarterly 26(1), March, 2015: 97-116

The New Silk Road Economic Belt, among other newly launched foreign policy initiatives, illustrates that China is broadening its strategic aperture and making more efforts to “look westwards” and “march westwards,” which are crucial as China consolidates its status as the world’s largest developing country and promotes South-South cooperation. To better understand Beijing’s interest in reviving the Silk Road and it westward march, one needs to pay closer attention to the ongoing overhaul of China’s periphery diplomacy. Expansion of its influence to the west is a strategic necessity for China’s involvement in great power dynamics, the improvement of its international environment, and the strengthening of its development resilience. China faces a number of daunting challenges in implementing this grand strategy. These challenges include seeking support from regional powers who are suspicious of China’s strategic intentions and addressing China’s own knowledge and capacity deficits in dealing with the governmental and nongovernmental actors in the Central Asia, South Asia, and Middle East regions.

***1. China-Foreign policy
4.    Fallon, Theresa
        The new silk road: Xi Jinping's grand strategy for Eurasia

        American Foreign Policy Interests 37(3), 2015: 140-147

Chinese Communist Party Secretary and President Xi Jinping's foreign policy agenda can be characterized as nothing less than rewriting the current geopolitical landscape. His announcement of the New Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road lays out a vision which will include a population of over 4 billion people with one-third of the world's wealth, and a $40 billion dollar Silk Road fund, along with the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and the New Development Bank, also known as the BRICS bank, to fund it. Xi's ambitious initiative has three drivers: (1) energy, (2) security, (3) markets. Like the silken strands on a loom, these drivers will weave together to create a fabric of interconnected transport corridors and port facilities that will boost trade, improve security, and aid strategic penetration. No longer is there a division in China's foreign policy between either the maritime domain or the “March West.” The over-arching “Belt and Road” concept attempts to sew together these interests in one mega–foreign policy project. The “Belt and Road” initiative is a flexible formula and can even be expanded to include past projects as there are no deadlines or clear parameters. China's leading academics have been recruited to celebrate Xi Jinping as the “designer of China's road to being a great power.”

***1. China-Foreign policy-Eurasia 2. USA-Foreign policy 3. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
5.    Skordeli, Marina
        New Horizons in Greek-Chinese Relations: Prospects for the Eastern Mediterranean

        Mediterranean Quarterly 26(1), March, 2015: 59-76

Since about 2005 relations between Greece and China have gained unprecedented momentum. At first glance, the timing and the reasons behind such a boost in bilateral relations between countries so distant and unequal in size are not entirely obvious. This essay examines how the strategic priorities of Greece and China met and describes the turning point that offered the opportunity. Emphasis is given to collaboration in the maritime sector, which is a strong asset of both countries. The essay also studies the strategic implications of such cooperation for the broader region of the eastern Mediterranean and the prospects it presents for Euro-Atlantic strategic priorities.

***1. China-Foreign policy-Greece 2. China-Foreign relations-Greece 3. Mediterranean maritime trade
6.    Shichor, Yitzhak
        Chinese-Israeli Relations in a Middle Eastern Context: Retrospect and Prospects

        Mediterranean Quarterly 26(1), March, 2015: 137-151

Although studies on China’s Middle East policy frequently separate Israel from the rest of the region, Beijing has always been aware of regional contradictions and tried to navigate between the two sides it perceived as interconnected. China’s attempts to adopt a balanced relationship with both sides in the 1950s were later replaced by a zero-sum game policy in which Israel was totally excluded. Since the 1980s Beijing has resurrected its balanced Middle East policy. While still sticking to nonintervention in regional conflicts, the Chinese implicitly offer their own experience of using economic means to overcome sociopolitical tensions.

***1. China-Foreign policy-Israel 2. China-Foreign policy-Middle East 3. Chinese foreign policy
7.    Fardella, Enrico
        China’s Debate on the Middle East and North Africa: A Critical Review

        Mediterranean Quarterly 26(1), March, 2015: 5-25

This essay offers an overview of the Chinese posture and debate toward the West Asia and North Africa (WANA) region. The author presents China’s outlook toward the region as a laboratory for an innovative course in Beijing’s future foreign policy. The analysis is divided into three parts: a critical introduction that assesses the role of WANA within the spectrum of Chinese hierarchical vision of the international system, a detailed assessment of the factors that are transforming WANA into one of the most crucial sectors of Beijing’s foreign policy, and a detailed overview of the internal debate on China’s evolving role in the region.

***1. China-Foreign policy-Middle East 2. China-Foreign policy-North Africa
8.    Andornino, Giovanni B
        Sino-Italian Relations in a Turbulent Mediterranean: Trends and Opportunities

        Mediterranean Quarterly 26(1), March, 2015: 40-58

This essay analyzes Sino-Italian relations against the background of the increasing salience of the West Asia and North Africa region in Rome’s and Beijing’s strategic calculus. As China projects westward through its New Silk Road strategy, culminating at the intersection of the Mediterranean Sea and Europe’s core, the spectrum of Italy’s foreign policy options opens to innovative forms of cooperation with China to meet the challenges emanating from the European Union’s southern and southeastern neighborhoods. An integrated study of the dynamics of Sino-Italian bilateral relations and of the mounting strategic exposure both countries have across West Asia and North Africa underscores the urgency of consolidating the societal foundations of the strategic partnership ten years after its launch.

***1. China-Foreign relations-Italy 2. China-Foreign policy-Italy
9.    Páreja-Alcaraz, Pablo
        Sino-Spanish Relations in the Mediterranean: Evolution, Dimensions, Asymmetries, and Challenges

        Mediterranean Quarterly 26(1), March, 2015: 26-39

The past two decades have witnessed a significant intensification of the bilateral relations between Spain and China that, in spite of the economic and political significance for the former, has received little scholarly attention. This essay explores the evolution of this relationship and its main dimensions. In addition, the essay analyzes the asymmetries and challenges the relationship raises. It argues that the growing influence of Beijing in the Mediterranean is not happening at the expense of Spain or other Southern European countries—the Asian giant has been able to create its own space within the region. In addition, this trend should be perceived by Madrid, Rome, or Athens not as a threat to their traditional privileged positions but as an opportunity.

***1. China-Foreign relations-Spain 2. China-Foreign policy-Spain 3. Mediterranean Sea
10.    Atlı, Altay
        A View from Ankara: Turkey’s Relations with China in a Changing Middle East

        Mediterranean Quarterly 26(1), March, 2015: 117-136

The Middle East is going through a period of profound change in the wake of the Arab Spring, and there are several dynamics and actors shaping the contours of the change. China is one of the relatively new actors on this stage, actively engaging the Middle East both economically and politically. Beijing’s dependence on Middle East hydrocarbons is increasing, and the stakes are rising in the competition between global powers seeking to secure their interests in the region. It is therefore crucial to examine how relations between China and the countries of the region are taking shape. This essay investigates how Turkey’s relations with China have been evolving in recent years within the context of a changing Middle East and how these relations, at both the bilateral and the regional levels, will be an important factor shaping the dynamics of a transforming region.

***1. China-Foreign relations-Turkey 2. Middle East hydrocarbons 3. Mediterranean energy
11.    Dossi, Simone
        The EU, China, and Nontraditional Security: Prospects for Cooperation in the Mediterranean Region

        Mediterranean Quarterly 26(1), March, 2015: 77-96

As political instability challenges China’s growing interests in the Mediterranean region, the European Union might prove to be the right partner for Beijing. This essay assesses the prospects for EU-Chinese security cooperation in the region. A shared doctrinal concern with nontraditional security provides a solid foundation, as proved by antipiracy efforts in the Gulf of Aden. This paves the way for nontraditional security cooperation in the Mediterranean region, for instance in the field of noncombatant evacuation. Yet a crucial precondition is that the EU behaves more coherently, in order to be perceived by China as a reliable partner.

***1. China-Security cooperation-EU 2. China-Nontraditional security-EU 3. Chinese foreign policy

12.    Beyene, Hailay Gebretinsae
        Does International Trade Reduce Political Disputes?

        Foreign Trade Review 50(2), May, 2015: 99-117

The effect of economic integration and other factors on interstate conflict has been examined with a delimited geographical scope. A logistic regression analysis is adopted with one-year lagged independent variables regressed on dependent variable of interstate conflict. It is revealed that the pacification effect of economic openness and economic dependence on trade of the East African countries—Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda—is significant. In addition, it is found that an improvement in the democratic situation of the dyads reduces the likelihood of eruption of interstate conflict in the region. The article has uncovered that higher national capability asymmetry in East African region among the specified countries leads to an increase in the possibility of violence.

***1. East African Countries-Economic integration 2. East African Countries-Bilateral trade relationship

13.    Brown, Bernard E and USA-Foreign policy-Ukraine
        Ukraine Crisis: Leaning Forward

        American Foreign Policy Interests 37(3), 2015: 132-139

Is the Ukraine crisis a new version of the classic tension between “political idealism” and “political realism”? By returning to the principles ofrealpolitikespoused by Professor Hans J. Morgenthau, this piece explores the pitfalls and challenges confronting the United States and its allies in Ukraine. In short, to champion “realism” in contrast to “idealism” is simple in principle, but difficult in the practice of diplomacy and international affairs. The practice of diplomacy, like that of politics, is both science and, ultimately, an art. With that in mind, the assertion of strong political will by the American president, leaders of the major member states of the European Union, and the president of the European Commission will be indispensable requirements in mediating any further crisis.

***1. Europe-Transatlantic trade and investment partnership
14.    Holt, Blaine
        Europe, where is your strategy?

        American Foreign Policy Interests 37(3), 2015: 123-131

A resurgent and aggressive Russia, refugee flows and terrorists, and rising antisemitism and xenophobia are all sitting on an economic house of cards with unity in Europe coming apart. Soberly stated, Europe is at the cliff's edge and the time for action is now. What action? A voracious 24-hour media cycle and rapidly developing crises seem to have leaders pinned in a caustic loop of act–react. Given that the top challenges of the day affect each of the European capitals differently, in terms of impact to national interests, it is little wonder that finding consensus, either at the European Union or North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), is difficult. Whether it is monetary policy wielded at the European Central Bank or redefining defense postures, measures taken at the multinational level seem wanting for long-term approaches. A common vision of Europe's future is essential and it needs to be articulated in the form of a strategy. A variety of ways are available to get there but the time is now. The wolves are at Europe's door in ways that are reminiscent of what was seen in 1914 and 1938. Arguably, every nation on the planet has equities in the existing international system as well as Europe's success. After all, from Vladimir Putin to Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), both are being challenged. Europe needs her strategy now.

***1. Europe-Transatlantic trade and investment partnership 2. Treaty of Westphalia

15.    Halikiopoulou, Daphne and Vlandas, Tim
        The Rise of the Far Right in Debtor and Creditor European Countries: The Case of European Parliament Elections

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 279-288

While the 2014 European Parliament elections were marked by the rise of parties on the far right-wing, the different patterns of support that we observe across Europe and across time are not directly related to the economic crisis. Indeed, economic hardship seems neither sufficient nor necessary for the rise of such parties to occur. Using the cross-national results for the 2004, 2009 and 2014 EP elections in order to capture time and country variations, we posit that the economy affects the rise of far right-wing parties in more complex ways. Specifically, we compare the experience of high-debt countries (the ‘debtors’) and the others (the ‘creditors’) and explore the relationship between far right-wing party success on the one hand, and unemployment, inequality, immigration, globalisation and the welfare state on the other. Our discussion suggests there might be a trade-off between budgetary stability and far right-wing party support, but the choice between Charybdis and Scylla may be avoided if policy-makers carefully choose which policies should bear the brunt of the fiscal adjustment.

***1. European Union-Parliament elections, 2014 2. European Union-Debtor and creditor countries
16.    Cushion, Stephen, Thomas, Richard and Ellis, Oliver
        Interpreting UKIP's ‘Earthquake’ in British Politics: UK Television News Coverage of the 2009 and 2014 EU Election Campaigns

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 314-322

UK broadcasters came under fire for the amount of airtime UKIP and its leader Nigel Farage received after the party won the most votes in the 2014 EU election. Our content analysis of television news during the 2009 and 2014 campaigns found little bias in terms of soundbites, but in the more recent election Farage visually appeared in coverage to a greater degree than other party leaders. Moreover, two core UKIP policies—being in or out of Europe and immigration—dominated coverage in 2014. We suggest the ‘UKIP factor’ and the media's fascination with Nigel Farage help explain why the 2014 campaign was more visible on television news than was the case in 2009 and was largely reported through a Westminster prism. Although television news bulletins attempt to impartially report elections, the 2014 campaign agenda was largely contested on UKIP's ideological terrain and the party's electoral fortunes.

***1. European Union-Parliamentary elections 2. The UK independence party

17.    Singh, Sumanjeet and Paliwal, Minakshi
        India’s demographic dividend: in the context of its economic growth

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 146-157

Demographic transition data help create a policy environment that takes advantage of the demographic potential of a country. This paper describes India’s demographic transition process since 1950, its importance and nature. They also explore the practical policy challenges created by changing demography with a focus on education, the family, healthcare and the labour market.

***1. India-Economic growth 2. India-Economy
18.    Tripathi, Sudhanshu
        Prevailing “oil politics” in West Asia: concerns for India

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 136-145

Author surveys the present turmoil in West Asia, detailing various factors such as the interference of major powers in the internal affairs of the region. He also points out India’s concerns and the role it could play in securing the required stability by boosting trade and cooperation. He underlines the importance of establishing peace for the welfare not only of the region but of the world at large.

***1. India-Oil politics-West Asia 2. India-GCC economic cooperation


19.    Krishnakumar, S
        Global imbalances since the financial crisis: effects on emerging market economies

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 116-123

This paper undertakes an appraisal of the origins of global imbalances since the late 1990s, examines the links to the global financial crisis and the consequences of the unravelling of the existing financial system on emerging market economies. He also points out the risks of deflation, unless leading countries provide a coordinated fiscal stimulus at the international level.

***1. International economy 2. European Union-Economy 3. Global financial crisis

20.    Reddy, P Krishna Mohan and Reddy, C Sheela
        Global peace and the role of the United Nations: an idea

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 10-19

The United Nations must expand its role and shift focus from the prevention or containment of military conflict to the achievement of comprehensive global peace by ensuring the satisfaction of basic needs for the poorest sectors of humanity. True peace will only be achieved when all people have enough to eat and live decently.

***1. International Organisations-United Nations 2. International peace 3. Global peace

21.    Kristensen, Peter Marcus
        How can emerging powers speak? On theorists, native informants and quasi-officials in International Relations discourse

        Third World Quarterly 36(4), 2015: 637-653

Emerging powers like China, India and Brazil are receiving growing attention as objects in International Relations (IR) discourse. Scholars from these emerging powers are rarely present as subjects in mainstream IR discourse, however. This paper interrogates the conditions for scholars in emerging powers to speak back to the mainstream discipline. It argues, first, that ‘theory speak’ is rare from scholars based in periphery countries perceived to be ‘emerging powers’. Despite increasing efforts to create a ‘home-grown’ theoretical discourse in China, India and Brazil, few articles in mainstream journals present novel theoretical frameworks or arguments framed as non-Western/Southern theory or even as a ‘Chinese school’ or ‘Brazilian concepts’. Second, scholars from emerging powers tend to speak as ‘native informants’ about their own country, not about general aspects of ‘the international’. Third, some scholars even speak as ‘quasi-officials’, that is, they speak for their country.

***1. International relations 2. Emerging powers 3. Native informants 4. BRICS

22.    Banwell, Stacy
        Globalisation masculinities, empire building and forced prostitution: a critical analysis of the gendered impact of the neoliberal economic agenda in post-invasion/occupation Iraq

        Third World Quarterly 36(4), 2015: 705-722

Adopting a transnational feminist lens and using a political economy approach, this article addresses both the direct and indirect consequences of the 2003 war in Iraq, specifically the impact on civilian women. Pre-war security and gender relations in Iraq will be compared with the situation post-invasion/occupation. The article examines the globalised processes of capitalism, neoliberalism and neo-colonialism and their impact on the political, social and economic infrastructure in Iraq.
Particular attention will be paid to illicit and informal economies: coping, combat and criminal. The 2003 Iraq war was fought using masculinities of empire, post-colonialism and neoliberalism. Using the example of forced prostitution, the article will argue that these globalisation masculinities – specifically the privatisation agenda of the West and its illegal economic occupation – have resulted in women either being forced into the illicit (coping) economy as a means of survival, or trafficked for sexual slavery by profit-seeking criminal networks who exploit the informal economy in a post-invasion/occupation Iraq.

***1. Iraq-Political economy 2. Iraq-Neoliberalism 3. Iraq-Neoliberal economic agenda

23.    Ahmad, Zaker
        Conflicts of the SCM Agreement with LDCs Interests over Renewable Energy Incentives: Proposals for Reform

        Foreign Trade Review 50(2), May, 2015: 118-134

This article argues that climate change effects have sharpened the least developed countries’ (LDCs) need to move towards a green economy. As respective markets tend to grow, the LDCs would benefit if the production of and research in renewable energy (RE) especially wind and solar energy equipments and technologies are subsidized globally. Despite the existence of the policy room in other related international regulatory framework, the Subsidies Agreement of the World Trade Organization makes incentivizing RE industries significantly difficult, if not impossible. It has been recommended that law reform, by way of incorporating special carve-outs in the Subsidies and Countervailing Measures Agreement, is the path that would assist LDCs in their smoother transition to a green economy.

***1. Least Developed Countries-Green economy 2. Least Developed Countries-Renewable energy 3. Least Developed Countries-SCM agreement

24.    Ghobadzdeh, Naser and Akbarzadeh, Shahram
        Sectarianism and the prevalence of ‘othering’ in Islamic thought

        Third World Quarterly 36(4), 2015: 691-704

The current sectarian conflicts in the Middle East did not arise solely from renewed geopolitical rivalries between regional powers. They are also rooted in a solid, theological articulation proposed by classic Islamic political theology. The exclusivist approach, which is a decisive part of the political, social and religious reality of today’s Middle East, benefits from a formidable theological legacy. Coining the notion of ‘othering theology’, this paper not only explores the ideas of leading classical theologians who have articulated a puritanical understanding of faith, but also explicates the politico-historical context in which these theologians rationalised their quarrels. Given the pervasive presence of these theologies in the contemporary sectarian polemics, the study of classical othering theology is highly relevant and, indeed, crucial to any attempt to overcome sectarianism in the region.

***1. Middle East-Islamic states 2. Middle East-Sectarianism 3. Ibn Taymiyyah legacy

25.    Ryan, Michael C
        A second chance to miss the same opportunity: Post-Putin and the potential re-emergence of a more reasonable Russia

        American Foreign Policy Interests 37(3), 2015: 148-156

At some point, possibly sooner and more suddenly than expected, Vladimir Putin will go the way of his autocratic predecessors and, along with him, Putinism. Russia will once again find itself at a crossroads. At that moment, as they have so many times before, the longings inherent in every Russian to be both a great Slav and a modern European will visit internal turmoil on the troubled souls of a proud nation. This recurring Russian spring offers the world yet another opportunity to embrace the Russian people. The presence of Putin is a clear indication that our generation missed our previous opportunity. His inevitable departure will be our second chance to miss the same opportunity unless we start to try to see the world as Russians do and then begin to communicate with them in ways that translate well into their perception of the world around them.

***1. Russia-Foreign policy-Ukraine

26.    Riddell, Sheila et. at.
        Higher Education and the Referendum on Scottish Independence

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 240-248

During the course of the referendum campaign, the Scottish government argued that free tuition for Scottish and EU students symbolised Scotland's preference for universal services and was intrinsically fairer than the ‘marketised’ systems operating in the rest of the UK. Invoking principles of both social justice and pragmatism, three distinct critiques of the Scottish government's higher education policy were mounted and adopted by different policy actors for different political purposes. Following a discussion of these arguments, this article concludes that a more nuanced discussion of higher education policy in Scotland is required, focusing not just on the absence of tuition fees but also on the distribution of debt and allocation of funds across the entire education system. We also note that the focus on tuition fees policy suggests that higher education systems across the UK are set on a process of divergence, whereas there are strong pressures towards policy convergence in areas such as research policy and internationalisation.

***1. Scotland-Independence referendum 2. Scotland-Higher education
27.    Cairney, Paul and Scotland-Constitutional reform
        Scotland's Future Political System

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 217-225

Debates on Scottish constitutional reform go hand in hand with discussions of political reform. Its reformers use the image of ‘old Westminster’ to describe ‘control freakery’ within government and an adversarial political system. Many thought that the Scottish political system could diverge from the UK, to strengthen the parliamentary system, introduce consensus politics and further Scotland's alleged social and democratic tradition. Yet the experience of devolution suggests that Holyrood and Westminster politics share key features. Both systems are driven by government, making policy in ‘communities’ involving interest groups and governing bodies, with parliaments performing a limited role and public participation limited largely to elections. The Scottish government's style of policy-making is distinctive, but new reforms are in their infancy and their effects have not been examined in depth. In this context, the article identifies Scotland's ability to make and implement policy in a new way, based on its current trajectory rather than the hopes of reformers.

***1. Scotland-Political system
28.    Cairney, Paul
        The Scottish Independence Referendum: What are the Implications of a No Vote?

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 186-191
***1. Scotland-Political system 2. Scotland-Independence referendum 3. Scotland-Intergovernmental relations-UK 4. Scotland-Higher education policy
29.    Harvey, Malcolm
        A Social Democratic Future? Political and Institutional Hurdles in Scotland

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 249-256

The Nordic model has long been admired in Scotland, and has featured prominently in aspects of the Scottish independence referendum debate. This article explores the difficulties in instituting a similar system here, identifying two significant barriers: the institutional setting (the powers available to Scottish politicians) and the partisan nature of competition between the two parties that might be able to deliver upon such a commitment. It concludes that the prospects of moving towards a Nordic-style social investment model are slight, given the political, institutional and attitudinal barriers in place.

***1. Scotland-Political system 2. Scotland-Independence referendum 3. Scotland-Social democracy
30.    Keating, Michael
        The European Dimension to Scottish Constitutional Change

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 201-208

Scottish self-government and European integration are linked. Europe has become an important framework for the independence project. Evidence for Scots being more pro-European is ambivalent, but there is a pro-European consensus in Scottish political parties and civil society. In the referendum campaign, the No side suggested that an independent Scotland might not gain admission to the European Union. If the United Kingdom as a whole should vote to withdraw from the EU in a future referendum but Scotland to stay in, the independence question would re-emerge. In the absence of independence, a number of issues arise as to how Scottish interests can best be represented in the EU.

***1. Scotland-Political system 2. Scotland-Independence referendum 3. European Integration
31.    Mcewen, Nicola and Petersohn, Bettina
        Between Autonomy and Interdependence: The Challenges of Shared Rule after the Scottish Referendum

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 192-208

Drawing on the distinction between self-rule and shared rule in multilevel states, this article argues that shared rule has been the neglected element of the UK devolution settlement. The ability of the devolved administrations to participate in, and influence, national decision making through shared rule mechanisms is very limited. The article argues that the lack of shared rule is especially problematic in light of the increasing complexity of the Scottish devolution settlement in the wake of the Scotland Act 2012 and the Smith commission report. Smith, in particular, seems set to increase both the power of the Scottish Parliament and its dependence on UK policy decisions in the areas of tax, welfare and the economy. Creating a more robust intergovernmental system which could manage these new interdependencies will be a significant challenge, and yet, without such a system, the new settlement will be difficult to sustain.

***1. Scotland-Political system 2. Scotland-Independence referendum
32.    Rummery, Kirstein and McAngus, Craig
        The Future of Social Policy in Scotland: Will Further Devolved Powers Lead to Better Social Policies for Disabled People?

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 234-239

Scotland has laid claim to being ‘different’ from the rest of the UK with regards to disability policy. This article examines the evidence for that with regard to long-term and social care, and discusses the possibilities opened up by the devolution of disability benefits. It asks whether Scotland will demonstrate policy divergence from the rest of the UK, and whether that is likely to be beneficial for disabled people. It argues that Scotland has the potential to create better social policies for disabled people, but faces significant challenges in doing so.

***1. Scotland-Social Policy 2. Scotland-Independence referendum

33.    Bindra, Sukhwant S
        Some realities of nuclear terrorism in South Asia

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 56-73

While there is no realistic prospect for global nuclear disarmament, there is a need to improve mechanisms to prevent the use of nuclear weapons or material by terrorists. The rise of extremist religious groups with genocidal agendas has increased the risk of nuclear terrorism. This article advocates the implementation of several measures and policies to reduce the threat of “rogue” nuclear attacks in South Asia.

***1. South Asia-Nuclear terrorism 2. South Asia-Nuclear attacks 3. USA-Diplomatic policy-South Asia

34.    Upadhyay, Archana
        Dynamics of post-soviet politics: issues and challenges

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 74-87

While former Soviet states have been involved in the fundamental task of carving out distinct national identities for the past two decades, all have been affected by the demands, desires, successes and failures of Russian history and the internal contradictions within their own societies. This article examines the issues and challenges that shape and colour the analysis of post-Soviet politics.

***1. Soviet Union-Politics 2. Post-Soviet politics 3. Russia-Democracy 4. Russia-Politics

35.    Venugopal, Rajesh
        Democracy, development and the executive presidency in Sri Lanka

        Third World Quarterly 36(4), 2015: 670-690

This paper examines the developmental causes and consequences of the shift from a parliamentary to a semi-presidential system in Sri Lanka in 1978, examining its provenance, rationale and unfolding trajectory. Drawing on a wide range of sources, it sets out an argument that the executive presidency was born out of an elite impulse to create a more stable, centralised political structure to resist the welfarist electoral pressures that had taken hold in the post-independence period, and to pursue a market-driven model of economic growth. This strategy succeeded in its early years, 1978–93, when presidents retained legislative control, maintained a strong personal commitment to market reforms and cultivated alternative sources of legitimacy. In the absence of these factors, the presidency slipped into crisis from 1994–2004 as resistance to elite-led projects of state reform mounted and as the president lost control of the legislature. Between 2005–14, the presidency regained its power, but at the cost of abandoning its original rationale and function as a means to recalibrate the elite–mass power relationship to facilitate elite-led reform agendas.
***1. Sri Lanka-Democracy 2. Sri Lanka-Constitutional changes 3. Sri Lanka-Presedentialism

36.    Saddy, Fehmy
        Syria’s “golden age” of barbarism: the war on terrorism

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 42-55

The ongoing conflict in Iraq and Syria is just one chapter of the so-called “global war on terrorism”, which is a growing business intended to be permanent. Author provides vivid and concrete illustrations of this “disaster capitalism” that benefits various sides in Syria and abroad and is largely engineered and sustained by the US government.

***1. Syria-Terrorism 2. USA-Global war on terrorism 3. Syria-ISIS

37.    Young , Stephen M
        Cross-strait trilateral conference: Focus on Taiwan's seminal January 2016 elections

        American Foreign Policy Interests 37(3), 2015: 157-165

The NCAFP held a conference with participants from the United States, People's Republic of China, and Taiwan to discuss Cross–Taiwan Strait progress and concerns. The following is a summary of the conference discussion, which was held in March 2015.

***1. Taiwan-China-USA-Trilateral relations 2. Taiwan Strait progress 3. USA-Foreign policy
38.    Saighal, Vinod
        Jihad and crusades: concepts, meanings and adherence

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 20-41

This article retraces the history of the widening often violent competition between Christianity and Islam and shows how they have shaped the world of today. He sees the renascent conflict between their followers as posing a major threat to mankind and advocates cooperation between Europe and India to help tone down the influence of militant religious expansionism.

***1. Terrorism 2. Jihad 3. India-Cooperation against terrorism-Europe

39.    Yusoff, Mohammed B and Nuh, Ruslee
        Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Thailand

        Foreign Trade Review 50(2), May, 2015: 73-84

In recent years, the Thailand economy has become more open to foreign trade as well as foreign direct investment (FDI). Thus, the main objective of this article is to examine whether FDI and international trade have positively contributed to the economic growth of Thailand. The results of the Granger causality tests indicate that they are indeed important determinants of growth in Thailand. This suggests that policymakers in Thailand should liberalize its economy to encourage foreign trade and FDI inflows to achieve a sustained high economic growth.

***1. Thailand-Foreign direct investment 2. Thailand-Economic growth 3. Thailand-Economy

40.    Tas, Hakkı
        Turkey – from tutelary to delegative democracy

        Third World Quarterly 36(4), 2015: 776-791

Guillermo O’Donnell’s influential work ‘Delegative Democracy’ set the discourse on a peculiar type of democracy. Lying between representative democracy and authoritarianism, the uniqueness of delegative democracy lies in its features, including an absence of horizontal accountability, strong centralised rule, individual leadership with unchecked powers, a cult figure embodying the nation and clientelist practices. While delegative democracies seem to arise out of presidential systems, Turkey, though a parliamentary system, has also displayed the distinctive features of delegative democracies. This paper identifies three characteristics of delegative democracy, which are responsible for the lack of democratic consolidation, if not the erosion of democracy itself: anti-institutionalism, an anti-political agenda and clientelism. Arguing that delegative democracy is the best concept with which to examine contemporary Turkey, the paper lays out how, post-2011, Turkey has demonstrated the three elements of delegative democracy. The final section discusses the implications of the Turkish case for scrutinising the very possibility of delegative democracy in parliamentary regimes.

***1. Turkey-Delegative democracy 2. Turkish democracy
41.    Senera, Meltem Yilmaz
        How the World Bank manages social risks: implementation of the Social Risk Mitigation Project in Turkey

        Third World Quarterly 36(4), 2015: 758-775

This paper aims to assess the World Bank’s social risk management approach to poverty by focusing on the implementation details of the Social Risk Mitigation Project in Turkey, a World Bank project that depends on this approach. The paper looks at the approach through the concept of neoliberal governmentality, as an attempt to produce responsible poor citizens during a period when the responsibility for providing social services is transferred to the market and the family. By using field research it demonstrates that, with the intervention of local factors, several unintended consequences emerge in the implementation of a social risk management project. The article concludes that these outcomes, although not planned or intended, have all been instrumental in depoliticising poverty and the poor in the country. Moreover, in spite of all the problems and dissatisfaction, thanks to the Bank’s own portrayal, this project has contributed to the image of the Bank as a development institution that achieves successes in its fight with poverty.

***1. Turkey-Social risk management 2. World Bank-Social risk mitigation project

42.    Liea, Jon Harald Sande
        Developmentality: indirect governance in the World Bank–Uganda partnership

        Third World Quarterly 36(4), 2015: 723-740

The instituted order of development is changing, creating new power mechanisms ordering the relationship between donor and recipient institutions. Donors’ focus on partnership, participation and ownership has radically transformed the orchestration of aid. While the formal order of this new aid architecture aimed to alter inherently asymmetrical donor–recipient relations by installing the recipient side with greater freedom and responsibility, this article – drawing on an analysis of the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction and Strategy Paper (PRSP) model and its partnership with Uganda – demonstrates how lopsided aid relations are being reproduced in profound ways. Analysed in terms of developmentality, the article shows how the donor aspires to make its policies those of the recipient as a means to govern at a distance, where promises of greater inclusion and freedom facilitate new governance mechanisms enabling the donor to retain control by framing the partnership and thus limiting the conditions under which the recipient exercises the freedom it has been granted.

***1. Uganda-Aid relations-WorldBank 2. Poverty reduction and strategy paper model 3. Poverty eradication action plan

43.    King, Sophie
        Political capabilities for democratisation in Uganda: good governance or popular organisation building?

        Third World Quarterly 36(4), 2015: 741-757

Opinion is divided about the capacity of civil society organisations (CSOs) to enhance the political capabilities of disadvantaged groups in neo-patrimonial contexts, and particularly through a hegemonic paradigm which seeks to advance poverty reduction through good governance. Drawing on a qualitative study of CSOs in western Uganda, this paper argues that strategies focused on increasing the participation of rural citizens in formal decentralised planning spaces may be less effective in enhancing their political capabilities than those facilitating social mobilisation through the formation of producer groups and federations. This has important implications for thinking and practice around popular empowerment in sub-Saharan Africa.

***1. Uganda-Good governance 2. Uganda-Political economy

44.    Tierney, Stephen
        Reclaiming Politics: Popular Democracy in Britain after the Scottish Referendum

        The Political Quarterly 86(2), April-June, 2015: 226-233

Referendums are often criticised for being elite-controlled and undeliberative. This article argues that the detailed, multiactor regulation of the Scottish referendum resulted in an elaborate legal regime which helped to overcome these potential pathologies, diluting executive control and facilitating an exercise in national public engagement. It addresses the troubled history of referendum use in the UK and contends that the Scottish process may well transform how referendums are now viewed. Indeed, one outcome of the Scottish process is likely to be a greater demand at UK level for the use of direct democracy in processes of significant constitutional change. It is by no means certain, however, that these demands for greater popular engagement in the process of constitutional change will be met, particularly when we consider the Smith Commission process, which marks a return to elite interparty bargaining.

***1. UK-Democracy 2. Scotland-Independence referendum
45.    Jones, Erik
        Leaving Europe: British Process, Greek Event

        Survival 57(3), June-July, 2015: 79-85

British exit from the European Union would be a long, difficult and conflictual process. Greek exit from the euro would centre on a short, punctuated crisis.

***1. UK-European Union membership 2. European Union-Economy

46.    Ajvazov, Alexandr
        Inequality and the American economy of the USA

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 124-135

Economic inequality in the US and most countries has risen sharply in the last few decades. This article analyses the process that accounts for the growing concentration of capital and draws parallels with the state of affairs which resulted in the Great Depression. He identifies the liberal laissez-faire doctrine as the main factor behind the reduction in labour costs and the resulting crises of overproduction.

***1. USA-Economy 2. USA-Economic imbalances
47.    Young, Stephen M
        U.S.–China relations: Balancing cooperation and competition in the most important bilateral relationship in both the region and the World

        American Foreign Policy Interests 37(3), 2015: 166-174

The NCAFP held a conference with participants from the United States and China on opportunities and challenges in the bilateral relationship. The following is a summary of the conference discussion, which was held in March 2015.

***1. USA-Foreign relations-China 2. USA-Alliance system
48.    Lanoszka, Alexander
        Do allies really free ride?

        Survival 57(3), June-July, 2015: 133-152

American decision-makers and security analysts often complain that allies ‘free ride’on the United States. This charge serves a political end.

***1. USA-Military strategy-NATO 2. USA-Military commitment abroad-NATO
49.    Krepon, Michael
        Can deterrence ever be stable?

        Survival 57(3), June-July, 2015: 111-132

Stability has been the holy grail of deterrence strategists since the outset of the US–Soviet nuclear-arms competition. This prize has been elusive because nuclear weapons are not stabilising.

***1. USA-Nuclear arms competition-Soviet Union 2. India-Nuclear policy-Pakistan 3. India-Tacit agreement-China
50.    Fromson, James and Simon, Steven
        ISIS: The Dubious Paradise of Apocalypse Now

        Survival 57(3), June-July, 2015: 7-56

ISIS's four principal manifestations – as a guerrilla army, Sunni political movement, millenarian cult and administrator of territory – suggest a strategy against it: aggressive containment.

***1. USA-War against ISIS 2. Iraq-Islamic army 3. Iraq-Sunni political movement 4. Syria-ISIS

51.    Cornish, Paul
        Governing cyberspace through constructive ambiguity

        Survival 57(3), June-July, 2015: 153-176

At the heart of the cyber-governance problem is a fundamental disagreement over the relevance and significance of state sovereignty.

***1. |Cyberspace governance 2. Sovereignty 3. Cultural sovereignty 4. Quantum sovereignty

52.    Mahlakeng, M K and Solomon, Hussein
        Potential for conflict in the Nile river basin: homer-dixon’s environmental scarcity theory

        World Affairs: The Journal of International issues 19(1), January-March, 2015: 88-115

Since the end of the twentieth century, international relations have been characterised by resource geopolitics. Authors argue that given the reduced water availability due to population growth, degradation and depletion of the River Nile and its uneven distribution, fierce competition over the already diminishing water resources increases the potential for an inter-riparian conflict in its basin.

***1. |Nile river basin-Water conflicts 2. The African union 3. Nile water agreement

Ajvazov, Alexandr46
Akbarzadeh, Shahram24
Andornino, Giovanni B8
Atl, Altay10
Banwell, Stacy22
Beyene, Hailay Gebretinsae12
Bindra, Sukhwant S33
Brown, Bernard E13
Cairney, Paul27-28
Cornish, Paul51
Cushion, Stephen16
Dossi, Simone11
Fallon, Theresa4
Fardella, Enrico7
Friedberg, Aaron L2
Fromson, James50
Ghobadzdeh, Naser24
Halikiopoulou, Daphne15
Harvey, Malcolm29
Holt, Blaine14
Jones, Erik45
Kaiser, Z R M Abdullah1
Kamal, Rifat Darina1
Keating, Michael30
King, Sophie43
Krepon, Michael49
Krishnakumar, S19
Kristensen, Peter Marcus21
Lanoszka, Alexander48
Liea, Jon Harald Sande42
Mahlakeng, M K52
McAngus, Craig32
Mcewen, Nicola31
Minty, Sarah26
Nuh, Ruslee39
Paliwal, Minakshi17
Petersohn, Bettina31
Páreja-Alcaraz, Pablo9
Reddy, C Sheela20
Reddy, P Krishna Mohan20
Riddell, Sheila26
Rummery, Kirstein32
Ryan, Michael C25
Saddy, Fehmy36
Saighal, Vinod38
Scotland-Constitutional reform27
Senera, Meltem Yilmaz41
Shichor, Yitzhak6
Simon, Steven50
Singh, Sumanjeet17
Skordeli, Marina5
Solomon, Hussein52
Tas, Hakkı40
Thomas, Richard16
Tierney, Stephen44
Tripathi, Sudhanshu18
Upadhyay, Archana34
USA-Foreign policy-Ukraine13
Venugopal, Rajesh35
Vlandas, Tim15
Young , Stephen M37
Young, Stephen M47
Yusoff, Mohammed B39
Zhao, Minghao3


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