Annual Report 1986-87
|Peace, disarmament and development continued to be the main
thrusts of India's foreign policy during the year. The principles
of non-alignment, the struggle for emancipation from all forms of
colonialism and the promotion of friendship with all countries,
particularly neighbours, continued to inspire its conduct.
The Non-aligned Movement was naturally an important focus of
India's diplomatic efforts. As Chairman of the Movement till
September India strove to expand the areas of consensus, keep
negotiations alive in matters of controversy and suggest a
constructive path in dealing with the major issues facing the
world community. India's efforts to advance the cohesion and
sense of purpose of the Movement were widely acclaimed. In
preparation for the Eighth Summit Conference at Harare the
Ministerial Meeting of the Co-ordinating Bureau was held in New
Delhi to review progress on political and economic matters. The
Harare Summit summed up the results achieved and laid down the
lines of future advance. It reaffirmed the Movement's concern for
a new international economic order, stressed the need for greater
South-South co-operation by approving the Action Programme on
Economic Co-operation drawn up in Delhi in April and endorsed the
establishment of a Standing Ministerial Committee on Economic
Relations for a dialogue between the North and the South.
As was to be expected, the Harare Summit devoted its main
attention to the crisis in Southern Africa caused by the
aggressive racism of the Pretoria regime. An Action for Resisting
Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid (AFRICA) Fund was established
with a nine-member Fund Committee with India as Chairman to
assist the Frontline States and the liberation movements to
resist the onslaughts of the apartheid Pretoria regime. A Summit
meeting of the Africa Fund Committee Member-States was held in
New Delhi in January 1987. The Plan of Action adopted by the
Summit delineated seven areas of priority assistance to the
Frontline States, the mobilisation of public opinion and
financial resources. Contributions amounting to US $ 70 million
have already been pledged to the Fund which includes India's own
contribution of Rs. 50 crores over a period of three years.
The struggle against apartheid remained a central element of
India's foreign policy during the year. The visits of the Prime
Minister to Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola and Tanzania in May 1986
highlighted the value we attach to bilateral relations with these
countries as well as underline India's solidarity with them in
regard to the liberation struggle in South Africa and Namibia. In
its capacity as the then Chairman of the Non-aligned Movement
India co-sponsored, along with the Organisation of African Unity,
a World Conference on Sanctions against racist South Africa in
Paris in June 1986. That the evils of racism and colonialism
persist in South Africa due to the sustenance provided by some
Western powers was also made clear by the Prime Minister at the
meeting of the Heads of Government of the seven Commonwealth
countries in London in August. The meeting considered the report
of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group on South Africa and
endorsed a call for sanctions against the Pretoria regime.
Another prominent focus of India's efforts during the year was
the urgent need for disarmament. In pursuance of the Six-Nation
Initiative the leaders of Argentina, Greece, Mexico, Tanzania,
Sweden and India met at Ixtapa in Mexico in August and urged the
United States and the Soviet Union to agree on a moratorium on
nuclear weapon testing and suggested concrete steps to assist in
achieving adequate arrangements for verification. General
Secretary Gorbachev announced his full support of this proposal.
President Reagan while declaring that a Comprehensive Test Ban
Treaty remained a long-term objective, indicated that the United
States found it necessary to continue nuclear testing and would
not accept the offer of verification.
We were, however, glad to observe that at Reykjavik, President
Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev came very close to
reaching agreement that could pave the way for complete
elimination of all nuclear weapons.
The efforts of the six nations continue despite disappointment
that repeated conduct of nuclear weapon tests by the United
States has now resulted in the Soviet Union withdrawing its
moratorium and resuming tests. Disarmament issues were also
discussed during the visit to Delhi in November of the General
Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Mr. Mikhail
Gorbachev. The Prime Minister and the General Secretary signed
the Delhi Declaration on principles for a non-violent world free
of nuclear weapons. The Declaration reflects a completely fresh
approach in the nuclear
world in which non-violence plays a central role. It is India's
hope that the declaration will receive the endorsement of the
Another area of particular attention during the year concerned
relations with South East Asian and Pacific countries. India's
traditionally good relations with the countries of the
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) received an
impetus with the visit of the Prime Minister to Indonesia and
Thailand in October 1986. The mutual desire on the part of these
countries to develop closer bilateral relations with India was
manifested in the spontaneous and extremely warm reception
accorded to the Prime Minister during the visit. The Prime
Minister's visit to Australia and New Zealand in October 1986
marked a fresh stage in India's relations with these countries.
New areas of co-operation were identified and bilateral economic
relations are expected to expand in the coming years. The visit
resulted in a determination of all the countries visited and
India to look more towards one another rather than to the outside
In India's immediate neighbourhood regional co-operation in
South Asia was an area of enhanced activity during the year.
Several meetings of Ministers, experts and officials were held,
culminating in the Second Meeting of the Heads of Government of
the SAARC in Bangalore in November 1986. It was decided to
establish a SAARC Secretariat as well as technical committees on
the prevention of drug trafficking and abuse, and on women in
development. The Heads of Government also decided to co-operate
regularly on international economic issues, to review annually
the situation of children in their countries, to initiate a South
Asian broadcasting programme, to facilitate tourism, to co-
operate in educational programmes and to organise a corps for
rural development. The SAARC Secretariat was established in
Kathmandu in January 1987. Urgent steps are being taken to
implement the other decisions taken at the Summit Conference in
Bangalore for which purpose India, as current Chairman, has a
Efforts to improve relations with Pakistan met with negative
developments with Pakistan's continuing assistance to terrorists
in India, persistence in their programme to develop nuclear
weapons, their search for sophisticated weapons, including an
AWACS type capability, attempts to raise the Kashmir question at
international fora and their reluctance to develop trade on a
non-discriminatory basis. The situation was further aggravated by
the provocative and threatening
build-up of Pakistani forces on the Punjab border in January
1987. Talks were initiated by India to defuse the tension created
by these troop movements and a time-table of withdrawals and
further dialogue have been drawn up. India's emphasis throughout
this period was on the need for all differences to be sorted out
through peaceful negotiation.
With Bangladesh friendly relations were strengthened. In July
1986 President Ershad visited India in his capacity as Chairman
of SAARC. The Joint Committee of experts to study the common
water resources of the two countries is still to complete its
work and has been given an extension till May 1987. The influx of
Chakma refugees, however, into Tripura and their reluctance to
return has given rise to problems that need urgently to be
The continuing ethnic crisis in Sri Lanka remains a source of
concern. The number of refugees from that country continues to
grow amounting to about 130,000 by the end of 1986. In April 1986
in response to the Sri Lanka Government's desire that India's
good offices be revived Shri P. Chidambaram, Minister of State
for Personnel and Administrative Reforms, visited Colombo and as
a result of his discussions with the Sri Lanka authorities
certain proposals emerged. The Government of India felt that
these deserved serious consideration by the Tamil Groups and, on
this basis, the TULF resumed negotiations with the Sri Lanka
Government. However, the proposals which emerged did not cover
the question of linkage between the Northern and Eastern
provinces. At the time of the SAARC Summit in Bangalore the Prime
Minister and President Jayewardene discussed the issue and as a
result Shri P. Chidambaram and Shri K. Natwar Singh, Minister of
State for External Affairs, visited Colombo for further
discussions. New proposals were formulated but the Sri Lanka
Government's adherence to these proposals has been in doubt. The
situation since then in the Tamil areas has taken a turn for the
worse and the prospect of resuming negotiations remains
With Nepal and Bhutan relations continued to strengthen in all
areas. Several projects aided by India are under various stages
The visit of the Prime Minister to the Maldives in February
1986 gave fresh impetus to the close relations with that country.
An Agreement on Economic
and Technical Co-operation signed during the visit provides for
the establishment of a Joint Commission to promote bilateral co-
operation in the economic and technical spheres.
With Burma, existing cordial relations have been strengthened
with the signing, during the official visit of the Minister for
External Affairs Shri N. D. Tiwari in December 1986, of an
agreement on the delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the
Andamans Sea, in the Coco Channel and in the Bay of Bengal.
India's bilateral relations with Afghanistan continue to
develop satisfactorily. On the economic front, most of the
decisions of the Seventh Indo-Afghan Joint Commission have been
implemented. On the political front, in a stand at once
consistent and principled, India continues to be opposed to both
intervention and interference in Afghanistan. Convinced that
there can be no military solution of the Afghan problem, and
deeply interested in the sovereignty, non-alignment and
independent status of Afghanistan, India stands for a political
settlement in Afghanistan that takes into account the legitimate
interests of the parties concerned. India thus supports the
initiative of the UN Secretary General.
The escalation of the military presence of the great powers in
the Indian Ocean and the heightened tension in the area has been
a matter of deep concern. India remains firmly committed to the
total elimination of all foreign military presence from the
Indian Ocean region and the complete dismantling of bases and
other facilities used by outside powers in the area.
India's relations with the three countries of Indo-China
retained their high level of cordiality. The Minister for
External Affairs Shri N. D. Tiwari led a high-level delegation to
Vietnam including the Ministers of State for Petroleum and
Natural Gas, Shri Brahm Dutt, for External Affairs Shri K. Natwar
Singh and for Expenditure, Shri B. K. Gadhvi in January 1987. An
agreement, in principle, providing for co-operation in the field
of oil between Vietnam and India was signed during the visit.
Under the Indian Technical and Economic Co-operation (ITEC)
Programme of this Ministry Indian experts have been deputed to
Laos, Kampuchea and Vietnam. Presently a team of consultants are
preparing feasibility studies on small scale industries in Laos
and experts from the
Archaeological Survey of India are working in Kampuchea on the
restoration of the famous temple of Angkor Wat.
India's stand on the Kampuchean issue was made clear by the
Prime Minister during his visits to Indonesia, Thailand,
Australia and New Zealand.
The efforts of the Government of India to improve relations
with the People's Republic of China and secure a fair and
satisfactory settlement of the boundary issue were adversely
affected by the Chinese intrusion into the Sumdorong Chu Valley
area of the Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh. This
development was not in consonance with the understanding between
the two countries to maintain peace and tranquility along the
border. India also rejected the Chinese objection to the
conferment of Statehood to Arunachal Pradesh. While the boundary
question remains crucial to full normalisation of relations, our
exchanges with China in the fields of commerce and culture,
science and technology have gradually developed over the year and
resulted in a better understanding of each other's position in
regard to the boundary and on other bilateral and international
issues. It is necessary for this dialogue to continue. The
Government of India continues to hope that the principles of
peaceful co-existence will guide relations between the two
Relations with Japan continued to be cordial. Studies and
surveys calculated to increase the scope of Japanese assistance
and investment have been initiated. There is also greater mutual
recognition of the global and regional roles of the two
During the visit in March 1986 of the Prime Minister of the
Republic of Korea (ROK) an economic package, comprising increased
export of iron-ore, development of the Paradeep port and ships
orders/bulk cargo sharing was decided upon. Subsequent
promotional measures are being adopted to diversify and balance
trade between the two countries.
A number of high-level visits between India and the Democratic
People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) have fostered cultural contacts
besides exploring possibilities of increasing trade exchanges.
A State Commission has been established in Mongolia to promote
bilateral relations with India in the economic, commercial and
In West Asia, India's consistent policy of moral and material
support to the people of Palestine remained unchanged. At the
conference of Non-aligned Countries in Harare India gave full
support to the call for an International Peace Conference on the
Middle East. Relations with Jordan were substantially expanded
with the visit of their Majesties the King and Queen of Jordan;
and this is particularly noticeable in the economic field.
However, the continuance of the war between Iraq and Iran, both
countries having traitionally warm and friendly relations with
India, is a matter of considerable concern. Efforts to bring
about an end to this fractricidal war have, however, not so far
met with success.
In North Africa, India joined other Non-aligned Countries in
demonstrating solidarity with Libya when, in April, Tripoli was
bombed. There was close political co-operation, with Algeria both
bilaterally as well as in the international arena. This was
matched by enhanced trade and economic co-operation.
Special efforts were made to intensify relations with the
countries of Southern Africa. The Prime Minister, accompanied by
high-powered delegations, visited the Frontline States of Zambia,
Zimbabwe, Angola and Tanzania in May 1986, thus highlighting not
only the value attached to bilateral relations with these
countries but also to emphasise India's solidarity with them in
regard to the liberation struggle in South Africa and Namibia.
India entertained visits from President Oliver Tambo of the
African National Congress (ANC) and from President Sam Nujoma of
the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) in May 1986.
During his visit Mr. Nujoma formally opened the SWAPO Embassy in
A resident Indian diplomatic mission at Embassy level was
opened in Luanda, Angola, in September 1986. A Mission is also
being opened in Gaborone, Botswana, in the near future. With the
establishment of these Missions, India would have resident
diplomatic representation in all the Six Frontline States of
Southern Africa. Bilateral assistance to Frontline States was
also enhanced. Thus India has offered Zambia a Government credit
of Rs. 100 million and a
credit by financial institutions of Rs. 150 million. Agreements
on trade and on economic, technical, scientific and cultural co-
operation have been signed with Angola. Medicines worth nearly
Rs. 6 lakhs were gifted to Mozambique. Assistance was also
provided to the SWAPO Mission in New Delhi.
India's relations with countries of Western Europe remain
cordial. The twelve members of the European Community remain our
major trading partners. In addition, the Scandinavian countries
continue, as in the past, their economic aid for projects in the
field of social welfare, health and rural development. Several
high-level visits, including that of the President of India to
Greece and of the Vice President of India to France, and of the
President of Finland, of Chancellor Kohl of the FRG, and of the
Prime Ministers of Turkey, Italy and Denmark to India added
greater economic and commercial content to our bilateral
relations with these countries.
The governments in Western Europe have generally been
responsive to India's concern regarding anti-Indian activities in
their countries. The Government of India has been monitoring
these activities and has been in constant touch with the
governments concerned. With Britain, relations in this respect
offer scope for improvement. The British authorities have,
however, taken some action in convicting or bringing to trial
some extremists or terrorists in the UK. Meanwhile, on an
Extradition Treaty, two rounds of talks have already taken place
and discussions are continuing. Britain's refusal to join the
other members of the Commonwealth in imposing effective sanctions
against South Africa, resulted in the boycott of the Commonwealth
Games at Edinburgh in July 1986 by a number of Commonwealth
The mutually beneficial bilateral relations between India and
the socialist countries in Eastern Europe continue to develop
satisfactorily. Exchange of high-level visits with the USSR
culminating in the State visit of General Secretary Gorbachev
served to reaffirm the dynamic and stable character of Indo-
Soviet relations. Agreements for expanding trade, economic and
technical co-operation with the Soviet Union on an enhanced scale
were concluded as well as a protocol for holding Festivals in
each other's country. The official visit of the President of
India, Giani Zail Singh, to Poland in November, the visit of the
then Minister for External Affairs Shri P. Shiv Shanker to
Bulgaria in June and ministerial and official level visits
exchanged with Czechoslovakia, Hungary
and the GDR contributed to strengthening bilateral relations with
all these countries. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi also had
fruitful discussions on bilateral and international issues with
Czechoslovak Prime Minister Strougal in Prague.
India and Yugoslavia have a close, friendly and multifaceted
bilateral relationship in diverse fields. Relations were furthers
trengthened during the year with the visit of the Yugoslav Prime
Minister Branko Mikulic to India in July August and of the
President of India to Yugoslavia in October/November 1986.
With the United States, a sustained dialogue is being
maintained for enhancing relations in the fields of commerce,
scientific co-operation and the transfer of technology. The new
procedures under the Memorandum of Understanding have enabled the
clearance of the transfer of several computer systems. On
political matters, there have been high-level exchanges of view
to improve mutual understanding.
Canada and India continued to maintain a close dialogue on
bilateral and international issues. The Canadian law enforcement
agencies took vigorous steps to meet the threat of terrorism
posed by extremist elements based in Canada. The Canadian
authorities initiated legal action against extremists and
terrorists conspiring to commit violence against India. An
Extradition Treaty was signed during the visit of Canadian
Secretary of State for External Affairs Mr. Joe Clark in
February, as also a Memorandum of Understanding on Industrial and
The visit of President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua to India in
September and the signing of three agreements on that occasion
gave special emphasis to India's concern regarding the problems
of Central and South America.
Relations with Peru have been greatly strengthened by the
State visit of the Peruvian President, Dr. Alan Garcia Perez in
January 1987. During the visit an agreement was concluded
envisaging co-operation between the two countries in various
fields of culture.
Developing countries have become increasingly aware of the
advantage of fostering close economic co-operation among
themselves for mutual benefit. The
concept of Economic Co-operation among Developing Countries
(ECDC) has been given added urgency due to the continuing
deterioration in the world economic climate. A major development
in ECDC was the Second High Level Meeting on Economic Co-
operation among Developing Countries in Cairo in August 1986.The
meeting reaffirmed the relevance of ECDC and reiterated the
pivotal role of South-South co-operation. The meeting approved,
among others, the Cairo Declaration on ECDC, which recommended,
inter alia, that the scale of priorities be outlined for the
selection of programmes and projects to be implemented within a
fixed time-frame. It was also decided to ensure that the ECDC
become self-generating and self-financing.
A special Ministerial Meeting of the Contracting Parties of
GATT held at Punta del Este in Uruguay in September 1986 recorded
its determination to halt and reverse protectionism and remove
distortions in trade. It was agreed that the question of services
would be taken up separately outside the framework of GATT.
India continues to promote economic and technical co-operation
with developing countries in the spirit of South-South co-
operation. Besides providing assistance under multilateral
schemes, India has provided bilateral assistance to developing
countries through the Indian Technical and Economic Co-operation
(ITEC) Programme operated by the Ministry of External Affairs.
The ITEC Programme launched in 1964 with an outlay of Rs. 4.64
lakhs has expanded to Rs. 9 crores in 1986-87 covering nearly 60
countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
The Ministry of External Affairs also assisted foreign
governments in recruiting Indian experts on a bilateral basis. It
also made its contribution towards the promotion of Indian
economic interests through its representation in international
Indians overseas are increasingly being recognised as a
potential bridge of understanding and co-operation. They in turn
have evinced greater interest in developing their cultural and
economic ties with India to which the Government of India has
responded positively with due regard for the mutual benefit of
India and of the host country. The Government of India has set up
Committee for Non-Resident Indians (NRIs). This Committee
comprises representatives from the Ministries of Finance,
Commerce, Industry and External Affairs, the India Investment
Centre, representatives of trade and industry and NRIs from
different regions of the world who will be represented by
rotation. Through this Committee the NRIs interested in
investment and collaboration in India will be in a better
position to represent their views.
During the year under review, the External Publicity Division
of the Ministry made concerted efforts, as part of its basic
policy, to project the various dimensions of our foreign policy.
Emphasis was laid on dissemination of information in a persuasive
manner to achieve optimum results. Audio-visual and printed
material was widely disseminated and particular attention was
given to personal briefings and contacts with opinion makers. The
principled positions taken by India on major global and regional
issues facing mankind were made known, particularly the
challenges in the path of stability and progress of South Asia
where a fifth of humanity resides.
|India continued its efforts to foster relations of friendship,
co-operation and mutual understanding with the neighbouring
countries of South Asia and maintained high-level contacts to
accomplish that purpose.
During the year under review, the Government of India sought
to strengthen the existing friendly ties between India and
Bangladesh. There were several meetings at the highest level
between the leaders of India and Bangladesh. In July 1986
President Ershad of Bangladesh paid a visit to India in his
capacity as Chairman of SAARC and during his meeting with the
Prime Minister of India extensive discussions were held on
In pursuance of an agreement reached between the Prime
Minister of India and President Ershad in October 1985 at the
CHOGM in the Bahamas, a Joint Committee of Experts (JCE) was
constituted in November 1985 to study the common water resources
of India and Bangladesh within a period of 12 months. The JCE
could not complete its work in the stipulated time and it was
decided, at the Prime Minister's meeting with President Ershad
during the SAARC Summit in Bangalore in November 1986, to extend
its term by six months.
The then Minister for External Affairs of India, Shri P. Shiv
Shanker visited Bangladesh on 30 July 1986 to hand over the 100
cyclone-proof shelters constructed by India on the island of Urir
Char, for the relief and rehabilitation of the victims of the
cyclone which had ravaged coastal Bangladesh in May 1985. The
design and construction of these shelters had been undertaken by
Indian engineers at a cost of about Rs. 1.5 crores which was
borne by the Prime Minister's Relief Fund.
Pending a permanent solution to the Tin Bigha issue the
Government of India had, in 1985, offered greater access to
Bangladesh to its enclaves of Dahagram and Angorpota. Making use
of this offer, in addition to a number of routine administrative
visits facilitated by India, the Bangladesh President and Home
Minister visited the enclaves in June/July 1986, the first of
Since April 1986, there has been an influx of a large number
of Chakma refugees from the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh
into Tripura. This influx has continued since then and some
30,000 Chakma refugees have been housed in four refugee camps in
Tripura. The Government of India have been in constant touch with
the Government of Bangladesh, urging them to enable the early
repatriation of these refugees to their homeland. While the
Foreign Secretary of India was in Dhaka in November 1986, in
connection with the meeting of the Standing Committee of the
Joint Economic Commission (JEC), he and the Foreign Secretary of
Bangladesh held discussions concerning the repatriation of these
The Minister for External Affairs, Shri N.D. Tiwari visited
Bangladesh from 6 to 9 January 1987. Discussions were held on
SAARC, and all important bilateral issues such as river waters,
Tin Bigha, boundary demarcation, Chakma refugees, insurgency,
vested properties and economic co-operation. It was agreed that
the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Economic Commission will meet in New
Delhi during the first half of 1987.
The continuing ethnic crisis in Sri Lanka remained a source of
concern to the Government. The number of refugees from Sri Lanka
continues to grow, with the total reaching 130,000 by the end of
Though there were frequent setbacks, the Government persisted
in its efforts to narrow the gap between the positions of the Sri
Lanka Government and the Tamil minority in order to facilitate a
negotiated political settlement. India's efforts remained
suspended in the beginning of the year as a result of the
rejection by the Sri Lanka Government of the TULF proposals and
the continuing indiscriminate violence against Tamil civilians by
the Sri Lanka security forces.
In April 1986, the Sri Lanka Government conveyed through its
Foreign Minister its desire to revive India's good offices. A
delegation led by Shri P. Chidambaram, Minister of State for
Personnel and Administrative Reforms, visited Colombo at the end
of April and had detailed discussions with the Sri Lankan
authorities. Flowing from these discussions a package of
proposals emerged which the Government felt deserved serious
consideration of the Tamil groups as a basis for resuming
negotiations with the Sri Lanka Government.
On the basis of these proposals, the TULF had two rounds of
negotiations with the Government of Sri Lanka in July and August
1986. Based on these discussions, the Sri Lanka Government
prepared and forwarded a set of detailed proposals for the
creation of provincial councils and devolution of powers on them.
These proposals, however, are still not acceptable to the Tamil
militants as they do not address the crucial question of linkage
between the Northern and the Eastern provinces.
Further efforts to overcome this hurdle were made at meetings
between the Prime Minister and President Jayewardene during the
SAARC Summit in Bangalore in November 1986 and subsequent visits
by Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri K. Natwar Singh
and Minister of State for Home Affairs, Shri P. Chidambaram, to
Colombo in November and December 1986. As a result of discussions
between the two Ministers of State and President Jayewardene in
Colombo during the last visit, new proposals emerged for
resolving the issue of the status of the Eastern province,
especially the question of linkage. Immediately, after the
Ministers' return from Colombo, however, the Sri Lankan
authorities sent word that they would not find it possible to
proceed with the proposals agreed to by them in Colombo.
Thereafter the situation took a turn for the worse, with the
Tamil groups announcing their own administrative arrangements in
certain fields in Jaffna area and the Sri Lanka Government
imposing an economic blockade of the Jaffna peninsula and
launching military attacks against the Tamil militants. These
measures have resulted in great suffering and hardship for the
civilians in Jaffna.
Though further measures to break the impasse were discussed
with the Sri Lankan authorities, especially during the visit of
Lands Minister Gamini
Dissanayake to Delhi on January 14-15, 1987, the Sri Lankan
response remains ambiguous and the possibility of resuming the
peace process uncertain.
India's relations with the Maldives received an impetus with
the Prime Minister's official visit to the Republic of Maldives
from 7 to 9 February 1986. During the visit, an Agreement on
Economic and Technical Co-operation was signed between the two
countries. This Agreement provides for the setting up of a Joint
Commission to promote bilateral co-operation in the economic and
technical spheres. A package of assistance and co-operation
amounting to Rs. 21 crores was announced at the end of the visit.
Under this package programme India will assist the Maldives in
the setting up of a hotel training school, a 200-bed hospital
with a specialised cardiac centre, and the use of INSAT
facilities. India shall also extend the services of experts and
provide scholarships for Maldivian students in India. Apart from
bilateral relations, developments in South Asia and SAARC were
The Minister for External Affairs of India, Shri N. D. Tiwari,
paid an official visit to Burma from 22 to 25 December 1986. A
bilateral Maritime Boundary Agreement was signed between the two
countries on 23 December 1986 on the delimitation of the Maritime
Boundary in the Andamans sea, in the Coco Channel and in the Bay
of Bengal. The visit is likely to enhance bilateral relations
between the two countries.
Relations between India and Nepal continued to strengthen in
all areas during the year under review. The President paid a
State visit to Nepal from 21 to 25 July 1986. The warm welcome
accorded to him was an eloquent testimony to the close relations
between the two countries. The President had fruitful discussions
with the King of Nepal and various aspects of bilateral relations
formed subjects of official discussions at different levels
during the visit. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and the King of
Nepal met twice in Harare in September 1986, and in Bangalore in
November 1986. These meetings provided an opportunity for a frank
and friendly discussion of all aspects of bilateral relations.
The co-operation between the two countries within the SAARC
framework also had a beneficial impact on bilateral relations.
Economic co-operation between the two countries continued to
intensify. Indian-aided projects under various stages of
implementation included the construction of the Western Sector of
the Mahendra Raj Marg, the establishment of a Museum Library-cum-
Documentation Centre at the Institute of Forestry, Hetauda, the
supply of sophisticated medical equipment for, and training of,
medical personnel of the Bir Hospital in Kathmandu, the supply of
iodised salt and assistance in the setting up of iodisation
plants, and a Rural Electrification project. During the visit
from 9 to 13 December 1986 to India by the Nepalese Minister of
State for Finance and Industry, the two countries agreed to
promote the establishment of Indo-Nepal joint ventures in Nepal.
It was also decided that the standby credit extended by India to
Nepal would be increased from Rs. 15 crores to Rs. 25 crores. A
new project for setting up a small scale Industrial Estate at
Rajbiraj was agreed upon during the visit to Nepal of the
Minister for External Affairs Shri N. D. Tiwari in January 1987.
An Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation was also concluded
during this visit.
The traditionally close and friendly relations between India
and Bhutan were further strengthened during the year under
review. The NAM Summit in Harare in September and the SAARC
Summit in Bangalore from 15 to 17 November offered an opportunity
for discussions on subjects of mutual interest at the highest
level between the King of Bhutan and Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.
Both meetings were marked by close identity of views on matters
of mutual interest, reflecting the relationship of trust and co-
operation that prevails between the two countries.
In the economic field, co-operation flourished. Units I & II
of the Rs. 244 crores 336 MW Chukha Hydel Project were
successfully commissioned and power synchronised with the Eastern
grid of India. Besides, Thimphu and Phuntsholing, parts of West
Bengal and Assam have started receiving power from Chukha. The
remaining two units are expected to be commissioned by March
1988. As per the 1974 Chukha Agreement, the Government of India
is committed to purchase all power surplus to Bhutan's internal
requirements. It is proposed to extend assistance to Bhutan for
funding the Dungsum (Nanglam) Cement Project in Eastern Bhutan.
Surplus cement production from the Nanglam Plant will be supplied
to the North-eastern States of India.
It was also proposed to continue Indo-Bhutan economic co-
operation during Bhutan's VIth Plan (1987-1992). Forming an
important component in the development of infrastructure in
Bhutan is the involvement of Indian agencies in various projects
of differing sizes and locations in the fields of
telecommunications, road building, geological exploration and
irrigation works etc.
In addition India continues to offer opportunities for
secondary as well as higher education, for specialised training
in various fields such as defence, police, customs, medicine etc.
India has offered scholarships worth Rs. 14 lakhs as well as
Colombo Plan TCS slots for this purpose. At Bhutan's request
India continues to supply, at controlled prices, certain
essential commodities such as wheat, rice, sugar, coal,
explosives, steel and edible oils.
India is committed to developing cordial, co-operative and
good neighbourly relations with Pakistan in accordance with the
letter and the spirit of the Simla Agreement. We wish to
encourage greater people-to-people contact between the two
countries and it is our earnest hope that such contacts would
usher in a new era of Indo-Pakistan relations.
The process of normalisation of relations which had been set
in motion following President Zia-ul-Haq's visit to New Delhi on
17 December 1985 was soon held up on account of Pakistan's
unwillingness to have non-discriminatory trade with India. It was
also adversely affected by Pakistan's assistance to Sikh
terrorists, indications of its continuing nuclear weapons
programme, its keenness to secure sophisticated weaponry
including an AWACS type capability, its attempts to
internationalise the Kashmir issue despite the fact that
President Zia-ul-Haq had earlier said on 17 December 1985 that
Pakistan wanted this issue to be resolved in accordance with the
Simla Agreement and at an appropriate time.
Notwithstanding these unfortunate developments, the Prime
Minister of India, during his meeting with Prime Minister Junejo
at Bangalore on 16 November 1986, agreed that our Home Secretary
and Foreign Secretary should visit Pakistan in December 1986 with
a view to exploring possibilities for reviving the normalisation
process. In pursuance of this understanding, the Home Secretary
and Foreign Secretary visited Pakistan as scheduled and had a
exchange of views with their counterparts. During the Home
Secretary's visit it was decided to set up two committees-one to
evolve fresh border ground rules and the other to curb drug
trafficking and smuggling.
However, during January 1987 tension on the Indo-Pakistan
border was aggravated on account of the Pakistani forces having
moved to provocative and threatening positions. Accordingly, an
invitation was sent to Pakistan on 25 January at the Prime
Minister's initiative for talks in Delhi for defusing the
situation. As a result of these talks, which were held from 30
January to 4 February 1987, a series of measures were agreed upon
in this regard. India's initiative in this matter demonstrates
its desire to live in peace and good neighbourly relations with
Pakistan, as also its determination to strengthen peace in South
South Asian regional co-operation received further impetus
with the holding of the second South Asian Association for
Regional Co-operation (SAARC) Summit in Bangalore from 15 to 17
November 1986. The Summit was preceded by the preparatory
meetings of the second session of the Council of Ministers, the
seventh session of the Standing Committee of Foreign Secretaries,
and the second session of the Programming Committee consisting of
senior officials. Prior to these, a number of meetings were held
in new areas of co-operation proposed by the Heads of State or
Government at the first Summit in 1985. Thus in 1986 a
Ministerial Meeting on International Economic Issues was held in
Islamabad in March-April; a Ministerial Meeting on `Women in
Development' was hosted by India in Shillong in May; the Study
Groups on Terriorism and on Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse met
in Dhaka in June and September respectively; an Expert Group
Meeting on Terrorism was held in September; the SAARC Conference
on South Asian Children in co-operation with UNICEF was held in
New Delhi in October; and the Working Group on the establishment
of the Secretariat met in Dhaka also in October to work out the
modalities of launching the SAARC Secretariat. In addition, the
first session of the Council of Ministers preceded by the
meetings of the Standing Committee and the Programming Committee
was also held in Dhaka in August 1986, which approved the
establishment of the Regional Meteorological Research Centre, and
the Regional Agricultural Information Centre.
The results of these meetings were consolidated in the
decisions of the Summit, at the end of which the Bangalore
Declaration, the Joint Press Release, and the Report of the
second session of the Council of Ministers were adopted. A
Memorandum of Understanding on the establishment of the SAARC
Secretariat was signed by the Foreign Ministers in the presence
of the Heads of State or Government. The Summit welcomed the
establishment of two new Technical Committees under the
Integrated Programme of Action-one on Prevention of Drug
Trafficking and Drug Abuse and the other on Women in Development.
They decided to include, in the expanding ambit of co-operation,
annual reviews by the Standing Committee of the situation of
children in SAARC countries and agreed that SAARC countries co-
operate regularly in international economic fora to promote their
A number of significant measures were undertaken to effect
organisational improvements in conducting activities under SAARC.
Draft Rules of Procedure for the meetings of the Technical,
Programming and Standing Committees and those of the Council of
Ministers were adopted as guidelines as an interim measure,
pending their finalisation; guidelines for financing the
institutional costs of regional institutions were worked out and
measures for streamlining the implementation of SAARC activities
adopted. A Calendar of Activities comprising over 100 events is
being currently implemented.
The second SAARC Summit was considered a success. India played
an active role announcing a contribution of Rs. 15 million for
1987-88, and hosting a number of important SAARC meetings. The
Chairmanship of SAARC is to remain with India until the next
Summit in late 1987.
The SAARC Secretariat was launched on 16 January 1987 in
Kathmandu. The Minister for External Affairs, Shri N. D. Tiwari,
led the Indian delegation to the inauguration of the Secretariat.
The Heads of State/Government had directed that the following
ideas be examined by March 1987; the launching of a South Asian
Broadcasting Programme; the establishment of a SAARC
Documentation Centre; the institution of SAARC Fellowships; the
facilitation of tourism in the region and the launching of an
organised volunteer's programme. Accordingly, India convened an
Expert Group meeting on "New Ideas" in February 1987 in New Delhi
and detailed schemes for implementation of these ideas were drawn
During the year under review India's bilateral relations with
Afghanistan continued to develop satisfactorily. A mid-term
review meeting of the Indo-Afghan Joint Commission on Economic
Trade and Technical Co-operation was held in Kabul in June 1986.
It was a matter of satisfaction to both sides that most of the
decisions of the Seventh Indo-Afghan Joint Commission had been
implemented. The work on the construction of an additional
Surgical Ward and a Polyclinic at the Indira Gandhi Institute of
Child Health, Kabul, which is a prime symbol of Indo-Afghan co-
operation, was started. India continued to provide assistance to
Afghanistan in several areas including Public Health, industrial
development and education.
India is deeply concerned about the situation in Afghanistan
which has affected our security environment. India's stand on
Afghanistan is consistent and principled. India continues to be
opposed to both intervention and interference in Afghanistan. In
our view, there can be no military solution of the Afghan
problem. We are deeply interested in the sovereignty, non-
alignment and independent status of Afghanistan. We stand for a
political settlement in Afghanistan that takes into account the
legitimate interests of the countries concerned. In this context,
we support the initiative of the UN Secretary General.
The Foreign Minister of Afghanistan Mr. Abdul Wakil paid an
official visit to India at his own initiative from 7 to 10
February 1987. The visit was primarily to brief the Government of
India on the national reconciliation moves initiated in
Afghanistan and to have consultation with us prior to the next
round of the Proximity Talks.
India has also taken note of the recent Afghan-Soviet
initiatives designed to facilitate a political settlement of the
Afghan issue. It is our hope that speedier progress will be made
in the oximity Talks and a political settlement will be reached
The increasing military presence of the great powers in the
Indian Ocean and the heightened tension in the area has been a
matter of deep concern for the Government of India. The military
presence in the Indian Ocean area of extra-regional powers, has
led to a spiralling arms race which exacerbates regional
tensions. The formation of military command structures which
region negates the decision of the UN General Assembly to declare
the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace.
India remains firmly committed to the total elimination of all
foreign military presence from the Indian Ocean region and the
complete dismantling of bases and other facilities used by the
great powers in the area. Reports have been received that, in
addition to the upgradation of already existing military bases,
further facilities are being sought in India's immediate
neighbourhood which would lead to deterioration in our security
environment. The Government of India continues to hope that
countries in the Indian Ocean region would not enter into
military alignments with extra-regional powers.
|India's traditionally good relations with the countries of the
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) received fresh
impetus with the visit of the Indian Prime Minister to Indonesia
and Thailand in October 1986. The visit filled the long felt need
to give more attention to this region. The mutual desire on the
part of these countries to develop closer bilateral relations
with India was manifested in the spontaneous and extremely warm
reception accorded to the Prime Minister during his visit.
Wide ranging exchange of views with President Soeharto of
Indonesia and Prime Minister General Prem Tinsulanonda of
Thailand on various regional and international issues have
resulted in better understanding of our respective positions. The
talks were held in a very cordial atmosphere and reflected a
shared perception on major international issues. On the bilateral
front, it was agreed to expand and diversify co-operation in
various fields and to step up the level of trade and economic
exchanges. A Protocol on Co-operation in Science and Technology
was signed between the Indian Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research and the Thailand Institute of Scientific and
Technological Research. It was also agreed to have increased
interaction in the field of science and technology with Indonesia
and to conclude an Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation
soon. The Minister for External Affairs Shri N. D. Tiwari, paid a
visit to Bangkok from 21 to 22 December 1986 as part of the
followup of decisions taken during the Prime Minister's visit to
Thailand. An Instrument of ratification on the convention for
Avoidance of Double Taxation with Thailand was exchanged during
the visit. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand visited
India in March 1987.
At the fifth session of the India-Malaysia Joint Committee
which was held in New Delhi on 30-31 October 1986, bilateral
trade and commercial relations including participation in
projects, co-operation in development of small scale industries,
joint ventures, and trade promotional measures were reviewed. It
was agreed to take measures to correct the imbalance of trade
which continues to remain in Malaysia's favour. Dr. Mahathir
Mohamad, Prime Minister of Malaysia, paid an official visit from
29 January to 1 February 1987. The delegation included the
Foreign Minister and the Secretary General of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of Malaysia. Dr. Mahathir and the Prime Minister
had a useful exchange of views on various international and
regional issues. Steps to strengthen bilateral co-operation and
trade were discussed.
There was a regular exchange of trade delegations between
India and Singapore. Mr. Lee Boon Yang, Minister of State for
Trade and Commerce visited India in October 1986 to inaugurate
the office of the Singapore Trade Development Board in Bombay.
The Federation of the Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
(FICCI) during the visit of its delegation to Singapore in
November 1986, established a Working Group with the Singapore
Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry.
With the assumption of power in the Philippines by President
Corazon Aquino a new atmosphere of greater bilateral co-operation
and understanding has been generated. A number of agreements in
the fields of agriculture, science and technology and economic
and technical co-operation are being negotiated.
India's existing friendly relations with Australia and New
Zealand got a further impetus with Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi's
visit to these countries in October 1986. An Indian Prime
Minister visited these countries after a gap of nearly two
decades. The visit thus signalled a new emphasis on India's
relations with this part of the world.
The Prime Minister was received with warmth and spontaneity in
both countries. The visits resulted in a better understanding of
each other's perspectives on various world issues. A Science &
Technology Agreement with Australia and Agreements on Trade and
on Avoidance of Double Taxation with New Zealand were signed
during the Prime Minister's visit. Bilateral trade came under
close examination in the official talks. It was decided that
efforts would be made to bring about a more balanced growth of
trade. Australia and New Zealand indicated their interest in
specific areas of co-operation-Australia in the coal and mining
sectors; and New Zealand in afforestation, agriculture and
tourism. A Coal Delegation from Australia visited India to
discuss details of possible co-operation in this sector. A Trade
Delegation from Australia also came to New Delhi for the annual
Joint Trade Committee (JTC) talks. Apart from strengthening
existing exports, we have identified new thrust areas for
A high-level delegation from Australia is likely to visit
India in early 1987 to examine the whole gamut of bilateral
During the Prime Minister's visit, a delegation from the
Associated Chambers of Commerce & Industry of India (ASSOCHAM)
also visited Australia. A Joint Business Council (JBC) was formed
between ASSOCHAM and the Confederation of Australian Industries
(CAI), which is expected to give an impetus to trade between the
private sectors of the two countries.
A Cultural Exchange Programme was finalised with Australia in
During 1986 there were many high-level visits to the area:
Shri K.C. Pant, Minister for Steel & Mines, visited Australia in
July; Shri H.K.L. Bhagat, Minister for Parliamentary Affairs,
visited New Zealand at the head of a Parliamentary Delegation in
September; New Zealand's Minister for Social Welfare, Mr. Ann
Hercus, visited India in April 1986. An Australian Parliamentary
delegation and Joint Services Staff College study team visited
India in November 1986.
The Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs of Fiji, Dr. James
Maraj, presented his credentials to the President of India in
September 1986 as the Island
country's first ever Non-Resident High Commissioner to India.
During this visit bilateral relations were reviewed. During the
then Secretary (East)'s visit to Fiji in 1985, it was decided
that economic and technical co-operation with Fiji would be
stepped up. Action aimed at co-operation in various areas, e.g.
cottage industries, marble cutting, provision of doctors,
industrial exhibition etc., has been initiated. Fiji has sought
India's help in other areas such as building of tourism
infrastructure as well as joint ventures.
India provided relief to the cyclone ravaged Solomon Islands
in the form of medicines worth Rs. 5 lakhs.
India's relations with the three countries of Indo-China
retained their high level of cordiality. In the political sphere,
India's stand on the Kampuchean issue was made clear by the Prime
Minister during his visits to Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand
and Thailand. The need to create an atmosphere conducive to a
settlement was emphasized, as it was our conviction that the
genocidal Pol Pot elements should be excluded from any
Implementation of the Indian Technical & Economic Co-operation
(ITEC) programme of this Ministry, which is the main vehicle for
providing technical assistance, was considerably improved in
1986. To Laos for instance, 55 large irrigation pump-sets were
supplied as gifts from the Government of India, and a team of
consultants were deputed for preparing feasibility studies on
small scale industries. A team of senior geologists from India
also visited Laos in order to make a preliminary survey of potash
deposits in that country. Relief medicines were also supplied.
The year also saw a marked improvement in the utilisation of
ITEC scholarships by the nationals of the Peoples' Republic of
Kampuchea. Experts from the Archaeological Survey of India began
work in Kampuchea on the restoration of the famous temple of
Angkor Wat. This work too is being financed out of the ITEC
programme. Relief supplies of medicines were supplied to
Implementation of the decisions taken at the Second Session of
the India-Vietnam Joint Commission was effective. A large number
of Vietnamese experts have received training in various Indian
institutions and Indian experts have been deputed to Vietnam. Two
Research Centres, one for animal husbandry and forage and the
other on rice, which had been started under the ITEC programme in
Vietnam, have begun to function smoothly.
The Minister for External Affairs, Shri N.D. Tiwari led a
high-level delegation including the Ministers of State for
Petroleum and Natural Gas, Shri Brahm Dutt, for External Affairs,
Shri K. Natwar Singh and for Expenditure, Shri B. K. Gadhvi to
Vietnam from 9 to 12 January 1987. The delegation had useful
discussions with the Vietnamese leadership. An Agreement, in
principle, providing for co-operation in the field of oil between
India and Vietnam was signed. A fresh Government of India credit
of Rs. 10 crores and a gift of Rs. 1 crore was also announced
during the visit.
High-level visits this year included those by the Kampuchean
Minister for Information and Culture, Mr. Cheng Phon, during
April-May 1986, and by India's Minister for Health and Family
Welfare, Smt. Mohsina Kidwai, to Vietnam in June 1986.
|During the year under review, efforts to normalize and improve
relations with the People's Republic of China were continued. The
Government of India remained committed, as before, to finding a
just and satisfactory solution to the crucial boundary question
in a peaceful and fair manner.
The Seventh Round of Official Level Talks was held in Beijing
from 21 to 23 July 1986. On the boundary question, substantive
discussions which were initiated at the Sixth Round of Talks in
New Delhi in November 1985, were continued on the Eastern and
Western Sectors of the boundary. Although the discussions were
inconclusive, a better perception of each other's views was
obtained. A programme of exchanges in the field of Science and
Technology was finalized. The implementation of the Cultural
Exchange Programme was also reviewed. Both sides exchanged views
on the international situation.
India's deep concern over the Chinese intrusion in the
Sumdorong Chu Valley area of the Tawang District of Arunachal
Pradesh was conveyed to Acting Chinese Premier Wan Li and Foreign
Minister Wu Xueqian also during the Seventh Round of Talks. It
was stressed that such intrusions added to tension and vitiated
the atmosphere for the achievement of a just and satisfactory
solution to the boundary question. The subject of the Chinese
intrusion was also taken up at the meeting between the then
Minister for External Affairs Shri P. Shiv Shanker, with the
Chinese Foreign Minister in New York on 18 September 1986. The
Chinese side was informed that this recent irritant involving the
boundary question was not in consonance with the wishes of the
peoples of the two countries.
While exchanges in the fields of trade, culture and science
and technology have grown, the crucial question of the boundary
still remains to be solved. The Government of India has
consistently emphasized to the Chinese Government that it is
necessary for both sides to find a solution to problems that
arise along the boundary through peaceful consultations and in a
manner that ensures the maintenance of peace and tranquility all
along the border. To this end, India also stressed that the
Chinese side should do nothing to aggravate matters and disturb
the status quo.
The Government of India also rejected the adverse Chinese
reaction to the conferment of Statehood to Arunachal Pradesh as a
clear interference in India's internal affairs, and as entirely
contrary to China's professed desire for a peaceful settlement of
the boundary question. India expressed the hope that the five
principles of peaceful co-existence will continue to guide
relations between the two countries.
Under the official Exchange Programme, a number of delegations
were exchanged between the two countries in such fields as
education, student scholarships, carpet technology, etc. The
Chinese Vice Minister for Education, Liu Zhongde, led their
Education Delegation to India. The President of the Supreme
People's Court of China, Zheng Tianxiang, visited India at the
invitation of the Chief Justice of India.
Mr. Li Beihai, Council Member of the Chinese Association for
International Understanding, led a 5-member delegation on a visit
to India from 28 November to 6 December 1986, at the inviation of
the V. K. Krishna Menon Memorial Society. Mr. Jiang Guang Hua,
Deputy head of the International Liaison Department (ILD) of the
Chinese Communist Party, led a 5-member ILD delegation to visit
India from 19 to 31 December 1986, at the invitation of the
CPI(M). The delegation also had discussions with Congress-I
leaders at New Delhi.
In respect of Japan, the mutually friendly and co-operative
relations received fresh momentum with the visit of our Prime
Minister to Japan in 1985. There were increased exchanges in
cultural, commercial, economic, scientific and technological
fields between the two countries.
Japan continued to be India's third largest trading partner
though accounting for only 7 to 8% of our total trade turnover.
Our efforts were geared at diversifying exports to Japan while
maintaining, and wherever possible increasing exports of
traditional items like marine products, mineral ores, tea, spices
etc. The scope for increasing exchanges in the commercial field
was discussed during the India-Japan bilateral trade talks at
Tokyo in June 1986. At New Delhi, in December 1986, the 19th
Joint Meeting of the India-Japan Business Co-operation Committee,
discussed promotional measures in trade, investments, joint
ventures and collaborations. It was noted that though Japanese
investment in India has been increasing, it remains marginal and
does not reflect the potentialities. A number of Japanese survey
missions, sponsored by important Japanese companies including the
Bank of Tokyo, visited India to assess the economic situation and
the possibilities of co-operation and interaction. Conversely a
number of Indian delegations, official and non-official, in the
economic, commercial and other fields from the Chambers of
Commerce, the Export Promotion Councils, and from Public Sector
Undertakings also visited Japan.
In a follow-up action on the Projects for Indo-Japanese co-
operation identified during the visit of the Prime Minister of
India to Japan, feasibility studies and surveys were conducted to
determine the scope of Japanese assistance. Notes were exchanged
for the special credit of Yen 30 billion for the gas-based power
project in Assam and for the grant assistance of Yen 1.973
billion for the Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Medical Institute at
Lucknow. Japanese delegations visited India for carrying out
feasibility studies for the modernisation of railways, the IISCO
Burnpur Plant and the textile industry. Japanese Yen credit for
the financial year 1986-87 of Yen 48.443 billion represented an
increase of about 23.5% over the credit of Yen 39.231 billion
extended by Japan for 1985-86. Japan thus emerged as the second
largest donor to India on a bilateral basis.
The India-Japan Committee on Science & Technology which held
its first meeting in New Delhi in September 1986, identified more
than ten areas for possible co-operation and interaction. During
the year under review, exchanges under other institutional
arrangements in science were also carried out.
Smt. Pupul Jayakar, Chairman, Festival of India and Adviser to
the Prime Minister on Culture, visited Japan in October 1986 to
discuss with Government officials and with various Japanese
sponsors, the events and venue of the Festival
of India in Japan in 1988. Japanese delegations also visited
India to discuss the Festival of India in Japan and the Japan
Month in India.
The visit of Smt. Krishna Sahi, Minister of State for
Education and Culture to Japan in October 1986 on the occasion of
the inauguration of the granite stone relief depicting the life
of Buddha, in Nara Prefecture, reflected the abiding historical
and cultural links between Japan and India.
There were a number of Ministerial level visits from India to
Japan in 1986 which included the visits of Shri N.D. Tiwari as
Minister for Industry in August and as Minister for External
Affairs in November; of Shri K.C. Pant, Minister for Steel and
Mines in June; and of Smt. Rajendra Kumari Bajpai, Minister of
State for Welfare in August. Also Prof. M.G.K. Menon, Member,
Planning Commission, Shri V.C. Shukla, President of the Indian
Olympic Association (IOA), Shri S. Venkitaramanan, Finance
Secretary, Capt. W.A. Sangama, Chief Minister of Meghalaya and
other senior officials from the Centre and from the States, as
well as a number of MPs and State legislators and a National
Defence College team visited Japan during the period under
From Japan too, delegations, official and non-official, and an
increasing number of tourists visited India.
Official-level bilateral consultations between the Foreign
Ministries of both countries which were held at New Delhi in
December 1986, were comprehensive and reflected the recognition
of the important regional and global roles of both countries.
Follow-up action on the economic package decided upon during
the visit in March 1986 of the Prime Minister of the Republic of
Korea (ROK) comprising of the increased export of iron-ore,
development of Paradeep Port and ships orders bulk cargo sharing,
was taken with a view to enhancing the economic content of the
India-ROK bilateral relations. Promotional measures were
undertaken for diversified and balanced trade between India and
the ROK such as visits of business delegations from India,
participation in the Seoul International Trade Fair in September
1986, the holding of the India-ROK Joint Business Council Meeting
in July 1986 at Seoul and the organising of exhibitions.
India participated in the 10th Asian Games at Seoul in
September-October 1986. About 600 persons including the Indian
contingent, Members of Parliament, State legislators, Press
correspondents, and official media representatives visited Seoul.
The Indian official delegation was led by Smt. Margaret Alva,
Minister of State for Youth Affairs and Sports. Shri H.L. Kapur,
Lt. Governor of Delhi and Shri V.C. Shukla, IOA President also
visited Seoul. A 19-member Manipuri dance troupe and a 15-member
Himachal Pradesh dance troupe participated in the opening
ceremony of the Games.
Twenty three paintings of Indian modern art were sent for
exhibition in the Contemporary Asian Art Show. A photography
exhibition entitled "In the Footsteps of Buddha" was organised in
the ROK in April 1986. The Indian film entry 'MAYURI' won a prize
in the 'Asia Pacific Film Festival' held at Seoul in September
The former Chief Justice of India, Shri P.N. Bhagwati, and
Shri H.R. Bhardwaj, Minister of State for Law and Justice,
visited Seoul to participate in the International Law Association
Conference in August 1986. Shri K.C. Pant, Minister for Steel and
Mines, paid an official visit on invitation. A 14-member National
Defence College team visited the ROK in September 1986. There
were visits from the ROK to India at the official level. Business
and sports delegations from the ROK also visited India. During
his visit to India in August 1986, Mr. Soc-Gil Park, Assistant
Minister for Foreign Affairs, exchanged views with us on
important bilateral relations and on international issues.
An Indian Parliamentary delegation led by Shri Shivraj Patil,
the then Minister of State, visited the Democratic People's
Republic of Korea (DPRK) in June 1986, on invitation. Minister of
State, Smt. Margaret Alva, led the Indian delegation to the
Second General Conference on Physical Education and Sports of the
Non-aligned Countries held in Pyongyang in July 1986. The Mayor
of Delhi Shri Mahinder Singh Saathi visited the DPRK in September
1986. Several Parliamentarians and academicians from India also
visited Pyongyang on invitation from cultural and social
organisations in the DPRK.
A number of DPRK delegations visited India to explore the
possibility of increasing trade exchanges between the two
countries. A deal for the supply of 100,000 tons of wheat from
India against the supply of zinc from the DPRK was finalised.
India also agreed to supply 273,000 tons of wheat to the DPRK
under an arrangement with the Soviet Union.
A State Commission was established in Mongolia with a view to
promoting bilateral relations with India in the economic,
commercial and other fields. During the visit of the Mongolian
Deputy Foreign Minister, Mr. Olzvoi, to India in September 1986,
views were exchanged on important international issues and on
matters of mutual interest including Mongolia's guest status in
the Non-aligned Movement (NAM). The Mongolian Foreign Minister
Mr. M. Dugersuren also exchanged views on these matters with our
Minister for External Affairs in New York in September 1986.
Shri Bhuvnesh Chaturvedi, Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha,
visited Mongolia on the occasion of the 19th Congress of the
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) in May 1986.
Delegations of CPI and of CPI(M) from India also attended the
India extended assistance under the Indian Technical and
Economic Co-operation (ITEC) programme of this Ministry for the
production of a document-ary film on Mongolia in English for
which a team from the Films Division of India visited Mongolia in
|WEST ASIA AND NORTH AFRICA|
|India's relations with the countries in the West Asia and
North Africa (WANA) region have been characterised by warmth and
friendship. The process of consolidation and diversification of
these ties continued through 1986. India has been consistent and
steadfast in its support of the Arab cause and for a
comprehensive, just and durable settlement of the West Asia
India continues to offer its moral and material support to the
Palestinian people. It extended its support to the Non-aligned
Movement (NAM) call at the Harare Summit for convening of an
International Peace Conference on West Asia as a means to resolve
The situation in Lebanon continues to be grim with no end in
sight to the continued factional fighting. India hopes that good
sense will prevail and a solution will emerge soon to bring this
tragedy to an end.
The US bombing of the Libyan cities of Tripoli and Benghazi in
April 1986 was strongly condemned by the Government of India both
bilaterally and in its capacity as Chairman of the Non-aligned
Movement. The NAM Minis-terial delegation led by the then
Minister for External Affairs Shri B.R. Bhagat visited Tripoli
and New York to express solidarity with Libya. The economic
contents of the Indo-Libyan relations has increased substantially
in the last few years. The Sixth Session of the Indo-Libyan Joint
Commission on Economic and Technical Co-operation was held in New
Delhi in July 1986 to monitor progress of ongoing co-operation
and to identify fresh areas for increased bilateral co-operation.
India and Algeria continue to have close political co-
operation both bilaterally and in the international arena. There
has already been a marked increase in the economic and commercial
co-operation between the two countries. The Algerian Vice-
Minister for Co-operation visited India in March 1986 in order to
prepare the ground for the third session of the Joint Commission
Meeting which was held in Algiers in July 1986. The Minister of
State for Railways, Shri Madhav Rao Scindia, had also visited
Algeria in April 1986. During his visit an Agreement on Co-
operation in the Railway sector was signed. The third session of
the Indo-Algerian Joint Commission had agreed to set an annual
trade turnover target of US $ 100 million, which will be a five-
fold in-crease in trade over the previous year. The Joint
Commission also identified co-operation possibilities in various
sectors, most notably in ralways, industry, hydraulics,
fertilizers and pharmaceuticals.
Following our recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic
Republic (SADR) in October 1985, an SADR Embassy has started
functioning in New Delhi.
We were privileged to host their Majesties the King and Queen
of Jordan on a State visit to India in October 1986. A high-
powered delegation had accompanied their Majesties and the
bilateral exchanges held are expected to boost Indo-Jordanian
relations-both in the political and economic fields. Indo-
Jordanian economic co-operation has already witnessed a marked
increase. Jordanian imports from India are expected to increase
substantially in the current year.
Contacts with other countries in the region were maintained at
various levels. Efforts were made to strengthen and intensify co-
operation in areas of mutual interests. The then Minister of
State for External Affairs, Shri K.R. Narayanan, visited Cairo in
August 1986 to attend a high-level meeting on Economic Co-
operation amongst Developing Countries of the Group of 77. He
also had bilateral talks with the Egypitan officals covering
political and economic matters. A multi-disciplinary inddustrial
delegation led by the Minister of State for Industrial
Development, Shri N. Arunachalam, visited
Tunisia in October 1986. The team identified mutually beneficial
reas of co-operation in selected commercial and industrial
fields. These include exports for non-traditional commodities and
possibilities for joint ventures in small industries,
communications and the power sectors. The Somalian Minister for
Commerce and Industry had visited India in July 1986, during
which Agreed Minutes were signed for co-operation in the
industrial field. The implementation of the Agreed Minutes would
raise the possibility of increasing export of Indian goods and
expertise to Somalia.
Opportunities for maintaining high-level contacts with WANA
countries were also availed of during the NAM Co-ordinating
Bureau Meeting in New Delhi in April 1986 and also during the
Harare Summit in September 1986.
Ten countries of the Gulf region, namely, Iran, Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain,
Qatar, the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR) and the People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen (PDRY), come under the ambit of the Gulf
Division of this Ministry. Our friendly and cordial relations
with these countries have continued to improve in diverse fields.
Contacts with the Gulf countries have been maintained by high-
level visits and meetings. The Firance Minister of India visited
Saudi Arabia where he went as a leader of the Inian delegation to
the second meeting of the Indo-Saudi Joint Commission held in
Riyadh in April 1986. The Minister of State for Industry led a
delegation to Iran in December 1986 and the Minister for Human
Resource Development visited the UAE in December 1986. At the
official level, Secretary (Steel) visited Iran in September 1986
in connection with the Kudremukh Iron Ore Project.
The Iranian Foreign Minister visited India in August 1986 for
bilateral talks. This was followed by the visit of an Economic
delegation from Iran in September 1986 to discuss the question of
a barter deal in oil against import of goods from India. Because
of divergence of views on the ratio of oil imports from Iran to
be linked to Indian exports, no agreement could be reached From
Iraq, its permanent Under Secretary visited India in June 1986
before the Harare Summit for bilateral discussions. The Iraqi
Minister for Oil led the
Iraqi delegation to the tenth session of the Indo-Iraq Joint
Commission which was held in Delhi in October 1986.
Other visits from this area included the high powered Kuwaiti
Investment delegation which visited India in October 1986 with a
view to search avenues for Kuwaiti investment in India. A
delegation from Bahrain visited India in November 1986 during the
India International Trade Fair. Similarly, a Trade delegation
from Oman visited India in November 1986 to discuss about trade
relations between the two countries. The Yemen Arab Republic
Communication Minister visited India in December 1986 to discuss
co-operation in the field of telecommunication between India and
The continuing Iran-Iraq war and its adverse impact in terms
of human suffering continued to remain a matter of concern for
India has friendly and broad-based relations with both countries
which are also members of the Non-Aligned Movement and is
interested in a speedy end to this tragic war. Our efforts to
find ways and means to bring an end to this tragic war continued
during the year under review.
The Iraqi Permanent Under Secretary and the Foreign Minister
of Iran visited India before the Non-aligned Summit for bilateral
India has Joint Commissions with five Gulf countries, namely,
the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the YAR. India also has
Joint Committees with Bahrain and Qatar. During the year under
review, the following meetings took place:
(i) The first meeting of the Indo-Bahrain Joint Committee in
(ii) The second Indo-Saudi Joint Commission meeting in April
(iii) The tenth session of the Indo-Iraq Joint Commission in
In these meetings agreements were reached for the
strengthening of bilateral relations and mutual co-operation in
various fields covering wide-ranging subjects. The fourth session
of the Indo-Iran Joint Commission is scheduled to meet in Delhi
in February 1987.
There are a large number of immigrant Indians working in the
Gulf. According to a conservative estimate they number over 7
lakhs. Owing to an economic recession in the Gulf countries, job
opportunities are fast dwindling. Any significant increase in the
number of our nationals working in the Gulf countries can be
ruled out. In fact there was apprehension that the number of
Indians working in the Gulf region would fall significantly as a
result of the recession in these countries. But this has not
taken place so far. Indian emigrants in the Gulf region are
prosperous and happy. However, considering their large numbers,
problems do arise from time to time. The Indian Missions
continued to provide the necessary consular help to the Indian
As a result of recession and falling oil prices, the income of
the Gulf countries has reduced and it is expected that these
countries will be looking towards other developing countries for
investment opportunities and economic co-operation for
development purposes. India, which has a key position as a
developing country, is likely to benefit from this.
|AFRICA (SOUTH OF THE SAHARA)|
|Relations between India and the countries in Africa South of
the Sahara continued to be cordial during the year under review.
Special efforts were made to intensify relations with Southern
African countries. The Prime Minister, accompanied by high-
powered delegations, paid visits to Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola and
Tanzania in May 1986 to highlight the value we attach to
bilateral relations with these countries as well as to underline
India's solidarity with them in regard to the liberation struggle
in South Africa and Namibia. India also entertained visits from
President Oliver Tambo of the African National Congress (ANC) and
from President Sam Nujoma of the South West Africa People's
Organisation (SWAPO) in May 1986. The South African question was
the subject of a Mini-Summit of seven Commonwealth Countries in
London in August 1986 in which our Prime Minister tried to bring
about unanimity of thinking in the matter of sanctions against
South Africa additional to the measures decided upon at the
Nassau Commonwealth Summit in 1985.
The Eighth Non-aligned Summit held in Harare (Zimbabwe) in
September 1986 expressed its grave concern on the deteriorating
situation in Southern Africa. It took note of the initiatives
taken by many countries and organisations to have the problem
resolved through negotiations. It regretted that instead of
heeding the call of the international community to eradicate
apartheid, the racist regime had stepped up its oppression and
the subjugation of the disenfranchised and dispossessed people of
South Africa through the imposition of a state of emergency and
other repressive measures. It reaffirmed that the imposition of
comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against South Africa in
accordance with Chapter 7 of the Charter of the United Nations
was the only peaceful option to compel the racist regime to
abandon apartheid. The Summit Meeting also
noted that the racist regime had intensified its campaign of
intimidation, blackmail, economic sanctions and naked acts of
aggression against the independent states in the region with a
view to weakening and subjugating them. It stressed the need for
concerted international action both short-term and long-term to
provide assistance to the Frontline States in the region to
enable them to withstand the effect of retaliatory sanctions by
the racist Pretoria region.
As a concrete measure it was resolved to establish the Action
for Resisting Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid Fund (AFRICA
Fund). The nine-Member Fund Committee consists of India
(Chairman), Zambia (Vice-Chairman), Algeria, Argentina, Congo,
Nigeria, Peru, Yugoslavia and Zimbabwe. The objectives of the
Fund are to strengthen the economic and financial capability of
the Frontline States; to assist them enforce sanctions against
South Africa and to cope with retaliatory action by the racist
regime. The measures envisaged in the Resolution to achieve these
objectives include: the establishment of a strategic relief
reserve to relieve shortages of essential commodities; the
strengthening of the transport and communication system; the
ensuring of continued availability of oil and other energy
sources; the ensuring of safety of infrastructural installations
and net-works; the neutralising of the negative trade effects;
the development of trained manpower resources and the
mobilisation of international public opinion and financial
resources for fulfilling the objectives of the Fund.
India, in the capacity of Chairman of the Fund, undertook
extensive consultations with the Frontline States and liberation
movements to identify specific areas in which assistance is
The Summit Meeting of the Fund Committee Member-States was
held in New Delhi on 24 and 25 January 1987. It was preceded by
preparatory meetings of Senior Officials and Foreign Ministers.
The Summit adopted a Plan of Action and the Rules of procedure
for management and operation of the Fund. The Plan of Action sets
out specific projects and measures to be undertaken by the Fund
to achieve its objectives. It consists of 9 chapters including 7
areas of priority assistance to the Frontline States, support to
the liberation movements in South Africa and Namibia and
mobilisation of public opinion and financial
resources. The Rules of Procedure provide for a sub-committee
under the Chairmanship of Zambia for screening and evaluation of
projects. It also provides for periodical reports on the funds
operations to be submitted by the Fund Committee to the
Ministerial and Summit Conferences of the Non-aligned Countries.
The Summit also issued an appeal calling upon all nations of the
world, international financial and other organisations, non-
governmental organisations and individuals to contribute
generously to the AFRICA Fund in demonstration of their
unflinching solidarity with the struggle against apartheid.
During the summit meeting, contributions amounting to US $ 70
million, which includes India's contribution of Rs. 50 crores
over a period of three years, were pledged to the Fund.
A resident Indian diplomatic Mission at Embassy level was
opened in Luanda, Angola, in September 1986. A Mission is also
expected to be opened in Gaborone, Botswana, in the very near
future. With the establishment of these Missions, India would
have resident diplomatic representation in all the Six Frontline
States of Southern Africa.
Africa Day, 25th May, the anniversary of the founding of the
OAU, was celebrated in Delhi with greater enthusiasm than in the
past years, with the participation of our Prime Minister and with
President Sam Nujoma of SWAPO as the Chief Guest. Mr. Nujoma,
during the visit, also formally opened the SWAPO Embassy in
The Minister of State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo
Faleiro, represented India at the International Conference on
Namibia held at Vienna in July 1986.
President Albert Rene or the Seychelles paid a State visit to
India in April 1986 when co-operation between the two countries
in various fields was agreed. upon,
As a follow-up of our Prime Minister's visit to Zambia and
Angola, the Prime Minister of Zambia, Rt. Hon. Mr. Kobby
Musokotwane, visited India in September/October 1986, and an
Angolan delegation led by their Minister for External Trade
visited India in October 1986. During these visits India offered
to provide a Government credit of Rs. 100 million and a credit of
Rs. 150 million by financial institutions to Zambia, and signed
with Angola a Trade Agreement and an Agreement on Economic,
Technical, Scientific and Cultural Co-operation. An Agreement for
Cultural Co-operation was also signed with the People's Republic
of Benin whose Foreign Minister visited India in July 1986.
The Prime Minister of India paid a State visit to Mauritius in
July 1986. Apart from discussions on various matters of mutual
interest, agreements were signed during the visit for a
Government-to-Government credit of Rs. 5 crores and an EXIM Bank
credit for an equal amount to Mauritius. Sir Charles Gaetan
Duval, Mauritian Deputy Prime Ministe leading a delegation with
three other Ministers paid an official visit to India from 29
January to 5 February 1987. During discussions between the
Mauritian delegation and the Indian delegation led by the
Minister for External Affairs, Shri N.D. Tiwari, stress was laid
on more bilateral trade and other economic co-operation.
The Vice President of India, accompanied by the Minister of
State for External Affairs, Shri Eduardo Faleiro, represented
India at the Celebrations of the 20th Anniversary of Botswana's
independence. The Minister for Human Resources Development, Shri
Narasimbha Rao, represented India at the funeral of President
Samora Machel of Mozambique in October 1986. Sardar Darbara
Singh, MP, represented India at the Coronation of Crown Prince
Makhosetive of Swaziland in April 1986.
Important visits from Africa during the year under review
were: Mauritian Finance Minister, Mauritian Foreign Minister,
Prime Minister of Zambia, Finance Minister of Zambia, Trade and
Commerce Minister of Zimbabw, Minister for Trade & Industries of
Zanzibar, Commerce Minister of Angola, Assistant Agriculture
Minister of Botswana, Minister for Foreign Affairs of
Banin, Minister for Works, Housing and Physical Education of
Kenya, Minister for Commerce of Senegal, Minister for Steel and
Mines of Nigeria, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Transport,
Tanzania, Minister for Mineral and Water Development of Uganda,
President of ANC Mr. Oliver Tambo and President of SWAPO Mr. Sam
Similarly, a number of Indian Ministers also visited various
African countries. These visits were Shri Eduardo Faleiro,
Minister of State, to Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana; Shri K.
Natwar Singh, Minister of State, to Zambia, Zimbabwe and Kenya;
Shri K.R. Narayanan, the then Minister of State for External
Affairs to Kenya and Zimbabwe; Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao, Minister
for Human Resources Development, to Mauritius; Shri Santosh Mohan
Dev, Minister of State for Tourism to Mauritius and Seychelles;
Smt. Krishna Sahia Minister of State for Education and Culture,
As in the past, during the year under review also we sent
medicines and other relief materials to countries in Africa as
well as to the liberation movements in Southern Africa. Rs.
587,860 worth of medicines were gifted to Mozambique, Rs. 50,000
worth each to Madagascar and the ANC, and Rs. 75,000 worth to
Uganda. Rs. 1,29,000 worth of office equipment and machinery were
gifted to SWAPO Mission in New Delhi.
|EUROPE WESTERN EUROPE|
|India's relations with the countries of Western Europe
continued to be cordial and friendly. On major questions, their
attitudes and views were usually modified not to clash too
vehemently with those of their close ally, the United States.
However, their belief in political and negotiated settlements for
resolving problems and reducing tensions, often runs parallel to
India's views, even if they do not coincide. There is not much
doubt that on larger questions of East-West or North-South
relations, Europeans do take a longer term perspective and arrive
at conclusions not dissimilar to those of India.
The internal political stability and credit-worthiness of
India have strengthened the belief among West European countries
of India as a nation of growing significance in Asia and the
world. These countries, in their search for new markets to
support their highly export dependent economies, have thus rated
India high on their list. The twelve members of the European
Community remain our major trading partners, and co-operation
with the Community is being actively pursued in the fields of
industrial co-operation, investment and co-operation in science
and technology. In addition the Scandinavian countries continued
to extend economic aid to India especially for projects in the
fields of social welfare, health and rural development. There is
considerable scope for India to co-operate with these countries
in high technology areas.
Indian exports to countries in Western Europe have registered
some increase but the range of products remained narrow and the
deficit in the balance of trade
has increased. While this is of concern to India, it can be
attributed to favourable investment climate, import of capital
goods and our requirement for import of new technology as also to
the protective policies of the Community. These aspects were
discussed in detail during the Indo-EEC Joint Commission Meeting
held in Brussels in January 1987.
The Joint Economic and Trade Committees between India and
Greece, Sweden, Spain and Austria held their meetings in 1986.
The main focus was on expansion of Indian exports, commodity and
quantum-wise. Particular attention was paid to establishing joint
collaboration with import of latest technology and buy back
During the year under review, there were several high-level
visits. The President of India visited Greece when an extensive
exchange of views took place on bilateral and international
issues. The Vice President of India visited France to attend the
closing ceremonies of the Festival of India.
The visits of Chancellor Kohl of the Federal Republic of
Germany (FRG), of Prime Ministers Turgut Ozal of Turkey, of
Benito Craxi of Italy and of Paul Schlueter of Denmark provided
fresh impetus and added greater economic and commercial content
in our bilateral relations with these respective countries.
Finland's President Mauno Koivisto paid a 4 day State visit to
India in February 1987. The delegation included, among others,
the Foreign Minister of Finland. During the visit, bilateral and
international matters including disarmament and North-South
dialogue were discussed between the leaders of the two countries.
Both the Dutch Prime Minister Mr. R. F. M. Lubbers and the
Foreign Minister of France Mr. Jean Bernard Raimond paid official
visits during March 1987.
The Minister for External Affairs, Shri N.D. Tiwari, visited
Italy, Belgium, France, the FRG and the UK as part of an AFRICA
Fund delegation. In addition, there were many visits at the
Ministerial level in economic, industrial, commercial, cultural
and educational fields apart from exchanges of parliamentary
delegations, industrial and business groups, academicians,
The governments in Western Europe have generally been
responsive to our concern at the anti-India activities in their
countries. We have been monitoring these activities and have been
in constant touch with those governments. Negotiations have also
commenced for concluding an Extradition Treaty with the FRG.
However, in the case of Britain, our concern has been
expressed to the British authorities and every opportunity was
utilised to suggest to the UK that such activities should be
curbed with a strong hand. One of our suggestions for effectively
curbing terrorist activities in the UK was for the two countries
to enter into an Extradition Treaty. Two rounds of talks have
already taken place and discussions are continuing. In the
meanwhile, the British authorities have taken some action in
convicting/bringing to trial some extremists/terrorists in the
THE USSR AND EASTERN EUROPE
The period under review saw continuation of development of
mutually beneficial bilateral relations with the USSR and other
socialist countries in Eastern Europe.
The General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Mr. M.S.
Gorbachev paid an official friendly visit to India in November
1986. Mr. Gorbachev was accompanied by his wife and a high-
powered delegation which consisted of, interalia, Foreign
Minister E.A. Shevardnadze, CPSU CC Secretary A.F. Dobrynin,
Deputy Prime Minister V.M. Kamentsev, Chief of General Staff of
the USSR Armed Forces Marshal S.F. Akhromeyev and First Deputy
Foreign Minister Y.M. Vorontsov. The visit was a landmark in
Indo-Soviet relations. It provided the occasion for the
continuation of the dialogue begun between the two leaders during
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi's visit to Moscow in May 1985. Prime
Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Mr. M.S. Gorbachev held extensive and
cordial discussions on important bilateral, regional and
international issues. Mr. M.S. Gorbachev called on the President,
Giani Zail Singh, and addressed Members of the Indian Parliament.
The other members of the delegation held discussions with their
Indian counterparts on various bilateral matters. The visit
served to reaffirm the dynamic, resilient and stable character of
Indo-Soviet relations and demonstrated once again the coincidence
or similarity of views of the two countries on major
international issues. In the course of the visit the two leaders
signed the Delhi Declaration on Principles for a Nuclear Weapon
Free and Non-violent World which embodies a comprehensive new
framework for international relations based on freedom, equality,
justice and non-violence. The other documents signed were an
Agreement on Economic and Technical Co-operation, the largest to
have been signed between the two countries so far, a Consular
Convention, and a Protocol on conducting the Festival of India in
the USSR and the Festival of the USSR in India.
The then Minister for External Affairs and Commerce, Shri P.
Shiv Shanker, and subsequently the Minister for External Affairs,
Shri N.D. Tiwari, visited the Soviet Union during 1986. During
their visits the Ministers held talks with their Soviet
counterpart, Mr. E.A. Shevardnadze, and called on General
The Tenth meeting of the Indo-Soviet Joint Commission for
Economic, Scientific and Technical Co-operation was held in New
Delhi in April 1986. The two sides were led respectively by the
then Minister for External Affairs, Shri B.R. Bhagat, and the
then Soviet First Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. I.V. Arkhipov. The
meeting reviewed ongoing bilateral co-operation in various
projects and took stock of the progress made in implementation of
the agreements signed during the Indian Prime Minister's visit in
May 1985. The meeting also discussed new areas of co-operation
between the two countries. The Trade Protocol for 1987 was signed
in New Delhi in November 1986. The Protocol envisages an increase
in the quantum of already traded goods and the identification of
fresh commodities for trade between the two countries. The
Chairman of the USSR State Committee for Foreign Economic
Relations, Mr. K.F. Katushev, and the Minister for Petroleum
Industry, Mr. V.A. Dinkov, visited India in connection with the
economic agreements signed during General Secretary Gorbachev's
visit. The Soviet Ministers for Aviation Industry, Mr. A.S.
Systsov, and for Health, Mr. S.P. Burenkov, also visited India.
Exchanges in culture, arts, education, sports, mass-media and
other fields developed well. Preparations for conducting the
Festival of India in the USSR and the Festival of the USSR in
India reached an important stage with the signing of a Protocol
during General Secretary Gorbachev's visit. A Parliamentary
delegation led by the Soviet First Vice President, Mr. V.V.
Kuznetsov, visited India in January 1986.
The 15th anniversary of the Indo-Soviet Treaty on Peace,
Friendship and Co-operation was marked by both countries. On this
occasion and on the occasion of Independence Day, India played
host to a delegation led by the Vice President of the USSR
Supreme Soviet Presidium and the President of the Azerbaijan SSR,
Mr. S.B. Tatliev.
Other important visitors from India to the Soviet Union during
this period were the Minister for Energy, Shri Vasant Sathe, the
then Minister of State for Information and Broadcasting, Shri
V.N. Gadgil, and the Minister of State for Defence, Shri Arun
The Eighth session of the Indo-Bulgarian Joint Commission for
Economic, Scientific and Technical Co-operation was held in
Sofia, Bulgaria, from 5 to 10 October 1986. The Indian delegation
was led by Shri G.S. Dhillon, Minister for Agriculture. A
Protocol was signed on this occasion setting out the
possibilities for further co-operation and delineating
appropriate measures for further expansion and diversification of
co-operation between the two countries in economic, scientific
and technical fields. Another Protocol was signed to encourage
cooperation in the field of tourism. A Plan of Co-operation in
the field of Public
Health was signed between India and Bulgaria on 29 April 1986.
The trade plan for 1986, providing for a balanced two-way trade
turnover of Rs. 148 crores against the actual trade turnover of
Rs. 87 crores in 1985, was signed in May 1986 during the visit of
the Bulgarian Deputy Foreign Trade Minister. The then Minister
for External Affairs Shri P. Shiv Shanker, paid an official visit
to Bulgaria in June 1986. He had fruitful discussions with
President Zhivkov and Prime Minister Mr. Atanassov and his
counterpart Mr. Peter Mladenev and others. Cultural exchanges
between the two countries have grown satisfactorily. Mutual
celebration of "Days of Bulgarian Culture in India" and of Indian
Culture in Bulgaria is being planned for 1987.
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi made a transit halt at Prague on
10 August 1986 on his way back from Mexico. During the brief
stop-over he had fruitful discussions on bilateral and
international issues with the Czechoslovak Prime Minister, Mr.
Strougal. Bilateral contacts with Czechoslovakia in political,
economic and cultural fields progressed satisfactorily.
The then Minister for Information & Broadcasting Shri V.N.
Gadgil, visited Czechoslovakia for the Karlovy Vary Film Festival
in July 1986. The Indian entries in the competition were received
with appreciation. An Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation
was signed between the two countries on 31 May/1 June 1986 and is
expected to encourage joint ventures.
Air Chief Marshal D.A. La Fontaine, Chief of Air Staff paid an
official visit to the GDR from 20 to 26 July 1986 at the
invitation of his GDR counterpart. A 5-member Planning Commission
delegation led by Shri Hiten Bhaya, Member, Planning Commission,
visited the GDR from 31 August to 6 September 1986 for the fifth
session of the Indo-GDR Group of Planning Experts. A highlevel
NDC team also visited the GDR from 9 to 12 September 1986. From
the GDR side, Dr. Kurt Singhuber, Minister for Ore Mining, Potash
and Metallurgy, the Co-Chairman of the Indo-GDR Joint Commission
for Economic, Scientific and Technical Co-operation, made his
first visit to India from 17 to 20 November 1986 at the
invitation of his Indian counterpart, the Industry Minister Shri
J. Vengal Rao. The GDR Deputy Transport Minister, Mr. H. Rentner,
visited India in February 1986 and signed a Shipping Protocol
with the Secretary in the
Ministry of Transport. The GDR Deputy Minister for Higher and
Technical Education, Prof. Guenther Heidorn, visited India from
24 August to 4 September 1986 in terms of the Indo-GDR Cultural
Indo-GDR economic relations have shown progress during the
year under review. The two countries signed a Long Term Trade
Protocol for the period 1987-90 to develop import and export of
certain selected commodities of major interest to them. The Trade
Plan for 1987 signed in December 1986 is fixed at Rs. 490 crores
as against Rs. 414 crores for 1986. The Indo-GDR Agreement on
Avoidance of Double Taxation has also been agreed to and
Shri Abdul Ghafoor, the then Minister for Urban Development,
visited Hungary from 23 to 26 May 1986. Gen. K. Sundarji, Chief
of Army Staff visited Hungary in September 1986 at the invitation
of Lt. Gen. Joseph Paczek, Deputy Minister for Defence and Chief
of General Staff of the Hungarian Peoples' Army. The Hungarian
Foreign Trade Minister, Mr. Peter Veress, visited India on 14-15
April 1986 and had talks with the then Minister for Industry Shri
N.D. Tiwari and the Minister for Energy Shri Vasant Sathe,
besides having discussions in the Ministry of Commerce on
bilateral trade matters.
The Indo-Hungarian economic and industrial co-operation
relations were reviewed in-depth at the Sixth session of the
Indo-Hungarian Joint Commission held in Delhi from 27 to 30
October 1986 with delegations of the two sides led by the
Hungarian Finance Minister Dr. Istvan Hetanyi and our Minister
for Industry Shri J. Vengal Rao respectively. Indo-Hungarian
trade was of Rs. 65.8 crores in 1985 as against Rs. 62.5 crores
in 1984. Also in conjunction with the Joint Commission session,
the Finance Ministers of India and Hungary signed the Avoidance
of Double Taxation Agreement. Dr. A.P. Mitra, Director General of
CSIR, visited Hungary at the invitation of the Hungarian Deputy
Foreign Minister, Dr. Benyi, from 24 to 26 September 1986 when a
programme of bilateral co-operation in the field of Science and
Technology was agreed to between the two countries.
The President of India, Giani Zail Singh, paid an official
visit to Poland in November 1986 during which he had talks with
President General Jaruzelski
and Prime Minister Messner. The visit provided a useful occasion
for reviewing bilateral relations and exchange of views on
important international issues. The 10th session of Indo-Polish
Joint Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Co-
operation was held in New Delhi on 1-2 April 1986. The two sides
were led respectively by the Minister for Energy, Shri Vasant
Sathe, and the Polish Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. Gwiazda.
Earlier, a long term trade and payments agreement was signed
during the visit by the Minister for Commerce Shri P. Shiv
Shanker, to Warsaw on 22-23 February 1986. The Indo-Polish Trade
Plan for 1987 provides for a two-way turnover of Rs. 500 crores
as against the Trade Plan provision of Rs. 451.4 crores for 1986.
The Minister of State for Science and Technology, Shri Shivraj
Patil, visited Poland from 9 to 13 July 1986 and had talks with
his counterpart regarding intensification of co-operation in the
field of science and technology. The Polish side expressed
interest in deepening scientific interaction over a large number
of areas. Cultural exchanges progressed satisfactorily and a
Cultural Exchange Programme was signed in June 1986 to regulate,
co-ordinate and promote cultural interaction over 1986-88.
A State visit by the President of the Socialist Republic of
Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu, was scheduled for November 1986. He
however visited India in March 1987 at Romanian request.
Indo-Romanian trade and economic/industrial collaboration has
continued to pick up momentum during the year under review. The
trade turnover during 1986 is expected to top Rs. 300 crores
against Rs. 192.8 crores in 1985.
India and Yugoslavia have developed close, friendly and
multifaceted co-operative bilateral relationship in diverse
fields. Relations were further strengthened during the year under
review when Yugoslav Prime Minister Mr. Branko Mikulic visited
India from 28 July to 1 August 1986. The President of India,
Giani Zail Singh, paid a visit to Yugoslavia from 30 October to 3
November 1986. These visits provided opportunities for useful
exchange of views between the Indian and Yugoslav leadership at
the highest level on bilateral relations as well as international
matters of mutual interest including the Non-aligned Movement. It
was agreed to give greater economic and commercial content to our
Shri H.K.L. Bhagat, Minister for Parliamentary Affairs, Food
and Civil Supplies, led a Parliamentary delegation to Yugoslavia
from 9 to 15 June 1986.
Indo-Yugoslav economic and industrial co-operation is
perceptibly on the upswing with bilateral trade crossing the
level of $ 100 million, the target set for 1986, at the end of
October 1986 itself against the trade turnover of $ 76 million
for 1986. The next session of the Indo-Yugoslav Joint Economic
Committee is took place in January 1987. India and Yugoslavia
also reached in July 1986 an Agreement on Civil Aviation to
introduce direct air services between the two countries.
Agreements for co-operation in Radio and TV have also been signed
by AIR and Doordarshan with their counterpart orgaanisation in
|Efforts were made to enhance mutual understanding and to
narrow differences between India and the USA in perception and in
the approach to various regional and international issues through
an exchange of official visits and the intensification of people-
to-people contacts. The Minister for External Affairs had wide
ranging discussions with President Reagan, Vice President Bush,
Secretary of State Shultz and Defence Secretary Weinberger in
Washington in February 1986 while India was host to the first-
ever visit by a US Defence Secretary in October 1986.
Bilateral relations between India and the USA in the economic
and commercial fields, in scientific co-operation and on
technology transfer have been marked by good progress. The Sixth
Session of the Indo-US Joint Commission, held in Washington on 6
February 1986, reviewed progress in the areas covered by the four
sub commissions. Important recommendations made were to increase
the frequency of meetings on bilateral trade issues and to
establish a new Working Group on Narcotics. The first meeting of
the Working Group was held in September 1986.
Economic contacts between India and the USA were given an
impetus through trade and collaboration in the field of
technology transfer. The new procedures under the Indo-US
Memorandum of Understanding on Technology Transfer resulted in
the clearance of many computer systems for governmental and non-
governmental organisations in India. Several official level
were held to streamline the procedures. In 1986, India continued
to maintain a positive balance of trade with the USA with exports
to that country amounting to $ 2478.3 million and imports of the
order of $ 1641.9 million. Contacts between the business
communities of both countries were intensified in tune with the
growing optimism of better commercial prospects and industrial
The Indian Naval Frigate INS Godavari participated in the
Centenary Celebration of the Statue of Liberty in June-July 1986.
It was the first-ever goodwill visit by an Indian naval ship to
the USA. The year long Festival of India was formally concluded
in November 1986 having provided a unique window to India for the
India and Canada continued to maintain a close dialogue on
bilateral and international issues. The Prime Ministers of India
and Canada met in London in August 1986 where they were attending
the Commonwealth Mini-Summit on the question of sanctions against
South Africa. The then Minister for External Affairs Shri B.R.
Bhagat, and the Canadian Secretary oj State for External Affairs,
Mr. Joe Clark, met on 20 June, in Cork, Ireland, where they were
taking part in the commemoration of the first anniversary of the
tragic crash of an Air-India Boeing 747. The Speaker of the Lok
Sabha, Dr. Balram Jakhar, also visited Canada from 27 May to 7
June 1986 to attend the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association
Executive Committee Meeting.
Canadian Law enforcement agencies took vigorous steps to meet
the threat of terrorism posed by extremist elements based in
Canada. Their effective action resulted in the aversion of
senseless tragedies and loss of innocent lives. The Canadian
authorities initiated a number of legal actions against
extremists and terrorists conspiring to commit violence against
India. An Extradition Treaty was signed during the visit of
Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs Mr. Joe Clark in
Indo-Canadian economic ties are expected to receive an impetus
on account of the determination of both countries to expand and
diversify them. A Memorandum of Understanding on Industrial and
was signed in February. Contacts between the business communities
of the two countries increased including a meeting of the India-
Canada Business Council in Toronto. Several economic delegations
were exchanged and Canada participated as a partner country with
fifty leading Canadian firms in the Trade Fair organised by the
Confederation of Engineering Industries in New Delhi in February
CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
India's relations with the countries of Latin America and the
Caribbean continued to grow during the period under review.
Exchanges of high-level visits, signing of bilateral agreements
and active co-operation with the countries of the region
strengthened India's relations with these countries and laid the
basis for further development of ties.
The major events were the visits of the Presidents of
Nicaragua and Peru to India and the visit of the Indian Prime
Minister to Mexico. Nicaragua's President Daniel Ortega paid a
State visit to India from 8 to 11 September 1986 during which
three bilateral agreements-a Cultural Agreement, a Memorandum of
Understanding and a Credit Agreement-were signed. The Memorandum
of Understanding provides for the gifts of wheat and raw jute by
India to Nicaragua and India's co-operation in the setting-up of
industrial projects in Nicaragua; under the Credit Agreement, a
credit of Rs. 12.5 crores will be made available to Nicaragua.
Peruvian President Dr. Alan Garcia Perez paid a State visit
from 23 to 29 January 1987 during which he took part in the
'AFRICA Fund' Summit on 24-25 January in New Delhi. He was also
the Chief Guest for the 1987 Republic Day celebrations. During
the visit, bilateral discussions were held and a cultural
agreement envisaging co-operation between India and Peru in
various fields was signed. The Peruvian President was conferred
an honorary degree of Dactor of Laws by Delhi University at a
colourful function at Vigyan Bhavan.
An Indian techno-economic team visited Nicaragua in April to
assess the Possibilities of bilateral economic and technical co-
operation. As a result of discussions with the Nicaraguan
authorities, areas of co-operation in industry, infrastructure
and increased trade were identified.
A delegation of Members of Parliament led by Shri R. L.
Bhatia, MP and General Secretary AICC(I), visited Nicaragua for
the 25th Anniversary Celebrations of the Sandinist National
Liberation Front (FSLN) in November 1986. The delegation included
Shri Anand Sharma, MP and President of IYC(I), Shri Mukul Wasnik,
MP (Congress I), Shri E.M.S. Namboodiripad, MP and Secretary
General CPI(M), Shri N.E. Balaram, MP and Secretary, National
Council of CPI, and Shri Chitta Basu, MP and Secretary General,
Forward Block of India.
The situation in Central America continued to be tense and
volatile. On various occasions in the UN and the Non-Aligned
Movement (NAM) for a India reiterated support for the Contadora
effort and its position that the Central American issues should
be resolved peacefully through dialogue among the countries of
the region without outside interference or introduction of big-
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi paid a visit to Mexico from 7 to 9
August 1986 after the Six-Nation Ixtapa Summit on Peace and
Disarmament. The Prime Minister's discussions with President
Miguel de la Madrid reflected shared perceptions on major
international issues and a common concern for Peace, Disarmament
and Development. The two leaders agreed to give greater content
to bilateral economic co-operation.
At the invitation of the Chairman of the Chamber of Deputies
of Venezuela a seven-member Parliamentary delegation, led by the
Speaker, Dr. Balram Jakhar, visited Venezuela from 30 June to 6
July 1986. During the visit, the Speaker unveiled a bust of
Mahatma Gandhi presented by India.
India was again among the co-sponsors of a UN General Assembly
(UNGA) Resolution on the Falklands/Malvinas calling upon
Argentina and the UK to hold negotiations with a view to
resolving their dispute which was adopted by an overwhelming
majority (116 for, 4 against, 34 abstentions).
The Finance Minister Shri V. P. Singh visited Brasilia and
held bilateral discussions with Brazilian leaders after leading
India's delegation to the Ministerial Meeting of the Negotiating
Committee for the GSTP from 19 to 23 May 1986.
A delegation led by Minister of State for Science and
Technology, Shri Shivraj Patil, visited Havana from 29 June to 2
July 1986 to attend the inauguration of a Cuban Bio-Technology
An Indian delegation led by Smt. Sushila Rohatgi, the then
Minister of State for Education and Culture, visited Cuba for the
Second Conference of Ministers for Education and Culture of non-
aligned and other developing countries from 1 to 4 April 1986.
The Indian Navy frigate INS Godavari, on a goodwill visit to
various countries of the region, called at ports in Cuba,
Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana and Brazil.
A six-member Indian Army expedition in the yacht 'Trishna'
called at Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago, Panama, Ecuador and Jamaica
during the course of their round-the-world cruise.
The Trade Fair Authority of India participated in the XVI
Bogota International Fair from 5 to 23 July 1986.
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi sent congratulatory messages to
Mr. Errol Barrow, Leader of the Democratic Labour Party of
Barbados, who was appointed Prime Minister following a landslide
victory in the country's general elections held in May 1986 and
to Mr. A.N.R. Robinson on his assuming the Prime Ministership of
Trinidad & Tobago following the sweeping victory (33 seats out of
36) of the National Alliance for Reconstruction in Trinidad &
Tobago in December 1986.
India donated medical supplies worth Rs. 50,000 to Jamaica for
relief of the victims of a devastating flood disaster.
In November 1986 a multifaceted Indian cultural festival
featuring Indian classical dances, folk dances and music, brides
of India show, handicrafts display and Indian food was organised
by the Indian Embassy in Panama in collaboration with the India
Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) and the Indian Council for
Cultural Relations (ICCR). The festival was inaugurated by the
First Lady of Panama in the presence of the Panamanian President
Eric Arturo Delvalle. An amount of about Rs. 1.60 lakhs was
raised for donation to the First Lady's Charity Fund.
|UNITED NATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES|
|As in previous years, India played an active and constructive
role in various international conferences and sessions of the UN
General Assembly and Security Council held during 1986. The major
international conferences held under the UN auspices included the
World Conference on Sanctions against South Africa in Paris in
June 1986, the International Conference for the Immediate
Independence of Namibia in July 1986 and the Special Session of
the UN General Assembly on Namibia in September 1986. The UN
General Assembly also held a special session on Africa in May
1986. The Eighth Summit Conference of Non-aligned Countries was
also held in Harare in September 1986 when India handed over the
Chairmanship of the Non-aligned Movement (NAM) to Zimbabwe.
The 41st session of the UN General Assembly, held during
September-December 1986, remained primarily pre-occupied with one
overriding issue-the most serious financial crisis in the history
of the United Nations in addition to wide ranging deliberations
on various political, economic, social, cultural and legal
Political Issues at the United Nations
A whole range of disarmament issues, the situation in Southern
Africa, West Asia, Central America and decolonisation questions
dominated the political agenda of the United Nations during the
year under review. Among the new items of the agenda of the 41st
session of the UN General Assembly were the US aggression against
Libya and the re-inscription of New Caledonia in the UN's list of
The three major and inter-related aspects of the South African
situation, namely, South Africa's policy of apartheid, its
illegal occupation of Namibia and its repeated acts of aggression
and subversion against neighbouring African countries, received
constant attention at the United Nations, including in the
The continuing crisis in South Africa and the intensification
of repression of the black majority by the racist regime evoked
serious concern at the United Nations throughout the year under
review in the Security Council, the General Assembly and the
Special Committee against Apartheid. A major international
initiative to combat apartheid was the World Conference on
Sanctions against Racist South Africa held in Paris in June 1986.
India as Chairman of the Non-aligned Movement, along with the
Organisation of African Unity (OAU), was one of the co-sponsors
of this Conference. The Indian delegation played a major role in
harmonising positions and ensuring full reaffirmation of the
urgent necessity for comprehensive and mandatory sanctions
against South Africa.
As Chairman of the Non-aligned Movement, India was also
specially invited to a seminar on Arms Embargo against South
Africa held in London in May 1986. The London seminar led to the
adoption, by consensus, of Resolution 591 of the Security Council
later in the year, which aims at addressing the problem of
circumvention of loopholes in the international Arms Embargo
against South Africa.
India maintained an active role in the UN Special Committee
against Apartheid, the principal UN organ to keep South Africa's
policy of apartheid under constant review. India was closely
involved with the preparation of six draft resolutions in the
Special Committee on Situation in South Africa and Assistance to
Liberation Movements, Comprehensive and Mandatory Sanctions
against the Racist Regime of South Africa, Status of the
International Convention against Apartheid in Sports, Programme
of Work of the Special Committee against Apartheid, Concerted
International Action for the Elimination of Apartheid and
Relations between Israel and South Africa. In addition to these,
two resolutions on Oil Embargo against South Afrca and the United
Trust Fund for South Africa were drafted by Norway and Sweden
respectively, The resolutions were adopted by the General
Assembly by large majorities. India co-sponsored all resolutions
except two and voted in favour of all of them.
The continued illegal and colonial occupation of Namibia by
South Africa remained a major concern of the United Nations. An
International Conference for the Immediate Independence of
Namibia at Ministerial level was convened in Namibia in July 1986
where India represented the Non-aligned Movement. The Vienna
Conference reaffirmed the resolve of the International community
to assure freedom, human dignity and their rightful place in the
international community for the people of Namibia. A highlight of
the Conference was an eloquent and moving appeal addressed by a
Group of Eminent Persons specially invited to Vienna which
included Sardar Swaran Singh from India.
The UN General Assembly also held a Special Session on Namibia
in September 1986. India was one of the countries mandated by the
Harare Summit of Non-aligned Countries to participate in the
Special Session at Ministerial level and the External Affairs
Minister led the Indian delegation. The Special Session
reaffirmed the direct responsibility of the United Nations for
Namibia until independence. It reiterated that comprehensive
mandatory sanctions under Chapter VII of the UN Charter were the
most effective means to ensure the compliance of South Africa
with the decisions of the United Nations on Namibia. It also
urged those States which have not yet done so to immediately
cease, individually and collectively, all dealings with South
Africa in order to ensure its total isolation.
India maintained its active participation in the UN Council
for Namibia and was re-elected as a Vice President of the Council
upon the assumption of office by her new Permanent Representative
to the United Nations.
The Security Council held meetings on several occasions during
the year under review in the wake of South African acts of
aggression and destabilisation
against neighbouring African States. Following South African
raids in Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe in May 1986, the non-
aligned caucus in the Security Council pressed for imposition of
mandatory sanctions against South Africa. A similar effort was
made during the Council session in June 1986 in the wake of a
South African raid on the Angolan Port of Namib. While the vetoes
of certain permanent members of the Security Council prevented
the adoption of mandatory sanctions, the Security Council
meetings effectively mirrored the sense of international outrage
and anguish at Pretoria's policy of aggression and
|The continuing conflict in the Central American region was the
subject of discussion on several occasions during the year under
review. The Security Council convened on two occasions in July
1986 at the request of Nicaragua following approval of funds for
the Contra rebels by the US Congress and the judgement of the
International Court of Justice (27 June 1986) declaring US
actions against Nicaragua to be in violation of international
law. A further Meeting of the Security Council was held in
October 1986 at the request of Nicaragua to seek US compliance
with the judgement of the International Court of Justice.
Participating in the debate, India's Permanent Representative
called for greater efforts to bring the Contadora peace process
to fruition and underlined the need for full co-operation of the
international community. He also urged member-States to be fully
responsive to their obligations under the UN Charter. The
incidents on the Nicaraguan-Honduran border in 1986 were also
considered by the Security Council at the request of Nicaragua in
The situation in Central America was also addressed by the UN
General Assembly during its 41st session which adopted a
consensus resolution sponsored by the Contadora and the Lima
Support Group. The resolution essentially endorsed the Contadora
peace process and affirmed the need for its acceleration. In his
intervention during the debate, India's Permanent Representative
stressed the need for resolution of the problems in the region in
a regional perspective through dialogue and negotiations.
The General Assembly also adopted a separate resolution,
sponsored by Nicaragua, affirming the need for compliance with
the judgement of the
International Court of Justice by 94 votes against 3 with 47
abstentions. India voted in favour.
The Security Council met in February 1986 to consider the
situation between Iran and Iraq and, after prolonged
consultations, unanimously adopted Resolution 582 on the basis of
a working paper prepared by the ten non-permanent members of the
Council. The resolution deplored the initial acts which gave rise
to the conflict as well as its continuation and escalation and
called for an immediate ceasefire. The Security Council convened
again in October 1986 to discuss this question. In a statement,
the Secretary General of the United Nations reiterated the
necessity for the Security Council to establish a basis upon
which both sides would find it possible to co-operate with the
United Nations in its efforts to promote a settlement. The
Security Council adopted a resolution calling upon Iran and Iraq
to implement Council Resolution 582 and requested the Secretary
General to intensify his efforts with the two nations to give
effect to the Resolution.
The General Assembly debated the question of Afghanistan at
its 41st session. It adopted a resolution by 122 votes to 20 with
11 abstentions. India abstained. In his speech, India's delegate
Shri Vayalar Ravi explained that the resolution was less than
fully constructive and supportive of the efforts being made by
the Secretary General and his Special Representative. India is of
the view that the situation there can be resolved only through an
overall political settlement based on the principles set out at
the conference of Foreign Ministers of the Non-aligned Countries
held in New Delhi in February 1981 and reiterated at the Seventh
and Eigth Summit of the Non-aligned Movement.
The situation in Kampuchea was debated in the General Assembly
on 20-21 October 1986. A number of delegations expressed
reservations on the credentials of "Democratic Kampuchea".
However, there was no formal move to challenge its credentials.
The substantive resolution on Kampuchea was adopted by 115 votes
to 21 with 13 abstentions. As in the past, India abstained on the
resolution and pointed out that the adoption of one-sided
resolutions, the recourse to inflexible positions and attempts
for the restoration of the status quo ante would not create the
conditions in which a peaceful and lasting solution could be
The ad hoc committee on the Indian Ocean meeting in July 1986
adopted a consensus report and draft resolution for adoption by
the General Assembly. This resolution was adopted at the 41st
session without vote. The resolution called on the ad hoc
committee to complete preparatory work relating to the Conference
on the Indian Ocean by 1987 in order to enable the convening of
the Colombo Conference on the Indian Ocean at an early date
thereafter but not later than 1988. The resolution reiterated
that the Conference and the establishment and maintenance of the
Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace required the full and active
participation and co-operation of all the permanent members of
the Security Council, the major maritime users and the littoral
and hinterland States.
The question of Antarctica was considered in the First
Committee of the UN General Assembly where the debate reflected
differing points of view. The Antarctic Treaty Consultative
Parties (ATCPs) maintained that the Antarctic Treaty regime had
preserved international peace and security in the Antarctic,
promoted peaceful co-operation and scientific research in the
area, ensured environmental protection, reconciled conflicting
territorial claims and maintained the Antarctic as a nuclear free
zone. Many non-ATCP countries called for a more universal regime
for the Antarctic, some seeking to declare the Antarctic as a
"common heritage of mankind". As at the 40th session, three
separate resolutions were tabled during the year under review.
One requested the Treaty Parties to keep the Secretary General
fully informed on all aspects of the question of Antarctica so
that the United Nations could "function as the central
repository" of all such information, and, requested the Secretary
General to continue to follow all aspects of the question of
Antarctica to provide an updated report to the General Assembly
at its 42nd session. The second resolution called upon the
Antarctic Treaty Parties to impose a "moratorium" on the
negotiations to establish a minerals regime until such time "as
all members of the international community can participate fully
in such negotiations". The third resolution called for the
exclusion of South Africa from all meetings of the consultative
parties. India voted in favour of the third resolution.
The XIII Meeting of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties
took place in Brussels in October 1986 where China and Uruguay
were admitted as ATCPs. Meetings on the ongoing negotiations for
the establishment of an Antarctic minerals regime were held in
Hobart in April 1986 and at Tokyo in October-November 1986.
| The situation in West Asia engaged the attention of the UN
Security Council on several occasions during 1986. In January,
the Council considered Lebanon's complaint against Israeli
measures and practices against the civilian population in
Southern Lebanon. In the same month, the Council convened to
consider the situation in the Israeli-occupied Arab territories
following allegations of Israeli violation of the Haram Al Sharif
shrine in Jerusalem. However, owing to the veto of a Permanent
Member of the Security Council, no resolutions could be adopted
on these occasions. In December 1986, the Council met on the
complaint of the PLO following the killing by Israeli security
forces of some students in the Bir Zeit University in the
occupied territories. The Council adopted Resolution 592 C
reaffirming the applicability of the Geneva Convention relating
to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Times of War to the
Palestine and other territories occupied by Israel and called
upon Israel to abide by it. Earlier, the President of the
Security Council issued a statement on behalf of the Members of
the Council on 2 December 1986, expressing concern at the
escalation of violence around the Palestinian refugee camps in
The 41st session of the UN General Assembly adopted altogether
seven resolutions relating to the situation in West Asia-four
resolutions on the question of Palestine and three on the
situation in the Middle East. India reiterated its support to the
right of self-determination of the Palestinian people including
its right to an independent homeland. We also supported the
holding of the International Peace Conference on the Middle East
under the auspices of the United Nations with the participation
of all parties to the Arab-Israeli conflict including the PLO as
well as the USA, the USSR and other concerned States on an equal
footing. In this context, we also supported the proposal for the
establishment of a Preparatory Committee within the framework of
the Security Council with the participation of its Permanent
Members to take necessary action to convene the Conference.
During the 41st session of the General Assembly, India
maintained its traditional position on issues of decolonisation,
stressing particularly the responsibility of the United Nations
and of negotiation in this regard. India co-sponsored the two
main resolutions on the Implementation of the Declaration on the
Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples and on
the Dissemination of Information on Decolonisation, both of which
adopted by the General Assembly. India also supported the
resolution sponsored by the South Pacific Forum calling for the
re-inscription of New Caledonia on the list of non-self-governing
territories of the United Nations. India co-sponsored the
resolution in the General Assembly urging an immediate ceasefire
in the Western Sahara region to prepare for a referendum to be
conducted under the auspices of the United Nations and the OAU.
It also co-sponsored a resolution urging the Governments of
Argentina and the United Kingdom to resume negotiations to
discuss all aspects of the problem of the Falkland Islands
The resolutions on decolonisation in the General Assembly also
condemned the continued illegal occupation of Namibia by South
Africa and urged the stopping of foreign economic and military
activities that are detrimental to the decolonisation process.
The General Assembly also devoted time to a separate discussion
on the question of Namibia. Coming as it did less than two months
after the Special Session on Namibia, the discussions in the
General Assembly reflected the continued and indeed growing
concern and resolve of the world community on this issue.
During 1986 India was active in all multilateral disarmament
fora, namely, the Conference on Disarmament, the UN Disarmament
Commission, and the First Committee of the UN General Assembly.
This is in keeping with the Indian view that in this nuclear age,
disarmament is indispensable not only for world peace but for the
very survival of mankind.
India took several initiatives in the UN General Assembly to
promote nuclear disarmament. India's two resolutions calling for
a freeze on nuclear weapons and a convention on the prohibition
of use of nuclear weapons respectively were adopted with
overwhelming majorities. Of the 65 other resolutions on
disarmament adopted by the UN General Assembly, India supported
the vast majority and abstained on only a few. The International
Conference on Disarmament and Development, which could not be
held in 1986, is now to be held in New York from 24 August to 11
September 1987. India, as Chairman of the Preparatory Committee,
has worked actively for the
convening of this Conference. It is a matter of regret that the
USA has announced its decision not to participate in the
Certain proposals sought to divert attention from the highest
priority issues of nuclear disarmament and prevention of nuclear
war. On all these, India took a forthright stand and, in a number
of cases, abstained from voting or voted against these
resolutions. As in the past, India voted against the Pakistani
resolution on a nuclear weapon free zone in South Asia, and
expressed grave concern at the discordant note that its annual
proposal introduced into the process of regional co-operation
which the countries of South Asia are seeking to promote.
India also continued her disarmament efforts through the Six-
Nation Initiative. After the Delhi Declaration, the Six
concentrated their efforts on securing a moratorium on all
nuclear testing by the US and the USSR, as a first step towards a
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. In February 1986, the Six Nations
sent a message to the US and the USSR emphasizing the importance
of their reaching agreement on concrete steps to halt the nuclear
arms race at their next Summit meeting and suggesting a
suspension of all nuclear testing until then as a confidence
building measure. They also reiterated their offer, made in
October 1985, to verify suspension of nuclear testing.
The leaders of the Six Nations met again on 6 August 1986 in
Ixtapa, Mexico. Emphasizing the importance of ending all nuclear
testing, they urged the two major nuclear weapon States to agree
on a moratorium on nuclear testing and put forward a concrete
proposal to assist in achieving adequate verification
arrangements for the same.
In response to the Ixtapa Declaration, both General Secretary
Gorbachev and President Reagan sent replies to the leaders of the
Six-Nation Initiative. The Soviet leader extended his full
support to the convictions expressed in the Declaration. He
supported the call for a moratorium on nuclear testing and
expressed his Government's willingness to enter into discussions
with experts from the Six nations on verification arrangements.
The US President, on the other hand, said that while a
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty remained a
long term objective, for the time being the US found it necessary
to continue nuclear testing. He also rejected the verification
offer made by the Six-Nation Initiative. In a joint press release
on 3 October 1986, the leaders of the Six nations reiterated
their hope that the two major nuclear weapon States would agree
on a mutual suspension of testing and saw the next US-Soviet
Summit as presenting an excellent opportunity to reach an
In a New Year Eve statement (30 December 1986), the Six again
urged the leaders of the Soviet Union and the USA to recommence
comprehensive talks to prevent an arms race in space and
terminate it on earth and ultimately to eliminate nuclear arms
everywhere. The Six felt that 1987 "provided an opportunity for
the Soviet Union and the United States to agree on a number of
disarmament measures, including deep cuts in nuclear arsenals".
The Six urged in particular the US to reconsider its decision
to exceed the SALT II ceiling. They said they had also noted the
decision of the USSR to terminate its unilateral moratorium and
to resume nuclear testing following the first US test in 1987 and
hoped that this decision was not irreversible. At the same time,
the Six noted that there was still room for a bilateral
moratorium and reiterated their offer of ensuring adequate
verification of such a moratorium.
The Eigth Conference of Heads of State of Non-aligned
Countries met in Harare in September 1986 and issued the Harare
Appeal on Disarmament to the USA and the USSR. The Appeal
reiterated the commitment of the NAM to nuclear disarmament and
urged the super powers to take immediate steps to prevent the
outbreak of a nuclear war. The Appeal emphasized the need to
reach an accord for a permanent moratorium on nuclear tests.
During 1986 the overall climate for multilateral economic
negotiations remained unhelpful.
The problems of developing countries particularly the heavily
indebted countries and countries of sub-Saharan Africa received a
little more understanding and consideration. Discussions during
the year under review were, however, largely focussed on issues
concerning the major industrialised countries themselves.
Problems of developing countries have been treated more or less
as side issues. There is an increasing tendency among major
industrialised countries to reach agreements and arrangements on
matters of global interest among themselves. Even in the
traditional development fora the developed countries are more
actively pursuing issues of interest to them.
An important event in May 1986 was the holding of the Special
Session of the General Assembly on the critical economic
situation in Africa. This was the first time that a special
session was devoted to the problems of one region. The Assembly
adopted an agreed Plan of Action. Although the Plan of Action is
less specific than may have been hoped, it reflects the general
commitment of the international community to help the African
countries overcome the grave situation facing their economies.
The Indian delegation participated actively in the negotiations
both with the African countries as well as the donor community
which led to the final declaration. Although the adoption of the
Plan of Action was an important achievement, much will depend on
how effectively the general commitment towards Africa is
translated into effective assistance.
At the General Assembly session, another important achievement
was a consensus resolution on External Debt. This was an
important agreement for the United Nations as the developed
countries had so far shown little willingness to seriously
discuss issues relating to Money and Finance at the General
Assembly. In the past, they had taken the position that these
questions should be discussed only in the IMF and the World Bank.
There were also intensive discussions on the issue of
agricultural trade. In the area of trade, generally it is hoped
that the agreements reached at Punta del Este will check the
slide towards increasing protectionism. The forthcoming UNCTAD-
VII Conference in 1987 will provide an important opportunity to
discuss issues related to trade commodities, financial flows and
The Pledging Conference for UN's Operational Activities for
Development showed an increase in nominal term in the pledges for
the major funds and
programmes of the United Nations. The financial situation of many
of these important programmes has stabilized though there is no
real increase in resources and in some cases there have been some
decline. Some institutions which have performed useful work such
as UNITAR are facing an acute financial crisis. It was with great
difficulty that agreement was possible on the restructuring and
continuation of UNITAR. The Indian delegation took very active
part in these negotiations to enable UNITAR to continue. UNFPA,
which is suffering from withholding of contribution by the United
States, has been able to secure additional commitments from other
In all fora, particularly at the meetings of the Non-aligned
Countries as well as the inter-governmental follow-up co-
ordination committee in Cairo, India continued to stress the
importance of increased South-South Co-operation. The major
development in this area following the Ministerial Meeting hosted
in Delhi was the holding of a Ministerial Meeting in Brasilia
which agreed to a negotiating framework for the Global System of
Trade Preferences. It is expected to stimulate trade among
developing countries. Another positive development was that
guidelines were agreed upon for identification, and for
formulation of specific ECDC projects from a special fund
designated as the Perez Guerero Fund for Economic and Technical
Co-operation among developing countries. The Fund will provide
valuable seed money for feasibility studies and formulation of
projects which can then be taken up by interested developing
countries on a self-financing and self-sustaining basis.
The Ministerial Meeting of the Co-ordinating Bureau of the
Non-aligned Countries in April 1986 in New Delhi agreed in
principle for the setting-up of a Standing Ministerial Committee
for economic co-operation. A decision in this regard was
subsequently adopted at the Eighth Non-aligned Summit Conference
at Harare. The Standing Ministerial Committee will review and
harmonize policies and programmes of the non-aligned and other
developing countries to promote international economic co-
operation in response to the changing world economic situation,
especially in regard to the crucial issues of money, finance,
debt, trade and development.
India played a leading role in the General Assembly Session of
the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) held in
Montreal from 23 September
to 10 October 1986. The leader of the Indian delegation was
unanimously elected as the President of the Assembly. In the
opening statement at the Assembly, India, inter alia, expressed
deep anguish at the gruesome massacre of innocent people at the
Karachi airport. It expressed the hope that the incident will be
thoroughly investigated and appropriate stern action will be
taken against those found responsible for having caused such
excessive casualties in this unfortunate incident.
Administrative and Budgetary Matters
During 1986, the UN faced the worst financial crisis in its
41-year history. This crisis was precipitated by the application
of the US legislation popularly known as the Kassebaum Amendment
which called for a 20% reduction in the contribution to the
United Nations till "meaningful reforms in the budgetary
procedure to the UN were introduced" which would allow major
contributors to play a greater role than hitherto in determining
not only the size of the budget but also the programmes it
contained. Additional reductions also resulted from the
application of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit reduction
amendment to the US budget. These reductions were of crucial
significance as the US pays 25% of the UN budget and is its
In April-May 1986, the 40th General Assembly was reconvened to
consider the current financial crisis. The Assembly approved
measures which included deferment of construction of conference
facilities, postponement of certain programmes and activities,
reduction in the frequency and duration of a number of meetings,
a freeze on recruitment and curtailment of the publications
programme. The Secretary General also urged early payment of
arrears and appealed for voluntary contributions. The application
of these economy measures have resulted in a saving of $ 67
million. As payment of arrears and voluntary contributions, an
additional $ 35 million was received. Nevertheless, in terms of
available cash balances, the UN continued to face severe
constraints during the year under review.
The 41st General Assembly agreed with the Secretary General's
proposal to continue these economy measures in 1987. It is
expected that the resultant savings would be of a higher order as
they would be applied throughout the calendar year.
The Group of High-Level Inter-governmental Experts to Review
the Efficiency and Administrative Functioning of the United
Nations, of which India was a member and where it performed a
significant role, recommended ways and means of streamlining and
increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the UN
Secretariat, the inter-governmental structure and the related
conference and meeting schedules. The Group also recommended
measures for improvement of co-ordination and priority setting
between activities and programmes. Of particular significance
were the recommendations which called for a 15% reduction in the
number of staff and a 25% reduction in the number of top echelon
posts and review of inter-governmental and Secretariat
The Group agreed that it was necessary for substantial
improvements to be made in the planning and budget process to
facilitate the attainment of broad agreement among member-States
on the level and content of the budget as failure to do so could
lead to a continuation of the current financial crisis. However,
no agreement was reached in the Group on the manner in which the
improvements were to be made. Thus the attention of the 41st
General Assembly, in its consideration of the Report of the
Group, focussed on the programme and budget process. Our approach
to the Report of the Group was that the measures to improve the
long-term efficiency and cost effectiveness of the UN should be
fully supported while at the same time it was necessary to ensure
that the UN continues to function on the basis of democratic
principles. India played an important and constructive role in
the negotiations at all levels and in shaping the UN General
Assembly resolution on the Report of the Group. We played a
particularly significant role in the negotiating and the drafting
of the section of the resolution relating to the planning and
budget process by which it has been agreed that in the budget
process consensus should be the desired objective towards which
all endeavours should be made.
|Social and Humanitarian Issues
India has traditionally taken a keen interest in social and
humanitarian issues, both in the United Nations General Assembly,
the UN Commission for Human Rights and other related UN bodies.
This flows out of the commitment and principles on human rights
and social justice which are an essential part of our
Constitutional and Legislative provisions and also a very
of social and political life in the country. On all issues of
importance to the developing and Non-aligned Countries India
helped in co-ordinating positions, first as Chairman of the Non-
aligned Movement and subsequently in close co-operation with
Zimbabwe, the current Chairman of the Non-aligned Movement. India
continued, as in previous years, to be closely involved with the
drafting of conventions relating to the Rights of the Child and
the Migrant Workers. We emphasized in different UN fora the
importance of the World Community acceding to the International
Covenants on Human Rights, to the International Covenant on
Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid and to the
Convention on the Elimination on Racial Discrimination.
In the UN Commission on Human Rights, India participated
actively in the 42nd session of the Commission which was held in
Geneva in February March 1986. In this session as Chairman of the
Non-aligned Countries, India played an important role in co-
ordinating their position on the traditional resolutions on
Southern Africa, the Middle East, Ethiopia as well as on the
Right to Development. India presented the draft resolution on
Lebanon and Palestine on behalf of the Arab group. The leader of
the Indian delegation paid a tribute to late Mr. Olaf Palme,
former premier of Sweden, on behalf of the Asian and Non-aligned
group. In its interventions during the proceedings of the
session, the Indian delegation expressed its great concern at the
continued deterioration in the human rights situation in many
parts of the world, and also contributed to the discussion on
different aspects of standard setting in the field of human
rights. This included our contribution to the discussion on the
Right to Development, the imperative need for a New International
Economic Order, the relationship between Human Rights and
Scientific and Technological Development and the Declaration on
the Elimination of all Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination
based on Religion or Belief.
During the deliberations, India highlighted the increasing
gravity of the Human Rights situation in Southern Africa, the
continued occupation of Namibia and the efforts to intimidate and
destabilise the Frontline States. In respect of the situation in
Southern Africa, India called for the application of
comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against South Africa
without any reservation motivated by economic, political or
strategic considerations in order not only to induce a change in
South Africa, but also to put an end to its destabilisation
policy directed against the Frontline States and to bring
independence to Namibia. India also called for the immediate and
unconditional release of Nelson Mandela and all the other freedom
fighters in South Africa and Namibia. Our delegation invited more
countries to accede to the International Convention on the
Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid and stressed
the necessity of providing moral and material support to SWAPO,
the ANC and all other freedom fighters in Southern Africa who
were campaigning not only for their own freedom and independence
but to uphold a cause dear to all humanity. India also
highlighted the suffering inflicted upon the Arabs, especially
Palestinians, in the territories occupied by Israel. India
together with several other country's delegations as well as a
large number of Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) intervened
in the debate on the situation of the Tamils in Sri Lanka during
the 42nd session of the Commission. Our delegation reiterated the
deep and abiding interest of the Indian Government in restoring
communal amity in Sri Lanka with whom we have maintained
traditionally close and cordial relations. We indicated our
opposition to all forms of violence and our firm support to the
unity and territorial integrity of Sri Lanka. We also pointed out
that India will continue its endeavour to ensure that the parties
to the ethnic violence in Sri Lanka are brought together to
achieve a viable political solution without any further delay and
loss of life.
In the 41st session of the UN General Assembly, India played
its traditionally significant role in the deliberations of the
Third Committee. In the Third Committee, 67 draft resolutions
were adopted, 46 without a vote and 21 by recorded votes. The
Committee also adopted 10 draft decisions, 9 without a vote and
one by a recorded vote. We co-sponsored, among others,
resolutions relating to the future work of the Committee on the
Elimination of Racial Discrimination, the Sub-Commission for the
Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and the
UN Working Group on Migrant Workers. The resolution initiated by
India on the "National Institutions for the Promotion and
Protection of Human Rights" was also adopted by consensus in the
General Assembly. In our interventions in the Third Committee, we
highlighted the acute distress and suffering of the Palestinians
in the territories occupied by Israel, the colonization of
Namibia, our abhorrence of the system of apartheid in South
Africa and our support to the people of that country in the
legitimate struggle for their rights.
By far of the most important development in the Third
Committee was the adoption, with only one negative vote, of a
declaration on the Right to Development. India had been closely
associated with the long negotiations in the General Assembly and
in the Human Rights Commission which preceded the adoption of
this declaration. We believe that the adoption of this delaration
with positive votes from some Western countries will constitute
one of the most important initiatives of the United Nations
towards innovative standard setting and codification in the field
of human rights.
Activities of the Non-aligned Movement
The Non-aligned Movement (NAM) remained a vital dimension of
India's foreign policy during the period under review. As
Chairman of the Movement since the New Delhi Summit of 1983,
India has played a crucial role in the Movement. Our efforts
during the three years of our Chairmanship have aimed at
strengthening the unity of the Non-aligned Countries and their
capacity for concerted action in fulfilment of the original
principles and objectives of the Movement. With this end in view,
India has worked to expand the area of consensus among the Non-
aligned Countries. On issues where differences of perception have
come to surface, India attempted to keep the process of dialogue
and consultations alive.
In recent years, the Non-aligned Movement has focussed on
nuclear disarmament, the struggle against racism and colonialism
in Southern Africa and on building a co-operative international
economic and political order based on equality and justice for
all nations. The conflicts raging in several parts of the world
such as the Middle East, Central America, the Gulf countries etc.
have also been major pre-occupations in the Non-aligned Movement.
The principled position of the Non-aligned Countries for
resolution of such conflicts and tensions was affirmed at
numerous occasions during the Ministerial and other meetings of
the Non-aligned Countries. The Co-ordinating Bureau of the
Movement at New York functioned on a continuous basis to keep the
evolving international economic and political situation under
constant review. It held a large number of meetings on the
burning issues before the Movement including the situation in
Southern Africa, the conflict in Central America and the
unresolved tensions and conflicts in the Middle East.
The global economic crisis and the severe difficulties faced
by developing countries particularly in the areas of external
debt, reduced financial flows, the fall in commodity prices,
fluctuating exchange rates and rising protectionism in the
developed world have been the major questions on the economic
side of the agenda of the Non-aligned Countries. While, on the
one hand, the Non-aligned Countries continued their efforts in
various international fora to actualise the goal of a New
International Economic Order, parallely there was a growing
emphasis on South-South Co-operation. The Action Programme for
Economic Co-operation of the Non-aligned Countries adopted at the
New Delhi Summit provided the blueprint for a growing interaction
and exchange among the Non-aligned Countries in several areas of
In preparation for the Eighth Summit of the Non-aligned
Countries at Harare in August-September 1986, India as the
Chairman of the Movement hosted two major meetings in New Delhi
in 1986. The Fifth meeting of the Co-ordinating Countries in
April 1986 reviewed progress in diverse sectors unde the Action
Programme for Economic Co-operation and evolved outlines for
future action in different sectors. Later in the month, New Delhi
was the venue for a Ministerial Meeting of the Co-ordinating
Bureau, which undertook a comprehensive review of the
international political and economic situation. The deliberations
at the Bureau Meeting in New Delhi proved to be a valuable input
in the work of the non-aligned leaders at the Harare Summit.
The Harare Summit in August-September 1986 coincided with the
25th Anniversary of the Non-aligned Movement and gave that event
a special significance. A special commemorative Declaration was
adopted on the occasion at Harare which reaffirmed the original
principles of the Movement and their continuing relevance in the
present international context.
Southern African issues were in the forefront of the agenda of
the Harare Summit and saw the launching of several useful
initiatives to combat South Africa's policies of apartheid and
its illegal occupation of Namibia. Apart from identifying a wide
range of selective measures against South Africa, the Harare
Summit also established the AFRICA (Action for Resisting
Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid) Fund with the objectives of
assisting the Frontline States and the liberation movements in
Southern Africa to withstand South
Africa's acts of aggression and economic sabotage. India was
entrusted with the Chairmanship of the nine-member Fund
Committee. In the months since Harare, considerable groundwork
has been prepared for the AFRICA Fund including a meeting at the
level of senior officials in Lusaka in November 1986 which
commenced preparations for finalising the Fund's work programme
at the Summit in January 1987. It was also decided at Harare to
set-up a Committee of Foreign Ministers to canvass support for
the imposition of comprehensive mandatory sanctions against South
Africa which was mandated to visit certain key industrialised
countries in this connection. The Minister for External Affairs
participated in the Mission of this Committee to some West
European capitals and to Japan undertaken in October-November
1986 in pursuance of this mandate.
At the Eighth Summit Conference of the Non-aligned Countries
at Harare in September 1986, the Chairmanship of the Non-aligned
Movement passed to Zimbabwe. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi
addressed the Summit as the outgoing Chairman of the Movement as
well as the Commemorative Session held at Harare on 1 September
1986 to mark the 25th Anniversary of the Movement. The Summit
paid warm tributes to India's contribution during the term of her
Chairmanship to the unity and strength of the Non-aligned
The Harare Summit also addressed a joint appeal to the
President of the United States and the General Secretary of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union on nuclear disarmament. On
the economic front, the Summit reviewed the prevailing
international economic situation especially its adverse
consequences for the developing countries. One concrete
initiative at Harare related to the approval of the establishment
of a Standing Ministerial Committee of the Non-aligned Countries
on North-South economic issues. While reaffirming the Movement's
commitment to a New International Economic Order, the Harare
Summit also underlined the need for greater South-South Co-
operation and approved a wide ranging Action Programme for
Economic Co-operation among the Non-aligned Countries which spans
several areas of activity.
|The situation in Southern Africa remained a major focus of
attention in the Non-aligned Movement and India sought, as
Chairman, to sustain and give direction to this momentum. The Co-
ordinating Bureau met on 22 May
1986 following the South African aggression against Botswana,
Zambia and Zimbabwe and adopted a communique expressing profound
indignation and grave concern at these unprovoked attacks. The
Non-aligned Movemen was also associated with the World Conference
on Sanctions against South Africa held in Paris in June 1986 when
a message from the Chairman stressing an urgent need for
mandatory sanctions against South Africa was sent to the
Conference. The Chairman also addressed a message to the
International Conference on Immediate Independence for Namibia
held in Vienna in July 1986.
The Co-ordinating Bureau met on several occasions during the
year under review to consider the situation in Central America.
The meetings considered developments in Central America and
issued communiques expressing grave concern at the deterioration
of the situation in the sub-region around Nicaragua, expressing
grave concern and regret at the approval by the US Congress of
funds for the mercenary groups seeking the overthrow of the
Government of Nicaragua and noted with satisfaction the judgement
of the International Court of Justice delivered on 27 June 1986.
It also appealed to the United States to abide by it immediately
Within the Security Council, the Non-aligned Countries
actively participated in the consideration of the situation in
the Middle East. The Non-aligned Committee of Eight continued its
efforts through informal consultations for an International Peace
Conference on the Middle East under the UN auspices. It submitted
a report to the Harare Summit where Zimbabwe was included as an
additional member and new Chairman of the Committee.
The continuing fratricidal conflict between Iran and Iraq
received constant attention in the Movement. Following a renewed
escalation in hostilities in February 1986, the official
spokesman of the Government of India made a statement on behalf
of the Chairman of NAM calling upon the two countries to move
away from the path of conflict and confrontation towards a
negotiated peaceful settlement. At the Ministerial Meetings of
the Co-ordinating Bureau in New Delhi in April 1986, the Chairman
of the meeting issued a statement renewing the urgent appeal
addressed by the Chairman of the Movement at the Seventh Summit
in New Delhi in 1983.
The emerging tensions in the Mediterranean region also engaged
the Movement during the period under review. Several meetings of
the Bureau were held during the year to consider the grave
situation facing the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
It issued statements expressing grave concern over the situation
in the region, the interception and forcible diversion by Israel
on 4 February 1986 of a Libyan civilian aircraft in international
air-space and the provocations and use of force against the
Jamahiriya, demanding urgent cessation of military operations.
The Ministerial Meeting of the Co-ordinating Bureau in New
Delhi held a special session and adopted a communique on 15 April
1986 noting with deep shock and profound indignation the armed
attacks of the United States of America against the Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya. In pursuance of the mandate of this Ministerial
Meeting of the Co-ordinating Bureau, the Foreign Ministers of
India, Cuba and Yugoslavia and representatives of the Congo,
Ghana and Senegal visited Tripoli and handed over to Colonel
Muammar Al-Qadhafi the text of the communique adopted by the
emergency Ministerial Meeting held on 15 April 1986 and
reiterated to him the Movement's solidarity with the Socialist
People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Also, as mandated by the New
Delhi Ministerial Meeting of the Co-ordinating Bureau, the
Ministerial Group delivered the text of the communique to the
President of the Security Council and the Secretary General of
the United Nations and expressed to them the concern of the
Movement and its solidarity with the Socialist People's Libyan
Arab Jamahiriya. The Group participated in the Security Council
session held in this context on 24 April 1986.
The Non-aligned Countries continued their efforts for the
establishment of a new international economic order and kept the
global economic situation, especially its impact on developing
countries, under constant review. As Chairman of the Movement,
India drew attention of the leaders of the Industrialised Seven
on the eve of the Tokyo Summit of May 1986 to the continuing
global economic crisis and the concern of the developing
countries at the increasing protectionist policies of the
At the Fifth Meeting of the Co-ordinating Countries of the
Action Programme for Economic Co-operation of the Non-aligned
Countries held in New Delhi in April 1986, the Chairman of NAM
and the Chairman of the Group of 77 presented a joint report on
harmonisation and co-ordination of the Caracas Programme of
Action of G-77 and the Action Programme for the Economic Co-
operation of the Non-aligned Countries. The Non-aligned Movement
was also represented at the Inter-governmental Follow-up and Co-
ordination Committee (IFCC) Meeting at Cairo in August 1986 with
a view to achieving such harmonisation.
Efforts were continued to accelerate progress in South-South
Co-operation and further the implementation of the Action
Programme for Economic Co-operation approved at the Seventh
Summit. A large number of meetings in different spheres were
organised to give effect to the recommendations of the Summit.
The Fourth Conference of the Non-aligned News agency Pool was
held in Havana from 17 to 22 March 1986 which adopted the Havana
Programme of Action.
The Inter-governmental Council in the field of Information met
at the Ministerial level in Dakar in January and undertook a
comprehensive review of the Programme of Action adopted at the
Jakarta Meeting of Information Ministers.
An expert-level meeting of Co-ordinating Countries in the
field of Sports was convened in Havana, Cuba, in February 1986.
This was followed by a Ministerial Meeting in the field of Sports
and Physical Education at Pyongyang in July 1986 which adopted a
Plan of Action for co-operation in this sphere.
An expert-level meeting of Co-ordinating Countries in the
sector of Health was held in Havana, Cuba, in March 1986.
The first meeting of the co-ordinators in the Environment
sectors was held in Nairobi in March 1986.
Madagascar hosted an expert-level meeting of co-ordinators in
the sector of Monetary and Financial Co-operation in March 1986
to consider the proposal of the President of Madagascar on
monetary and financial co-operation among the non-aligned and
other developing countries.
A Ministerial level meeting in the sphere of Education and
Culture was held in Havana in April 1986.
An expert-level meeting in the field of Food and Agriculture
was held in Rabat, Morocco, in July 1986 which adopted a
Programme of Action aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in food
India was actively associated with the Commonwealth activities
spanning a wide range of subjects under the Commonwealth
umbrella. The most important pre-occupation of the Commonwealth
during the period under review was the situation in Southern
Africa, in particular the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa
and the question of Namibian independence. In this context,
mention must be made of the Eminent Persons' Group (EPG)
established through consultations among the leaders of Australia,
the Bahamas, Canada, India, the UK, Zambia and Zimbabwe and the
Commonwealth Secretary General in accordance with the Nassau
Accord on Southern Africa and the London Review Meeting of
Commonwealth leaders during August 1986.
Sardar Swaran Singh, former Minister for External Affairs, was
nominated by the Prime Minister to the Eminent Persons' Group.
The Group visited South Africa and the Frontline States on
several occasions and undertook wide
ranging consultation with the representatives of the South
African Government, leaders of the Frontline States,
representatives of the liberation movements in Southern Africa as
well as a wide cross section of leaders of public opinion in
South Africa with a view to facilitating a dialogue for the
establishment of a non-racial and representative government in
that country. In its report to the Commonwealth leaders in June
1986, the EPG came to the unanimous conclusion that there was no
genuine intention on the part of the South African Government to
enter into negotiations with the representatives of the black
majority for the establishment of non-racial and representative
Government in South Africa. While drawing attention to the
prospect of a blood bath in South Africa, the report stressed the
need for meaningful sanctions by the international community
against South Africa.
The Prime Minister of India participated in the London Review
Meeting of the Commonwealth leaders held from 3 to 5 August 1986
under the terms of the Nassau Accord on Southern Africa. The
leaders of Australia, the Bahamas, Canada, India, Zimbabwe and
Zambia agreed on the immediate adoption of additional selective
measures against South Africa in addition to those outlined in
para 7 of the Nassau Accord to put further pressure on the
Pretoria regime. The UK, however, disassociated itself from this
agreement and confined itself to action against South Africa in
the Commonwealth context to a voluntary ban on new investments
and on promotion of tourism to South Africa and to the readiness
to abide by any EEC decisions regarding import of coal, iron,
steel and uranium from South Africa.
While Southern African issues were at the forefront of the
Commonwealth concerns, a large number of meetings were held in
other areas including Ministerial Meetings in the fields of
Finance, Law and Health. The meeting of Law Ministers in Harare
in July-August 1986 adopted the Commonwealth Scheme on Mutual
Assistance relating to Criminal Matters to facilitate
Commonwealth Co-operation to combat illicit drug trafficking etc.
At Nassau, the question of the vulnerability of small States
had emerged as a major concern of the Commonwealth in the wake of
the report of the consultative group established at the New Delhi
CHOGM (1983). In accordance
with the decision taken at the Nassau Summit, an official level
meeting was held in London in October 1986 to evolve a
Commonwealth Plan of Action to address the vulnerability of small
The biennial meeting of the Commonwealth senior officials was
held in Dhaka from 3 to 5 December 1986. The meeting reviewed
progress in the implementation of decisions of the Nassau Summit
in the run-up to the forthcoming Summit to be held in Vancouver
in October 1987. In the wide ranging exchange of views at Dhaka,
the issues of Southern Africa, Multilateral Trade Negotiations-
Prospects for the Uruguay Round, International Co-operation to
Combat Terrorism, the Problem of Drug Trafficking etc. figured
prominently. The meeting also reviewed progress under the
Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation (CFTC) as well as
other areas of Commonwealth Co-operation such as the Commonwealth
Foundation, the Commonwealth Youth Programme etc.
International Law: Developments and Activities
|During 1986, the Preparatory Commission for the International
Sea-bed Authority and the International Tribunal for the Law of
the Sea (PREPCOM) continued its work. Its Informal Plenary and
its four Special Commissions continued discussion of the subjects
allocated to them. It held its fourth session in two parts, viz.,
March-April 1986 in Kingston, Jamaica, and August-September 1986
in New York. During these meetings, the Chairman Mr. Warioba and
the Acting Chairman Mr. Jhingran of India continued their efforts
towards the resolution of conflicts relating to overlapping of
application areas. At its session in New York held in August-
September 1986, the Preparatory Commission as a whole endorsed an
understanding known as the Arusha Understanding between the four
pioneer investors, which sought to resolve the matter of
overlapping claims. This understanding was concluded in Arusha in
February 1986. Pursuant to the endorsement of the Arusha
Understanding all the four pioneer investors shall be submitting
revised co-ordinates of their application areas to the
Preparatory Commission to enable it to register application of
India, France, Japan and the USSR pending before it.
At its 41st session, the General Assembly of the United
Nations adopted a resolution on the Law of the Sea, whereby it
expressed, inter alia, satisfaction at the important decision of
the Preparatory Commission on 5 September 1986 which had created
conditions for the early implementation of the regime for pioneer
investors contained in Resolution II of the Third United Nations
Conference on the Law of the Sea, thus facilitating the process
of registration of applicants for pioneer investors status at the
next session of the Preparatory Commission.
On 23 December 1986, the Agreement between India and Burma on
the Delimitation of Maritime Boundary in the Andaman Sea, in the
Coco Channel and in the Bay of Bengal, was signed in Rangoon by
the Minister for External Affairs, Shri N.D. Tiwari, on behalf of
India and Minister for Foreign Affairs, U Ye Goung, on behalf of
The maritime boundary between the two countries in the Andaman
Sea, in the Coco Channel and in the Bay of Bengal is formed by a
single continuous line whose course has been determined on the
basis of the equi-distance principle. The Agreement stipulates
that the extension of the maritme boundary in the Andaman Sea up
to the maritime boundary tri-junction point between Burma, India
and Thailand will be done subsequently after the tri-junction
point is established by Agreement between the three countries.
The Agreement also provides that the extension of the Maritime
Boundary in the Bay of Bengal beyond 200 Nautical Miles shall be
The Agreement recognizes the sovereignty of each party over
all islands falling on its side of the maritime boundary,
including those that may emerge in the future. It further
recognizes the sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdictions of
the parties in their respective maritime zones in accordance with
the relevant provisions of the 1982 United Nations Convention on
the Law of the Sea. The Agreement is subject to ratification, and
the Instruments of Ratification are to be exchanged in New Delhi
as soon as possible.
The 41st session of the General Assembly of the United Nations
held elections for the International Law Commission (ILC) on 14
Fifty two candidates from five Regional Groups of the UN
contested the elections. For the Asian Group there were eleven
candidates for the seven seats available. Dr. P. S. Rao,
Director, Legal and Treaties Division, Ministry of External
Affairs, was elected as a member of the ILC.
The UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) held
its 19th session in New York from 23 June to 11 July 1986. India
participated in the session as a member of the Commission. Shri
P.K. Kartha, Law Secretary, was the Chairman of the session. The
Commission considered the draft Convention on International Bills
of Exchange and International Promissory Notes prepared by its
Working Group on International Negotiable Instruments. The draft
Convention on International Bills of Exchange and International
Promissory Notes finalised by the Commission shall be considered
again by the Working Group on International Negotiable
Instruments at its 15th session to be held in New York from 16 to
27 February 1987. The draft Convention finalised by this Working
Group shall then be considered by the Commission at its 20th
session to be held in Vienna from 20 July to 14 August 1987.
UNCITRAL Working Group on International Contract Practices
held its 10th session in Vienna from 1 to 12 December 1986. India
was a member of this Working Group and it participated in its
deliberations. The Indian delegate was elected Rapporteur of this
Working Group. The Working Group has prepared the text of a draft
Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport Terminals.
The operator is defined to mean a person who undertakes to take
in-charge goods involved in international carriage in order to
provide or toprocure transport related services with respect to
the goods in an area under his control. The Convention is
applicable only in relation to the goods which are involved in
international carriage. The draft text of the Convention on the
liability of the operators of transport terminals prepared by the
Working Group shall be considered again by it at its next session
in January 1988.
The Eighth session of UNCITRAL Working Group on the New
International Economic Order was held in Vienna from 17 to 27
March 1986. The session was attended by 27 member-States,
including India, and 28 observers. The Working, Group considered
draft chapters of the Legal Guide on Drawing up International
Contracts for Construction of Industrial Works. The guide
identifies the legal issues involved in such contracts and
suggests possible solutions to assist parties, in particular from
developing countries, in their negotiations.
The Legal Sub-Committee of the UN Committee on the Peaceful
Uses of Outer Space held its 25th session in Geneva from 24 March
to 11 April 1986 and considered legal issues relating to remote
sensing of the earth from space, nuclear power sources in outer
space, the definition and delimitation of outer space and the
Regarding remote sensing of the earth by satellite, a set of
15 draft principles, the product of 12 years work, were approved
by the Legal Sub-Committee.
On nuclear power sources, the Working Group reached consensus
on two principles relating to notification of re-entry and
assistance to States.
Regarding definition and delimitation of outer space, some
delegations expressed the view that for legal and practical
reasons it was urgent to have a clear demarcation between air-
space and outer space and that an international convention would
be the appropriate response. Those delegations said that a good
basis for further work was the Soviet Union proposal for a
multilateral agreement establishing the beginning of outer space
at an altitude not exceeding 110 km above sea-level and allowing
for innocent passage at lower altitudes through the air-space of
one State of another State's space object for the purpose of
reaching orbit or returning to earth.
Other countries took the view that the need for definition or
delimitation had not yet been established and that in any case
the location of a demarcation point would be arbitrary as no
clear scientific basis for fixing a particular altitude had been
Regarding the question of geostationary orbit, some
delegations described it as an integral part of outer space as a
whole. Equatorial countries stated that the orbit was a limited
natural resource calling for a special legal regime.
These countries felt that they should have special rights and
responsibilities with respect to the segments of the
geostationary orbit superjacent to their territories. Some other
delegations felt that the physical characteristics of the orbit
derived from earth as a whole. There was no basis for any State
or group of States to claim jurisdiction or preferential rights
over any part of the orbit. Still others stated that the Sub-
Committee should first determine the legal status of the
geostationary orbit and then draw other conclusions regarding its
The United Nations Conference on the Law of Treaties between
States and International Organisations or between International
Organisations was held at Vienna from 18 February to 21 March
1986 to consider the draft articles on the topic adopted by the
International Law Commission at its 34th session. It is
significant to note that in drafting the articles, the
International Law Commission had largely drawn on the provisions
of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties which
applies to treaties between States.
97 States including India participated in the Conference.
International inter-governmental organisations that have
traditionally been invited as observers at legal codification
conferences convened under the auspices of the United Nations
were also invited to participate in the Conference. The
Conference adopted the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
between States and International Organisations or between
International Organisations on 20 March 1986. The Convention is
subject to ratification by States and by Namibia, represented by
the United Nations Council for Namibia and to acts of formal
confirmation by international organisations. The Convention
completes the process on codification in the field of Law of
Treaties. On the whole, the Convention embodies the principle of
uniformity and non-discrimination between States and
international organisations as parties to a treaty.
Until the 40th session of the UN General Assembly, the Soviet
Union insisted upon drafting of a treaty on non-use of force in
international relations. The Western Group opposed this idea.
During the 41st session (1986), the USSR changed its position and
sought a mandate to draft a declaration as an intermediary step
leading to the drafting of a treaty. It did not insist for a
treaty on the subject. In the course of the debate in the Sixth
Committee on this
item, both sides stressed the need for a declaration on the non-
use of force in international relations. As a result, the draft
resolution on the item was adopted without a vote. The resolution
urges the Special Committee to complete a declaration on the
item. This is a good omen which is expected to lead to conclusion
of the work on the item in 1987.
At its 41st session, the Sixth Committee adopted a resolution
on the New International Economic Order (NIEO) co-sponsored by 14
States, including India, which requests the Secretary General to
seek proposals of member-States relating to the most appropriate
procedures to be adopted with regard to the consideration of the
analytical study prepared by the UNITAR as well as the
codification and progressive development of the principles and
norms of international law relating to the new international
economic order. The important development in the drafting of this
resolution was inclusion of the word 'codification' in operative
paragraph 3 as suggested by India, which would be very helpful
for the developing countries. It is pertinent to mention that
West European States have taken the stand that there was no right
such as right to development aid. The developing countries on the
other hand stressed the urgent need to establish a machinery in
order to implement the recommendations made by UNITAR.
A list of treaties and agreements signed by India during 1986
is given at Appendix II. 11/18/2008
|FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS|
|A South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC)
Ministerial Meeting of International Economic Issues was held in
Islamabad in April 1986, in pursuance of a decision of the First
SAARC Summit in Dhaka. The Islamabad Meeting had the aim of
formulating a joint position on important issues relating to the
objective of the establishment of a new International Economic
Order, and the improvement of the world trading systems under the
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and related issues.
The meeting adopted a Declaration on various major issues in the
areas of money, finance, trade, development, debt,
industrialisation, agriculture, etc., including a formulation on
the Multilateral Trade Negotiations (MTN) which proved very
useful in subsequent meetings where this issue was considered.
The USA and Japan, supported by other major industrialised
countries, initiated moves for launching a new round of
multilateral trade negotiations in GATT since 1983. The US has
urged that the proposed New Round includes new sectors such as
services, intellectual property and trade related aspects of
investment. The developing countries have opposed this proposal
as they maintained that services, etc., were not within the
jurisdiction of GATT. The Eighth Non-aligned Summit emphatically
declared that no linkage should be established between the access
for goods of developing countries and the concessions by them in
the area of services. A special Ministerial Meeting of the
Contracting Parties of GATT was held at Punta del Este in Uruguay
in September 1986. Consensus was achieved by both sides touching
some steps. The Ministerial Meeting accepted a two-track approach
to the new MTN round to be called the Uruguay Round. A
distinction has been drawn between negotiations on trade in goods
which are to be conducted by the Contracting Parties to the GATT
and the negotiations on trade in services which are to be
conducted under the authority of a separate Ministerial Meeting
independent of GATT. Thus developing countries agreed to engage
in multilateral negotiations on services but developed countries
accepted that they would not be in GATT. The Punta del Este
Meeting also recorded its determination to halt and reverse
protectionism and remove distortions in trade. The Declaration
took into account the serious difficulties faced by the commodity
markets and underlined the need for facilitating the debt ridden
countries to meet their obligations and the need for effective
action in the inter-related areas of money, finance and trade,
besides reaffirming the principle of differential and more
favourable treatment to benefit the developing countries without
any reciprocity in negotiations with developing countries.
Developing countries have become increasingly aware of the
advantage of fostering close economic co-operation among
themselves for mutual benefit. The concept of Economic Co-
operation among Developing Countries (ECDC) has been given added
urgency due to the continuing deterioration in the world economic
climate and the lack of progress in the North-South dialogue on
major issues relating to international co-operation and
development. A major development in ECDC was the second High
Level Meeting on Economic Co-operation among Developing Countries
in Cairo in August 1986, to review the progress under the Caracas
Programme of Action (CPA) in the last five years and to give
directions for future work for the rest of the decade to improve
the mechanisms available to the Group of 77 for the purpose. The
meeting reaffirmed the relevance of ECDC as an indispensible
means of restructuring international economic relationships for
the benefit of the developing countries and reiterated the
pivotal role of South-South Co-operation in their efforts to
improve their economies and underlined the political commitment
of all developing countries to the goal of collective self-
reliance and for that purpose elaborating and intensifying their
ECDC endeavours. The Cairo Meeting approved two documents :
(i)the Cairo Declaration on ECDC and
(ii)the Report of the High
Level Meeting. The Declaration, inter alia, recommended that the
scale of priorities be outlined for the selection of programmes
and projects to be implemented within a fixed time framework. It
was also decided to ensure that the ECDC becomes self-generating
and self-financing. The Report of the meeting reviewed the
implementation of the Caracas Programme of Action, supporting
mechanisms, and the ECDC Trust Fund. The next session of the
Inter-Governmental Follow-up and Co-ordination Committee (IFCC)
would undertake a sectoral review of the CPA with a view to
further its implementation. A key initiative under the CPA is the
Global System of Trade Preferences (GSTP).
The establishment of the Global System of Trade Preferences is
perhaps the most important ECDC initiative taken. India hosted a
Ministerial Meeting on the GSTP in Delhi in July 1985 where the
proposal received significant political impetus. The Meeting
agreed on a firm time-table for the launching of GSTP.
Subsequently, an Inter-Ministerial Level Meeting was held in
Brasilia in May 1986, where the negotiating phase of the GSTP was
India continued its efforts to promote and enhance economic
and technical co-operation withd eveloping countries in the
spirit of South-South Co-operation, to which India remains firmly
committed. Apart from providing assistance under multilateral
schemes such as the Colombo Plan and the Special Commonwealth
African Assistance Plan, bilateral assistance to developing
countries has been provided through the Indian Technical and
Economic Co-operation (ITEC) Programme, operated by the Ministry
of External Affairs. The ITEC Programme launched in 1964 with an
outlay of Rs. 4.46 lakhs has steadily been expanding over the
years to Rs. 9 crores in 1986-87 to cover nearly 60 countries in
Asia, Africa and Latin America.
The main forms of technical co-operation under the ITCE
Programme are providing training in India in various fields,
deploying Indian experts abroad, undertaking feasibility and
techno-economic studies, sponsoring visits of experts
delegations, organising workshops and special training programmes
and the supply of equipment.
As in the previous years, during 1986-87, 700 slots were
earmarked for nominees of developing countries for training in
specialised Indian Institutes and nearly 150 Indian experts have
been placed in developing countries on short or long term
Some of the other ITEC activities during 1986-87 have been :
the visit of a two-member team of the National Council for Cement
and Building Materials to Panama to provide consultancy in the
manufacture of cement using lime and rice husk; the visit of an
official techno-economic delegation to Nicaragua in April 1986
for identification of specific projects for Indian assistance;
the visit of a three-member Medical Specialists team (Group-I) to
the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen for the treatment of
patients; and two training programmes
in Vietnam of two weeks duration each conducted by a team from
the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade. A six-week training
programme in Anguilla was conducted by a two-member team of the
Institute of Secretariat Training and Management. Two delegations
from Vietnam visited India for identifying joint research
programmes in rice cultivation and in buffalo breeding. Two high-
level delegations came from Afghanistan for gaining familiarity
in the field of Small Scale Industry and in Indian banking
methods. A two-member team from Mauritius visited museums in the
North, East and South to study and submit a report detailing
requirements for the ethnic museum to be set up in Mauritius.
Afghanistan, Mauritius and Vietnam were provided assistance
within the framework of the joint commissions with these
countries. A Rural Technology Training-cum-Demonstration Centre
has been set up in Dakar under the auspices of the Economic
Commission for Africa (ECA).
The Ministry of External Affairs also assisted foreign
governments in recruiting Indian experts on a bilateral basis. It
also made its contribution towards the promotion of Indian
economic interests through its representation in bodies such as
the Inter-Ministerial Joint Venture Committee, the EXIM Bank, the
Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation (ECGC), the Federation of
Indian Engineering Organisation (FIEO), the Indian Institute of
Foreign Trade (IIFT), the Project and Equipment Corporation
(PEC), the Overseas Construction Council of India (OCCI), the
Educational Consultants India Ltd. (EdCIL) and the Hospital
Services Consultancy Corporation India Ltd. (HSCCIL).
|POLICY, PLANNING AND RESEARCH|
|During the year under review, the Policy Planning Division
continued to maintain contact with the Area Study Centres of
various Universities where scholars are involved in research and
studies of international relations. It also participated in the
meetings of the Directors of the Area Study Centres. In order to
promote greater interaction between the Ministry of External
Affairs and academic institutions, the officers of the Ministry
took part in a number of scholarly seminars and conferences
relating to foreign policy and international affairs. The
Division has fully utilised its modest Budget grant by extending
financial assistance to various organisations/associations for
organising seminars/conferences on international affairs.
A seminar on "Strategic Environment into the 1990s" was
jointly organised by the Ministry of External Affairs and the
Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA) from 3 to 5
January 1987. The seminar brought together, in close interaction,
senior officials from the concerned Ministries/Departments. The
Division also jointly organised a workshop on "Security
Environment of South Asia" with the Jawaharlal Nehru University
(JNU) from 17 to 19 January 1987. This workshop is the first of
its kind and should prove to be stimulating.
Among the other seminars and symposia, which were partly
financed by the Policy Planning Division, particular mention may
be made of the following:
(i) "Second Annual Conference of the World Women
Parliamentarians for Peace," organised by the W.W.P.P., from 2 to
3 April 1986 at New Delhi.
(ii) Seminar on "NAM & Asian Peace," organised by the Indian
Council for Regional Affairs, on 12 April 1986 at New Delhi.
(iii) "Indo-FRG Seminar" organised by the Institute for
Defence Studies and Analyses, from 5 to 8 May 1986 at Srinagar.
(iv) Seminar on "Nation Building and Development Process :
Role of Communication," organised by Indian Institute of Mass
Communications, in September-October 1986 at New Delhi.
(v) One-day Seminar on International Year of Peace, held in
New Delhi in October 1986, and four Seminars on International
Year of Peace held in cities outside Delhi, organised by the
Indian Federation of United Nations Associations, in November-
(vi) Two-day Seminar on International Year of Peace, organised
by India International Centre, from 14 to 15 November 1986 at New
(vii) Afro-Asian Conference organised by Indian Society for
Afro-Asian Studies, from 14 to 19 November 1986 at New Delhi.
(viii) Asian Regional Seminar, organised by the Indian
Federation of United Nations Associations, held in November-
December 1986 at New Delhi.
(ix) Seminar on "International Global Development," organised
by the Society for International Development (SID) Chapter of
Government of Rajasthan, in December 1986 at Jaipur.
The Historical Division provides research input into the
working of the Ministry. The Division has prepared a number of
policy papers and background notes on subjects of concern and
special interest to India in the external domain. In preparing
the studies, the Division interacted with other divisions of the
Ministry as well as with other Ministries and Departments in
order to impart a multiple perspective to the studies. As in the
past, several such studies were circulated to Missions abroad and
territorial divisions of the Ministry as well as to other
concerned departments and agencies of the Government.
The Historical Division is also responsible for providing
historical and technical input in boundary questions. The
depiction of India's external boundary in the maps on India
published abroad are monitored by the Division and cases of wrong
depiction of the external boundary of India are taken up with the
concerned organisations/countries to ensure remedial action.
As in earlier years, the Historical Division co-ordinated the
work relating to the Annual Report of the Ministry.
To support the research efforts a well stocked Library exists
which has over one hundred thousand books and documents in its
collection. During 1986 alone 1400 books, 300 maps, 650 pamphlets
and 31 reels of microfilm were added. The Library subscribes to
563 periodicals (447 foreign and 116 Indian) besides 37 daily
newspapers (24 foreign and 13 Indian). Back-files of The Hindu
(Madras), Bangladesh Observer (Dhaka), Daily Review, Izvestia and
Pravda (Moscow), Dawn (Karachi), Pakistan Times (Rawalpindi),
Egyptian Gazette (Cairo), Guardian (Rangoon), International
Herald Tribune (Hong Kong), Le Monde (Paris), Renmin Ribao, China
Daily (Beijing), Sun (Colombo), Suna (Khartoum), Standard
(Nairobi) and The Times (London) are being maintained.
From April 1986 the Library has initiated a computerisation of
Documentation/Bibliographic Service. All new documents-books,
periodicals, articles etc.-are being fed into an in-house
microcomputer to create database on Foreign Affairs.
The Library is equipped with a microcomputer, a microfilm
reader printer and a plain paper photocopier. The Library
regularly issues a monthly Chronicle of Events, a Foreign Affairs
Documentation Bulletin and an annotated monthly list of books
added to the Library.
|During the year under review, the External Publicity (XP)
Division made concerted efforts to project the various dimensions
of our foreign policy, promote a better understanding of India's
economic achievements, industrial and technological potential,
cultural heritage and democratic institutions, and also to
counter anti-India propaganda by hostile elements. Emphasis was
laid on dissemination of information-audio-visual, printed and by
personal briefings and contacts-in a persuasive manner to achieve
optimum results. The reportage on India in the international
media was generally positive.
The foreign press in Delhi was briefed regularly about India's
policy on various issues. Our Missions abroad also kept in
regular touch with the foreign media to brief them about the
current developments in India and provide them with factual
material on the problems being faced by us. To that end, the
XP'Division expanded its network of communications to keep our
Missions informed on matters of contemporary interest in India in
diverse fields through twice daily transmissions. During the year
under review, 19 more Missions were provided twice daily
transmissions, thus increasing the total number of Missions/posts
covered on a daily basis with information bulletins to 73.
Besides, 46 Missions receive bi-weekly press cables and 16 posts
receive regular information bulletins by diplomatic bag.
The XP Division undertook the printing and publication of high
quality publicity literature in India depicting different facets
of India's national life in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese,
German and Arabic. These publications have been widely circulated
by our Missions abroad and have been found to be extremely
popular and useful.
Apart from the regular publication of a fortnightly magazine
Indian and Foreign Review, its French counterpart Courrier de
L'Inde and the monthly Foreign Affairs Record, the XP Division
brought out about two dozen elegant publications-some of a
regular nature like the Prime Minister's statements on foreign
policy, some others of a general nature and some relating to
specific occasions to achieve optimum results. For instance,
during the year under review, special publications were brought
out on the eve of the Ministerial Meeting of the Non-aligned Co-
ordination Bureau in April, the Conference on Namibia in July at
Vienna, the Eighth Non-aligned Summit at Harare in September, the
Frankfurt Book Fair in September with India as the theme, and the
SAARC Summit at Bangalore in November. Books and booklets
describing India's role as the Chairman of the Non-aligned
Movement and India's consistent support to the struggle against
Colonialism and Apartheid in Southern Africa were also printed
and widely distributed abroad.
The External Publicity Division is placing increasing emphasis
on the circulation of audio-visual material by Indian Missions
abroad. All Indian Missions are now being equipped with
Television sets and Video Cassette Recorders. Indian Missions
abroad have also been provided with Video Libraries depicting
India's agricultural, industrial, scientific and technological
progress and different facets of our cultural heritage, apart
from topics of contemporary interest. In close co-operation with
Doordarshan, the External Publicity Division is regularly sending
a Television Capsule entitled "India Magazine" every week to all
our Missions abroad about developments in India. These Capsules
have been widely welcomed and are being extensively used by the
National Television Stations in a number of countries for viewing
by their public. These programmes are also being lent by our
Missions abroad to individuals, cultural organisations and
educational institutions for wider impact. These programmes have
proved to be extremely useful in catering to the needs of the
Indian community and the people of Indian origin abroad. They are
being used extensively by the Indian ethnic Television Stations
in the USA and in Canada and are being viewed not only by the
Indian community but also by other foreign expatriates.
Keeping in view the increasing popularity of Indian Films
across the world, the XP Division has acquired, in nine months
ending December 1986, twelve high quality feature films viz.,
Janam, Mohan Joshi Hazir Ho, Aghat, Holi, New Delhi Times, Anant
Yatra, Yahan Wahan and Bazaar in Hindi,
Mukhamukham and Elipathayapa in Malayalam, Accident in Kanada,
and Malgudi Days in English. After getting the films sub-titled
in English, Spanish, French and Arabic, as the case may be, these
have been sent to our Missions abroad for circulation and
screening on the Mission's premises. The XP Division also
provided our Missions with documentary films produced by the
Films Division covering different aspects of India's national
life. Film weeks were held in Kathmandu, Colombo, Dhaka, Rangoon,
Seoul, Addis Ababa, Algiers, Kinshasa, Brussels, Lisbon, Vienna
and Bogota during 1986.
All our Missions abroad have been equipped with photo
libraries containing photographic slides on different facets of
developments in India. The Missions are also being regularly
supplied with photographs of current developments in India.
During nine months ending in December 1986, 2000 news-photographs
were sent to our Missions abroad. Our Missions in Rangoon, Seoul,
Damascus, Mahe, Belgrade, Athens, San Francisco, Lima, Panama,
Santiago, and Canberra also held photographic exhibitions during
the nine months ending 31 December 1986.
The XP Division continued to maintain close liaison with the
media representatives from abroad, and the resident foreign and
Indian media representatives accredited to the Press Information
Bureau and rendered them assistance in doing their work. During
the 9 months ending 31 December 1986, 31 visiting media
representatives participated in the coverage of the Ministerial
Meeting of the Co-ordination Bureau of Non-aligned Countries in
New Delhi in April 1986, 96 from the participating countries (Sri
Lanka 15, Pakistan 28, Bhutan 5, Bangladesh 19, Maldives 6 and
Nepal 23) for the SAARC Summit of the Heads of State/Government
in Bangalore in November 1986 and about 200 for the visit of
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
(CPSU) later that month. In addition, about 300 resident foreign
and Indian mediamen participated in these three important events,
when the XP Division, with the assistance of other Government
Departments, set up Media Centres to give them full facilities,
including photo opportunities, supply of transcripts of speeches,
timely briefings, interviews with high dignitaries and timely
transmission of their despatches. Provision was made for direct
telecast of the proceedings of the SAARC Summit at Bangalore for
the benefit of the people of the participating countries.
On the invitation of the Government of India, 38 mediamen from
different countries paid a visit to India as guests of the XP
Division, and another 20 were provided local hospitality or
rendered assistance otherwise.
During the year under review, the XP Division made complete
logistical arrangements, with the help of our Missions abroad,
for the media parties which accompanied the Prime Minister of
India on his visits to Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola and Tanzania in
May; Mauritius in July; London, Mexico and the Eighth Non-aligned
Movement (NAM) Summit at Harare in August; and Indonesia,
Australia, New Zealand and Thailand in October. Logistical
arrangements were also made during the visit of the President of
India to Nepal in July 1986, to Yugoslavia, Greece and Poland in
October-November; and that of the Vice President of India to
Botswana in October. On these occasions, press kits and audio-
visual material were sent to our Missions in the countries
concerned for a pre-publicity build-up. Similarly, the XP
Division made logistical arrangements including Press Conferences
for visiting foreign dignitaries and the accompanying media
The XP Division continued to subscribe to the feature news
services of news agencies and commissioned special articles on
the occasion of the Republic Day and the Independence Day for
dissemination abroad. The publication of special supplements on
India by foreign newspapers/journals/magazines were facilitated.
With the assistance of the Ministry of Home Affairs, the XP
Division continued to regularly brief our Missions abroad on the
developments in the Punjab and to counter extremist propaganda
against India. Our Missions abroad have adopted a multi-pronged
approach, including keeping in close touch with the resident
Indian communities to brief them regularly about the developments
in India including the situation in the Punjab, with a view to
isolating the hostile elements. Selected Missions abroad are also
being provided with information from the Punjab Government about
the developments in the Punjab.
|The activities of the Council reached a new high during the
year 1986-87. Cultural delegations were sponsored by the Council
to tour different regions of the world. During the period under
review, the Council also provided an opportunity to Indian
audiences to witness some of the leading performing groups from
The Council undertook extensive preparations for the Festival
of India and other cultural manifestations in the Soviet Union,
Sweden and Switzerland scheduled for 1987-88.
Panels were set up for filling vacancies in respect of
Professors and Instructors of Hindi, Sanskrit, Buddhism and
classical Music in foreign Universities and in Indian Cultural
During the period under review, the Council presented over 62
Cultural Programmes, including those presented for the benefit of
visiting foreign dignitaries, such as King Hussain of Jordan, and
Mr. Demichev, Vice President of the USSR, as well as for major
International Conferences. Special programmes were also arranged
at Bangalore for the functions hosted by the Prime Minister, the
External Affairs Minister and the Foreign Secretary for the Heads
of State and Government and other delegates for the SAARC Summit.
The Council sponsored the visit of over 33 cultural troupes
and separately provided travel assistance to a number of artistes
to perform abroad in 1986-87. These included troupes sent out to
participate in the Adelaide Festival in Australia, the Cervantes
Festival in Mexico, the Seoul Asian Games and the Hydra Arts
Festival in Athens.
The Council arranged over 46 eminent Indians including
scholars, academicians, artistes, playwrights, critics and
journalists to travel abroad and present different facets of
India's culture before international audiences.
As the official agency entrusted with the task of implementing
India's Cultural Exchange Programmes (CEP) with foreign
countries, particularly in the field of performing arts, the
Council received a large number of performing troupes during the
year. These included the Bamberg Symphony Orchestra from the FRG,
the Soviet Circus, the Stanislavsky Ballet troupe and the
Kransnoyarsk Dance Group from the USSR, the Volos Theatre from
Greece, Folk Dance Troupe from Bulgaria, and the Ramayana Ballet
from Kampuchea etc.
The Council received over 50 distinguished personalities
including scholars, academicians, writers, poets, painters and
sculptors from abroad.
The Council also organised over 20 exhibitions at home and
abroad. Some of the important ones included a photographic
exhibition on the life and work of Fujii Guruji from Japan, a
Polish Graphics exhibition (April-May 1986), an exhibition of
Mexicans Bark Painting (December 1986) and for the first time in
India, an exhibition of 60 original graphics of Pablo Picasso
from the Museum of Spain. The Council also sponsored the work of
artistes abroad, including an exhibition of painting and
sculptures by Shri P.T. Reddy (May-June 1986), an exhibition of
Contemporary Indian paintings for display in Frankfurt during the
Frankfurt Book Fair from 1 to 8 October 1986 and an exhibition of
Indian Musical Instruments in China (September 1986).
The Council awarded 30 scholarships to foreign students under
its Cultural Scholarship Scheme for 1986-87. It also disbursed
scholarships on behalf of other agencies of the Government of
The Council organised a meeting of the Foreign Students
Advisors in July 2, 1986 to discuss the problems being faced by
the foreign students in India. Thereafter steps have been taken
to upgrade and streamline the entire range of facilities
available for foreign students.
During the period under review, the Council organised four
study tours for foreign students to places like, Bhopal, Ajanta,
Ellora, Bombay, Goa, Alwar, Chittorgarh, Calcutta and the
Sunderbans. Receptions were hosted for foreign students on the
occasion of the Indian Independence Day, the Republic Day and the
Foreign Student's Day at Headquarters and in Regional Offices and
in Missions abroad. The Council also organised Orientation
Courses for foreign students and for IFS Probationers.
The Council continued to publish six quarterly journals
namely, 'Indian Horizons,' 'Africa Quarterly,' 'Gagnanchal'in
Hindi,' Thaqfatual Hind' in Arabic, 'Recontre Avec L'Inde'in
French and 'Paples de la India,'in Spanish. However, the Council
has shifted from letter press to offset printing of these
journals. A special issue of 'Gagnanchal' was brought out in the
last quarter of 1986 on Maithilisaran Gupt on the occasion of his
birth centenary. In addition to these journals, the Council also
undertook the publications of art books, the Azad Memorial
Lectures and books in literature and other aspects of Indian
The Council collaborated with the Indira Gandhi National
Centre for Arts in organizing a seminar on 'Inner & Outer
Space'from 18 to 22 November 1986 at New Delhi. The Council also
organised during 24 February-5 March 1987 a seminar on 'Tradition
: a Continual Renewal' involving over 40 foreign participants.
For promoting a greater awareness and appreciation of the
Indian cultural heritage abroad, the Council has established
Indian Cultural Centres in Suva (Fiji), Georgetown (Guyana) and
Paramaribo (Surinam). A Cultural Window has also been in
operation in Bonn (FRG) since 1984. Indian Music, Dance and
language are taught by Indian teachers posted by the Council at
these Centres. These Centres also maintain libraries and reading
rooms and organise lectures, symposia, exhibitions, essay
competitions, staging of plays, screening of films, cultural
evenings, publications of news bulletins besides developing
contacts with a wide cross section of local citizens including
students, teachers, intellectuals and cultural personalities. The
Council has decided to open new Cultural Centres at Port Louis in
Mauritius and at Jakarta in Indonesia during 1987-88.
The Council deputes Visiting Professors of Indology, Languages
and allied subjects in foreign universities. Presently there are
visiting Professors of Hindi on deputation to universities in
Romania, Poland, Bulgaria, the GDR and Mexico; a visiting
Professor of Sanskrit in the university of Mexico; an associate
Professor of Tamil in the university of Poland; and visiting
Professors of Sociology and Modern Indian History in the
universities of the West Indies and Indonesia respectively. The
deputation of visiting Professors to Thailand, Turkey, Poland and
China is being finalised in consultation with the receiving
Under the guidelines issued by the Central Cultural Committee
of the Government of India in 1971, the Foreign Cultural Centres
and Libraries in places other than those in which foreign
missions had diplomatic or consular representation, will be
managed and supervised by the ICCR. In pursuance of this the
management of British Libraries and the House of Soviet Culture
at Trivandrum and the supervision of the Max Muller Bhavans and
the Alliances Francaise in India have been undertaken by the
Council. During the year the ICCR administered the British
Libraries located at Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Hyderabad,
Lucknow, Patna, Pune, Ranchi and Trivandrum and the House of
Soviet Culture at Trivandrum.
The Council functions as the Secretariat for the Indo-US Sub-
Commission on Education and Culture. The Joint Media Sub-
Committee and the Joint
Museum Sub-Committee of the Sub-Commission held their meetings in
Bangalore and New Delhi respectively from 5 to 10 January 1987
wherein the work programme for 1987-88 was finalised. The Sub-
Commission is expected to meet on 16-17 March 1987 at Austin,
Texas USA to consider the recommendations of the two Sub-
The meetings of the General Assembly of the Council were held
in April 1986 and February 1987. The Council set up a
Departmental Promotion Committee in February 1987 for the purpose
of confirmation/promotion of officials. Recruitment of staff on
both regular and contractual basis were done to meet the
expanding work of the Council. Computerisation of some of the
activities of the Council has also been undertaken. The Council
undertook upgraded/renovated facilities such as Auditorium stage,
construction of parking lot, construction of electric sub-station
for un-interrupted power supply for presentation of cultural
programmes, and installation of an electronic telephone exchange
The Council has decided to set up a Centre for Africa and a
Centre for South and South East Asian Cultural Studies within the
ICCR. These are expected to commence functioning in April 1987.
The Council procured and despatched art objects, musical
instruments and publications to various Indian Missions on
request. It also despatched over 100 sets of musical instruments
to Mauritius. The Council also despatched busts of Mahatma Gandhi
to San Marino and Madrid, in Spain and a bust of Indira Gandhi to
Port Louis, in Mauritius.
The Council organised the Azad Memorial Lecture on 23 January
1987. The lecture was delivered by Dr. Robert Mugabe, Prime
Minister of Zimbabwe at a function held in the Teen Murti
Auditorium which was attended among others by Prime Minister
The Council provides the Secretariat for the Jawaharlal Nehru
Award for International Understanding. The award for 1985 was
on the late Mr. Olaf Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden and was
presented at a special ceremony held in New Delhi on 27 January
During the year under review the Council assisted in the
organisation of "Africa Day" on 2 May. The 45th Anniversary of
the UN Day was celebrated at the Council's premises on 24
October. A special stamp was released on the occasion. The
Council organised the "International Solidarity Day with the
Palestinian People," on 29 November at Azad Bhavan. The Council
also observed the death anniversary of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad on
19 February 1987.
Persons of Indian origin have settled in many countries all
over the world. Indian nationals are also travelling and residing
abroad on an increasing scale. The Indians Overseas are
increasingly being recognised as a potential bridge of
understanding and co-operation. They in turn have evinced greater
interest in developing their cultural and economic ties with
India to which the Government of India has responded positively
with due regard for the mutual benefit of India and of the host
country. Therefore, while it is the consistent policy of the
Government of India that persons of Indian origin who have taken
the nationality of the countries of their domicile should
identify themselves with the country of their adoption, the
Government of India continues to respond to their need to
maintain cultural contacts with India and remains alive to their
interest and welfare. The Government of India also takes due
responsibility for the protection of the rights and interests of
Indian citizens living abroad.
The Indian Missions abroad are the first point of contact for
the Indians Overseas. Our Missions are frequently called upon to
respond to queries or demands on a wide range of subjects. The
Ministry of External Affairs is trying to play an active role in
collecting and disseminating information to our Missions.
Building up the database is being done through greater
interaction with other Departments/Ministries of the Government.
Our Missions have been requested to maintain close contacts with
the Indians Overseas and to render effective service to them. The
Government of India has set up a Consultative Committee for Non-
Resident Indians (NRIs). This Committee comprises of
representatives from the Ministries of Finance, Commerce,
Industry and External Affairs, the India Investment Centre,
representatives of trade and industry and 12 NRIs from different
regions of the world who will be represented by rotation. Through
this Committee, the NRIs interested in investment and
collaboration in India will be in a better position to represent
their views to the Government. This Ministry has been actively
participating in the meetings of the Committee.
|During 1986-87, the Heads of Missions of the following 18
countries left India on completion of their tenure :
Argentina, Philippines, Peru, Brazil, Uganda, Oman, Canada,
Spain, Ireland, Bangladesh, Ecquador, Burma, Afghanistan, Zambia,
Egypt, Belgium, Nicaragua and Norway.
During the same period, the Heads of the following 29
countries presented their credentials to the President of India :
Bhutan, Rwanda, Yugoslavia, Kampuchea, Iraq, Norway,
Argentina, Zaire, Kuwait, Peru, Uganda, Liberia, Ireland, Spain,
Oman, Bangladesh, Fiji, Philippines, Canada, Palestine Liberation
Organisation, South-West African People's Organisation, East
European Community, Afghanistan, Burma, Belgium, Guatemala, the
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Saharawi Arab Democratic
Republic and Zambia.
India opened its first Resident Mission in Angola.
Liberia opened its first Resident Mission in New Delhi on 21
May 1986, Brigadier General Rudolf F. Kolaco assumed charge as
Ambassador of Liberia on 12 August 1986.
The Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic also opened its first
Resident Mission in New Delhi. Mr. Aliyen Habib Kentaoue assumed
charge as Ambassador of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic on
19 January 1986.
A list of Heads of State/Government who visited India during
1986 is at Appendix XVII.
|PASSPORT AND CONSULAR SERVICES|
|As part of its continuing efforts to render better and faster
service to the public in Passport Offices, further streamlining
of procedures, simplification of formalities and rationalisation
of the organisational set-up was undertaken during 1986-87.
There are now 20 Passport Offices all over India under the
administrative control of the Ministry of External Affairs. These
offices cover almost all the major States. A statement showing
the number of passports/miscellaneous services, applications
received and the number of yassports issued/miscellaneous
services rendered during the period January to December 1986 is
given at Appendix VI. During the calendar year 1986, these
offices earned a total revenue of Rs. 9.04 crores towards
passport/miscellaneous service fee and incurred an expenditure of
Rs. 3.36 crores towards office establishment resulting in a net
revenue of Rs. 5.68 crores to the Government. A detailed
statement of revenue and expenditure is given at Appendix VII.
While the Passport Office, Vijaywada (Andhra Pradesh) was
closed with effect from 1 May 1986 followed by its merger with
the Passport Office, Hyderabad, it has since been decided to
close the Passport Office, Jalandhar shortly, followed by its
merger with the Regional Passport Office, Chandigarh. It has also
been decided by this Ministry to take over passport work from the
Goa Administration. The Passport Office at Panaji under the
control of this Ministry is likely to start functioning by the
beginning of the financial year 1987-88.
The annual All India Passport Officers' Conference was held at
New Delhi from 4 to 6 December 1986 with a view to monitoring the
implementation of the
policy and procedural aspects, besides examining the feed back
from the Passport Offices towards the practical aspects of the
implementation of the procedures etc. Other participants in the
Conference were representatives from the Ministry of Home
Affairs, the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of Law, the
Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, the Department of Electronics
and the India Security Press, Nasik. The Conference was
inauguarted by Shri K. Natwar Singh, Minister of State in the
Ministry of External Affairs, who gave the guidelines for prompt
services in the Passport Offices. Shri N. D. Tiwari, Minister for
External Affairs, who addressed the closing session, emphasized
the need for the quicker issue of passports, qualitative and
courteous service to the general public, besides attending to
their grievances. The Minister for External Affairs also
impressed upon the need to keep the office premises and its
surroundings neat and clean.
During the year 1986 intensive physical inspections of various
Passport Offices was carried out on 21 occasions by the
Inspectors from the Ministry as a sequel to which bottlenecks at
various stages were spotted and, thereafter, remedial measures
taken. Consequently, there has been considerable improvement in
quality and in the service to the public, particularly in
removing various short-comings existing hitherto in certain
Special emphasis has also been laid on the training of the
personnel from the Central Passport Organisation in various
subjects like Cash & Accounts, Administration, Public Relations,
Vigilance matters etc. in the Institute for Secretarial Training
Management (ISTIM) New Delhi, besides practical training to some
staff members in computer work by making arrangements with the
Computerisation in Passport Offices
In pursuance of the Government's decision to computerise
Passport Offices in India in a phased manner, computers have
since been installed in the Passport Offices at Delhi and Madras,
which have become functional. Computer installation work in
Passport Offices at Cochin and Bombay is in progress and
computers are likely to be operative at these stations also in
the near future. It is proposed to undertake computerisation of
another 12 Passport Offices in India during 1987-88.
Steps taken to streamline the Procedures for issue of Passports
With a view to expediting the issue of passports without
undermining the security aspects, the categories exempted from
the requirements of identity and security verification have been
reviewed and further enlarged.
The policy regarding (a) grant of passport facilities to
Indian nationals seeking asylum abroad and (b) issue of duplicate
passports in lieu of lost passports has been reviewed and
comprehensive guidelines issued to all Indian Missions and Posts
abroad to deal with such cases, in a cautious but pragmatic
Complaints and Grievances Cell in Passport Offices
During the year 1986, approximately 1725 cases of complaints
regarding delay in issue of fresh passports or renewal thereof
were received against various Passport Offices in India by the
Complaints & Grievances Cell of the Ministry of External Affairs.
Out of the total, 872 complaints were settled by issuing
passports and rendering the services applied for. The reasons for
delay were generally either non-receipt or delayed receipt of
police/CID reports, besides non-compliance of formalities by the
applicants themselves. The applicants are kept informed of the
reasons for delay in issuance of passports to the extent
Appeals against refusal of issue of Passports
55 cases of appeal against the order of impounding or refusal
of passport facilities to Indian nationals by the Passport
Offices were received. In about 25 cases, Joint Secretary (CPB)
and Chief Passport Officer heard the appeals and passed orders
allowing or rejecting the requests. Other cases of appeal are in
the process of consideration.
About 47 cases of forgery of the entries in the passports or
visas were reported to the Ministry. Investigations are being
made in all these cases of forgeries.
240 applications were received for issue of certificates of
Identity to Stateless persons, most of them being Tibetan
refugees. In most cases, Certificates of Identity have been
issued to the applicants in consultation with the Territorial
Division and the Ministry of Home Affairs. Only a few cases
received recently are pending disposal, but are in the process of
being disposed of.
Introduction of revised Passport Application Forms
On the recommendation of the All India Passport Officers'
Conference held during 1984, all the passport application forms
were revised by a committee to make them computer-compatible. The
old application forms were substituted by the revised computer-
compatible application forms by the Passport (Second Amendment)
Rules, 1985 and were introduced on priced basis in all the
Passport Offices in India with effect from 1 September 1986 and
in the Indian Missions with effect from the date of receipt of
During 1986, a total of 2711 cases of deportation came to the
notice of the Ministry. Of these as many as 2564 were from United
Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, about 352 Indians were
evacuated from Aden (PDRY) at Government cost in January 1986 due
to the outbreak of Civil War there. Indian Missions/Posts abroad
repatriated 227 persons who were in distress in foreign countries
besides extending financial assistance, wherever necessary.
Cases of 172 Indian nationals arrested in various countries
(excluding cases in the neighbouring countries), were reported to
the Government. All possible Consular assistance was given to
them and where possible, their release and return to India were
facilitated by the Missions concerned.
782 cases of the death of Indian nationals abroad came to the
notice of the Ministry and action was initiated to claim wage
dues, death compensation for the heirs of the deceased through
respective Indian Missions. 169 cases of the death of foreign
nationals in India were also handled.
Consular Attestation of Documents
1,22,303 documents submitted by the public for production to
foreign authorities were attested/authenticated by the Consular
section. The procedure for authentication of documents, which was
streamlined so as to enable the persons concerned to get back all
the documents the same day, was found to be working to the
satisfaction of the public.
Consular Convention between India & USSR
A fresh Consular Convention to regulate consular relations
between India and the USSR was signed on 27 November 1986 during
General Secretary Gorbachev's visit to India. The previous
Consular Convention, which was signed on 29 November 1973 expired
on 30 July 1986 but was kept in operation through exchange of
Notes verbal between the Government of India and the Government
of the USSR. The present convention will enter into force on the
30th day after the exchange of instruments of ratification by the
two contracting parties. It will remain in force for a period of
5 years and will be extendable for another 5 years.
Extradition Treaties with various Countries
Talks are in progress for entering into an Extradition Treaty
with the UK, and an Extradition Treaty and Agreement on Judicial
Assistance in criminal matters with the Federal Republic of
Germany (FRG). An Extradition Treaty was signed between India and
Canada in February 1987.
Regional Meetings of Consular Officers
A Regional Consular Officers meeting was held in London from
15 to 17 December 1986. It was attended by Consular Officers from
our Missions in France, Italy, Sweden, Belgium, the FRG and the
A similar Regional Meeting for the Gulf region was held in
Dubai from 20 to 21 December 1986. It was attended by Consular
Officers from our Missions in the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Iran and
Kuwait. The Head of the Consular, Passport and Visa Division of
the Ministry addressed these two regional conferences. The
objective of the regional conference is to study the problems
facing the Visa and Consular Affairs in rendering smooth,
efficient and prompt services to the Indian and Foreign
During the period under report several important changes have
been brought about in Visa matters. The Visa application form has
been simplified considerably with a view to facilitate and
attract tourism. The Visa fees in respect of nationals of nearly
50 countries have been reviewed and brought at par with the fees
being charged by these countries from Indian nationals. Similar
exercise in respect of many other countries is under active
consideration. The requirement of Visa for travel to India for
the Danish diplomatic as well as official passport holders has
been dispensed with on reciprocal basis. Like-wise discussions
were also held with certain West European countries for obtaining
liberal Visa facilities for Indian nationals on reciprocal basis.
A joint delegation from the Ministry of External Affairs and the
Ministry of Home Affairs at the level of Joint Secretaries
visited London and Dubai during December 1986 in order to monitor
the functional aspects of Visa sections in both the Indian
Missions. The delegation also held talks with the Indian Visa
officers in Western Europe and the Gulf countries with a view to
improve further the existing arrangements towards issue of Visas
|ADMINISTRATION AND ORGANISATION|
|Shri B.R. Bhagat relinquished charge as Minister for External
Affairs on 12 May 1986. From the same date Shri P. Shiv Shanker
took over as Minister for External Affairs and of Commerce. He
relinquished the External Affairs portfolio on 22 October 1986
when Shri N.D. Tiwari took over as Minister for External Affairs.
Shri K.R. Narayanan remained as Minister of State in this
Ministry upto 22 October 1986 on which date Shri K. Natwar Singh
took over as Minister of State in the Ministry. Shri Eduardo
Faleiro has remained as Minister of State in the Ministry since
12 May 1986.
Shri Romesh Bhandari relinquished charge as Foreign Secretary
on 31 March 1986 on retirement and Shri A.P. Venkateswaran took
over as the new Foreign Secretary. On 20 January 1987 Shri
Venkateswaran sought voluntary retirement from service. Shri
K.P.S. Menon took over as Foreign Secretary from 16 February.
Shri N.P. Jain continued as Secretary (E & ER) till 9 October
1986 when he left to take over as Ambassador of India to Belgium
and to the European Community. Dr. J. S. Teja relinquished charge
as Secretary (West) in the Ministry on 22 August 1986 on being
posted as Permanent Representative to the UN offices in Geneva
and Shri A. S. Gonsalves, whom he replaced, took over as
S/Shri M. Dubey and P. L. Sinai have continued as Additional
Secretaries. Shri A.G. Asrani took over as Additional Secretary
(Pol) with effect from 12 August 1986 and Shri A.K. Banerjee took
over as Additional Secretary (FA) with effect from 25 September
The total sanctioned strength of IFS and IFS(B) both at
Headquarters and in Indian Missions abroad is 3351. The Cadre-
wise strength is given in Appendices VIII and IX. In addition
there are 1518 locally recruited staff in Indian Missions/Posts
The Ministry has 136 resident Missions/Posts abroad manned by
officials from India. It has Honorary Consulate
Generals/Consulates at 22 places. During the year under review, a
new Mission was opened at Luanda in Angola and a Consulate
General at St. Denis, Reunion Islands.
During the year under review, the Foreign Service Inspectors
inspected Missions at Kabul, Tehran, Kathmandu, Colombo, Dhaka,
Rome, Milan, Athens, Dublin, Panama, Caracas, Lima and Bogota in
order to effect improvements in the overall working conditions in
A list showing the number of Officers of this Ministry who
have qualified in various foreign languages is given in Appendix
The Welfare Unit of the Ministry continued to render
assistance of a varied nature including in matters of admissions
to vocational institutions of children of personnel of this
Ministry and medical assistance. As many as 12 serving officials
of this Ministry died during the year. The Unit rendered all
possible help to the bereaved families. The Unit, after a lapse
of almost 8 years, revived the Foreign Office Club which would
look after the various social activities of the Ministry as a
whole. The Unit observed Flag Day collections on National and Red
The Ministry took care to implement the various Government
directives on the welfare of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe
employees of this Ministry. A special cell is already functioning
to look after the interests of the employees belonging to these
communities. A statement showing the total number of employees in
this Ministry in various groups and the number of Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled Tribes among them is attached as per
Appendix XIII. Another statement showing the number of
appointments made and vacancies filled by candidates belonging to
reserved categories during 1986 is at Appendix XIV.
| During the year under review, the premises of the erstwhile
Akbar Hotel were taken over by the Ministry for accommodating
many of its offices. About 1100 employees of the Ministry are now
housed in Akbar Bhavan. Consequent to the move, about 130 ex-
employees of Akbar Hotel were offered purely temporary employment
in the Ministry.
The Ministry continued to pursue its policy of acquiring and
constructing properties abroad for the Indian Missions and
Personnel. In early 1986, the Ministry's policies regarding
acquisition, construction, renovation and maintenance of
properties abroad were reviewed by the Public Accounts Committee
of the Parliament. As a result, the Ministry's activities in this
field have been substantially intensified.
The 30-year dispute with the Government of the People's
Republic of China regarding the properties of the Indian Embassy
in Beijing was resolved and the present premises of the Chancery
and the Ambassador's residence were acquired on a long lease in
addition to the acquisition of a plot of land in Beijing for the
purpose of additional construction for the Embassy. Chanceries
were purchased in Lisbon and Madrid and residences were purchased
for officers and staff in Tunis, West Berlin, Sydney, Canberra
The renovation of the High Commissioner's residence in
Canberra was completed while that of High Commissioner's
residence at Wellington was in the final stages. By the end of
the year under review various obstacles facing the construction
projects at Islamabad and Colombo were successfully cleared and
the progress of work on these projects became satisfactory. The
construction of the Chancery at Nicosia and staff residences at
Nairobi were nearing completion. Of all new projects of
construction of Chanceries and/or residences abroad in various
countries assigned to the Indian architects, the projects at
Kuwait and Riyadh were approved and the planning of these
projects was proceeding satisfactorily.
Since its inception in June 1982, the Conference Cell of the
Ministry of External Affairs has been providing logistical
support for various International Conferences held in India. As
in the past, during the year under review, arrangements were made
for various Conferences/delegations. A list of such conferences
is given at Appendix XV. Facilities provided included assistance
in arranging the venue of the meetings, simultaneous translation
and documentation in principal foreign languages, and general
guidance in various formalities associated with the holding of
important Conferences. Arrangements were also made for the
reception/seeing off of important delegates attending
international Conferences in India. All these measures have
brought down considerably the expenditure involved in organising
Conferences by various departments of the Government.
A special mention needs to be made of two important
Conferences arranged by the Conference Cell during 1986, namely,
the Meeting of the Co-ordinating Bureau of the Non-aligned
Countries attended by the Foreign Ministers from all Non-aligned
Countries and the Summit Meeting of the South Asian Association
for Regional Co-operation. The latter Conference was held at
Bangalore. In spite of several limitations, arrangements made by
the Conference Cell were found to be most satisfactory.
|FOREIGN SERVICE TRAINING INSTITUTE (FSTI)|
| The Foreign Service Training Institute (FSTI) was established
to cater to the specific professional training needs of the
Ministry viz., induction and refresher training for all
categories of officials. It is located at Akbar Bhavan, Satya
Marg, New Delhi. Its programmes are designed with reference to
the guidelines on civil service training issued by the Department
of Personnel and Training, Ministry of Personnel etc., and the
specific conditions and requirements of the foreign service.
The FSTI registered significant progress in training
activities during the period under review. The training of new
recruits to the IFS(A) was streamlined in the form of a
comprehensive and integrated "Professional Course in Diplomacy &
International Relations" which the new recruits (effective from
1985 batch) are now required to undergo at the FSTI after the
Foundational Course at the Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy,
Mussoorie. The duration of the course is approximately five
months. The topics covered include : India's Foreign Policy &
External Relations; India's National Security; India's Foreign
Trade; International Law; Diplomatic Practice; Behavioural Skills
and handling of political, commercial, consular, administrative,
cultural and external publicity work. Although this Course is
targeted primarily at the IFS(A) new recruits, relevant segments
of it are also open to any other interested potential
beneficiaries including foreign service wives.
The highlights of the period were three Refresher Courses of 5
to 8 days' duration organised for Indian Ambassadors/High
Commissioners which were attended by 58 Heads of Missions and
many senior officers from headquarters.
Altogether 122 officers/staff etc. availed of the training
programmes organised by the Institute during the year under
review. A similar cycle of programmes is planned for 1987.
|USE OF HINDI IN OFFICIAL WORK|
|During the year, the Ministry continued with its efforts for
more use of Hindi in official work, both at Headquarters and in
Missions abroad and monitored the progress in this regard.
Since 1986, a Hindi Advisory Committee is functioning in the
Ministry under the Chairmanship of the External Affairs Minister.
During the year under review, the Committee met three times and
besides reviewing the use of Hindi in the Ministry, gave
suggestions for its greater utilisation in official work. In
addition, an Official Language Implementation Committee of the
Ministry also met three times during 1986.
In pursuance of the target fixed in the annual programme
issued by the Department of Official Language, the Ministry
inspected its Passport Offices at Lucknow, Bareilley, Guwahati,
Calcutta, Bhubaneshwar and Hyderabad with a view to assessing the
progress in the use of Hindi in these offices. Necessary
instructions were issued to the concerned offices for compliance
with Government orders regarding the Official Language.
In addition, the Committee of Parliament on Official Language
inspected the Passport Offices at Hyderabad and Cochin. The
Committee also visited this Ministry on 22 January 1987 and the
Passport Offices at Delhi and Ahmedabad on 2 and 3 February for
assessing the progress in the use of Hindi.
During 1986, Hindi Workshops were conducted in the Ministry in
which a number of officials participated. A 'Hindi-Week' was
organised in the month
of September 1986, during which a Hindi Essay Competition and a
Hindi Typing Competition were organised and awards were
distributed to the winners.
The Ministry also made efforts to propagate Hindi abroad. A
number of Hindi standard books were sent to various Missions
abroad on Indian Literature, Culture and Religion, for building
standard Hindi Libraries in them. In addition, teaching materials
and typewriters were sent as requested.
As in the previous years, OSD (Hindi) of the Ministry was sent
to PMI, New York to assist the Indian delegation to the UN, in
case any member chose to speak in Hindi. OSD (Hindi) was also
sent to Port-of-Spain, Georgetown and Paramaribo to assess the
position of Hindi in these countries.
|APPENDIX I Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of NAM |
|Meetings/Conferences held under the aegis of the Non-aligned
Movement during 1986
Name of Meeting/Conference
Expert Level Meetings in the
field of Health
24-28 February 1986
Meeting of Senior Officials
in the field of Sports
11-13 March 1986
Meeting of the NAM Co-ordina
ting Countries in the Sphere
of Monerary and Financial
24-28 March 1986
Second Conference of Ministers
of Education and Culture
1-4 April 1986
Fifth Meeting of Co-ordinating
Countries of APEC (Action Prog-
ramme for Economic Co-operation)New Delhi
7-11 April 1986
Ministerial Meeting of the Co-ordi-
nating Bureau of Non-aligned
16-19 April 1986
Experts Level Meeting of Non-ali-
gned Coordinating Countries in
the Sphere of Standardisation,
Measurement and Quality
| || |
5-9 May 1986
10th Meeting of Ministers of
Health and held during 39th
| || |
World Health assembly Session
7 May 1986
Second Confence of Ministers and
Other high ranking officials of
| || |
Physical Education and Sports
5-8 July 1986
Third Conference of Co-ordina-
ting Countries in the field of
| || |
Food and Agriculture
28-31 July 1986
Eighth Conference of Heads of
State and Governments of
| || |
1-7 September 1986
Meeting of Ministers and Heads
of Delegations of the Non-
aligned Countries to the
41st Session of the UN
| || |
2 October 1986
Seminaron Literary and increase
in enrolment of Schoolage
| || |
22-27 October 1986
Consultative Meeting on the Ext-
ernal Debt of the Non-aligned
| || |
and Developing Countries
12-14 November 1986
|APPENDIX II Treaties/Conventions/Agreements |
|Treaties/Conventions/Agreements Concluded or renewed by India
with other countries in 1986 |
Title of Convention/Treaty/ Agreement
Date of signature
Date of Ratification/Accession
Date of entry in to force
MULTILATERAL Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development
Agreement establishing the Asia-Pacific Institute for Bro-adcasting Development (Kuala Lumpur, 12 August 1977) European Economic Community
Financial Agreement between the Republic of India and the European Community for Supply of Fertilisers (1985) and Counterpart Funding of Related Rural Development Projects (Agreement No.NA/85-12) Jute and Jute Products
International Agreement on Jute and Jute Products (Geneva, 1 October 1982)Pollution from Ships
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from ships, 1973, as amended by the Protocol of 1978 Safety of Life at Sea
Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 Telecommunications
International Telecommunications Convention,1982 Tropical Timber
International Tropical Timber Agreement (Geneva,18 November 1983)*This list is not exhausive.United Nations Development Programme
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Prog-ramme regarding Project No. IND/85/067/A/01/21-Establi-shment of a Centre for Digital Techniques in Broadcasting in india
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/85/028/A/01/13-Studies on Deterioration and Conser-vation of Metals
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/86/005/A/01/01-Development of Expertise in Training for Integrated Operation and Control of PowersSystems
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/86/008/A/01/01- Upgradation of R and D facilities at RDSO, Lucknow
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/85/070/A/01/99-Establishment of an Automotive Certification Laboratory
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding project No. IND/86/014/A/01/01-Modelling and Control of Water System in Coal Mining Environment
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. DP/048/A/01/37-Chemical Recovery Plant for Small Pulp Mills using Non-Woody Materials,Phase I
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/85/035/B01/11-Manage-ment Development in the Const-ruction Industry.
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development programme regarding Project NO. IND/85/060/A/01/99-Strength-ening of Design and Development of Construction and Earth Moving Machinery
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/86/019/A/01/37-Instituting Computerised Woven or Printed Textile Designs with Added Advanatage of Shade Matching
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/86/003/B/01/12-Development and Demonstration of Bioferti-lizers
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/86/A/01/20-Modernisation of In-house Training Facilities in Radio Monitoring and Spectrum Management
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/85/074/A/01/37-Systems Applications Engineering in Fibre, Optics Technology Phase II
Agreement between India and the Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/85/020/A/01/12-Advanced Centres on Postgraduate Agricultural Education and Research
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No. IND/86/012/B/01/12-Strengthening Postgraduate Education in Food and Nutrition and Child Devel-opment at Agricultural Universities
Agreement between India and the United Nations Development Programme regarding Project No.IND/85/040/A/01/99-Establ-ishment of Sub-Centres for Package Testing and Development
Agreement between India and the
United Nations Development Pro-
gramme regarding Project No.
Development and Management
(Phase II), Madras
Agreement between India and the
United Nations Development Pro-
gramme regarding Project No.
niques for the National Tele-
Agreement between India and the
United Nations Development pro-
gramme regarding Project No.
Based Computer System Devel-
Agreement between India and the
United Nations Development Pro-
gramme regarding Project No.
Development and Promotion
Agreement between India and the
United Nations Development pro-
gramme regarding Project No.
Research in Computer Networking
Agreement between India and the
United Nations Development Pro-
gramme regarding Project No.
Design, Instrumentation and sur-
veillance Technology for Dams
and other Hyd aulic Structures
Agreement between India and the
United Nations Development Pro-
gramme regarding Project No.
Research and Development
Agreement between India and the
United Nations Development Pro-
gramme regarding Project No.
IND/86/038/A/01/37-Use of Unco-
nventional Fibres for the Man-
facture of Fabrics, SITRA,
Coimbatore Wheat Trade Convention
Wheat Trade Convention, 1986 BILATERAL Algeria
Agreement on Co-operation in
the Railway Sector between the
Government of the Democratic
and Popular Republic of Algeria Bang adesh
Exchange of Letters between
India and Bangladesh extending
the Trade Agreement Benin
Cultural Agreement between the
the Government of India and the
Government of the People's Re-
public of Benin Bulgaria
Agreed Minutes of the Indo-
Bulgarian Working Group on
Trade (New Delhi, 19-22
Protocl of the Eighth Session
of the Bulgarian/Indian Joint
Commission for Economic, Sci-
entific and Technical Co-
Agreement between the Govern-
ment of India and the Govern-
ment of Canada for the Avoi-
dance of Double Taxation and
the Prevention of Fiscal
Evasion with respect to
Amendment on the Development
Loan Agreement of 21 November
1981 between the President of
India and the Government of
Exchange of Letters between
India and Czechoslovakia rega
ding the Third Agreement on
Economic Cooperation of Dece-
mber 1973 Denmark
Agreement between the Gover-
nment of India and the Gover-
nment of Denmark on a Danish
Government loan to India France
Financial Protcol between India
and France relating to the
purchase of helicopters by the
Helicopters Corporation of India
Memorandum of Understanding
between Department of Posts,
Government of India and
Directoate General of Posts,
Financial Protocol between India
and France relating to the Pro-
ject of Hazira-Bijapur-Jagdish-
pura gas pipeline
Credit Agreement between the
Republic of Indai and the
French Banks for Five hundred
and fortyeight million French
Francs Germany, Democratic Republic of
Trade and Payments Agreement
between the Government of the
Republic of India and the Gov-
ernment of the German Dem-
ocratic Republic Germany, Federal Republic of
Agreement between the Govern-
ment of the Republic of India
and the Government of the
Federal Republic of Germany
concerning Financial Co-
Agreed Minutes on Development
Co-operation between the
Government of the Republic of
India and the Government of
the Federal Republic of Germany
(Bonn, 15-17 July 1986)
Agreement between the Governme-
nt of the Republic of India and
the Government of the Federal
Republic of Germany concerning
Financial Co-operation in 1986 Indonesia
Exchange of Letters extending
the Agreement between the
Government of India and the Go-
vernment of the Republic of In-
donesia on Co-operation rega-
rding the Utilisation of
Nuclear Energy for Peaceful
Purposes for a period of
five years Iran
Exchange of Letters between
India and the Iran amending
the Agreement for setting up
an Indo-Iran Joint Commission
for Economic, Trade, Sci-
entific, Technical and Cul-
tural Co-operation Italy
Agreement between the Gover-
nment of India and the Gover-
nment of Italy for the Avoi-
dance of Double Taxation and
the Prevention of Fiscal
Evasion with respectto taxes
on Income Japan
Exchange of Notes between India
and Japan regarding Japanese
loan of thirty billion Yen for
the Assam Gas Turbine Power St-
ation and Transmission Line
Exchange of Notes between India
and Japan regarding Japanese
Development grant of nine
billion five hundred eighty
four million, five hundred
sixteen housand Yen
Exchange of Notes between India
and Japan regarding Japanese grant
of forty-three million Yen for
supply of equipment to the
Exchange of Notes between India
and Japan regarding Japanese
Project Loan of forty-eight
billion four hundred and
forty-three million Yen
Exchange of Notes between India
and Japan regarding Japanese Gr-
ant of one billion nine hundred
and seventy-three million Yen
for the Sanjay Gandhi Post-grad-
Agreement between the Govern-
ment of India and Japan inter-
national Co-operative Agency
regarding scope of work for
the study on Modernisation of
Rolling Stock Workshop in India Kampuchea
Exchange of Letters between
India and Kampuchea regar-
ding restoration of the Angk-
or Wat Temple. Libya
Cultural Agreement between the
Government of the Republic of
India and the Socialist Peop-
le's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya New Zealand
Trade Agreement between the
Government of the Republic of
India and the Government of
New Zealand Nicaragua
Memo andum of the Underst-
anding between the Govern-
ment of the Republic of India
and the Government of Republic
Credit Agreement between the
Government of the Republic of
India and the Government of the
Republic of Nicaragua Poland
Trade and Payments Agreement
between the Government of the
Republic of India and
Government of the Polish
People's Republic . . .
Protocol of the Tenth Session
of the Indo-Polish Joint
Commission on Economic, Trade,
Scientific and Technical
Co-operation . . . .Qatar
Agreement concerning the
Organisation of Manpower
Employment between the
Republic of India and the
State of Qatar . . . .Republic of Korea
Convention between the
Government of the Republic of
India and the Government of
the Republic of Korea for the
Avoidance of Double Taxation and
the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion
with respect to Taxes on Income Romania
Long-Term Trade Payment
Agreement between the Government
of the Republic of India and the
Socialist Republic of Romania
for the years 1986 to 1990 Thailand
Protocol for Scientific and
Technical Co-operation between
the Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research of India
(CSIR) and Thailand Institute
of Scientific and Technological
Research (TISTR). . . .
Convention between the Government
of the Republic of India and the
Government of the Kingdom of
Thailand for the Avoidance of
Double Taxation and the
Prevention of Fiscal Evasion
with respect to Taxes on Income Tanzania
Cultural Co-operation Agreement
between the Government of the
Republic of India and the
Government of United Republic
of Tanzania . . . . .Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Trade Agreement between the
Republic of India and the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics
Protocol on Deliveries of
Machinery and Equipment from
the USSR to the Republic of
India on Deferred Payment Terms
Protocol of the Third Meeting
of the Working Group on Co-
operation in Oil Industry within
the frame-work of the Inter-
Commission in Economic,
Scientific and Technical Co-
operation . . . . .
|Protocol of the Seventh Meeting
of the Working Group on Ferrous
Metallurgy in the framework of
the Inter-governmental Soviet-
India Commission in Economic
Scientific and Technical Co-
operation . . . . .
|Agreement on Economic and
Technical Cooperation between
India and the Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics . . .United Kingdom
Agreement between the Government
of India and the Government of
the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland
concerning Public Officers
Pensions . . . . .United States of America
Third Amendatory Agreement to
the Project Loan and Grant
Agreement between the President
of India and the United States
of America for Hill Areas Land
and Water Development Project
No. 386-0489 . . . .
Amendatory Agreement to Limited
Scope Grant Project Agreement
between the President of India
and the United States of America
for Rajasthan Medium Irrigation
Project-AID Project No.386-0467
First Amendatory Agreement to
the Project Loan and the Grant
Agreement between the President
of India and the United States
of America for Biomedical
Research Support-AID Loan No.
386-U-241 and 241 'A' AID
Project No. 386-0492 . . .
Fourth Amendatory Agreement to
the Project Grant Agreement
between the President of India
and the United States of America
for Integrated Rural Health and
Population-AID Project No. 386-
0468 . . . . . . .Yemen
Agreement between the Government
of the Republic of India and the
Government of Yemen Arab Republic
for the Avoidance of Double
Taxation of Income derived from
International Air Transport
|APPENDIX III Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars |
|Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc. organised
Inter-governmental Organisations at which Government of India was
represented in 1986-87 |
Title of Conferences etc.
4th Meeting of Interaction Council ..........
6-11 April 1986
10th Session of ILO Petroleum Committee ......................
9-17 April 1986
42nd Session of ESCAP ..........
22 April to 2 May 1986
Annual Session of Executive Council of Universal Postal Union .........................
22 April to 8 May 1986
26th Session of UN Committee on Programme and Co-ordination ..
28 April to 30 May 1986
First Regular Session of ECOSOC
29 April to 5 May 1986
ILO Preparatory Technical Maritime Conference .....
5-11 May 1986
39th World Health Assembly .....
5-16 May 1986
9th Session of UNCHS ..........
5-16 May 1986
Commonwealth Youth Affairs Council Meeting ..............
10-14 May 1986
Special Session of UNGA on Critical Situation in Africa ..
23 May 1986
233rd Session on ILO Governing Body ....
26-31 May 1986
38th Session of WMO Executive Council........
2-16 June 1986
33rd Session of UNDP Governing Council ........
2-27 June 1986
72nd Session of ILC ...........
4-24 June 1986
23rd Plenary Session of Interim Mekong Committee .......
Chiang Mai (Thailand)
30 June to 5 July 1986
2nd Regular Session of ECOSOC..
2-25 July 1986
33rd Session of Trade & Development Board .............
1-10 September 1986
125th Session of the Executive Board of UNESCO .....
1 September to 8 October 1986
4th Session of WMD Executive Council Working Group on Antarctic Meteorology ......
1-15 September 1986
Commonwealth Finance Ministers'and Senior Finance Officials' Meeting .............
41st Session of UN General Assembly ........
17 September to December 1986
Meeting of the Ministers of Industry and Technology ......
22-24 September 1986
Conference of Commonwealth Postal Administrations ......
29 September to 10 October 1986
4th Meeting of SAARC Technical Committee on Meteorology ......
3-6 October 1986
ILO meeting on Settlement of Labour Disputes in the Public Services .....................
6-10 October 1986
9th Session of WMO Commission for Atmospheric Sciences ......
6-17 October 1986
8th Commonwealth Health Ministers' Meeting ............
13-17 October 1986
13th Session of the ESCAP Committee on Natural Resources
14-20 October 1986
7th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing (ACRS) ................
23-26 October 1986
SAARC Conference on South Asian Children in Co-operation with UNICEF ........................
27-29 October 1986
Annual Session of Asia Pacific Postal Union (APPU) ...........
5-12 November 1986
234th Session of ILO Governing Body ..........................
10-21 November 1986
90th FAO Council Meeting ......
17-28 November 1986
Meeting of the Policy and Co-ordination Advisory Committee of the WHO's special programmes of Research, Development Research traning in the Human Reproduction .................
24-26 November 1986
40th Session of International Conference on Education ......
2-11 December 1986
11th Session of ILO Iron and Steel Committee ..............
3-11 December 1986
|APPENDIX IV Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars |
|Major International Conferences/Meeting/Seminars etc. organised
Non-governmental organisations in which Indian experts
their personal capacity with Government assistance in 1986-87 |
Title of Conferences etc.
14th Meeting of ISO/TC 113
Measurement of Liquid Flow in
Open Channels and its seven
14-25 April 1986
Regional Liaison Officers
(RLOs) of ISO .................
1 June 1986
Second Meeting of Council
Commission on Conformity Assessment
2 June 1986
Meeting of ISO/TC 28 Petroleum
Product and Lubricants .......
Norway 2-6 June 1986
21st Meeting of Development
Committee of ISO (DEVCO) ....
5-6 June 1986
ISO/TC 126 Tobacco and Tabacco
Products and its subcommittee
8-12 September, 1986
34th Meeting of ISO/TC 45
Rubber and Rubber Products and
its subcommittees and working
11-18 September, 1986
Third Meeting of Technical
Board of ISO .................
15 September, 1986
40th Meeting of ISO Council ..
16-18 September, 1986
International Conference to
study Alternative Transport
29 September to 12 October 1986
Meeting of IEC/TC 12 Radio
1-7 October 1986
Meeting of IEC Committee of
Action and IEC Council ......
2-8 October 1986
25th Conference of
International Committee of
the Red Cross ...............
23-31 October 1986
Sixth Meeting of ISO/TC 102
Iron Ores 11th Meeting of
ISO/TC 102/SC 3 Physical
testing and first meeting of
ISO/TC/102/SC 5 Physical
Testing of Direct Reduction ..
5-13 November 1986
Meeting of IEC/TC/SC B Low
Voltage Switch gear and
control gear and SC 28 A
Insulation Coordination for
low voltage equipment ........
1-14 November 1986
Meeting of ISO/TC 34/SC 7
Spices and Condiments ........
18-21 November 1986
|APPENDIX V Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc |
|Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc. in 1986-87 at
Government of India was represented or in which Indian experts
participated with Government of India's assistance in their
Title of Conference etc.
International Conference on Economics of Dryland Degradation and Rehabilitation ............
1-14 March 1986
Pre-WHA Meeting of Liaison Committee .....................
4 March 1986
13th Session of WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones ..........
25-31 March 1986
1st Session of WMO/CIMO W/G on Upper Air Measurements ........
7-11 April 1986
Workshop on Laether Processing Technology ....................
10-14 May 1986
WMO First Informal Planning Meeting for World Climate Research Programme ............
12-16 May 1986
III International Symposium on Wave-Tidal, Small Scale Hydro Energy ........................
14-16 May 1986
International Conference on Population and the Urban Future
19-22 May 1986
International Philatelic Exhibition-Ameripex ...........
ESCAP Inter-governmental Meeting on Estabilshment of Regional Network for Training in Water Resources ...........
27-31 May 1986
8th Session of International Committee for Science and Technology for Development ...
2-6 June 1986
International Congress on Large Underground Openings .........
8-17 June 1986
IWRA Seminar on Inter-Basin Water Transfer ..............
15-25 June 1986
Meeting of WMO International Satellite Cloud Climatory Project-Working Group on Data Management ...................
23-25 June 1986
54th Executive Council Meeting of ICOLD
28 June to 1 July 1986
Regional Technical Study on Irrigation Service Fees ......
21-25 July 1986
International Seminar on
Commodities, Price Strategies
and Approaches for Developing
21-25 July 1986
Palm Oil Familiarization
2-12 August 1986
1986 Session of CIGRE ........
27 August to 4 September 1986
35th Session of the UN Joint
Staff Pensions Board .........
3-5 September 1986
4-11 September 1986
Seminar on Human Rights in
the United Nations ...........
8-10 September 1986
International Seminar on
Regional Development Planning
for Disaster Prevention ...
22 September to 1 october 1986
37th International Executive
Meeting of ICID
28 September to 3 November 1986
Meeting on Financing
Environmental Programme of
Developing Countries .........
29-30 September 1986
III Session of RA-II Working
Group and RA-II meeting for
planning and implementation
of HOMs Sub Programme and
RA-II Working Group on
4 October to 10 December 1986
FAO Project of Production of
Rice Bran Oil by pressing ....
21 October 1986
(for two weeks)
International Symposium on
Impact of Large Water
Resources Projects on
Environment at UNESCO
27-31 October 1986
8th Session of WMO Commission
for Aeronautical Metereology
4-15 November 1986
5th Session of WMO Commission
for Marine Metereology Working
group on Marine Climatology...
10-14 November 1986
Ist Session of WMO/ICSU Joint
Scientific Committee Working
group on Data Management for
Global Precipitation Project
12-14 November 1986
on the validation of
satellites precipitation .....
17-21 November 1986
9th Session of WMO Commission
for Agricultural Metereology
17-28 November 1986
WMO workshop on application
of mathematical models in
Operation Hydrology ..........
8-20 December 1986
Meeting of Group of 77 on
Water Resources Development
and Management in Developing
10-12 December 1986
Workshop on Regional
sponsored by UNESCO ..........
12-17 December 1986
|APPENDIX VI Statement showing number of Passports/Miscellaneous services |
|Statement showing number of Passports/Miscellaneous services
applications received and number of Passports
service rendered during the period January to December 1986 |
No. of Passport applications received
No. of Passports issued
No. of Applications for Misc. services receive
No. of Misc. services rendered
Cochin ........ .
Delhi . . . .
Guwahati . . .
Hyderabad . .
Jaipur . . .
Jalandhar . .
Kozhikode . .
Lucknow . . .
Madras . . .
Patna . . . .
Srinagar . . .
GRAND TOTAL .
|APPENDIX VII Statement showing revenue and expenditure |
| Statement showing revenue and expenditure in respect of Passport
offices in India during the period January to December 1986
Revenue earned (in Rupees)
Expenditure incurred (in Rupees)
Ahmedabad . . . . . . . . . .
Bangalore . . . . . . . . . .
Bareilly . . . . . . . . . .
Bhopal . . . . . . . . . . .
Bhubaneswar . . . . . . . . .
Bombay . . . . . . . . . . .
Calcutta . . . . . . . . . .
Chandigarh . . . . . . . . .
Cochin . . . . . . . . . . .
Delhi . . . . . . . . . . .
Guwahati . . . . . . . . . .
Hyderabad . . . . . . . . .
Jaipur . . . . . . . . . .
Jalandhar . . . . . . . . .
Kozhikode . . . . . . . . .
Lucknow . . . . . . . . . .
Madras . . . . . . . . . .
Patna . . . . . . . . . . .
Srinagar . . . . . . . . . .
Tiruchirapalli . . . . . . . .
GRAND TOTAL . . . . . . . .
|APPENDIX VIII Cadre Strength at Headquarters |
|Cadre Strength at Headquarters and 137 Missions/Posts abroad
Posts at Headquarters
Posts at Missions abroad
Grade I . . . . . . .
Grade II . . . . . . .
Grade III . . . . . . .
Grade IV . . . . . . .
Sr. Scale . . . . . . .
Jr. Scale . . . . . . .
Training Reserve (Jr. Scale) .
Training Reserve . . .
Leave Reserve . .
Deputation Reserve .
Grade I . . . . . . .
Grade II & III . . . . .
Grade IV . . . . . . .
Grade V & VI . . . . . .
Grade II of Cypher Sub-Cadre
Selection Grade of Steno Grade
of IFS (B) . . . . . .
Grade I of Steno's IFS(B). .
Grade II of Steno's Cadre. .
Grade III of Steno's Cadre .
|APPENDIX IX Cadre Strength of IFS |
| Cadre Strength of IFS during 1986-87 |
Grade I . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade II . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade III . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade IV . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Senior Scale of IFS . . . . . . . . . .
Junior Scale of IFS . . . . . . . . . .
Training Reserve (Junior Scale) . . . . . .
Training Reserve . . . . . .
Leave Reserve in all Grades
Deputation Reserve . . . . . .
|APPENDIX X Foreign Language Chart |
| Foreign Language Chart
Total No.of Officers Passed/Know the Language
Arabic . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burmese . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . .
Czech . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dutch . . . . . . . . . . . . .
French . . . . . . . . . . . . .
German . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gorkhali . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hungarian . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bhasa (Bahasa)-Indonesia . . . . . . . .
Italian . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kiswahili . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Malay-Bahasa . . . . . . . . . . . .
Persian . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polish . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portuguese . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pushtu . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Romanian . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Russian . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serbo-Croatian . . . . . . . . . . .
Spanish . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Swedish . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thai . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tibetan . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turkish . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vietnamese . . . . . . . . . . . . .
|APPENDIX XI Revenue expenditure of the Ministry |
|Revenue expenditure of the Ministry during the Financial year
expenditure of the ministry (Rs. in lakhs)
Headquarters . . . . . . . . . . .
Missions/Posts a broad . . . . . . . . . . .
Supply Wings, Washington & London . . . . . . . .
Contribution to UN, Commonwealth Secretariat and Other
Central Passport Organisation . . . . . . . . .
Special Diplomatic Expenditure . . . . . . . . .
Other Misc. Items . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aid to Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aid to Bhutan . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aid to Nepal . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aid to Other Developing Countries . . . . . . . .
ITEC Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . .
|APPENDIX XII Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters |
|Expenditure on Indian Missions/Posts abroad and Headquarters
The estimated expenditure on Headquarters Organisation of the
Ministry during the financial year 1986-87 is expected to be Rs.
1523.98 lakhs out of which Rs. 274.20 lakhs will be on External
Publicity, Rs. 287.59 lakhs on Travel Expenses, Rs. 484.01 lakhs
Salaries and Wages of Establishment, Rs. 5.20 lakhs on Subsidy to
Departmental Canteen and Rs. 472.98 lakhs on Other Items.
The total estimated expenditure on Indian Missions abroad
Supply Wings, Washington and London is expected to be Rs. 7690.85
lakhs. This amount comprises Rs. 2882.03 lakhs on Salaries, Wages
Allowances including Foreign Allowance, Rs. 1220.45 lakhs on
and Home Leave Passages and Local Tours, Rs. 1773.77 lakhs on
Rates and Taxes as well as on maintenance and repairs of
rented abroad; and Rs. 1814.60 lakhs on other miscellaneous items
contingent nature. The average expenditure per Mission abroad is
expected to be Rs. 55.73 lakhs.
The expenditure mentioned above on Headquarters and
abroad including expenditure on Publicity, works out to
30.45% of the total Revenue Expenditure of this Ministry. The
remaining 69.55% of the Revenue Estimates of the Ministry are
spent on various aid programmes to neighbouring and other
countries, contributions to United Nations and Other
Bodies, Passport Organisation, Special Diplomatic Expenditure and
|APPENDIX XIII Statement showing the total number of employees |
|Statement showing the total number of employees (both permanent
temporary in the Ministry of External Affairs under various
representation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes therein
(Position as on 31-12-1986) |
Total Number of employees
% of total employees
% of total employees
Group 'A' . . . .
Group 'B' . . . .
Group 'C' . . . .
Group 'D' (Sweepers) .
|APPENDIX XIV Statement showing the number of appointments |
|Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct
recruitment and promotion) made in various Groups in the Ministry
External Affairs and reserve vacancies filled by Scheduled
Castes/Scheduled Tribes during the year 1986 |
Total No. of vacancies filled
Number of vacancies reserved for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes
Number of reserved candidates appointed Scheduled Castes /Scheduled Tribes
Number of vacancies dereserved due to non availability of reserved candidates Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes
Group 'A' .
Group 'B' .
Group 'C' .
Group 'D' (Excluding Sweepers) .
|APPENDIX XV International Conferences/Meeting hosted by the Ministries/Departments |
|International Conferences/Meeting hosted by the
of the Government of India during 1986 for which logistical
arrangements were made by the Conference Cell of the Ministry of
External Affairs |
Title of Conference/Meeting
Special Convocation to confer an Honorary
Degree of Doctor of Letters (Honoris Causa)
on Prof. Andreas George Papandreou, Prime
Minister of the Republic of Greece, during
his visit to India . . . . . .
28 January 1986
86 International Marketing Congress . .
6 to 9 January 1986
Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference . .
24 to 28 February 1986
Press Conference of the Prime Minister
of the Republic of Korea
4 March 1986
A Symposium on Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan on
World Unity . .
24 March 1986
2nd Annual Conference of "Women
Parliamentarians for Peace"
2 to 3 April 1986
Grant of National Award for help in the
welfare of the handicapped . . . .
4 to 5 April 1986
Press Conference of Mr. Turgert Ozal, Prime
Minister of Turkey . . . . . .
10 April 1986
Meeting of the Co-ordinating Bureau of the
Non-aligned Countries . . . . .
16 to 19 April 1986
10th Session of the Indo-Soviet Joint
Commission . . . .
23 to 26 April 1986
Press Conference of Dr. Helmut Kohl,
Chancellor of the Federal Republic of
Germany . . . . . .
30 April 1986
Assistance to the Ministry of Human
Resources Development regarding Ministerial
Meeting of SAARC Countries on "Women in
Development" in Shillong . . . .
6 to 8 May 1986
Special Convocation to confer an Honorary
Degree of Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa) on
Mr. Oliver Tambo, President, African
National Congress of South Africa . .
9 May 1986
Africa Day Celebration . . . .
25 May 1986
Ist Refresher Course for Heads of Indian
Missions from Neighbouring Countries .
2 to 6 June 1986
Seminar on Parliamentarians Action for
Removal of Apartheid . . . .
22 to 24 July 1986
2nd Refresher Course for Heads of Indian
Missions from Africa
23 july to 1 August 1986
International Seminar on Non-alignment :
Retrospect and Prospects . . . .
1 to 3 August 1986
Meeting in honour of Mr. Daniel Ortega
Saavedra, Commander of the Revolution and
President of the Republic of Nicaragua
10 September 1986
Seminar on Africa . . . . . .
29 September 1986
SAARC Conference on South Asian Children
in Co-operation with UNICEF . . . .
27 to 29 October 1986
3rd Refresher Course for Heads of Indian
Missions from East and Southeast Asian
Countries . . . . . .
3 to 8 November 1986
Second SAARC Summit at Bangalore . . .
10 to 17 November 1986
Conference of the Chief Justices of the
Commonwealth African Countries . . .
8 to 10 December 1986
|APPENDIX XVI Training programmes organised by the Foreign Service Training |
| Training programmes organised by the Foreign Service Training
Institute (FSTI) during 1986|
Title of the Training Programme
Orientation for IFS Probationers of 1985
Batch . . . . . .
16 to 18 January 1986
India's Foreign Trade-Seven-week course
oragnised at the Indian Institute of
Foreign Trade . . . . .
20 January to 21
1986 and 10 to 21 march 1986
Diplomatic Practice; Security . . .
5 to 7 March 1986
National Security in the Nuclear Age . .
21 April to 2 May 1986
India's Foreign Policy and External
Relations . . . . . .
21 to 30 May 1986
International Law: Current and Emerging
issues of importance to India . . .
2 to 6 June 1986
Refresher Course for Heads of Diplomatic
2 to 6 June 1986
Administration & Accounts . . . .
9 to 27 June 1986
Consular and Passport Work . . . .
1 to 11 July 1986
Refresher Course for HOMs-(2) . .
23 July to 1 August 1986
Communications . . . . . .
6 to 12 August 1986
Orientation for IFS Probationers of
1986 Batch . . . . . . .
11 to 23 August 1986
Behavioural Skills . . . . .
18 to 23 August 1986
Cultural Work . . . . . . .
1 to 12 September 1986
External Publicity . . . . .
15 to 30 September 1986
Consular, Passport & Protocol work (for
newly recruited SOs-1984 and 1985
batches) . . . . . . . .
1 to 31 October 1986
Refresher Course for HOMs-(3) . . .
3 to 8 November 1986
(East and Southeast Asia)
No. of those who availed of programmes
organiesed by FSTI during 1986
Heads of Indian Diplomatic Missions . . . . . . .
Defence Attaches . . . . . . .
IFS Probationers (1985 batch) . . . . . . .
IFS Probationers (1986 batch) . . . . . . . . .
Deputy Secretaries . . . . . . .
Under Secretaries . . . . . . . . .
Section Officers . . . . . . . . .
Assistants . . . . . . . . .
LDCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Foreign Service wives . . . . . . . . .
NOTE -All programmes except 7, 10, 16 & are 17 mandatory for IFS
|APPENDIX XVII VVIP visits to India during 1986-87
VVIP visits to India during 1986-87
Heads of State/Government
H.E. Mr. Turgut Ozal, Prime Minister of
Turkey . . . .
9-14 April 1986
H.E. Mr. France Albert Rene, President
of Seychelles . . . . .
21-28 April 1986
H.E. Dr. Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of the
Federal Republic of Germany . . .
27-30 April 1986
H.E. Mr. Sam Nujoma, President of SWAPO .
22-27 May 1986
H.E. Mr. H.M. Ershad, President of
Bangladesh . . . . .
14-16 July 1986
H.E. Mr. Branko Mikulic, President of
Federal Executive Council of the Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia . .
28 July to 1 August 1986
H.E. Mr. Daniel Ortega Saavedra, President
of Nicaragua . . . . .
8-11 September 1986
Rt. Hon. K.S.K. Musokotwane, Prime Minister
of Zambia . . . .
22 September to 1 October 1986
H.M. King Hussein I, King of Jordan .
6-15 October 1986
H.E. Mr. Bettino Craxi, Prime Minister
of Italy . . . . .
4-5 November 1986
H.E. Mr. Mikhail S. Gorbachev, General
Secretary of CPSU . . .
25-28 November 1986
H.E. Mr. Paul Schlueter, Prime Minister
of Denmark . . . . .
11-18 January 1987
H.E. S. Ramphal, Secretary General of
Commonwealth . . . .
16-22 January 1987
H.E. Dr. Alan Garcia Perez, President of
the Republic of Peru . . .
23-29 January 1987
H.E. Y.A.B. Datuk Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamed,
Prime Minister of Malaysia . .
29 January to 1 February 1987
H.E. Dr. Mauno Henrik Koivisto, President
of Republic of Finland . .
2-6 February 1987
Rt. Hon. Sir Geoffrey Howe, Secretary of
State of UK . . . .
30 March to 2 April 1986
H.E. Mr. Pierre Aubert, Foreign Minister
of Switzerland . . . .
31 March to 7 April 1986
H.E. Lyonpo Dawa Tshering, Foreign Minister
of Bhutan . . . .
1 April 1986 & 25 May 1986
H.E. Mr. Frederic Affo Minister for Foreign
Affairs of Benin . . .
5-10 July 1986
H.E. Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati, Foreign
Minister of Iran . . .
21-22 August 1986