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Annual Reports Prior to 1999

Annual Report 1980-81

I. India's Neighbours 1-8
II. South-East Asia 9-15
III. East Asia 16-18
IV. West Asia and North Africa 19-23
V. Africa (South of the Sahara) 24-26
VI. Europe 27-35
VII. The Americas 36-40
VIII. United Nations and International Conferences 41-55
IX. Foreign Economic Relations 56-60
X. External Publicity 61-65
XI. Cultural Relations 66-68
XII. Protocol 69
XIII. Passport, Emigration and Consular Services 70-72
XIV. Administration and Organisation 73-74
XV. Use of Hindi in Official Work 75-77
  Appendices 79-10

APPENDICES NUMBER PAGES I. Major International Conferences/Meetings/Semi- nars etc. organised by Inter-Governmental Orga- nisation at which the Government of India was represented in 1980-81 81-85 II. Major International Conferences/Meetings/ Seminars organised by Non-Governmental Organisation (such as Asian Productivity Organisation, International Co-operation Alliance, International Organisation for Standardisation etc.) in which Indian experts participated in their personal capacity with the Government assistance in 1980-81 (April 1980 to March 1981) 86-87 III. Miscellaneous Major International Conferences etc. in 1980-81 (April 1980 to March 1981) at which the Govt. of India was represented or in which Indian experts participated with Govern- men of India's assistance in their personal capa- city 88-89 IV. International Organisation of which India became a member or ceased to be a member during the year 1980-81 (from April 1980 to March 1981) 90 V. Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India with other countries in 1980 91-98 VI. Statement showing number of passport/miscel- laneous services applications received and number of passports issued/miscellaneous services granted in the calendar year 1980 99 VII. Statement showing the total number of employ- ees (both permanent and temporary) in the Ministry of External Affairs under various groups and representation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes therein (Position as on Dec 31, 1980) 100 VIII. Statement showing the number of appointments (both by direct recruitment and by promotion) made to various groups of posts and reserved vacancies filled by Scheduled Castes and Sche- duled Tribes during the year 1980 101 IX. Revenue expenditure of the Ministry during the Financial Year 1980-81 102 X. Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/ Posts abroad during 1980-81 103-104 XI. Strength of IFS & IFS (B) Cadres, Combined Research Cadre and Interpreters Cadre 105 XII. Foreign Language Chart 106 Dec 31, 1980
The general international situation

This report of the Ministry of External Affairs covers a particularly difficult period in international relations in which there was a sharp intensification in great power rivalries and competition. The matching of skills, unfortunately, was not for the benefit of mankind in such constructive spheres as socio- economic development or the arts and sciences, but in the dangerous realm of military preparedness. From India's point of view, this is all the more alarming as the active theatre of this game of conflict and confrontation shifted away from Europe to the developing world, particularly Asia and Africa. The Indian Ocean became an almost continuous arc of critical situa- tions, full of simmering tensions some of which erupted into armed conflicts.

It is true that many of these developments were a result of internal upheavals among countries of the region or of conflicts among them originating from local causes. However, it did provide the external powers with the opportunity to exploit such situations to extend their political and military influence, as well as their economic control, over the governments and peoples of the non-aligned and other developing countries. This was attempted in a number of subtle and not so subtle ways-the unstated but implied threat of using nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapons states, the enormous build-up and wide deployment of conventional military and naval forces, the foster- ing of local differences by sowing seeds of suspicion or with carefully regulated doses of arms supplies, overt or covert inter- vention or interference in the internal affairs of the third world and frustrating, in manifold ways, the urgent need to evolve a new international economic order.

Against this background, the efforts of the less powerful countries, who sought to strengthen their political independence as well as their economic self-reliance in an atmosphere free from outside interference and with honour and dignity acquired an even greater significance. There was growing realisation among them that it was only through unity and determination, through imaginative policies of collective self-reliance, that they


could strive successfully to bring about a new world order in which their hopes and aspirations would be translated into reality. Accompanying this was a growing recognition that the philosophy and principles of non-alignment whose validity and relevance was greater than ever before, should continue to guide the struggle in this direction.

This was the international setting that posed countless challenges for Indian diplomacy during, the, period covered by this report. In the following pages an attempt will be made to describe the initiatives and the well considered responses of the Government of India to the evolving international situa- tion.

Non-Alignment : New Delhi Conference of Foreign Ministers

A Conference of the Foreign Ministers of Non-Aligned Coun- tries was held in New Delhi from Feb 09, 1981 to 13 February 1981. 91 countries and 2 liberation movements participated in the Conference along with 15 observer delegations and 22 guest delegations. At the inaugural session on 9 February 1981, the Conference was privileged to hear a key note address by the Prime Minister of India. A special commemorative session was convened on 11 February to celebrate the 20th Anniversary of the First Summit Conference of Non-aligned countries, held in Belgrade in 1961. The Prime Minister addressed the comme- morative session. The Conference itself was chaired by the Minister of External Affairs.

The New Delhi Conference, was preceded by more than usual speculation in interested quarters questioning the validity of the Movement of Non-aligned countries. Some critics fore- cast that the unity of the Movement would be fractured and its strength and vitality eroded. This kind of speculation was proved totally unfounded. To ensure the success of the Con- ference, India conducted extensive pre-conference consultations with a number of non-aligned countries. These, consultations helped to create a favourable climate and to prevent a polarisa- tion and excessive dissipation of attention on specific issues and bilateral problems. Finally, the Conference ended in a spirit of harmony with the adoption of the New Delhi Declaration which covers all the burning issues of the day. This Declaration represents an important contribution to the strengthening of the role of the Movement, the policy of Non-alignment, of the independence and sovereignty of all States, of the consolidation


of international peace and security and of universal detente and genuine disarmament. It has reinforced the struggle against colonialism, racism, and all forms of foreign aggression and intervention and interference.

On the economic plane, the Conference emphasised the need for global negotiations to begin as soon as possible. On the vital issue of energy, it called for appropriate measures on energy, supply on a priority basis for importing non-aligned and other developing countries without prejudice to the national interests of all countries. Underscoring the vital importance of furthering economic cooperation among developing countries, it was agreed that the forthcoming high level Caracas Conference should result in adoption of positive action oriented and agreed modalities, projects, arrangements and programmes of coopera- tion in a time-bound framework.

The unity and solidarity of the Movement of Non-aligned Countries has been considerably strengthened as a result of the New Delhi Conference. Thus, even on some issues where there were differing points of view among nonaligned countries, con- sensus was achieved. India's constructive role and efforts, as also the objective and non-partisan manner in which it guided the deliberations as Chairman of the Conference, came in for high appreciation.

Nuclear and Military build-up by Great Powers

New doctrines of nuclear strategy are being evolved, the acceptance of which would have a tragic effect on the ability of the non-aligned and developing countries to maintain and strengthen their political independence.

The dangers of an accidental nuclear holocaust being trigger- ed off as a result of the present irrational nuclear build-up, are ever present.

Non-aligned countries need to recognise the danger to each of them of the nuclear threat which has today become a real possibility.

India has proclaimed time and again her firm opposition to nuclear weapons; government are firmly committed to the peaceful utilisation of nuclear energy, to oppose any moves or measures which are discriminatory in nature and which come in the way of India's programmes for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. India has reiterated this viewpoint in the UN General Assembly as well as in other fora during the year.


Developments in the Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean today sees the largest military build-up by external powers that has ever taken place. Recent develop- ments in the region have been used as a pretext to justify this increased presence. The build-up included the expansion of the Diego Garcia base and the reported decision that it would be built up as a major air, naval and perhaps nuclear facility. This decision was accompanied by a rapid increase in the num- ber of naval vessels and military aircraft deployed by major non-littoral powers, and the plans of the USA for the creation of a rapid deployment force of 110,000 personnel for use pri- marily in, the Indian Ocean. Reports about seeking of fuelling, re-stocking and rest and recreation facilities at littoral ports and attempts to acquire base facilities have caused serious concern to the Government of India and other non-aligned states.

There has also been a significant increase in the naval presence of the USSR, UK and France, and attempts to seek facilities which would enable a higher level of long-term naval presence have been reported.

India has consistently opposed great power military presence in the Indian Ocean as it introduces new tensions and conflicts in its neighbourhood and constitutes a threat to peace and stabi- lity. India is working in concert with other non-aligned littoral and hinterland states to obtain early implementation of the 1971 Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. To this end, in the UN Ad Hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean, India is trying to promote agreement on the convening of the confer- ence on the Indian Ocean in Sri Lanka as scheduled.


The independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and non- aligned status of Afghanistan, a country which is vital to its security, is of direct concern to India.

During 1980-81 there were some signs that the parties con- cerned had realised that the problem of Afghanistan could only be solved by peaceful political means. The Government of India had, right from the beginning, taken the position that an attitude of confrontation or condemnation would not help in resolving this matter. The wider acceptance of the need to find a political solution is something which the Government of


India welcomes. India's position was clearly enunciated on several occasions-namely, that it was opposed to the presence of foreign troops and bases, in any country and that all forms of intervention and interference in the internal affairs of Afghanistan must cease.

During the year the Government of India have been in touch with the countries of the sub-continent as well as other countries in an effort to defuse tensions and work towards a solution Which would preserve the traditional status of Afghanis- tan as an independent, sovereign and non-aligned nation.

India's relations with other neighbours

The change of Government in India stirred some speculation about India's policy towards its neighbours. In recognition of this, one of the first acts of the new Government was to spell out the central theme of this policy, viz. India's desire to pro- mote the establishment of peace in the region to enable individual countries to pursue their efforts for economic and social amelioration of their peoples, free from outside interfer- ence. Through the visits of high level emissaries, India sought to strengthen mutual trust and friendly relations and to step up bilateral cooperation with all its neighbours, based on principles of sovereign equality of states and non-interference in one an- other's internal affairs with the objective of paving, the way for further meaningful cooperation in the region. Reciprocity, based on sovereign equality of States, would thus form the basis of good neighbourly relations.

This sincerity of approach was appreciated. While one year is too short a period to find lasting solutions to all long- standing problems, there were encouraging signs of a forward movement in many areas of significance.

A general improvement in the climate marked India's rela- tionship with Bangladesh. There was movement towards reso- lution of a number of bilateral issues which had remained in a state of somewhat suspended animation. This was particularly true of such issues as rail transit, demarcation of land boundary as well as of maritime boundary. While no immediate solutions were forthcoming, specially on issues like the long term augmentation of the flow of the Ganges at Farakka, the pro- gress in negotiations was based on a better appreciation of each other's points of view and willingness for mutual accommoda- tion.


The principal achievement of Indo-Bhutan relationship dur- ing the year was to safeguard and nurture the cherished relation- ship between the two countries. The Indo-Bhutan Treaty of Peace, and Friendship, signed in 1949, continued to be the cornerstone of this relationship, reflecting the, mature recognition by both sides of the abiding value of inevitable mutual inter- dependence, arising as much out of compulsions of history and geography as out of unshakable ties of culture.

During the year India's friendly relations with Burma were further strengthened and consolidated, particularly during, President Ne Win's visit to India. Various issues of mutual interest were discussed between the two sides. Possibilities of increasing economic and cultural exchanges were also consider- ed.

India expressed its desire and willingness to discuss all out- standing issues with China, particularly the continued occupation by China of a part of Indian territory, in search of a peaceful solution. Chinese leaders also on several occasions expressed their keenness to see an improvement in India-China relations.

India's preparedness for improved relations with China on the basis of equality and respect for each other's legitimate interests, however, would not be at the cost of its friendship with any other country.

In its quest to create a viable framework for cooperation, with its neighbours, India has undertaken to meet Maldives' essential requirements of food and other essential commodities even where such commodities are not on the list of exportable goods. The first resident Indian Ambassador to Maldives was appointed during the year.

Like India, Nepal also witnessed important internal deve- lopments during the year. Following a referendum to choose, the form of government-either the continuation of the partyless panchayat system or its replacement by a multi-party system- constitutional reforms of major significance were undertaken. Fresh elections are now scheduled to be held. A serious effort was made to place relations between the two countries on a firm footing, on the basis of equality, mutual trust and reci- procity. The long tradition of bilateral cooperation continued, particularly in the field of water resources development as reflected in the Karnali and Pancheshwar projects.

India's endeavour has been to assure Pakistan of its conti- nued interest in good relations. India reiterated during 1980-81,


its desire to normalise relations with Pakistan in accordance with the letter and spirit of the Simla Agreement of 1972 and on a: bilateral basis. Some positive developments were recorded during the year. India was, however, concerned with some actions of Pakistan which tended to cause a set-back to the process of normalisation. These included references to Kashmir at more than one international forum, which was not in keeping with the spirit of the Simla Agreement, and unwarranted inter- ference in India's internal affairs.

The efforts of Pakistan to considerably expand its military capability could have an adverse effect on the regional stability and would also not be conducive to the creation of a climate of mutual confidence in relations between India and Pakistan. India has made it clear to Pakistan that it was only interested in working for normal good neighbourly relations with Pakistan on the basis of the Simla Agreement, and there was no threat whatsoever to that country from India. There have been per- sistent and disquieting reports in the media about Pakistan developing nuclear weapons. India has expressed the hope that Pakistan would abide by its assurances to direct its nuclear pro- grammes solely towards peaceful purposes.

The even tenor of Indo-Sri Lanka relations continued un- affected through the year. India granted a Rs. 10 crore government to government credit to Sri Lanka. Mutual exchange of visits and growing commercial and cultural ex- changes took place. However, the resolution of the question of stateless persons of Indian origin in Sri Lanka, envisaged within the framework of the Indo-Sri Lanka agreement of 1964 and 1974 on the subject, did not fully come about.

Regional Cooperation in South Asia

India welcomed in principle the proposal made by President Zia-ur-Rehman of Bangladesh in April 1980 on the need for regional cooperation to preserve peace and stability and promote economic and social developments. However, it is India's con- sidered view that adequate preparations need to, be made to study the implications of the proposal indepth and to identity clearly and unambiguously the areas of regional cooperation which should naturally include all countries of the region. India has exchanged views with the other countries in the region on this proposal and the general reaction has been sympathetic.


Iran-Iraq conflict

The outbreak of hostilities between Iran and Iraq on 22 September after border skirmishes resulting from the revival of long standing territorial differences between the two, caused India concern and distress.

India was concerned that the continuance of the conflict would have grave implications for both regional and global peace and security. The Minister of External Affairs speaking at the United Nations General Assembly on 3 October 1980, stated that this would only weaken the solidarity of the nonaligned and deve- loping countries. He urged Iran and-Iraq to settle their differences peacefully in accordance with the principles and provisions of the UN Charter.

Attempts were made by the United Nations, Islamic Con- ference, the Chairman of the P.L.O., Yasser Arafat and by a group of non-aligned nations, with whom India was associated, to bring this conflict to an end. Their efforts, however, failed to make any headway as both Iraq and Iran adhered to their respective positions.

The nonaligned movement made strenuous efforts to resolve the differences between Iran and Iraq in a peaceful manner. The Conference of the Foreign Ministers in Delhi reiterated and emphasised the principles of the movement that no State should acquire or occupy territories by the use of force, that the terri- tory acquired in this way should be returned, that no act of ag- gression should be committed against any State, that the terri- torial integrity and sovereignty of all States should be res- pected, that no State should try to interfere or intervene in the internal affairs of other States and that all differences or claims which may exist between States should be settled by peaceful means in order that peaceful relations should prevail among other member States. To this end the Conference asked the Foreign Ministers of Cuba, India, Zambia and the Head of the Political Department of the P.L.O. to exert all peaceful efforts in order to, contribute to the implementation of the afore- mentioned principles. The creation of this Group of Four, after earlier efforts in a similar direction had not resulted in success, was a significant achievement to seek a solution to the conflict through the non-aligned forum of which both Iraq and Iran are members.


India's relations with Arab countries

A perceptible renewal of warmth characterised India's rela- tions with the Arab world. The Governments in West Asia and North Africa responded enthusiastically to the initiative taken by the new Government to foster closer political and eco- nomic relations with countries in the region.

India continued to believe that the question of Palestine was at the core of the Arab-Israeli conflict. A just peace in the region could only be based on Israel's total and unconditional withdrawal from all the occupied Arab territories including Jerusalem, and the restoration of the inalienable national rights of the Palestinian people to self-determination, national independ- ence and sovereignty. As the sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian people, the P.L.O.'s participation in any efforts aimed at, solving this problem was essential.

India's relations with South East Asia

With countries in South East Asia, India shares abiding ties of history and culture.

The people of Kampuchea have become enmeshed in the attempts by external powers to incite conflict, and to cause destabilisation, in all the States of Indo-China. India regrets that such attempts have not yet ceased.

In view of the situation obtaining in that country and the urgent need to contribute to the, promotion of stability in the region, the Minister of External Affairs announced in Lok Sabha on 7 July 1980, India's decision to establish immediately diplo- matic relations with the Government of the People's Republic of Kampuchea headed by President Heng Samrin.

India donated rice, to Kampuchea, besides giving other assistance.

India's relations with the other States of Indo-China continued to improve during the year. The visit of the Vietnamese Prime Minister in April 1980 gave an opportunity to further strengthen relations, with that country. With the Lao People's Democratic Republic, India's relations continued to be close and warm.

India has welcomed the setting up of ASEAN since its incep- tion in 1967. It has consistently lent support to the endeavours


of these countries to make the region a zone of peace, freedom and neutrality, free of interference by external powers.

India's relations with USSR and USA

India's relations with the Soviet Union were close, friendly, mature and stable.

The President of India's visit to the Soviet Union in Septem- ber/October 1980 was followed by President Brezhnev's visit to India in December 1980. In addition to further strengthening the cooperation between the two countries, these high level ex- change of visits imparted a new dynamism and versatility to Indo-USSR relations. The signing of four agreements on econo- mic and technical cooperation, on trade matters, on cooperation in the field of cinematography and for cultural and scientific exchanges during President Brezhnev's visit underlined this reality.

India's relations with the USA remained on an even keel and were characterised by regular exchange of official level visits, pro- viding an opportunity for greater mutual understanding on bilateral and multilateral issues.

A problem which continued to cause concern during the year was the supply of nuclear fuel from the USA for Tarapore. While supply of one shipment was welcomed by India, the im- position of extraneous conditions for the supply of further ship- ments was regretted.

The question of access of Indian goods to markets in the USA also remained unresolved despite efforts for its speedy solution.

India's relations with Africa

India's relations with Africa, with which it has traditional ties going back several centuries and which have particularly been manifested through the common struggle against colonialism, continued to develop smoothly. One of the major problems facing the Non-aligned Movement is the continuance of the last vestige of colonialism in Namibia and of the continued practice of abhorrent racist doctrine of apartheid in South Africa. India has given both moral and material support to the African libera- tion movements in their struggle for freedom.

India attached importance to developing economic coopera- tion with African countries through trade, joint ventures, techni-


cal assistance and training of personnel. This will continue to be a major element of India's economic policy.


India and Japan share a common cultural and religious tradition to which has been added wide-ranging economic co- operation as the foundation for further growth of their relation- ship. During the year this relationship developed through ex- change of visits and in a spirit of cooperation and mutual respect.

Central and South America and the Caribbean The development of India's relations with the countries of Central and South America and the Caribbean proceeded at a quicker pace. In India's view the potential, particularly for economic cooperation with these countries was vast and the efforts of India were directed to ensuring that this potential was built up.

India's cultural ties particularly with the countries of the Caribbean have been wide-ranging and it was the effort of India to further develop these ties during the year.

In recognition of the potential that this region offered for development of meaningful relations and cooperation, a con- ference of the Heads of Indian-Missions in the region, presided over by the Minister of External Affairs, was held in Mexico in October 1980.


The many-faceted and time-tested cooperation between India and socialist Countries of Eastern Europe-continued to progress satisfactorily during the year. Through mutual exchange of visits a number of new initiatives were taken by India to further develop and consolidate this relationship.

India's relations with the countries of Western Europe remain- ed cordial and were further strengthened by exchange of high level visits and intensive cooperation in economic, technical and cultural fields.

Commemoration of the Fifteenth Century of the Hijra Era

The year coincided with the beginning of the Fifteenth Cen- tury of the Hijra Era. On this occasion, the President and the


Prime Minister sent messages of greetings to their counterparts in Islamic countries.

New International Information Order

Non-aligned News Agencies Pool

India which had taken a leading part in the formation and subsequent work of the non-aligned news agencies pool, hosted the Sixth Meeting of the Coordinating Committee of the Non- aligned News Agencies Pool from 16 to 18 February in which 23 countries out of 25 members of the Coordinating Committee participated. In addition, eight other Members of the Pool and seven international organisations also attended. A number of Indian initiatives during this meeting were approved unanimously.

New International Economic Order

Global economic relations today are characterised by the North-South divide, the attempts by the more prosperous and economically powerful nations to exercise control over the large number of nations who are economically weak; and the widening gap between rich and poor.

In this context, India's efforts during 1980-81, undertaken within the non-aligned movement and the Group of 77, have been directed at the following broad objectives :

(1) to evolve a united approach on matters related to the North-South dialogue and the forthcoming global round of negotiations and the establishment of a New International Economic Order.

(2) to evolve action oriented programmes relating to:

(i) Individual Commodity agreements;

(ii) Establishment and operation for the wider benefit of developing, commodity exporting countries, of a Common Fund, including its second window;

(iii) Countering the trends of protectionism through tariff and non-tariff barriers, in the trade poli- cies of the advanced industrial countries.

(3) to evolve a practical and united strategy to further the trade and developmental objectives of the deve- loping countries.


(4) to devise measures and plans by consensus for eco- nomic and technical cooperation among developing countries.

India in its capacity as Chairman of the Group of 77 con- tinued to participate in the efforts to develop a dialogue with the developing countries, particularly at the 11th Special Session of the UN General Assembly.

No substantial progress was made at any of the meetings. Nevertheless, India responded positively to the initiative taken by Austria and Mexico, in the wake of the near failure of the 11th Special Session for a restricted summit meeting to consider the problems of cooperation and development. India participat- ed in the meeting of the Foreign Ministers from 11 countries held in Vienna in November 1980, for consultation regarding such a meeting. The second meeting is scheduled to take place in Vienna in March 1981 to finalise the list of participants and to consider the agenda and procedures for the summit meeting, The summit meeting is expected to take place in June 1981.

The concept of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries has emerged as a major option for the future. At the meeting of the Commonwealth Heads of Gov- ernment of the Asia Pacific Region, held in Delhi in September 1980, this was an important theme for discussion and specific measures were discussed by which the countries of the region could cooperate with and help each other in economic matters.

In pursuance of this policy India has established over the years a large number of joint ventures in developing countries, as also the deputation of experts, grant of credits and provision for meeting requirements of essential commodities.

In the West Asia region, during the year some Rs. 2,000, crores worth of projects were allocated to Indian concerns.




India having close and friendly relations with Afghanistan, was seriously concerned over developments in that country. It was vitally interested in the security, independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-aligned status of this traditionally friendly neighbour.

With a view to defuse the situation, Shri R. D. Sathe, Foreign Secretary and Shri S. K. Singh, Additional Secretary in the Minis- try, visited Kabul and met the Afghan leaders. The Minister of External Affairs, on more than one occasion, held talks with the Foreign Minister of Afghanistan in New York. India also, discussed the problem with leaders of a number of other countries.

India's stand on Afghanistan was guided by the principles that (i) there should be no interference or intervention in the affairs of one country by any other country by the use of, armed force, (ii) there should be no effort to destabilise existing regimes by interference or subversion from outside and (iii) there should be no destabilisation of the South Asian region by excessive in- duction of arms, the entry of great power influence and resultant confrontation. It was India's conviction that the primary need was to prevent escalation of tension and to work ceaselessly for finding a solution through political and diplomatic measures.

India pursued its efforts to improve relations with Bangla- desh. A constructive dialogue was maintained by the two governments through a regular exchange of visits by Ministers and senior officials. Particular mention may be made of the meeting between the Bangladesh President and the Prime Minis- ter of India, during the former's visit to New Delhi in September 1980, in connection with the Second Regional Conference of Commonwealth Heads of Government. The visit of the External Affairs Minister to Dacca, from Aug 16, 1980 to 18 August 1980, pro- vided an opportunity for wide-ranging discussions with the Bangladesh government on important bilateral questions such as the Land Boundary, the Maritime Boundary, illegal movement across the border and railway transit facilities. While imme-



diate solutions could not be found for many of these questions, there was definite movement on a range of bilateral issues and a schedule for further action was drawn up.

In October 1980, official level talks were held in Delhi to expedite the implementation of the Indo-Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement of 1974. Specific programmes were drawn up with a view to completing demarcation by the end of the 1981-82 field season. Official level talks were resumed for the delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in December 1980, in Dacca. Six rounds of discussions had previously been held between 1974 and 1978.

As a follow up on Bangladesh's agreement in principle to provide rail transit facilities requested by India, a delegation from India visited Dacca in October 1980 for detailed discussions on arrangements for goods transit traffic between West Bengal and Tripura through Bangladesh. A technical sub-group inspect- ed possible sites for the construction of railway sidings, to con- nect the Bangladesh Railway system with the town of Agartala in Tripura. The discussions during the visit marked a signifi- cant advance towards establishing viable transit facilities. In the field of science, education, culture and social welfare acti- vities, India and Bangladesh decided to end the ad hoc approach followed during the last 4 years and, on 30 December 1980, a Cultural Protocol ensuring regular exchanges was signed. This was done within the framework of the Cultural Cooperation Agreement concluded between the two countries on 30 Decem- ber 1972.

The visit of the Indian Commerce Minister, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, to Dacca in October 1980 gave a fillip to Indo- Bangladesh commercial exchanges. A new Trade Agreement between the two countries was signed. It will remain in force for an initial period of 3 years. During the same visit a Memo- randum of Understanding between India and Bangladesh was also signed by which the value ceiling of Taka 25 crores on the export of Wet Blue Leather to India was raised to Taka 40 crores and India agreed to buy urea fertiliser upto a quantity of 1 lakh tons and to consider import of certain categories of drugs, furnace oil; Jamdani sarees and handicrafts. Bangladesh re- quested the supply of steam-coal during 1980-81, apart from showing interest in the import of pig iron, GI sheet, wheat seeds, oil-seeds and vegetable seeds.


As stipulated in the Agreement on Sharing of Ganga Waters at Farakka and on Augmenting its Flows (1977), the first re- view to assess the working, impact, implementation and progress of the arrangements contained in the Agreement, was initialled at Dacca on 5 November. Another Ministerial level review meeting was held at Delhi in January 1981. The two sides ex- changed reports on the subject, both in relation to the short- term sharing arrangements and the provisions concerning aug- mentation of the dry season flows of the Ganga at Farakka. The agreement required the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Rivers Commis- sion to submit recommendations to the two governments on an augmentation scheme within a period of three years. The JRC was unable in this period to even commence examination of the schemes proposed by India and Bangladesh respectively, for reasons made clear by the Indian side at the review meeting. By contrast, the short term sharing arrangements envisaged in the Agreement were faithfully and fully implemented.

India's title to the newly-emerged New Moore Island was questioned by Bangladesh. India supplied Bangladesh with data establishing its title and further discussions are to be held with Bangladesh on this subject during which an attempt would be made to remove any doubts which might exist concerning India's rightful title.

A number of high-level visits exchanged with Bhutan testi- fied to India's close relations with that country. The Foreign Minister of Bhutan visited India in August 1980. The Minister of External Affairs exchanged views with him on matters of common interest and international issues when he met him in New York. The visit of the King of Bhutan from 9 to 11 January 1981 reaffirmed the unique bonds between India and Bhutan based on trust, understanding, interdependence and mutuality of interests.

Apart from these exchanges, several official delegations and officials from both countries exchanged visits to discuss a variety of bilateral and other issues.

India continued to give economic and technical assistance to Bhutan. During the Fourth Five-Year Plan implemented by Bhutan with Indian economic and technical assistance, Bhutan made significant strides in the fields of education, public health, agriculture, industrial development and in the provision of social amenities and building of infra-structural facilities such as roads,


bridges, communications and telecommunications, power, etc. Discussions are currently taking place with Bhutan on the size of India's participation in its Fifth Five-Year Plan.

The services of Indian experts and consultants, as in the past, were provided to Bhutan on deputation. India also conti- nued to offer scholarships to Bhutanese students and trainees for higher studies in India.

President U Nc Win, accompanied by the Foreign Minister and senior officials, paid an official visit to India from 20 to 22 November. The Burmese leaders had talks with Indian leaders and senior officials. Various issues of mutual interest were discussed between the two sides. Possibilities of increasing economic and cultural exchanges were also considered.

In response to an invitation from the President of Burma, former Burmese Prime Minister U Nu left India for Rangoon on 29 July.

Books on Buddhism and collected works of Mahatma Gandhi were presented by the Indian Ambassador in Rangoon to the Director General of Burma's Higher Education Depart- ment.

India's relations with Iran were marked by cordiality and by mutual appreciation of each other's point of view. Iranian leaders showed an increasing awareness of the potential for economic cooperation between the two, countries and, following talks held during the visit to New Delhi of Mr. Reza-Sadr, Iranian Minister of Commerce, in June 1980, it was decided to expand Indo-Iran cooperation in trade, industry, shipping, transport and railways, agriculture, planning and science and technology. An Engineering Export Promotion Council delegation also visited Iran from India in July and its visit was followed up by that of a delegation from the Association of Indian Engineering Indus- tries in September. Unfortunately, the outbreak of war bet- ween Iran and Iraq interrupted further progress in the develop- ment of economic cooperation between India and Iran. Signi- ficant progress in the development of such cooperation may be expected after the termination of hostilities.

Shri R. Venkataraman, Finance Minister, visited Iran in September 1980, as the Prime Minister's special envoy. He found the Iranian leadership fully appreciative of India's point of view with regard to India's classification among countries en- titled to concessional OPEC terms.


A delegation representing a cross-section of Iranian econo- mic and industrial organisations, led by Dr. Syed Ali Sattari- pour, Deputy Minister of Industry and Mines, paid a visit to the Engineering Trade Fair organised by the Association of Engi- neering Industry of India in New Delhi in February, 1981. Iran also continued to be a reliable source for oil supplies.

There was notable Progress in India's relations with Maldives both in the political and economic spheres. The level of India's representation in Male was raised with the appointment of a resident Ambassador.

Talks for a bilateral trade agreement between India and Maldives were held in November 1980. An agreement is ex- pected to be signed-shortly. Indo-Maldivian trade is expected to increase substantially after conclusion of the Agreement.

The IAAI have nearly completed their contract for the Hulule airport expansion project in the Maldives. The runway is already complete. The terminal building and the ancillaries are expected to be completed by the middle of 1981.

India continued its efforts to further develop and strengthen its multi-faceted relationship with Nepal.

During the visit of His Majesty, the King of Nepal, in March 1980, discussions covered bilateral relations including political, economic and technical matters. The situation in the region was also discussed, with both sides agreeing that efforts should be made by all the countries of the region as well as outside powers to reduce tension in the area. It was agreed that every effort should be made to expand Indo-Nepalese relations in mutually beneficial spheres and that there should be more fre- quent consultations between the governments of the two coun- tries to achieve these objectives.

In July 1980 an agreement was signed with Nepal for the construction of a micro-wave link between Birganj and Raxaul. Under the agreement, technical and material assistance amount- ing to Rs. 1.2 million is to be offered to the Government of Nepal. The link will make 36 channels available for communi- cations between Nepal and India.

Mr. Jagdish Shamshere Rana, the Nepalese Foreign Secre- tary, paid an official visit to New Delhi from 31 July to 3 August 1980, as part of the continuing bilateral consultations between the Foreign Secretaries of the two countries, Mr. Rana


and the Foreign Secretary, Shri R. D. Sathe, reviewed regional developments, including developments in Afghanistan, South East Asia and the Indian Ocean and discussed bilateral issues and other matters of mutual interest.

During the visit of the Nepalese Irrigation Secretary, in August 1980, India stressed its determination to cooperate fully with Nepal in the development of water resources to the mutual benefit of the two countries.

On the proposed Pancheshwar Hydel Project Mahakali River on the Indo-Nepal Border it was decided, following discussions with the Nepalese authorities in October, that Joint investiga- tions for the Pancheshwar Dam should start as soon as possible. It was also agreed that a meeting of the main Karnali Committee should be held as soon as possible.

The main committee on the Karnali Project met in Kathmandu on 19 and 20 January 1981. Both the Nepalese and the Indian side agreed to undertake a comprehensive study of the main Karnali Project under Joint sponsorship and on- going supervision of both countries. The Nepalese side agreed to actively pursue their request to the UNDP and the World Bank for financing of the comprehensive study and preparation of the detailed project report on the main Karnali Project. The Indian side also agreed to absorb power from the main Karnali Project on mutually agreed terms on a continuing and stable basis.

India continued to assist in the implementation of develop- ment programmes in Nepal. The outlay of Indian assistance to Nepal totalled approximately Rs. 14 crores for 1980-81. A major portion of this assistance was earmarked for ongoing pro- jects like the Devighat Hydro-electric Project and the East West Highway (Central Sector). India continued to make a major contribution towards development of technical, manpower re- sources in Nepal.

Ever since assumption of office in January 1980, the Gov- ernment endeavoured to assure the Government and people of Pakistan of its continued interest in good relations with that country. The visit of Foreign Secretary, Shri R. D. Sathe (February 1980) and the special emissary of the Prime Minis- ter, Sardar Swaran Singh (April 1980), to Islamabad were part of the confidence-building exercise undertaken by India from time to time. The Prime Minister met President Zia-ul-


Haq of Pakistan in Salisbury and the Foreign Minister of Pakis- tan Mr. Agha Shahi also visited New Delhi in July 1980. Through these dialogues India hoped to promote trust and understanding between the two countries and to create a climate for speedy normalisation of relations.

India was, however, concerned at some developments which tended to cause a setback to its efforts to improve relations. During the Islamic Foreign Ministers' Conference in January, 1981 and at the Islamic Summit held in the same month, Presi- dent Zia chose to raise the Kashmir question. He had referred to it earlier at the UN General Assembly Session on 3 October 1980. These attempts to internationalise Indo-Pak differences over Kashmir were in contravention of the Simla Agreement and were viewed by India as a trend towards retarding the progress of normalisation. Similarly, disturbances in Moradabad and some other places in August 1980, were commented upon by the offi- cial spokesman and the censored media in Pakistan and this too had a decelerating effect on improvement of relations between India and Pakistan. Time and again it was impressed on Pakis- tan that the raising of purely bilateral, controversial and emotional issues in a propagandist manner in international fora, had a nega- tive effect on India's efforts aimed at the creation of a climate in which these issues can be amicably resolved.

India was also disturbed to note the rather irresponsible speculation in Pakistani media about an impending conflict be- tween India and Pakistan. There was no substance in such reports and in a letter to President Zia, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi pointed out that "as always the people and the Govern- ment of India and I personally stand committed to the promotion of friendship, understanding and cooperation between our two peoples. We are equally committed to respect Pakistan's national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality".

Undeterred by minor set-backs to Indo-Pak relations, India tried to explore several concrete areas of cooperation with Pakis- tan. These included visits of pilgrims, trade, tourisms, sports and cultural exchanges and cooperation in various international fora on matters of common interests. In following this policy, India was inspired by the belief that political reconciliation, economic cooperation and greater cultural and people to people interaction would be of abiding benefit to the peoples of India and Pakistan and contribute to peace and stability in the sub-continent.


Indo-Sri Lankan relations continued to be warm and cordial. In September 1980, President Jayewardene, accompanied by his Foreign Minister, visited India. During this visit, President Jaye- wardene had discussions with the Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, which helped to further strengthen the close and friendly relations between the two countries.

India and Sri Lanka continued efforts to resolve the problem arising from stateless persons of Indian origin in Sri Lanka. Pro- gress in this regard was somewhat slower than anticipated, on account of complex reasons. The two governments are in touch with each other with a view to expediting resolution of the pro- blem.

There were promising signs of increased economic coopera- tion with Sri Lanka over the coming years. In January 1981, an agreement was signed under which Sri Lankan entrepreneurs are increasingly becoming aware of Indian capabilities in the indus- trial sector. The micro-wave link between the two countries, being constructed with Indian financial assistance is expected to be completed during the coming years. India made available to Sri Lanka, further credit of Rs. 100 million. The credit is to be utilised by Sri Lanka to purchase from India, motor spares, trans- port equipment, railway equipment and spares, amongst other items.

In the cultural field, exchanges in sports and the performing artistes continued as before. Aug 16, 1980




Interested in the maintenance of peace and stability in South- East Asia, India showed concern at the interference in affairs of the region by the Big Powers. With its traditional ties of friend- ship bolstered by growing cooperation with both ASEAN coun- tries and the States of Indochina, it continued to lead support to the endeavours of the countries of the region to tackle their problems and resolve their differences through bilateral discus- sions so that the region could become a zone of peace, freedom and neutrality. India was of the view that development of rela- tions with South-East Asian States would enable it to assist in the solution of the problems confronting the region. Contact with the ASEAN was maintained when the Minister of External Affairs met his Philippines counterpart in New York in July 1980, in the latter's capacity as the current Chairman of the ASEAN Standing Committee.

India's relations with Indonesia were strengthened through exchange of a number of high level visits. The State visit of President Suharto, from Sep 01, 1980 to 4 December, 1980, marked a new stage in the developmental of bilateral ties. Discussion held during the visit revealed similarity of views on major international pro- blems. Both sides expressed their determination to further enlarge the areas of economic and technical co-operation between them. It was agreed that official and experts of the two coun- tries would meet to identify further areas of co-operation.

The momentum generated by President Suharto's visit for increased economic and industrial co-operation was sought to be carried forward through the visits to India of Mr. Ismail Saleh, Secretary to the Cabinet, Mr. Janari, Director Animal Diseases Research Centre and Dr. Rusil Hakim, Director Central Research Institute for Agriculture of Indonesia. Government of India have gifted quantities of wheat seeds for experimental plantation in Indonesia.

Sardar Swaran Singh visited Indonesia in September as special envoy of the Prime Minister. The primary purpose of his visit was to seek Indonesia's support for India's desire to be



in an appropriate category for compensation purposes, based on per capita consumption of oil by the OPEC. A team of the National Defence College visited Indonesia in October 1980.

Prime Minister sent condolence to President Suharto and Mrs. Hatta on the passing away of Dr. Mohd. Hatta, former Vice-President and Co-Proclaimer of Indonesia's independence.

The Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato Hussain Onn, visited India in September 1980. The visit provided an opportunity for exchange of views at the highest level on matter of common interest.

Bilaterial talks at the level of senior officials and the first meeting of the Joint Committee, set up under the terms of the Indo-Malaysian Economic and Technical Co-operation Agree- ment signed in January 1979, were held in September 1980. The discussions revealed a broad identity of views and perceptions and ways and means were considered to promote further cultural and scientific exchanges. Apart from further promoting pro- grammes of co-operation in such fields as industry, agriculture and science and technology, the Committee also reviewed the trends in bilateral trade and possibilities of further strengthening the bonds of industrial collaboration.

The Minister of State for Commerce Shri Khurshid Alam Khan visited Kuala Lumpur in January, 1981 and held talks with Malaysian leader for intensifying commercial and industrial co-operation.

The Indo-Malaysian ties in the economic and industrial fields were further developed with the implementation of new joint ventures. It is pertinent to note that Malaysia has the largest number of Indian joint ventures abroad. There were exchanges of trade-cum-study teams. A large delegation of the Rubber Industry Small Holders Authority of Malaysia visited India in February, 1981 to study cottage industries, horticulture and dairy. Another delegation of the Ipoh Indian Chamber of Com- merce visited India on a fact-finding-cum-study tour to, explore the scope of further industrial co-operation between the two countries. India also continued to provide training facilities to Malaysian students.

The President sent a message of greetings to the Malaysian King on his coronation on 10 July 1980.


A team from the National Defence College visited Malaysia in October 1980.

India participated in a number of international conference held in the Philippines. The Finance Minister, Shri R. Venkata- raman, visited the Philippines to attend the meeting of the Asian Development Bank. Shri N. D. Tiwari, Minister for Planning and Labour, took part in the Asian Labour Ministers Conference held in November. The Minister of State for Tourism Shri C. L. Chandrakar, led the Indian delegation to the World Tourism Conference held in the Philippines in September 1980.

A twenty four member trade-cum-study team from the Philippines visited India in October-November 1980.

Cultural relations were continued with the visit of the Indian magician, P.C. Sarkar Jr. and two Indian cultural troupes who gave performances at Manila.

Relations with Singapore continued to be friendly and co-operative and were marked by exchange of a number of visits. The Army Chief of Singapore, Maj. General Winston Chu, visited India in October. India provided training facilities to RAFS trainees in mountaineering and two of India's NCC Air Cadets participated in NCC annual camp held in Singapore in May/June 1980. A team of the National Defence College visited Singapore in October 1980.

The trade between India and Singapore showed an upswing and new Indian joint ventures continued to be set up in that country. A number of important individuals and trade and industry delegations visited Singapore.

The Prime Minister sent a message of congratulations and good wishes to the Prime Minister of Singapore on his victory in the Parliamentary elections. The Minister of External Affairs also sent his felicitations to the new Foreign Minister Mr. S. Dhanabalan.

India continued to receive trainees from Thailand under the Colombo Plan, ITEC and other international assistance program- mes for training in such fields as agriculture, metereology, standardisation, hydrology and data communication. Trade delegations and sale-cum-study teems from India visited Thailand including those from Bharat Chambers of Commerce and FIEO (Federation of Indian Export Organisations).


A wholly Indian Engineering Exhibition Indee'81 was held in Bangkok in January, 1981. It was inaugurated by the Thai Minister of Industry, Maj. Gen. Chatichai Choonhavan. The Minister of Commerce Shri Khurshid Alam Khan visited Thai- land on the occasion and held talks with Thai leaders during which they expressed interest in greater Indo-Thai industrial co-operation, including the setting up of export-oriented industries.

A high-powered delegation of FICCI visited the ASEAN countries in January/February, 1981 to identify areas of increas- ed economic and industrial co-operation between India and the ASEAN countreis.

A 4-member delegation from the ASEAN countreis repre- senting Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines visited India in January, 1981 to study the women's social welfare activiteis and programmes.

The Vietnamese Vice-Foreign Minister, Mr. Vo Dong Giang, paid a visit to India from 5 to 7 January, 1981 to hold discussions concerning the Ministerial Conference of the Non- Aligned Countries and matters of bilateral interest. The Foreign Minister of Vietnam, Mr. Nguyen Co Thach paid a visit to India in the first half of February to attend the Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference. They also called on the Foreign Minister and discussed matters concerning the conference, the situation in South-East Asia and subject of bilateral interest.

India's relations with Vietnam were further strengthened through economic co-operation. In August a credit agreement was signed between the Industrial Development Bank of India under which the bank would give a credit of Rs. 150 million to Vietnam machinery from India. In September a rice loan agreemnet was concluded under which India would make avail- able to Vietnam a loan of 50,000 tons of rice. A Memorandum on consultations on scientific and technological co-operation between the two countries was also signed. In the cultural field. a new Cultural Exchange Programme for 1980-81 was worked out between the two countries.

The Minister of External Affairs announced in Lok Sabha on 7 July, the decision of India to establish immediately diplo- matic relations with the Government of People's Republic of Kampuchea headed by President Heng Samsin. The ASEAN countries expressed disappointment and unhappiness over this


decision of India. India, however, patiently explained the rationale of this decision and the positive results that could flow from it. It was pointed out that it was recognition of the reality of the political situation inside Kampuchea.

The Embassy of the People's Republic of Kampuchea started functioning in New Delhi in January 1981. The Indian Embassy in Phnom Penh also was opened during the same month. The first Ambassador of the People's Republic of Kampuchea to India, Mr. Dith Munty presented the letter of credence to the President on 6 February, 1981.

The Prime Minister, in a message to the President of Kampuchea affirmed the ties of geography, history, shared traditions and values which bound India and Kampuchea. She also stated, "within our limited resources, India will be glad to provide assistance to the, people of Kampuchea in their dedicated efforts towards reconstruction and economic development." India donated 3,000 tons of rice on bilateral basis and 2,000 tons of rice through the UNICEF to Kampuchea, besides giving as gift stationery material worth Rs. 2.5 lakhs.

India continued to maintain close ties with Lao People's Democratic Republic. The Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Laos, Mr. Phoune Sipasouth, paid a visit to India in February to attend the Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Con- ference and utilised the opportunity to discuss matters of com- mon interest with the Indian leaders.

One hundred buffaloes were given as a gift to that country and training undertaken for five Laotians in buffalo management at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal.

The Prime Minister of Australia, Mr. Malcolm Fraser, visited India. He met Prime Minister Indira Gandhi during his visit and exchanged views on subjects of mutual interest.

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sent greetings to Mr. Fraser on the victory of his coalition in the general elections held in October 1980. The Minister of External Affairs felicitated Mr. A.M. Street on his assuming the office of the Foreign Minister of Australia.

The Australian Government deeply regretted the embarrass- ment caused to the Government of India and, in particular to the Prime Minister of India, as a result of the publication of a confidential despatch of the Australian High Commissioner in New Delhi in one of the Australian newspapers.


The 12th round of Indo-Australian bilateral talks at official level was held in Canberra in July 1980 and the fifth meeting of the Indo-Australian Joint Trade Commission at the same place in November 1980.

Air Chief Marshal, I.H. Latif and Mr. Justice Y. V. Chandra- chud visited Australia. Mr. V. F. Crabtree, the Minister of Police and Services of the, State of New South Wales paid a good- will visit to India in January 1981. Admiral R. L. Pareira, Chief of Naval Staff visited Australia from February 27 to March 7, 1981.

The Prime Minister of New Zealand, Mr. R. D. Muldoon, visited India to take part in CHOGRM II. A number of trade delegations from India visited New Zealand. These included the Cashew Trade Delegation, the Leather Delegation, and a team from the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade. From the New Zealand side, an exhibition of wool and manufacturing techniques in New Zealand was organised jointly by the Wool Board and the International Wool Secretariat of India in Delhi and Varanasi. These visits reflected the economic contacts being maintained between India and New Zealand.

The Visit of the Prime Minister of Fiji, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, was an important event in India's relations with that country. He called on the Prime Minister and discussed with her subjects or mutual interest. India sent Choudhry Dalbir Singh, Minister of State in the Ministry of Petroleum, Chemicals and Fertilizers, to represent the Prime Minister of India in the cele- brations of the tenth anniversary of the Independence of Fiji.

Professor Yash Pal, Director, Space Centre, Ahmedabad, visited Fiji and held discussion for the setting up of the ISRO Tracking Station for the Arian Passengers' Payload Experiment (Apple) Project.

The Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Ltd. secured consultancy work for a hydro-power project in Western Samoa.

A small-scale industrial unit was established in Tonga with the efforts of an Indian expert loaned to that country under ITEC.

The Prime Minister sent greetings to Father Walter Lini, the Prime Minister of Vanuatu, on the occasion of the Independence of Vanuatu. The High Commissioner of India in Suva represented India at the Independence celebrations.


Greetings were also sent to Mr. Peter Konilorea, the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands on his re-election and to Sir Julius Chan on his assuming the office of the Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea.

Papua New Guinea is the first State in the South Paciffic which was admitted to the Non-alignment Movement with Guest status at the Non-aligned Foreign Ministers' Conference held in New Delhi in February 1981. Sep 01, 1980




As part of the ongoing process of normalisation of India- China relations, exchanges in a wide range of fields were pro- moted on the basis of reciprocity and mutual benefit. In Novem- ber 1980, a PTI correspondent took up his post in Beijing, fol- lowing an understanding between the two Governments on ex- change of resident correspondents (PTI in Beijing and Xinhua in India). Several Indian journalists visited China during the year. Prof. M. G. K. Menon, Secretary, Department of Science and Technology visited China in August-September to attend an ESCAP sponsored conference. He held discussions with his Chinese counterparts on possible areas of cooperation.

In early August, an Indian army detachment on a routine familiarisation patrol strayed into Chinese territory. The return of the personnel was arranged in an amicable manner with both sides exercising due restraint, in keeping with the understanding of the two Governments to maintain tranquility on the border and to work towards improvement of relations.

On 4 November, Rao Birendra Singh, Minister of Agricul- ture, during his transit halt at Beijing had a friendly and cordial meeting with Vice Premier Wan Li. The Vice Premier said that China was ready to develop friendly relations with India and that there were broad prospects for cooperation in agricul- tural technology.

A five-member Chinese team visited the Neyveli open cut coal mine from Oct 24, 1980 to 12 November 1980. A three-mem- ber Chinese delegation was invited to attend the session of the Indian Science Congress in Varanasi from 3 to 7 January 1981.

Two Chinese dancers were given scholarships to study Indian classical dance. A Chinese Gymnastic team visited India in January 1981, and an acrobatic troupe from China commenced its tour of India from the end of February 1981.

An Air-India delegation visited Beijing, at the invitation of the Chinese counterpart, from 11 to 14 October 1980 and con- cluded an inter-line traffic agreement between the two airlines.



India and Japan exchanged views at a high level on several occasions. Shri E. Gonsalves, Secretary (East) in the Ministry of External Affairs visited Tokyo in June 1980, for talks with Japanese officials. In August, 1980, Os Excellency Mr. M. Ite, Foreign Minister of Japan, visited New Delhi for exchange of views with Indian leaders, including the Prime Minister Mr. K. Aichi, Japanese Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs, took the opportunity, presented by his visit to New Delhi in connection with the conference of Japanese envoys stationed in South Asia, to exchange ideas with the Minister of External Affairs. These exchanges highlighted the fact that there were no outstanding bilateral problems between India and Japan and that a spirit of co-operation and mutual respect marked these relations. The two countries shared the anxiety to defuse tension and work towards peaceful resolution of international conflicts, particularly their keenness to see peace and stability in South-East Asia. Of course, given the divergence in their res- pective historical, geopolitical and economic backgrounds, India and Japan did not have identical views on all international issues.

Japan continued to be one of India's most important econo- mic and trade partners. Possibilities of further promoting trade and economic relations between the two countries were discuss- ed at the Joint Meeting of the India-Japan Business Co-operation Committee, a non-official Organisation representing business com- munities of the two countries, held in New Delhi in December 1980.

The Japanses Government sent a Science and Technology Study Mission to India in February 1981. This Mission visited leading scientific and technological centres in India. It is hoped that the visit will contribute to further co-operation between the two countries in this field.

Friendly relations were maintained with both the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the Republic of Korea (ROK). In view of a number of high level visits from DPRK during the last few years, Shri E. Gonsalves, Secretary (East) in the Ministry of External Affairs, visited Pyongyang in June 1980, and held discussions with DPRK leaders. He also called M President Kim Il-Sung. In November 1980, an Inter-Ministerial delegation led by the Agricultural Minister, visited Pyongyang to explore the possibilities of economic co-operation between the two countries.


In November 1980, the ROK President's Special Envoy, Mr. Choi Kwang Suo, visited India.

In its exchanges both with the DPRK and the ROK, India expressed itself in favour of the re-unification of the two Koreas through peaceful discussions between the two sides without any outside interference.

The existing friendly relations between India and the Mongo- lian People's Republic (MPR) were further strengthened by the visit of a Mongolian Parliamentary delegation to India in December 1980. During the course of his calls on the Prime Minister and the Minister of Exteranl Affairs, the leader of the Mongolian delegation, Prof. B. Shirendyb, Deputy Chairman of the Great People's Khural of MPR, expressed appreciation of India's policy of non-alignment and its contribution towards promotion of peace, stability and co-operation in the world. Oct 24, 1980




A serious development in West Asia was the outbreak of hostilities between Iran and Iraq on 22 September. This follow- ed increasing tension between the two countries subsequent to the revolution in Iran and border skirmishes resulting from the revival of a longstanding territorial dispute between the two countries.

India looked with concern and distress at the continuing conflict between these two countries with both of whom it has close and longstanding ties. It was apprehensive that an escala- tion of this conflict would have, grave implications for both regional and global peace and security. India maintained close contacts with leaders of both the countries with the objective of bringing to an end the hostilities. The special emissary of Presi- dent Bani Sadr, Dr. Ali Saams Ardakhani, visited India and met the Prime Minister on Sep 20, 1980. President Saddam Hussein of Iraq sent Mr. Jassim Mohammad al-Khalaf as his special envoy who met the Prime Minister on 8 October 1980. Subsequently, the Prime Minister sent special emissaries to both Iran and Iraq at the end of October 1980 to hold discussions with the leaders of these countries. The Foreign Secretary, Shri R. D. Sathe, visited Iran and Shri Romesh Bhandari, Secretary hi the Ministry, visited Iraq in this connection. India took an active part in the efforts for formation of a group of non-aligned nations to offer their good offices to resolve the problem between Iran and Iraq.

One outcome of the conflict was the rush by foreigners, includ- ing Indian nationals, to leave the war affected areas, specially from Iraq. Indians in Iran were able to leave without too much difficulty. But their repatriation from Iraq initially was in a disorganised manner and led to some delays and difficulties at the border checkposts. Since it became evident that the war was, Rely to be prolonged, a special cell was created in the Ministry to co-ordinate arrangements to facilitate repatriation of those wishing to return to India. Two teams of officials were rushed to Kuwait and Amman to assist the Indian Missions there and the Mission in Iraq was strengthened. Arrangements made for



repatriation included assistance for issue of exit-transit visas, supply of travel documents on the spot, transportation, food and other facilities. Provision was made for special flights and issue of air tickets on credit. An officer in the Ministry was also specially designated to handle all queries relating to the welfare of Indian nationals caught in the war zones.

The total number of Indians repatriated came to approxi- mately 11,000. Indian casualties were 17 killed, one missing and about 30 injured. A number of Indian ships and sailing vessels got stranded in the Shatt-al-Arab. Of these, 9 sailing vessels and one ship were either sunk or badly damaged. The crew of most of these were repatriated to India or to; other safe places leaving only a skeleton staff on board each of them.

There were a number of visits from the Indian side. Ministers of Commerce, Energy, Works & Housing and the Chief of the Army Staff visited Iraq. The Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iraq visited India as a special envoy of President Saddam Hussein.

The sixth session of the Indo-Iraq Joint Commission took place in New Delhi in April, The Commission identified new areas of co-operation in various fields including irrigation, agri- culture, oil and petrochemicals. The Protocol signed at the end of the meeting stated, inter alia, that India and Iraq should set "an example of co-operation in the economic field leading to national and collective self-reliance which should serve as an example to the rest of the developing world".

The year saw a significant increase in the number and value of projects awarded by Iraq to Indian companies. There were a number of major contracts both in private and public sector. The total value of Indian projects rose from Rs. 400 crores at the end of 1979 to Rs. 1800 crores by the end of 1980.

India's growing co-operation with the countries in the Gulf gained momentum following the realisation by them of mutual, benefit in multifarious co-operation with India in the economic field. This was reflected in the exchange of visits that took place between them and India.

The Amir of Kuwait paid an official visit in September, this being the first such visit by any Amir of Kuwait to India. One of the principal subjects discussed during the visit was the pros- pects of Kuwait's investments in projects in India. Kuwait also agreed to give favourable consideration to the question of supply of oil to India. As a gesture of friendliness, the Amir donated


an amount of Rs. 1.5 crores to the Prime Minister's National Relief Fund for flood relief, and another Rs. 1.2 crores for the construction of an indoor stadium in Delhi for the Asian Games to be held in, 1982.

The UAE Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Rashid Abdullah-al-Haemai, visited India in connection with the Indo- UAE Joint Commission. The Commission discussed possibility of investments by UAE for projects in India, hi the light of the policy of liberalisation by India towards investments from oil exporting Arab countries. India agreed for the UAE to establish branches of two of its banks in India. Special joint venture pro- jects by India in, the UAE are also, under consideration.

Sheikh Suroor, Grand Chamberlain of the UAE, visited India in July as a special emissary of the President of that country. The Deputy Prime Minister of Oman visited India in February 1980 as a special envoy of the Sultan of Oman to congratulate the Prime Minister on the electoral victory of her party.

There was favourable response by the Gulf countries, to make good the shortfall in India's crude imports caused by the Iran- Iraq was. The UAE agreed to increase its normal supply of one million tons a year to 1.5 million Was from 1981. Kuwait and Qatar also supplied crude for the first time in response to India's requirements.

India's relations with Saudi Arabia showed signs of greater economic and commercial co-operation. The Finance Minister of India visited that country as a special envoy of the Prime Minister in November. There was helpful response from Saudi Arabia to the request of India for oil supplies.

A perceptible new warmth characterised India's relations with the Arab world. The Governments in West Asia and North Africa responded enthusiastically to the, initiative taken by the) new Government to foster closer, political and economic relations with countries in this region. The decision of the Government of India to accord full diplomatic status to the PLO was warmly welcomed. This was a clear demonstration of India's consistent, steadfast and sincere support to the Palestinian people. The Chairman of Palestine Liberation Organisation, Mr. Yasser Arafat, visited Delhi and had extensive discussions with the Prime Minister and the Minister of External Affairs. The visit of Arafat to India produced very favourable reactions among the Arab countries and several Heads of State personally expressed their appreciation for India's gesture.


India continued to affirm its principled stand in favour of the restoration of the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people and withdrawal by Israel from all Arab territories under its, illegal occupation. It condemned the enactment by Israel of the so, called "Basic Law" on Jerusalem whereby that country had declared Jerusalem as its capital.

Indo-Egyptian relations in the political sphere are friendly and amicable. The Egyptian Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Dr. Boutros Ghali visited India from 2 to 4 April 1980.

Airline services between India and Egypt which had been suspended in 1979 were resumed.

Indo-Syrian relations are very close and continued to be friendly and cordial. The Syrian Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, H. E. Mr. Nasser Khaddour passed through Delhi in April 1980 and held mutual consulations.

Relations with the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen continued to be friendly and cordial. After Mrs. Gandhi's elec- tion victory, PDRY's interest in India increased tremendously. The President of the PDRY is scheduled to visit Delhi in the near future. Foreign Minister, Salem Saleh Mohammed who came to attend the Non-Aligned Conference in Delhi as well as the Defence Minister Col. Antar met the Prime Minister and had a detailed exchange of views. Economic and Commercial relations also progressed further.

India's relations, with the Yemen Arab Republic in the politi- cal sphere are friendly and amicable. The visit of the Minis- ter of Communications in January 1981 gave a substantial fillip to these relations. The YAR Government has decided to open its Embassy in Delhi shortly. The conclusion of a Civil Aviation Agreement between the two countries and the starting of Yemen Airways flight to India was another landmark.

The visit of the Algerian Foreign Minister to India in early 1980 was a part of the grownig Indo-Algerian bilateral relations in the political as well as in economic and commercial spheres. An Indo-Algerian Scientific and Technical Co-operation Agree- ment was signed during the Algerian Foreign Minister's visit.

Economic cooperation with Libya accelerated sharply during the year which was evidence of the friendly and cordial relation- ship between the two countries. Indian companies are executing 50 projects in Libya of a total value of about Rs. 1,700/- crores.


There are about 40,000 Indian nationals working in Libya in different capacities, including 4,000 experts deputed to various Departments of the Libyan Government.

Shri P. C. Sethi, then Minister of Works & Housing, visited Tripoli as a special envoy of the Prime, Minister in October 1980. Dr. Charanjit Chanana, Minister of State for Industry, led the Indian delegation to the 3rd meeting of the Indo-Libyan Joint Commission held in Tripoli from 25 February to 2 March 1981, at which projects for future co-operation were identified and several decisions were taken to further widen the area of econo- mic cooperation.

Shri S. B. Chavan, Minister of Education and Social Welfare, visited Rabat from 9 to 13 January 1981 and held discussions with the Prime Minister and Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Cultural and Education. An Indo-Moroccan Cultural and Scientific Co- operation Agreement was signed.

The Moroccan Foreign Trade Minister is expected to visit India in March 1981 to sign Indo-Morocco Trade Agreement and agreement on Economic and Technical cooperation.

A special envoy of the President of Tunisia visited Delhi in April 1980. Tunisia opened a resident Mission in New Delhi at Ambassadorial level. Sep 20, 1980




India continued to pursue its policy of opposition to racial- ism, colonialism and apartheid. It extended moral and material support to the African liberation movements in their struggle for freedom and to realise their human and political rights.

The policy of racial discrimination and apartheid followed by South Africa was condemned and total boycott of that country was observed in diplomatic, consular, commercial, cul- tural including sports and other fields. India condemned the illegal occupation by South Africa of South-West Africa (Namibia). It extended moral and material support to the South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) fighting for the independence of Namibia. It was India's hope that the time-frame agreed to by SWAPO, the Frontline States and South Africa for starting the implementation of the U.N. resolution in March 1981 would result in the attainment of independence by Namibia by the end of 1981.

In pursuance of the UN Secretary General's report of Nov 24, 1980 regarding implementation of Resolution 435, the Pre-Implementation Meeting was held in Geneva from 7 to 14 January, 1981. The purpose of the meeting was to agree to a date for the cease-fire and start implementing the Resolution 435, leading to Namibia's independence by the end of 1981. The meeting was attended by the SWAPO delegation headed by President of the SWAPO, Sam Nujoma and by the South Africa delegation headed by the South African Administrator General of Namibia, Danie Hough. The Frontline States and Nigeria, the GAU and the Contact Group of five Western powers also attended as observers. South Africa as usual showed its intran- sigence. Its delegate felt that the UN had disqualified itself from supervising free and fair elections in Namibia by recognis- ing SWAPO as the sole and authentic representative of the people of Namibia. He said South Africa could not agree to it definite date for implementation until the UN demonstrates its impartiality. The SWAPO delegate was reasonable in his approach and expressed his desire to sign a cease-fire agreement and to agree to a target date for the arrival of UNTAG in



Namibia. He said since South Africa had not agreed, SWAPO was left with no alternative but to continue with the liberation struggle.

India continued to strengthen its ties with the friendly coun- tries of Africa. The visit of President Kaunda of Zambia to India, in September, 1980, helped to promote friendly ties with that country. At the end of his visit four protocols were signed for cooperation with that country in the fields of trade, industry, agriculture and small-scale industries.

The visit of the Minister of Foreign Trade and of the Minister of State for Ports and Surface Transport of Mozambi- que to India marked closer economic and technical cooperation with that country. India also gifted medicines and rice worth about Rs. 40 lakhs to Mozambique.

India welcomed the peaceful transition to democratically elected government in Uganda after more than 8 years of dic- tatorial rule of former President Idi Amin and one year of un- certain political situation. India contributed its share in this transition by way of deputing Shri K. R. P. Singh, a senior retired Indian Foreign Service official, as one of the Common- wealth Observers who observed the Ugandan elections which resulted in the coming to power of President Milton Obote. India expressed its desire to cooperate with the new Government in their task of national rehabilitation and development of their economy. During 1980 around 25 crores of rupees special commercial credits were extended to Uganda by Indian bank- ing institutions.

India's traditional friendly relations with Kenya were further strengthened with the visit of Kenyan Minister of Education to India and the visit of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha to Kenya.

Indo-Kenyan relations received a boost with the visit of President Daniel T. Arap Moi to India from 22 to 27 February 1981 during which three agreements-a Cultural Agreement, an Economic and Technical Cooperation Agreement and a Trade Agreement-were signed. These Agreements are expected to further expand and consolidate the already existing- friendly relations between the two countries. Major areas of cooperation envisaged in these agreements include research and training in the fields of education, science and technology, sports and mass media, exchange of personnel in the fields of engineering, medi- cine, education and agriculture expansion and diversification of


trade as well as setting up of joint ventures in various fields, and provision of training and manufacturing facilities.

India welcomed the recent initiative taken by the Presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia at their recent Summit held in Kampala, capital of Uganda in January 1981 to further strengthen the mutual cooperation for national economic deve- lopment and security.

The establishment of the resident Indian High Commission in Seychelles marked the consolidation of India's friendly rela- tions with that country.

Prime Minister Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam of Mauritious visited India in October/November 1980. The visit provided an opportunity for exchange of views at the highest level on subjects of mutual interest.

It was agreed with Angola to establish formal diplomatic relations.

Sardar Swaran Singh, Special Emissary of the Prime Minister, visited Nigeria in September 1980. The visit provided a use- ful opportunity for exchange of views on bilateral and inter- national matters. During the year several Parliamentary dele- gations and Governors of different Nigerian States visited India thereby giving opportunity for broader interaction between India and Nigeria.

India and Senegal signed a memorandum of understanding on deputation of experts. An agreement was reached for co- operation in the field of science and technology in February 1980. The Senegalese Mission in New Delhi was one of the 22 missions closed down by the Government of Senegal during 1980 as a measure of overall economy. India was assured that this was a temporary economic measure and did not reflect. on close friendly relations between India and Senegal. Nov 24, 1980





India's relations with the countries of Western Europe remained cordial and were further strengthened by exchange of high-level visits and intensive cooperation in economic, technical and cultural fields.

Western Europe is one of the most important areas of trade for India. The number of EEC countries increased to 10 with the inclusion of Greece from the beginning of 1981. They account for nearly 30% of India's global trade. Discus- sions continued on the signing of a new cooperation agreement with EEC. The President of the European Parliament, Madame Simone Veil and also an Euro-Parliamentary delegation are soon expected to visit India.

Western Europe continued to be an important source of development cooperation assistance to India both multilaterally and bilaterally. The major donor countries have been UK, France, the FRG, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway. There was a certain curtailment of British assistance, as part of a global policy in this direction of the British Govern- ment. The countries of Western Europe were also an important source of technical and financial investment in India.

During the year, atention in Europe was focussed on the CSCE meeting in Madrid, the current state of detente, and the deteriorating economic situation. The Brandt Commission report and the efforts to find ways and means of implementing its recommendations also drew attention. The Minister of External Affairs attended the meeting of Foreign Ministers in Vienna for preparations for a meeting of Heads of Government in Mexico in 1981.

India took part in the Senior Commonwealth officials meet- ing in Nicosia in November 1980.

India's relations with UK were marked by frequent exchange of views on bilateral and international matters. Lord Carring- ton, speaking at the annual dinner of the Indo-British Association in London on Nov 19, 1980 remarked that



there were few countries with whom their relations were so rich as with India.

The Indian Posts and Telegraphs Board issued a special stamp in commemoration of the late Lord Mountbatten.

As promised in the Conservative Party manifesto for the 1979 elections, a new British Nationality Law to define entitle- ment to citizenship and right of abode was proposed in British Parliament in January 1981. Earlier, the new Immigration Regulations came into force in March 1980. They contained measures to curtail the entry of immigrants as dependents or male fiances.

In July 1980, a White Paper was published proposing a new Nationality Law. Basically, it proposes three categories of citizenship :

(i) British citizenship;

(ii) Citizenship of British dependent territories, and

(iii) British Overseas citizenship.

The proposal has been criticised as making immigrants second class citizens. The Indian High Commissioner presented an aide memoire to the British Home Secretary on 12 November 1980 conveying India's concern on some of the provisions contained in the new Nationality Law. India continued to remain in close touch with the British authorities on various matters concerning people of Indian origin settled in Britain and Indian visitors to that country.

Prince Charles visited India from 23 November to 6 Decem- ber 1980. The visit of Prince Charles was essentially in the nature of a goodwill visit. His programme gave Mm exposure to a wide cross section of India as well as familiarity with its economic and social development efforts.

An Italian company Ansaldo Amn, a subsidiary of Fin Mecanico, signed an agreement in October 1980 for construc- tion of the Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station located in Andhra Pradesh. The project is partly financed by IDA credit (US dollars 200 million) and IBRD loan (US dollars 50 million).

The first meeting of the Indo-Italian representatives under the Cultural Agreement of 1976 took place in 1980 and a 2 year programme of cultural exchanges was chalked out.


The Foreign Minister of Italy, H.E. Mr. Emilio Colombo, visited India in February 1981. The discussions covered the current international political and economic situation and a variety of bilateral questions and helped to strengthen relations between the two countries and their mutual cooperation.

As a follow-up to the protocols for cooperation signed during the visit of the French President to India in January 1980, an agreement was signed on French assistance in setting up an Aluminium Complex in Orissa.

The multi-faceted relationship with the Federal. Republic of Germany progressed satisfactorily. The Prime Minister had an occasion for an exchange of views with Chancellor Schmidt in Belgrade while attending President Tito's funeral.

The President of the Federal Republic of Germany, H.E. Mr. Carl Carstens, made, a State visit to India in early March 1981. The President was accompanied by the Deputy Chan- cellor and Foreign Minister Mr. Genscher. The visit helped to further consolidate the friendly relations and cooperation bet- ween India and the FRG.

The visiting statesmen and Indian leaders held intensive discussions on promting detente and disarmament as well as the North-South dialogue.

The FRG Government introduced visas for Indian visitors in July 1980. India, was forced to follow suit in October. The diplomatic and official passport holders will remain exempt. The FRG Government said that there was a growing increase in asylum seekers from many other developing coun- tries in that country as a result of the generous German asylum laws. The visa waiver arrangement with some other countries was also given up.

The close relations with the Netherlands saw an upturn with the holding of an exclusive Indian Engineering Goods Fair at Rotterdam. The Speaker of the Lok Sabha was present there on the occasion. More than 100 Indian companies participated in the Fair. The Dutch Government gave special attention to diversifying and further strengthening of bilateral relations and Prince Claus, Consort of Queen Beatrix and Adviser to the International Cooperation Ministry visited India in February 1981.


As regards the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Robbles Piquer, visited New Delhi for an exchange of views with the Minister of External Affairs and the Foreign Secretary. A cultural agreement between India and Portugal was signed in Lisbon. For this purpose, the Education Minister went to Portugal. Many Indian scholars took part in the second conference on Indo-Portuguese history in Portugal.

The President of the Republic of Cyprus, Spyros Kyprianou, visited India in October 1980. An agreement on cultural cooperation was signed by the Cyprus Foreign Minister and the Minister of Education and Social Welfare of India during the visit. India decided to open a resident diplomatic Mission in Nicosia. In the joint communique issued after the visit, India reiterated its stand of support for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, unity and Don-aligned satus of Cyprus, welcomed the resumption of inter-communal talks under the UN auspices and wished these talks success.

The Scandinavian countries continued to maintain close rela- tions with India. Their attitude was marked by their sympathy for the aspirations of the developing countries. The Prime Minister of Denmark, Mr. Anker Jorgensen, paid a visit on the invitation of the Indian Prime Minister. There was an exten- sive exchange of views on matters of international importance and of bilateral concern. An agreement for Danish assistance worth Rs. 18 crores was signed by the two Prime Ministers for strengthening of health services in sonic districts of Madhya Pradesh.

The Norwegian Foreign Minister Mr. Knut Frydenlund came to Delhi on 29 December. Besides the Minister of External Affairs, he held meeting with the Ministers of Petroleum and Finance. An Agreement was signed by the Norwegian Foreign minister and the Finance Minister of India regarding technical and economic cooperation. This laid down the terms under which Norway would provide development assistance for projects as also for consultants, equipment and training.

Parliamentary delegations from many West European coun- tries visited India.

The USSR and Eastern Europe

India's relations with the Soviet Union and other countries of Eastern Europe gained in dynamism and versatility through the


working of the joint commissions for economic, industrial, techni- cal and scientific co-operation set up with those countries and through the exchange of high level visits.

The Indian President, Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy visited the Soviet Union from 29 September to 6 October 1980. During his stay in Moscow the Indian President had talks with President Brezhnev on topical international questions and ways and means of further strengthening Indo-Soviet relations. Besides Moscow the President also visited Leningrad, Volgograd and Tbilisi.

From the Soviet side, the most important visit was that of President Brezhnev to India from 7 to 11 December 1980. The Soviet President was accompanied by a distinguished delegation amongst whom were the Foreign Minister, Mr. A. A. Gromyko and the First Deputy Prime Minister, Mr. I. V. Arkhipov. During the stay of the Soviet President in Delhi he discussed with the Indian leaders a large number of questions, especially those of direct concern to the two countries. On the bilateral aspects, Lido-Soviet discussions focussed on the further strengthening of co-operation between the two countries.

The Prime Minister of India and the President of the USSR signed an agreement on economic and technical co-operation. It provided inter alia, for development of Indo-Soviet co-operation in the field of power, coal mining and oil exploration over and above the traditional co-operation in ferrous metallurgy. The agreement also provided for a Soviet credit of Rbls. 520 million to finance the essential import requirements for some of these projects.

The three other documents signed were a trade agreement; a protocol on co-operation in the field of cinematography and a programme of cultural, scientific and educational exchanges for the year 1981-82.

In response to India's request, the Soviet side also agreed to, increase its supplies of crude oil from the current level of 1.5 million tonnes to 2.5 million tonnes annually and of oil products from 1.9 million tonnes to 2.25 million tonnes for the next five years.

On the political side, there were wide ranging discussions on bilateral and international matters including developments in our region.

The visits of Rao Birendra Singh, Minister of Agriculture top the USSR, from 1 to 8 September 1980, and of Shri N. D.


Tiwari, Minister of Planning, from 20 to 29 October 1980, de- monstrated the desire of the two sides to strengthen cooperation in these fields.

India's political and economic relations with countries of Eas- tern Europe were similarly strengthened during the year.

The President of India, Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy visited the People's Republic of Bulgaria, from 7 to 12 October. During his stay in the capital city of Sofia, he had detailed talks on a wide range of subjects of mutual interest with the President of Bulgaria, Mr. Todor Zhivkov. The President also visited Stara Zagora and Varna.

Other distinguished visitors from India to Bulgaria included the Hon'ble Speaker, Shri Balram Jhakhar, from 8 to 12 Sep- tember 1980, the Vice President of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Professor Nurul Hasan from 6 to 10 August 1980 and the Minister of State for Education, Smt. Sheila Kaul from 2 to 8 December 1980.

India played host to a high level delegation from Bulgaria led by the BCP Central Committee Secretary and Politburo Member, Mr. Grisha Philipov. The delegation held discussions in Delhi and visited various industrial centres to acquaint themselves with India's industrial and economic development.

Concurrent with the visit of the delegation, the session of the Indo-Bulgarian Joint Commission was held in Delhi from 20 June to 1 July 1980. The Commission reviewed economic and indus- trial co-operation between the two countries and sought to identify new areas for developing still closer economic co-operation for mutual benefit.

H.E. Madame Lyudmila Zhivkova, Member of Politburo of the Central Committee of Bulgarian Communist Party and Chair- man of the Committee for Culture of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, visited India during February 1981. She held impor- tant discussions with the Minister for Education and Culture and signed a cultural exchange programme jointly with him. She attend- ed the inauguration of Bulgarian exhibition of Thracian Art and Culture at the National Museum, besides visiting various cultural and educational centres of interest. She also attended the first meeting of the Auroville International Advisory Council, of which she is a member, on 27 February 1981 under the Chairman- ship of the Minister of External Affairs.


Add the following on page 32 of the report after the words "in these fields.":

The Sixth Session of the Indo-Soviet Joint Commission for Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was held on 22nd and 23rd January, 1981 to review the progress of the Indo-Soviet cooperation and to work out modalities for further cooperation. The deliberations of the Joint Com- mission indicated that substantial progress had been achieved in the implementation of the working programmes of cooperation in important fields like ferrous and non- ferrous metallurgy, coal industry, oil, machine building, power and irrigation. The Commission also discussed con- crete measures for implementation of various projects in vital sectors of the Indian economy such as ferrous metal- lurgy, coal, power, oil etc. envisaged in the Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation of 10th December, 1980. With a view to monitoring the implementation of the working programmes of cooperation in the fields of power and coal industries, the Commission decided to set up inter- governmental working groups in these two sectors. It was also agreed that a standing working group would be set up to coordinate and supervise the progress of implementation of the Long-Term Programme. The Sixth Session of the Joint Commission which reviewed the ongoing programmes of cooperation as well as explored new projects has given a further impetus to the strengthening of economic ties be- tween India and the Soviet Union.


An Indian Parliamentary delegation, led by Shri Balram Jhakhar, visited Hungary from 1 to 8 September. During his stay in Budapest the Hon'ble Speaker had meetings with the Hunga- rian President. Mr. Pal Losonczi and the Hungarian Foreign Minister, Mr. Frigyes Puja.

Problems of trade and economic co-operation between India and Hungary came up for discussion during the visits of Shri Jyoti Basu, Chief Minister of West Bengal from 28 to 30 July 1980 and the Minister of Commerce, Shri Pranab Mukherjee from 14 to 17 September 1980.

The 4th session of the Indo-Hungarian Joint Economic Com- mission was held in New Delhi from 10 to 15 November 1980. The Protocol concluded at the end of the fourth session identified new areas of co-operation such as Codeine, computer peripherals, data systems, and the supply of equipment for Asian games. The two sides also agreed to explore new forms of increasing trade turnover through processing of intermediates and buy-back of finished products.

The Minister of Information & Broadcasting, Shri Vasant Sathe, visited Czechoslovakia from 27 June to 10 July 1980. It was agreed during his visit that Indo-Czechoslovak Coopera- lion in the field of information could be further strengthened.

A Parliamentary delegation led by the President of the Czech- oslovak National Assembly and Politburo Member, Mr. Alois Indra, visited India from 18 to 20 November 1980. The 9th session of the Indo-Czechoslovak Commission was held in Delhi from 15 to 18 December 1980. It reviewed the progress of Indo- Czechoslovak cooperation and identified some new areas for strengthening Indo-Czechoslovak cooperation.

India's relations with Romania continued to develop to mutual benefit. The Minister of Commerce, Shri Pranab Kumar Muk- herjee visited Romania from 21 to 24 October leading the Indian delegation to the 5th session of the Indo-Romanian Joint Com- mission. The protocol of this session, besides reviewing the progress in the fields of Indo-Romanian cooperation in ferrous metallurgy and power, concretised projects for cooperation in the fields of automotive industries, metallurgical industry, electronics, petro-chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

A high powered delegation from Romania, led by Mr. Ion Avram visited India from 15 to 20 June to explore prospects for


closer Indo-Romanian cooperation. During this stay in Delhi Mr. Avram had detailed discussions with various Ministers of the Gov- ernment of India. A long term trade and payments agreement between India and Romania was signed during the visit of Deputy Prime Minister Cornel Burtica to India from 1 to 5 December 1980.

With Yugoslavia, India's relations have been marked by close cooperation in the Non-aligned Movement over the last twenty years. At the invitation of the Prime Minister, the President of the Federal Executive Council, Mr. Djuranovic, visited Delhi from 26 to 28 September 1980. The two Prime Ministers dis- cussed important international questions and also ways and means of strengthening bilateral relations. Particular attention was devoted to ways of exploring how the Non-aligned Move- ment could become more effective in dealing with the challenges before it. It was agreed that the two countries would institu- tionalise contact between their planning organisations.

The Thirteenth Session of the Indo-Yugoslav Joint Committee for Economic Cooperation was hold in New Delhi from 16 to 19 February 1981. The Indian delegation was led by Shri Pranab Mukherjee, Union Minister of Commerce, Steel and Mines, and the Yugoslav delegation by H.E. Mr. Metod Rotar, their Foreign Trade Minister. At the conclusion of the meeting, the two Ministers signed a protocol setting out the objectives which the two countries aim to achieve in the fields of industrial cooperation, trade, science and technology, and banking and financial arrange- ments. An Indo-Yugoslav Programme of Cooperation in the fields of Science and Technology for the years 1981-82 was also signed.

The Fourth Session of the Indo-GDR Joint Commission on Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation was held in New Delhi from 12 to 20 February 1981. A Protocol was signed by the Co-Chairmen of the Joint Commission, the Union Minister of State for Industry, Dr. Charanjit Chanana and H.E. Dr. Ger- hard Weiss, Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Government of the German Democratic Republic. Among other things, the two sides agreed to expand and diversify the two way transfer of technology. It was agreed to make concert- ed efforts for increasing supply of industrial machinery and engi- neering goods from India to GDR particularly in the field of textile machinery. It was also decided to further intensify co- operation between the two countries in the field of third country projects. A number of such projects are being implemented in


Libya and more such projects have been identified in countries such as Angola, Algeria and Iraq.

The Polish Commerce Minister, who visited India from 15 to 18 January 1981, had talks with the Indian Prime Minister, the Minister of External Affairs and the Commerce Minister. A long-term trade agreement was signed during his visit.

An Indian delegation, led by the Hon'ble Speaker, Shri Bal- ram Jhakhar, visited Berlin to attend the International Parliamen- tary Union. During his stay in the GDR, the Hon'ble Speaker was received by Mr. Horst Sindermann, President of the GDR National Assembly.




North America

India's friendly relations with the United States remained on an even keel and were characterised by regular exchange of visits by officials of the two countries. This inter-change enhanced the stability of Indo-US relations by providing an opportunity to un- derstand in greater depth each other's approach to major bilateral and international issues. The continuing dialogue not only enabl- ed India and the United States to avoid misunderstandings, but also ensured that India's bilateral relations were founded on the basis of trust and understanding in spite of the fact that the two countries occasionally approached international issues from differ- ing perspectives. Both India and the United States realised the importance of working together to reduce world tensions and to achieve peace and cooperation in South Asia. During the course of the year, the Prime Minister of India and President Carter ex- changed several letters regarding matters of mutual concern, bila- teral relations and major developments in the sub-continent and in the world. This candid exchange of views was also instru- mental in fostering greater understanding of each other's points of view.

During his visit to the United States to attend the United Nations General Assembly, the Minister of External Affairs, Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, met US Secretary of State Edmund Muskie for talks in early October. Later in the same month, Indo-US bialteral talks were held in Washington during which both bila- teral relations and various international issues were reviewed in depth. Among the subjects discussed in the bilateral field were Indo-US trade relations and the prospects of continuing nuclear cooperation.

India appointed Shri K. R. Narayanan, a distinguished diplo- mat and scholar as its Ambassador in Washington and he arrived at his post in October, 1980.

The President and the Prime Minister sent congratulatory messages to Mr. Ronald Reagan on his election victory as Well as



on his inauguration as the President of the United States, express- ing the hope that Indo-US relations would continue to grow dur- ing his Presidency.

In the aftermath of developments in Afghanistan, several visits were exchanged between the two countries to apprise each other of their respective policies and perceptions concerning the situa- tion in Afghanistan. Shri Eric Gonsalves, Secretary in the Min- istry, visited the United States to explain India's view-point. In these meetings, India expressed the need for defusing the situation and its belief that a political and negotiated way had to be found to facilitate the Soviet withdrawal. India conveyed to the United States its deep concern over that country's decision to bolster Pakistan's military strength as such a step could only aggravate tensions in the region.

Another problem which continued to cause India concern was the question of the supply of nuclear fuel for Tarapur. Only after the Senate, in late September, had allowed President Carter's Executive Order, did India receive one of the two pending ship- ments of enriched uranium for Tarapur. While welcoming this development as a positive step for continued Indo-US cooperation in the nuclear field, India regretted the fact that the second and subsequent shipments of nuclear fuel had been made subject to the fulfilment of certain extraneous conditions. The United States was informed that India looked forward to receiving regular sup- plies, in keeping with the 1963 Agreement and the Schedule for supplies mutually agreed upon in 1976, and that it would not con- sider itself obliged to honour any conditions extraneous to the Agreement.

India could not agree with the rationale of the imposition of countervailing duties on Indian imports to the United States with- out the application of the Injury Test, following the latter's deci- sion not to apply the Subsidies Code between the two countries. The matter is currently under discussion in the forum of GATT.

India noted with increasing concern that an area in which the two countries appeared to be following divergent policies was the continuing military build-up by the United States in the Indian Ocean area. The US Under Secretary of Defence, Mr. Robert Komer and Admiral R. L. Long, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific American Armed Forces, visited India to explain the rationale behind the decision of the United States to deploy forces in the Indian Ocean, India made it clear that increased military presence on the part of big powers would only serve to exacerbate


tensions in the region. It was stressed that the best way to main- tain peace and strengthen the security of the littoral States was for these external powers to terminate, at the earliest possible, all military, naval and air presence in this area.

All four Sub-Commissions set up under the Indo-US Joint Commission held meetings during the course of the year. These included the first meeting of the newly constituted Sub-Commis- Sion on Agriculture. The Sub-Commission meetings continued to make a valuable contribution towards enlarging bilateral co- operation in various fields. The Joint Commission itself, how- ever, was unable to meet as a mutually convenient date for this purpose could not be found. This, however, did not detract from the great value such a Commission had in adding depth to Indo- US relations by providing an institutionalised forum for meaning- ful interchanges leading to the expansion of mutually agreed areas of cooperation.

India and Canada continued to develop close and friendly re- lations. The practice of holding annual bilateral official talks, initiated last year, was continued and a meeting was held in Ottawa in October. During this meeting officials of the two countries exchanged views covering a broad sweep of both bilateral relations and major international issues.

South and Central Americas and the Caribbean

India paid greater attention to developing relations with the countries of Latin America, and the Caribbean. The Minister of External Affairs visited Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela during the year.

In order to focus attention on Latin America, a seminar on Simon Bolivar, General San Martin and the Liberation Move- ments in South America, was held by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) in collaboration with the Ministry. Participants included eminent scholars from Latin America as well as academicians and officials from India.

Cuba and India cooperated in different international fora in their common objective of reducing tension and achieving peace. At the invitation of the Government of Cuba, the Minister of Ex- ternal Affairs visited Havana in October. He held intensive dis- cussions with President Fidel Castro and other Cuban leaders, on the international situation, the non-aligned movement and Indo- Cuban bilateral relations. The Cuban Foreign Minister, Mr.


Isidoro Malmierca Peoli, visited India in April to discuss the Afghan situation and subsequently in December to exchange views on finding a peaceful solution to the Iran-Iraq conflict.

At the invitation of the Government of Mexico, the Minister of External Affairs visited Mexico City in October. He had dis- cussions with President H. E. Mr. Jose Lopez Portillo and other- Mexican leaders on the international situation, the North-South dialogue and bilateral relations. Earlier in April, the Mexican Minister for Patrimony and Industrial Development, Mr. Jose Andres Oteyza, had visited India. A number of other visits at official level identified possibilities of closer Indo-Mexican eco- nomic relations in the near future. Mexico also agreed to supply 1.5 million tonnes of oil per annum from January 1981. This was the first such agreement signed by India with a country of Latin America.

The President of Mexico, His Excellency Mr. Jose Lopez Portillo, paid a State visit to India from Jan 25, 1981 to 30 January 1981. He was the first distinguished statesman from Latin America to, be the chief guest at the Republic Day celebrations, a fact which symbolised the growing bilateral relations and cooperation bet- ween Mexico and India. Discussions between the Prime Minister and the President of Mexico, as reflected in the comprehensive Joint Communique issued at the conclusion of the visit, reflected wide similarity of views held by the two countries on the prob- lems evident today in the international arena. The visit is ex pected to provide an impetus to expansion and concretisation of cooperation between the two countries in various fields.

In October-November 1980, a three-member delegation from Trinidad & Tobago led by Hon. Kamaluddin Mohammed, Min- ister for Health & Local Government and consisting of Hon. Cuthbert Joseph, Minister for Education & Culture and Hon. Selwyn Richardson, Attorney General and Minister for Legal Affairs, visited India as a part of a goodwill mission. This visit was the first of its kind from Trinidad & Tobago during the last decade. The Ministers not only had discussions with Indian leaders but also visited scientific and industrial establishments to have a first hand knowledge of India's scientific and technolo- gical progress. The goodwill mission also included a Steel Band Orchestra which performed in Bombay and Delhi, under the auspices of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations.

For furthering economic relations, the Association of Indian Engineering industries (AIEI) visited Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico in August 1980. On the occasion of this Mission's visit,


UNIDO, ECLA and AIEI sponsored and organised a three-day conference in Santiago, Chile, the Headquarters of the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)--from 4 to 6 August 1980. The Conference was unique in that it was the first time UNIDO and the Economic Commission for Latin America were supporting a programme for closer cooperation between India and Latin American industries. The Conference was attended by delegations from 11 countries of Latin America and the Carib- bean. The Mission also visited Argentina, Brazil and Mexico to develop joint ventures arrangements, to discuss cooperation and trade and to collect and disseminate technical and statistical information. Similarly, an Indian Commercial delegation visit- ed Cuba in October 1980, on an invitation from the Chamber of Commerce of Cuba. During the visit, the delegation explored the possibility of export of Indian Railway equipment, sugar mill machinery and other equipment to Cuba and collaboration in third countries. Another delegation from the Kudremukh Iron Ore Company, visited Trinidad & Tobago to explore possibility of the export of iron ore concentrate.

Indian experts, doctors and technicians continued to be held in high esteem in the countries of Latin America and the Carib- bean and there was increasing demand for these experts, particu- larly from the countries in the Caribbean. At present, there are a number of Indian experts in: Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana and Trinidad & Tobago. Jan 25, 1981





India played host to the Second Regional Conference of the Commonwealth Heads of Government (CHOGRM II) held in New Delhi from Sep 04, 1980 to 8 September, 1980. It also played host to the Conference of Foreign Ministers of Non-aligned countries held in February 1981. The successful conclusion of this Con- ference was in no small part due to the crucial role played by India as its Chairman. As in the past, India participated actively in a number of important conferences during the year. These included the World Conference of the UN Decade for Women held in Copenhagen from 14 to 30 July 1980.

Important UN events during the period under review in- cluded the Seventh Emergency Special, Session on the Question of Palestine, held from 22 to 29 July 1980, and the Eleventh Special Session of the General Assembly on Global economic matters, held from 25 August to 15 September 1980. All these sessions were held in New York.

The World Conference of the UN Decade for Women was held at Copenhagen, Denmark, from 14 to 30 July '80. The Indian delegation, led by Smt. Sheila Kaul, the present Minister of State for Education and Social Welfare, played a prominent and constructive role a! the Conference. A programme of action containing measures designed to improve the status of women in all spheres of activity was adopted at the conclusion of the Conference by 85 votes in favour, 4 against (Israel, USA, Canada and Australia) and 25 abstentions.

India, along with 74 countries, signed the UN Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.

The Second Regional Conference of the Commonwealth Heads of Government (CHOGRM-II) was held in New Delhi from 4 to 8 September 1980. The President of Bangladesh, Kiri- bati, Nauru, Sri Lanka and the Prime Ministers of Australia, Fiji, India, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua, New Guinea, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa



attended the Conference. The Conference was inaugurated by the President of India, Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, who described it as a opportunity to the leaders of the member-countries to reflect on international relations from the point of view of our regional perspective." Prime Minister Indira Gandhi presided over the Conference. Welcoming the participating Heads of State/ Government, she pointed to the uncertainty all around, with the collision of interests between powerful nations "imperilling stabi- lity and peaceful development of countries in our vicinity." She called upon the member-countries to build "a bridge of understand- ing between the great powers".

The Conference adopted a 15-page communique covering various political and economic issues. The communique under- lined the need for finding peaceful political solutions to the prob- lems concerning Afghanistan and Kampuchea. On the Indian Ocean, the Conference appealed to the great Powers to remove the existing sources of tension in the area. On West Asia, the com- munique underlined the inalienable rights of the Palestinians and the need to solve the problem on the basis of UN resolutions.

While restraint marked the Conference's approach to politi- cal issues, the desire to explore new avenues of cooperation among the member-states was underlined in its deliberations on the eco- nomic and trade issues. The Conference noted with concern that protectionism was on the increase particularly against the labour intensive or lower cost exports of countries of the region. Most developing countries, the communique said, had severe balance of payments problems and they needed greater export opportuni- ties in order to pay for their imports mainly from developed countries. The developed countries, in particular those exercis- ing major influence over world trade, it was stated, should not seek to avoid the realities of international competitiveness and should make a determined effort to liberalise trade through adop- tion of "positive adjustment policies".

The Conference also agreed to broaden the terms of reference of the consultative group, which was constituted at the 1978 re- gional conference in Sydney, to include economic development issues in order that the potential for development of member coun- tries may be explored in a more effective manner.

The Seventh Emergency Special Session of the UN General Assembly on the question of Palestine was held in New York from 22 to 29 July 1980. The session was convened at the initiative of the Non-aligned countries. More than 100 States


participated in the debate. About 30 countries were represented at the session at the Ministerial level. In view of India's close friendship with the Arab States and principled support for the Palestinian cause, the Indian delegation to the Emergency Session was led by the Minister of External Affairs.

At the end of the debate the Assembly adopted two resolutions on the question of Palestine. The first resolution reaffirmed the right of the Palestinian people to establish their own independent State and called for the unconditional withdrawal of Israel from all the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since June 1967, including Jerusalem". It urged that such withdrawal start before 15 November 1980 and asked the Security Council to consider the adoption of sanctions in case of non-compliance by Israel. The resolution was adopted by 112 votes in favour, 7 against and 24 abstentions. Voting against were israel, USA, Canada, Norway, Australia, Guatemala and the Dominican Republic.

A second resolution, approved by a vote of 112 in favour to 5 against with 26 abstentions, asked the UN Committee on inalienable rights of Palestinian people to study the reasons for Israel's refusal to comply with relevant United Nations resolu- tions. As a member of this Committee, India took an active part in drafting both the resolutions.

The Eleventh Special Session of the UN on Economic Development was held between 25 August and 15 September 1980. The Principal themes to which the session devoted its attention were : (i) the launching of a new round of Global Negotiations; (ii) adoption of the international Development Strategy for the 3rd UN Development Decade (1981-f990); and (iii) a review of the progress made towards the achievement of the New International Economic Order. Both during and prior to the session, India played an active role in its capacity as the Chairman of Group of 77 in negotiations with the deve- loped countries. However, the Committee of the Whole, which had been designated as the Preparatory Committee for the Global Round of Negotiations, failed to recommend any con- crete conclusions to the Special Session.

The Special Session which was to have finalised the agenda, time-frame and the procedures for the Global Round failed to do so and in turn remitted this task to the regular session of the UN General Assembly in the hope that the Global Round could be launched. The Special Session, however, was able to


achieve consensus on a text of the International Development Strategy about the Third Development Decade. This document, which attempted to chalk out a plan of action through internatio- nal community, could help the developing countries reach vari- ous objectives during the Decade. It contained four chapters on preamble, goals and objectives, policy measures and review and appraisal mechanism for the Decade. Its text was formally adopted at the 35th session of the UN General Assembly. However, detailed statements made by EEC, USA and certain other developed countries amounted almost to reservation on the vital portions of the Strategy. These reservations related basically to fulfilment of targets and commitments by the deve- loped countries in the field of ODA, industrial re-deployment, international trade and monetary issues. This indicated that for some of the developed countries, it was a political document to which there could not be binding commitments, particularly in as much as they might have direct or indirect impact upon their own economies.

With regard to the review of progress towards achievement of New International Economic Order, the Group of 77 expressed their disappointment at the lack of meaningful results in this direction. Concern was expressed at the increasingly deteriora- ting economic situation in the case of the low-income developing countries. Interest was expressed in elaboration of the proposals made by the UN Secretary-General on 3 July 1980 at the Second Regular Session of ECOSOC in Geneva with regard to an early action programme in favour of these countries.

At the 35 session of the UN General Assembly, resumed efforts were made to reach consensus on procedures and the agenda for the launching of Global Round of Negotiations. However, very little forward movement has so for taken place. The issues are expected to be taken up again at the resumed session of the UN General Assembly in March 1981.

In the Second Committee at the 35th session of the General Assembly, India-played an active role in the Group of 77 both in initiating and participating in the drafting of resolutions. This was particularly so with regard to (a) review of Operational Activities for Development; (b) UNIDO (United Nations Indus- trial Development Organisation); (c) ECDC (Economic Co- operation among Developing Countries), (d) UN Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy; (e) Report of the


Secretary-General on the Critical Economic Situation facing many developing countries; and (f) Food & Agriculture in Africa.

In addition, the Indian delegation also co-sponsored at least 15 other resolutions which were separately introduced in the Second Committee. India played a particularly active role in the resolutions on Habitat, Environment, cooperation between Habitat and UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and the report of the World Food Council.

Zimbabwe was admitted to the United Nations as the 153rd member at this Special Session.

Lists of major international conference/meetings/seminars organised by government/non-government organisations in which India participated and of which India became a member are at Appendices I to IV.

The United Nations General Assembly Commenced its 35th regular session in New York on 16 September 1980. Baron Rudiger von Wechmar of the Federal Republic of Germany was elected President of the General Assembly for the session. The Assembly suspended its session on 16 December 1980 after completing most of its business. It resumed its session in March 1981 to consider the remaining items on its agenda, which are the question of Namibia and the launching of the Global Round of Negotiations. The Assembly had before it an agenda of over 120 items covering disarmament, political, economic, social, human rights, legal and other related issues. A new item on the agenda on granting of observer status for the Asian- African Legal Consultative Committee was inscribed at the initiative of India.

The membership of the UN went up to 154 by the admission of Saint Vincent and Grenadines, a Caribbean country, as a new member.

India played an active and constructive role in the delibera- tions of the General Assembly and its Committees. The Assembly adopted a large number of resolutions, most of them by con- sensus. India took major initiatives in tabling or co-sponsoring a number of resolutions in the plenary as well as in various Committees.

During the session, India was re-elected as a member of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) for a further period


of three years, starting from 1 January 1981. Earlier in the year, in elections held in ECOSOC, India had been elected to the Governing Council of United Nations Development Pro- gramme for a term of three years and re-elected to the Committee on Programme and Co-ordination (for three years), Committee on Natural Resources (for four years) and Commission on the Status of Women (for four years). Shri T.N. Kaul was elected to the Executive Board of UNESCO at its twentyfirst General Conference held in Belgrade, from 23 September to 28 October 1980.

The Indian delegation to the 35th session of the General Assembly was led by Minister of External Affairs. Speaking in the general debate on 3 October, he referred to the current inter- national crisis, the responsibility for which rested with the most powerful nations. He affirmed that the weak and poor nations had no intention of acquiescing in the danger of Big Power brinkmanship. The conflicts in South-West and South-East Asia needed package solutions which took care of the concerns of all and eliminated all interference by outside powers. Pleading for the politics of co-operation, he concluded by saying, "sometimes, looking at great stretches of history, it is difficult to believe that the ideal of cooperation and working together for the common good has made much progress. And yet, if we are to avert a catastrophe, we should resolutely continue on the path of dia- logue and co-operation and turn away from sterile polemics and confrontation. All of us perhaps perceive the danger and recog- nise the challenge, but the will to act has so far been sadly lacking. Let us, therefore, so readjust our sights and conduct our affairs that future generations may not condemn our times as yet another barren stretch in the history of man."

The plenary of the General Assembly adopted as many as 18 resolutions on the question of Apartheid. India cosponsored all of them. Resolutions on (i) Comprehensive Sanctions against South Africa, (ii) Cultural, academic and other, boycotts. of South Africa, (iii) the Role of Transnational Corporations in South Africa, (iv) International Campaign against Apartheid and (v) Implementation of UN's Resolutions on Apartheid by Governments and Inter-governmental Organisations were intro- duced for the first time. India introduced the resolution on Campaign for the Release of Political Prisoners in South Africa. In these resolutions, the Assembly requested the Security Coun- cil urgently to adopt comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against the racist regime of South Africa, including oil embargo and


called upon all governments which had not yet done so, to serve diplomatic, military, nuclear, economic, cultural, academic and sports as well as other relations with that regime. The Assem- bly also requested the Security Council to take mandatory measures to strengthen the arms embargo and secure the imme- diate cessation of any form of collaboration with the racist regime of South Africa in the military and nuclear fields.

The question of Kampuchea remained a controversial item in the deliberations of the UN General Assembly. As many as 30 speakers made statements on the credentials question, a majo- rity of them deploring the inhuman atrocities of the Pol Pot regime. The voting on the credentials question was, however, 74 in favour of the seating of the Pol Pot regime, i.e., Democratic Kampuchea, 35 against and 32 abstentions. India voted against the seating of the Pol Pot regime.

The UN General Assembly adopted a resolution sponsored by the ASEAN countries on the situation in Kampuchea by 97 votes in favour, 23 against and with 22 abstentions. The reso- lution inter alia called for the convening of an international conference on Kampuchea early in 1981 which should involve the participation of all conflicting parties in Kampuchea and which should give priority to the total withdrawal of foreign troops from Kampuchea. India abstained because it felt that the deve- loping atmosphere of dialogue would be disturbed by proposals for convening an international conference based on resolutions rejected by the countries directly concerned.

The UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the situ- ation in Afghanistan on 20 November 1980 by a vote of 111 in favour, 22 against and 12 abstentions. The resolution inter alia reiterated the call for the immediate withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan and contained a provision for the ap- pointment of a Special Representative of the UN Secretary- General with a view to Promoting a Political solution to the Afghan problem. All Western countries, the majority of non- aligned countries and Latin American States voted in favour of the resolution. The Soviet Union and the socialist countries along with Afghanistan, Angola, Cuba, Democratic Yemen, Ethi- opia, Laos, Madagascar, Mozambique, Syria and Vietnam voted against. India was one of the 12 countries which abstained. Others to do so were Algeria, Benin, Cape Verde, Chad, Congo, Cyprus, Finland, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nicaragua and Zimbabwe.


Earlier in January 1980, a similar resolution had been adopted by the General Assembly in an Emergency Special Ses- sion by a vote of 104 in favour, 18 against and 18 abstentions.

Speaking in the UN General Assembly on 19 November 1980 the Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations stated that the important elements for achieving a political solu- tion to the crisis would be the complete cessation of all interfere- nce or intervention in the internal affairs of States; firm opposition to the presence of foreign troops in any country; the withdrawal of existing foreign forces; and the furnishing of complete and reliable guarantees against all forms of interference. India abstained on the resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly on 20 November 1980, because it did not contain all these ele- ments.

A Resolution on the Indian Ocean was adopted by consensus by General Assembly. The resolution had been drafted by the ad hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean, after prolonged nego- tiations. This was the first time that a resolution on the Indian Ocean had been adopted by consensus by the United Nations General Assembly. However, the USA, UK, France and other Western countries maintained their position that the provisions of the 1971 UN Declaration were not acceptable to them, espe- cially with regard to the elimination of Great Power military presence from the Indian Ocean.

The resolution contained a provision for the convening of the Conference on the Indian Ocean during 1981 at Colombo. However, the resolution also requested the ad hoc Committee "to make every effort, in consideration of the political and seen- rity climate in the Indian Ocean area, particularly recent deve- lopments, as well as progress made in the harmonization of views" to finalise all preparations for the Conference.

India empressed its understanding of the consensus resolu- tion in the following terms. The resolution clearly and catego- rically related to "the implementation of the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace". Secondly, the decision taken by the UN General Assembly in 1979 to convene a con- ference during 1981 in Colombo stood reaffirmed in the present resolution. Thirdly, the continued escalation of Great Power military presence in the Indian Ocean and the deteriorating poli- tical and security situation, far from serving as an exucuse to postpone the Conference only gives greater urgency to the need


for its convening. Fourthly, the question of harmonising diffe- rent approaches which had been referred to in the resolution, should relate to the modalities of the implementation of the Dec- laration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. India rejected any preconditions, unrelated to the implementation of the Dec- laration for the convening of the Conference. The session of the ad hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean held in February 1981 ended without any agreement on the dates for the Indian Ocean Conference.

As in previous years, the General Assembly adopted a reso- lution, sponsored by Pakistan on the establishment of a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone in South Asia by 96 votes in favour, 3 (India, Bhutan and Mauritius) against and 44 abstentions.

India registered its opposition to the Pakistani resolution both on account of matters of principle and from practical consi- derations. The setting up of a nuclear weapon free zone, in its view, must be the result of a common initiative of all States of a particular region and participation in it must be voluntary. It was inadmissible for one state in a region to seek to impose such a zone on other States within the region. South Asia was an integral and contiguous part of the region of Asia and the Pacific and could, therefore, not be treated in isolation from the rest of the region to which it belonged. The Pakistani proposal did not take into account the geopolitical characteristics of the area con- cerned and ignored the fact that the security enviroment of the South Asia region was complicated by the deployment of the nuclear weapons in the Asia-Pacific theatre and the presence or foreign military bases in the Indian Ocean.

The question relating to Information was considered in the Special Political Committe of the General Assembly. A resolu- tion on behalf of the Group of 77, introduced by Venezuela in its capacity as Chairman of the Group, was adopted by the General Asembly without a vote. India took an active and cons- tractive part in the drafting of the resolution. The Assembly also adopted the resolution without a vote.

The resolution consisted of 19 preambular paragraphs and 37 operative paragraphs in three separate sections. Note was taken in the resolution of the discussions at the Twenty-first session of the General Conference of the UNESCO, held in Bel- grade from 23 September to 28 October 1980. The resolution also took note with satisfaction of the establishment by UNESCO


of the International Programme for the Development of Com- munication which constituted an important step in the esablish- ment of a New World Information and Communication Order.

The 31st session of the General Assembly by its Resolution 31/123, proclaimed 1981 as the International Year of Disabled Persons. The 32nd session of the General Assembly constituted an Advisory Committee for the International Year of Disabled Persons consisting of 15 member States, which was later raised to 23 member States by a decision of the General Assembly at its 33rd session. India is a member of the Advisory Committee. Commensurate with India's adherence to humanitarian causes, a national Plan of Action and a Committee to oversee the same have been constituted. The Prime Minister launched the Inter- national Year of Disabled Persons at a function on 5 January 1981. She announced that the Government was working to- wards a comprehensive legislation for the rehabilitation of the physically handicapped.

An Indian delegation led by the Secretary, Ministry of Social Welfare participated in the 6th Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders held at Caracas from 25 August to 5 September 1980. In the Third Committee of the 35th session of the General Assembly, various matters on human rights, including the impor- tance of the universal realisation of the right of peoples to self- determination, alternative approaches and ways and means with- in the United Nations system for improving the effective enjoy- ment of human rights, elimination of all forms of racial discrimi- nation, came up for discussion. The Indian delegation played an active role in the deliberations of the Third Committee. India continued its active participation in multilateral deli- berations and negotiations on disarmament. India's role in the field of disarmament was determined by the consistent, basic, considerations that (i) lasting international peace and security can only be based on the achievement of the goal of general and complete disarmament under effective international control and the establishment of a just international economic order, and (ii) the focus of the international community's attention and efforts should remain priority objectives.

India has, therefore, continued its determined efforts along with the other like-minded countries to press for a comprehen- sive ban on the testing of all nuclear weapons by all States and the


complete prohibition of the use of nuclear weapons, pending the achievement of nuclear disarmament.

At the 35th regular session of the UN General Assembly, India tabled a resolution on non-use of nuclear weapons and prevention of nuclear war. The resolution reiterated that any use of nuclear weapons would be a violation of the UN Charter and a crime against humanity. It also called upon those States which had not so far done so to submit their proposals regarding the question of an international convention or some other agree- ment on the subject, so that further consideration could be given to the question. The resolution was adopted by 112 votes in favour, 19 against and 14 abstentions.

The United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea held its ninth session from 3 March to 4 April in New York and from 28 July to 29 August in Geneva. It came to an agreement on most of the outstanding issues leading to the publication of a draft convention on the Law of the Sea (informal text) in August. It comprised 320 articles and 8 annexes most of which reflected widespread agreement or near consensus. It embodied provisions relating to all aspects of the, Law of the Sea, viz. ter- ritorial waters, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone, con- tinental shelf, straits, high seas, islands, archipelagos, landlocked and geographically disadvantaged States, maritime, scientific research, pollution, transfer of technology and the international seabed area and its resources.

The Conference also settled difficult questions of the decision --making process in the Council of the proposed International seabed Authority. It was agreed that the decisions on crucially specified questions would require consensus whereas other ques- tions could be decided by a simple 2/3rd or 3/4th majority vote. This formula was originally proposed by India.

The next Session of the Conference is being held in New York from 9 March to 17 April 1981. It will deal, inter alia, with the questions of the establishment of Preparatory Commis- sion and of interim authorisation of seabed exploration pending the entry into force of the Convention on the Law of the Sea. The Convention is expected to be finalised and opened for signa- ture later in 1981.

India continued its participation in the deliberations of the Legal Sub-Committee of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The Sub-Committee held its nineteenth session


in Geneva in March-April 1980 and discussed inter alia the principles governing the use by States of artificial earth satellites for direct television broadcasting, legal implications of remote sensing of the earth from space, definition and/or delimitation of outer space, outer space activities, and the use of nuclear power sources in the outer space.

Regarding direct broadcasting by satellites the Committee was not able to reach agreement on the outstanding principle of whether it was necessary to obtain agreement of a state on whose territory direct broadcasting by satellite is specifically directed.

On remote sensing of the earth by satellites the Sub-Com- mittee was able to reach consensus on some principles. But no consensus could be reached on the question of prior consent of the sensed State for the dissemination of certain types of data, notification for conducting remote sensing activities and the applicability of the principle of full and permanent sovereignty over natural resources to remote sensing activities.

Regarding definition and/or delimitation of outer space, a proposal was made by the USSR in the Legal Sub-Committee with regard to the establishment of a conventional boundary for air space and outer space not higher than 100 to 110 kms. above sea level. In this connection a number of delegations, while agreeing that there was a need for definition and delimitation of outer space, expressed the view that at the present stage of scientific development it was not possible to establish precise limits of outer space.

The item "use of nuclear power sources in outer space" was on the agenda for the first time. Except for the Soviet Union and the socialist countries, a majority of States were of the view that the use of nuclear power sources in outer space was a mat- ter of serious importance and concern to the whole of the inter- national community and as such specific regulations should be adopted for their use.

India participated in the Thirteenth Session of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) field at New York in July 1980 and played an active and con- structive role in the work of that organisation. The adoption of the UNCITRAL Conciliation Rules should, it is hoped, facilitate the settlement of international commercial disputes amicably between the parties. Further, India played a key role in the establishment of the Working Group on New International


Economic Order and entrusting to it the subject of contracts in the field of industrial development.

The UNEP Working Group of Experts on Environmental Law held its Sixth and Seventh Sessions in Paris and Geneva from 30 June to 11 July 1980 and 21 to 31 October 1980 res- pectively. The Working Group is engaged in formulating guidelines on "the legal aspects of off-shore mining and drilling carried out within the limits of national jurisdiction". India is a member of the Working Group.

The Working Group at its Sixth Session adopted certain guidelines on "contingency plans" to prevent and mitigate damages arising out of pollution caused by off-shore exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons.

The Working Group at its Seventh Session adopted certain guidelines on the question of "liability and compensation" arising out of pollution caused by off-shore exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons.

The Anti-Apartheid (United Nations Convention) Bill, 1980, was introduced in Lok Sabha on 27 November 1980 to give effect to the provisions of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, 1973, to which India became a party on the 22 October 1977.

The Bill, however, could not be considered by the Lok Sabha at its Winter Session, due to heavy schedule of its work. It has been submitted to the current Budget Session of Parliament.

The item of Drafting of a Convention against the Activities of Mercenaries was included in the agenda of the 34th Session (1979) of the General Assembly at the initiative of Nigeria and was considered directly in the Plenary. The General Assembly adopted by consensus resolution 34/140, which was also co- sponsored by India. At the 35th Session (1980), the item was allocated to the Sixth Committee and considered by it. On its recommendation, the General Assembly adopted by consensus resolution 35/48 whereunder a 35-member ad hoc Committee on the Drafting of a Convention against the Activities of Mer- cenaries will be established to elaborate an international conven- tion to prohibit the recruitment, use financing and training of mercenaries. India has been elected as a member of this ad hew Committee which met in New York from 20 January to 13 February, 1981. There was widespread support in the Sixth Committee from socialist and non-aligned countries for drafting such a convention.


The Sixth Special Session of the General Assembly held in 1974 adopted two documents of supreme importance, namely, the Declaration and the Programme of Action on the Eestablish- ment of a New International Economic Order and the Charter of Eoconmic Rights and Duties of States. The General Assembly requested the Secretary-General in collaboration with the United Nations Institute, for Training and Research and in co- ordination with the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, to study the question of the consolidation and pro- gressive development of the principles and norms of international economic law relating in particular to the legal aspects of the New International Economic Order, with a view to embodying them in one or more instruments, as appropriate (vide resolution 34/150 of 17 December 1979).

At its 35th session (1980), the General Assembly allocated the item to the Sixth Committee, which considered it on the basis of the Report of the Secretary-General (A/35/466). The deve- loping Countries which participated in the debate on this item stressed the great importance attached by them to the progressive development of the principles and norms of international econo- mic law relating to the New International Economic Order (NIEO). The western countries expressed the view that the Sixth Committee could not constructively embark upon this task as the principles and norms of international economic law were still in the process of evolution and development. The socialist countries agreed that there was considerable amount of disagree- ment among Members on the basic question of whether to under- take any consolidation and progressive development of inter- national economic law. Accordingly, the Sixth Committee re- commended to the General Assembly to request the United Nations Institute for Training and Research to prepare a list of the existing and evolving principles and norms of international law relating to NIEO concerning the economic relations among States, international organisations, other entities of public inter- national law, and the activities of trans-national corporations, inter alia, in the existing declarations, principles and resolutions on the subject as well as the Charter of Eoconomic Rights and Duties of States and on the basis of this list, prepare an analy- tical study, which the Secretary-General should submit to the General Assembly at its 36th session in 1981.

At the meeting of the Assembly of the International Tele- communication Satellite Organisation (INTELSAT) WA at Venice in October 1980, the nominee of India, Dr. R. K. Dixit,


was elected a member of the Panel of Experts of INTELSAT. Later on in Novmber 1980, at the meeting of the Panel at Rome, he was unanimously elected its Chairman. It is for the first time that a member of the Asian African countries has been elected as Chairman of the Panel of Legal Experts of INTELSAT.

The 21st Annual Session of the Asian-African Legal Consul- tative Committee was held in Jakarta from 24 April to 1 May 1980. These dates coincided with the Commemoration of the Silver Jubilee Anniversary of the historic Bandung Conference. The Prime Minister of India sent a message of greetings in con- nection with the Commemoration Ceremony.

At the AALCC Session in Jakarta general statements were made on the theme "Asian-African Identity in World Affairs- Its Impact and Prospects for Future" as a part of the Com- memoration Ceremony. The Leader of the Indian Delegation, Shri Shiv Shanker, Minister of Law, Justice and Company Affairs, made a statement recalling the crucial and historic role played by the leaders at the Bandung Conference in 1955. The Bandung Declaration and other Resolutions had provided the framework for cooperation among Asian and African States in all fields-economic, cultural and political. He recalled the tremendous progress made by the two continents since the Ban- dung Conference, particularly the liberation of Africa and the joint stand taken by Asian and African States for promoting eco- nomic growth and development of developing countries in different UN and other forums. He also recalled the role played by AALCC in providing solidarity among the Asian and African States in the legal field.

The main subjects considered at the Session were: (1) Deve- lopments in the Law of the Sea; (2) Exploitation of the Exclu- sive Economic Zone; (3) Regional Economic Co-operation in the Industrial field as part of New International Economic Order; and (4) International Trade Law.

Two Working Groups on the Law of the Sea set up by the AALCC met in February 1981 at New Delhi and considered issues likely to come up at the 10th session of the UN Con- ference on the Law of the Sea being held in March-April 1981.

During 1980, India concluded 67 treaties and agreements. A final list of such treaties and agreements is at Appendix V.


Jan 01, 1980



The Ministry intensified its efforts towards further develop- ment of India's foreign economic relations. On the bilateral side, this was achieved, through an exchange of visits of high- level delegations, by strengthening economic and technical co- operation with developing countries and developed market eco- nomy and Socialist countries.

On-going economic cooperation with neighbouring countries in South Asia progressed satisfactorily on the whole. Out of 21 pilot projects that India had undertaken to set up in Burma under ITEC, 15 projects have already been completed and six are expected to be completed by June 1981.

Machinery and equipment was supplied to Sri Lanka for set- ting up of three rural technical centres.

The export of skills and services to West Asian and North African countries continued its momentum. Several delegations from these areas visited India to recruit on direct contract terms personnel with expertise in different fields such as medicine, engineering, accountancy, finance, hydrology, etc. A standard recruitment protocol regarding doctors was finalised with Libya. The recruitment of teaching staff for universities and engineering institutions in Algeria progressed satisfactorily. In this connec- tion courses in functional French were organised in the Jawahar- lal Nehru University and Institute of Languages, Hyderabad, for professors prior to their departure for Algeria. Eruption of the conflict between Iran and Iraq created some bottlenecks in regard to India's economic programmes with these countries but progress was maintained by making efforts to remove these bottlenecks.

With African countries, the accent was on cooperation in the fields of small scale and medium scale industries, establishment of joint ventures, cooperation in agriculture and rural develop- ment and in the development of infrastructure and transport. Special mention may be made of four protocols signed with Zambia, at the time of the visit of President Kaunda, in the fields of industry, trade, joint ventures and agriculture and rural deve-



lopment. The visit of the Mozambique's Minister for Ports and Surface Transport is likely to result in greater cooperation bet- ween India and Mozambique in the field of railway development and management. India also participated as observer in the Second Southern African Development Coordination Conference held in Maputo for cooperation in development of infrastructure and transport in the Southern African region. India also extend- ed its cooperation to African countries in the grant of commer- cial credits and government-to-government credits. Cooperation with Seychelles was strengthened through undertaking of addi- tional programmes under ITEC.

Cooperation with Laos and Vietnam in setting up of Buffalo Breeding centres made considerable progress. On the occasion of the visit of the Prime Minister of Vietnam, agreements were signed for supply of 50,000 tonnes of rice on loan to Vietnam and for government-to-government credit. During the visit of the President of Indonesia, it was agreed that officials of the two countries would meet soon to identify specific areas of coopera- tion.

At the meeting of Heads of Mission in Latin American countries, presided over by the Minister of External Affairs, it was agreed that efforts should be made to solve the problem of shipping to this region and areas of cooperation in the field of consultancy and technical cooperation should be identified.

A sum of Rs. 8.32 crores was earmarked for implementation of various ITEC programmes during the financial year 1980-81. This was in addition to individual technical and economic co- operation programmes with Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. The main beneficiaries under ITEC programme were Afghanis- tan, Sri Lanka, Burma, Mauritius, Tanzania, Vietnam, Laos, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Fiji, Thailand and Malawi. Under this programme, about 100 experts were deput- ed and about 1200 trainees from various countries underwent specialised courses in India. A sum of approximately Rs. 9 lakhs was made available as India's initial contribution to the Industrial Development Unit of the Commonwealth for pro- grammes connected with industrialisation of developing Com- monwealth countries such as pre-investment studies, identification of projects, preparation of feasibility reports, provision of train- ing facilities and implementation of priority projects. A sum of Rs. 50 lakhs was given to the Economic Commission for Africa under basic grants agreement for projects to be undertaken under economic and technical cooperation programmes among deve- loping countries. Other activities under ITEC programmes undertaken we-re supply of wheat seeds to the People's Demo- cratic Republic of Yemen equipment for a technical centre in


Fiji, Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicines to Burma, school equipment to Laos, books to Somalia, scientific and laboratory equipment to Liberia and preparation of certain feasibility studies for setting up of industrial estates and manufacture of centrifugal pumps.

Other highlights of India's economic and technical coopera- tion with developing countries were the establishment of 39 joint ventures during the year in developing countries by private sector, deputation of experts numbering more than 1500 through gov- eminent agencies.. grant of commercial credits and discussions and negotiations in regard to possible long-term arrangements/ agreements for meeting requirements of essential commodities such as crude oil, fertilizers, non-ferrous metals, etc.

India and the Socialist countries of Eastern Europe continued to develop their trade and commercial exchanges and strengthen industrial and economic cooperation on the basis of effective follow-up of past decisions and new initiatives undertaken in the framework of joint commissions. Long term trade plans for 1981-85 were finalised with the Soviet Union and Romania. An economic cooperation agreement was entered into between India and the Soviet Union, during the visit of President Brezhnev, according to which the Soviet Union would grant a Rouble cre- dit of 520 million for projects in India to be set up with Soviet assistance.

Several developed countries, particularly from Europe, showed interest in establishing and strengthening their technical and economic collaboration with India. Considerable progress was achieved in regard to the completion of negotiations with the European Economic Community towards the conclusion of a new commercial and economic cooperation agreement.

The first session of the Indo-US Sub-Commission on Agri- culture was devoted in the setting of directions and priorities for cooperation in diverse areas such as forestries, wild life manage- ment, irrigation, soil conservation, water shed management, ani- mal husbandry and fisheries.

The negative trends in the world economy and particularly the trebling of oil prices continued to be a source of great con- cern. India faced some real difficulties due to trade barriers, protectionism and other action taken by developed countries affecting its exports. The regular session of the UN General Assembly failed to adopt any positive recommendation in regard to measures for overcoming the critical economic situation of


many developing countries. The Aid India Consortium meeting resulted in a pledge of bilateral assistance amounting to $ 3.4 billion. India also availed of SDR 1815 million (Rs. 815 crores approximately) of IMF facilities in order to stabilise the foreign exchange position. In addition, in view of constraints on its foreign exchange, position, India also resorted to commer- cial borrowings on very selective basis.

Spiralling costs of crude oil imports as well as security of supply, particularly in the wake of the flghting between Iran and Iraq, the two principal traditional suppliers of crude oil to India, were the major issues facing India in 1980. The long-term Strategy Committee of OPEC had put forward specific proposals in regard to compensation measures for alleviating the burden on oil importing developing countries and had proposed criteria based on per capita incomes as well as total oil imports for categorisation of developing countries that would be entitled to compensation measures. India made diplomatic demarche vis-a- vis members of OPEC for explaining the impact of oil rises on its balance-of-payments position and stressed that per capita oil imports and consumption rather than total imports were more relevant as a criteria. As a result there was greater understand- ing of India's sui generis case in this respect. Unfortunately, further pi-ogress in regard to finalisation of the recommendation by the, Long-term OPEC Stratey Committee and its ad- option by the OPEC Summit was blocked mainly due to Iran-Iraq conflict. This led India to look for crude oil supply from other OPEC countries in West Asia as well as non-tradi- tional sources, such as Venezuela, Mexico etc. While this helped in ensuring the requisite import requirements in 1980 this aspect would need a continual watch in 1981.

A somewhat promising development was the elaboration of action-oriented recommendations in regard to economic co- operating among developing countries in the sectors of trade, raw materials, energy, food, industrialisation, technology and finance, It was hoped that a package of inter-related measures which would now emerge, would contribute to the strengthening of collective self-reliance of the developing countries. A signi- ficant decision taken by India, within the framework of its invest- ment policy, related to permitting of portfolio investment in new companies by oil exporting developing countries. India will participate in a high level meeting on Economic Cooperation among Developing Countries which is expected to be held in May 1981.


India is determined to continue its efforts for bringing about greater understanding and deeper appreciation of inter-depen- dence among nations--its relevance and importance-and for generating political will at highest level so that all nations which have their proper resources to contribute could take part in a cooperative efforts in optimising the results of international co- operation that would promote the development of the develop- ing countries. It was in this context that India responded posi- tively to the initiative taken by Austria and Mexico, in the wake of the near failure of the 11th Special Session for chartering out a course of appropriate action for the promotion of the develop- ment of developing countries and international economic co- operation, for convening a Restricted Summit meeting to consi- der the problems of cooperation and development. India parti- cipated in the meeting of Foreign Ministers from 11 countries held in Vienna, in November, for consultations in regard to the preparations for such a meeting. 1980




The External Publicity Division of the Ministry is responsible for the overall tasks of publicity affecting India's foreign relations. It also coordinates and supervises the press, public relations, publicity and cultural work done by Indian Missions abroad. The Division briefs and assists the Missions to interpret all aspects of India's foreign policy to the public and the media in countries of their respective accreditation. They are also kept informed of the political, economic social and cultural develop- ments in India in a manner so as to make foreign countries and people interested in developing and expanding relations with India.

In the context of developments since 1979, the Division during this year had to deal with politically criticial situations; both in terms of domestic developments in India and India's external relations. The political uncertainties which characterised Indian political developments in 1979, put a special responsibility on the Division during 1980 to project Indian developments in their correct perspective abroad.

The deteriorating international situation as reflected through developments in Indo-China, Afghanistan, Iran-Iraq conflict, the arms build up and the increasing Great Power rivalry marked the reversal of the process of detente. The Division gave a correct interpretation and projection of these developments.

A continuous critical evaluation of the functioning of XP Division made by the Parliament, public and the Ministers helped the Division in discharging its functions and tasks with purposiveness and flexibility inspite of limitation in terms of resources and manpower.

The Division made special publicity efforts to project India's firm commitment to democracy and non-alignment, to the estab- lishment of a new international economic order, to moral and material support for majority rule in Namibia and Zimbabwe and to the objectives of the United Nations in upholding peace and security in the world. As a result of initiatives taken by the External Publicity Division, the Indian news agencies agreed to appoint/have appointed additional representatives abroad.



The Press Trust of India appointed Correspondents in Beijing, Kuala Lampur and Nairobi, the United News of India in Abu Dhabi; Hindustan Samachar and Samachar Bharati in Kathmandu and Dacca respectively.

Press Relations

The Division handled visits of foreign journalists to India and those of Indians to other countries. 705 foreign journalists received temporary accreditation to cover elections, UNIDO, CHOGRM and-State official visits. Out of these 49 journalists visited the country on a professional basis. Journalists who received full hospitality as guests of the government numbered 23, those who were given local hospitality numbered 95 and 14 more journa- lists are expected as guests. Facilities were provided for 76 Indian journalists to visit different countries upto 31 December.

As regards television teams, permission was granted to 93 such teams and 16 requests of interviews with the Prime Minister were successfully arranged. By and large, the reporting by foreign media including items based on despatches by foreign correspondents stationed in India were factual. Whenever any deliberate or mischievous slant was detected, it was taken up with the correspondent in New Delhi by the Division as well as brought to the notice of the concerned publication through India's diplomatic Missions and the correct factual position explained to them. As regards unfavourable interpretation of events, which in foreign media, of course, is a matter of public opinion, the Mission under guidance from XP Division tried to give the correct perspective by meeting the editorial management of the publication.

Audio Visual Publicity

Publicity through documentary and feature films has always been an effective medium of projection of India's image. About 210 prints of documentary films were supplied to Indian Missions abroad.

The Division began processing and commissioning of docu- mentary films on themes which would be relevant for international audiences. The films were : Indo-Bhutan Co-operation; Econo- mic Development in India and Celebration of the 1400th Anniversary of the Hijra Era. It was at the instance of the Division that the Films Division produced the film `Non-aligned Movement' primarily meant to be used during the Non-aligned


Foreign Ministers' Meeting held in Delhi in February 1981. Besides, five documentary films were dubbed in Arabic for circu- lation among the Arab countries. On request of the Common- wealth Collection school of Peace Studies, university of Bradford, West Lancashire, U.K., the Division donated a 14 part docu- mentary film entitled `Mahatma' to the Institution.

To spread the knowledge of Hindi, a film entitled `Learn Devnagri' was supplied to the Indian Mission in the Philippines.

The following quality feature films were acquired:-

27 Down; Tyagpatra; Trisandhya; Kodiyettam and Sonar Kella. These have been sent for subtitling in English, Spanish, Arabic and French. After sub-titling, these will be circulated among the Missions.

Many of the Missions participated in local film festivals. On request, special films were supplied to these Missions. Their own stocks also proved very useful.

The Division sanctioned and authorised about twenty-five Missions to replace or acquire radio sets, cassette recorders, film projectors and slide projectors. Also video cassette equipment was authorised to one important Mission.


The Division kept Missions abroad informed of matters of current interest in India's relations with other countries as well as on important political, scientific, technological and economic developments in India through the External Publicity Transmis- sions (XPT) net work. These transmissions contained important pronouncement on Indian foreign policy made by the Govern- ment of India and the visiting dignitaries from various countries as well as by the official spokesman of the Ministry of External Affairs.

Forty Missions received XPT, on an average consisting of 2000 to 2500 words, through the OCS and eight through satellite channel. Missions not having facilities to receive XPT by either mode were fed through bi-weekly telexes or Press Cables. Twenty-nine Missions received bi-weekly telexes and six Missions bi-weekly press cables.

In order to improve the reception of transmissions abroad, it was decided to switch to the latest mode of communications via satellite. The existing service via satellite to Indian Missions in


North and South America worked satisfactorily, and proposals are being considered to cover all the Missions in Europe and Africa through satellite service. The aim is to eventually put all the Missions on the satellite network.

Printed Publicity

The External Publicity Division continued to bring out its following regular publications : Foreign Affairs Record (monthly) the Indian and Foreign Review (fortnightly), Courrier de L'Inde (fortnightly, in French) for free distribution through Indian Missions and Posts abroad.

The Indian and Foreign Review was sent to all members of Parliament. It was continuously improved both in content and in lay out and its circulation went up from 13,500 in 1978-79 to nearly 25,000.

Apart from its regular publications, the Division brought out special booklets and pamphlets during important state and official visits. The following booklets and pamphlets were printed by the Division : India's views on the Afghan Situation; Indira Gandhi-Choice of the people; Indo-Yugoslav symposium on Non-Alignment-Text of Speech by Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, Minister or External Affairs, at JNU on May 14, 1980; Statement in Parliament by Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, Minister of External Affairs on his visit to the USSR-17 June 1980: Darul-Uloom- Deoband-A Saga of Dedicated Work; Lok Sabha-Reply by Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, Minister of External Affairs on debate on Budget demands of the MEA on 9 July 1980; Address by Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao, at the 25th Session of UN General Assembly in New York on 3 October 1980; the visit of the Amir of Kuwait to India on 9-11 September 1980; reprints of articles entitled "India : in a land of fables, the Industrial Reality" by Shri Sunder Rajan and Dr. Homi Sethna's (Chair- man of the Atomic Energy Commission) interview which originally appeared in the Statesman of 13 September 1980.

In addition, the Division also disseminated material produced by other Ministries and various departments of the Government of India.

During the calendar year 1980, 69 supplements were pub- lished; 51 supplements on the occasion of Indian Republic Day 1980; 10 supplements in foreign newspapers on the occasion of Indian Independence Day and 8 supplements covering economic and other topics. By and large, these supplements projected a


favourable image of India. The assistance of the Indian Mis- sions, the Trade Fair Authority and other Ministries was secured in bringing out these supplements.

The World Press Review containing comment, summary and analysis of foreign press on or of interest to India in foreign newspapers and periodicals continued to be brought out in cyclostyled form. During the year under review, 175 issues were issued. The Review was revamped and made more comprehen- sive to include country-wise press round up of foreign media.

About 40 titles an Indian history, philosophy, religion, art and culture were supplied both to the libraries of indian Missions and for presentation purposes, A list of standard reference material consisting of about 260 books was prepared. These books are being procured and sent to Indian Missions. This work is expected to be completed by the end of next financial year.

Visual Material

The Division supplied posters, books, paintings, pictures etc., to the Missions abroad. Musical instruments and other material relevant to portray various aspects of Indian Culture abroad- were supplied to Missions abroad. This material is basically used for participating in local exhibitions.

The Division sent about 12,000 black and white photographs for suitable display to the Missions during the year.




The Indian Council for Cultural Relations continued to work as the main agency for promoting cultural relations bet- ween India and other countries. There was further expansion in its activities during the year because of the increase in the field of external exchange programmes and other steps taken to disseminate Indian culture abroad.

The Council received 101 distinguished visitors whose field of specialisation varied from fine arts to literature, education, science, medicine and technology. They came from Argentina, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Ethiopia, Federal Republic of Germany, German Democratic Republic, Ghana, Greece, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Mauritius, Mozambique, Norway, Peru, Sri Lanka, Sweden, UK, USA and USSR.

The ICCR sponsored the visit of a Qari and a Qariah to Indonesia for recitation of the Koran.

Under the programmes of inviting delegations of performing arts, 36 groups were invited, from Australia, Cuba, the Federal Republic of Germany, German Democratic Republic, Greece, Italy, Japan, Korea, Portugal, Trinidad, UK, USA, USSR, Venezuela, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. These delegations put up performances in various centres in India.

During the year, 81 visitors and 44 performing delegations were sent out to different parts of the world. Many well-known Indian artistes, including dancers and musicians, gave perfor- mances in various cities including prestigious International festi- vals. Indian Professors and academicians gave a number of lectures in the centres visited by them.

The 1979 Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding was conferred on Dr. Nelson R. Mandela at a dignified function held on Jawaharlal Nehru's birth anniversary on Nov 14, 1980. The award was received by Dr. Oliver Tambo on behalf of Dr. Mandela. The Nehru Award Secretariat also announced the nomination of Ms. Barbara Ward, the inter- nationally renowned economist, for the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the year 1980.



The ICCR received 5 exhibitions from Canada, GDR, Sri Lanka, Thailand and another entitled "Vistas Commonwealth Asia Pacific". Exhibitions were also sent to France, USA, Cuba, Peru and Venezuela.

The following publications were brought out during the year : -

(i) Readings from India by GNS Raghavan.

(ii) Indian Music by B. C. Dave.

Regular publications of journals namely Indian Horizons, Cultural News from India, Papeles de la Indie, Rencontre Avec l 'Inde as well as the Africa Quarterly and the Hindi Quarterly were brought out on schedule. A special number of Gagananchal, the Hindi Quarterly, dedicated to Munshi Premchand, was also released.

Under the Indo-US sub-Commission on Culture, meetings were held of Joint Museums Committee and of the Indo- American Joint Advisory Committee on films and broadcasting.

The Council organised a number of seminars during the year. An Indo-Austrian seminar on non-alignment and neutrality was hold in November 1980. Two seminars, one on the life and works of Simon Bolivar and another on General San Martin and other Latin American liberators, were held in December 1980.

Under the programme of presentation of books/musical instruments and art objects, the respective requirements were sent to Indian Missions in almost all countries of the world.

Orientation courses on aspects of Indian life and culture, policies and programmes, economy and external relations were given to Indians going abroad, a group of American teachers and in addition to a visiting American group.

The Council continued its work relating to the observation of the UN Day, OAU Day, the PLO Day, and other special events.

The Indian Cultural Centres in Fiji, Guyana and Suriname arranged film shows and performances of dance and music as well as lecture-cum-demonstrations, Hindi classes, plays and exhibitions.

The Council maintained Indian Professors teaching subjects like Indology, Social Sciences, Economic Planning and Deve-


lopment, Business Management, etc. in the University of West Indies (Trinidad) El Collegio de Mexico, University of Guyana, Indonesia, University of Sophia (Bulgaria), University of Bucharest (Romania), American University of Beirut (Lebannon) and Humboldt University, Berlin (GDR).

The Council continued to oversee the activities of the Foreign Cultural Centres in India by administering the British Libraries at Bangalore, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Pune, Ranchi, Trivand- rum, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad. The House of Soviet Culture in Trivandrum organised a number of film shows, Russian language classes, exhibitions, talks, etc. aimed at projecting Soviet life and culture. Liaison was maintained with the Max Muller Bhavans in India and the Alliances Francaises.

As usual, the Council received a large number of foreign students under various scholarships schemes of the Government, of India. Six Summer Camps for 450 students were organised in the summer months and 12 study tours were organised for 500 other students.

A substantial number of titles were added to the Library of the Council which has nearly 50,000 books.

The scheme for providing educational facilities in the fields of medicine and engineering to self-financing foreign students, from developing countries was continued during the year. Appli- cations increased by more than 60% for engineering degree courses and by more than 35% for the medical degree course as compared to last year.

Applications were received from nearly 50 countries. From the 1477 applications for admission to the medical degree course, 54 students were selected and nominated to various medical colleges in India. Similarly, from the 1276 applica- tions for admission to engineering degree courses, 155 students were selected and nominated to various engineering colleges including IITS. Lately, requests from foreign students for admission to engineering diploma courses at various polytech- nic institutes also started increasing. During the year 1980, 43 foreign students were selected and nominated to such courses.

In addition, 12 out of 197 applicants from Nepal and 3 out of 5 applicants from Bhutan were nominated to the M.B.B.S. course. For engineering courses, 30 out of 102 applicants from Nepal and 2 applicants from Bhutan were nominated.


Jan 01, 1980



During the year the Heads of Mission of the following countries left India on completion of their assignment :-

Ambassadors of Denmark, Iraq, Ireland, Mongolia, Thai- land, Philippines, Libya, Republic of Korea, Senegal, Syria, U.A.E., USA, Spain and Bhutan and High Commissioners of Australia, Tanzania and Uganda.

The Heads of Mission of the following countries presented their credentials to the President :-

Ambassadors of Ireland, Iraq, Mexico, Niger, Afghanistan, Thailand, Mongolia, Republic of Korea, Bhutan, Panama (Non-resident), Tunisia (New Mission), Kampuchea (New Mission), U.A.E. and Uganda and High Commissioner of Tanzania.

The status of the Representative of the P.L.O. has been raised to that of an Ambassador.





The administrative machinery which had been geared up during the previous years to provide maximum facilities for the issue of passports to Indian citizens wishing to travel abroad for business, employment or other purposes was further toned up during the year. This was done by making adjustments in the strength of officers and staff working in various passport offices throughout the country and substantive changes in the rules and procedures pertaining to the issue of passports. Proce- dures regarding emigration clearance to Indian workers going abroad for employment purposes were also streamlined with a view to provide speedy and trouble-free service.

The number of applications for the issue of passports and other services received during 1980 remained about the same as in the year 1979, i.e. about 10 lakhs applications for pass- port and about 5 lakhs applications for miscellaneous services. A detailed statement showing the number of applications for issue of passports and miscellaneous services received and the number of passports issued and the miscellaneous services rendered during the year is given at Appendix VI.

The standard of efficiency in issue of passports and render- ing miscellaneous services achieved during 1979 improved fur- ther during this year by introducing a continuing process of reorganising the working of passport offices and deployment of special task force for clearing arrears wherever necessary. Rendering of miscellaneous services was made speedier as compared to the past year.

Keeping in view the existence of a large number of state- less persons like Tibetan refugees and persons of Indian origin from Uganda, Malaysia and Vietnam, the procedure for issue of Identity Certificates and their renewal was streamlined with a view to provide expeditious and smooth service.

The passport Rules 1967 made under the provisions of the Passports Act, 1967 were reviewed in the light of the experience gained during the last 13 years. All ambiguities which could lead to delays in rendering passport services were removed and



the prescribed forms revised so as to elicit only absolutely necessary information required for rendering a service. These are now more clear and devoid of chances of their being inter- preted differently by different persons. The revised rules are already with the press and are likely to be published soon.

A number of proposals which would further improve the quality of services rendered by the Central Passport & Emigra- tion Organisation to the members of the public were actively pursued. These included :-

(a) introduction of a new passport booklet which will be smaller in size with more pages and a flexible cover, as soon as the existing stock of passport booklets is exhausted; and

(b) gradual introduction of computerised method in respect of storage/retrieval of factual informa- tion relating to the passports issued.

During the first eleven months of the year 1980, the total revenue earned by the passport, offices was Rs. 552.44 lakhs as compared to the revenue of Rs. 528.50 lakhs during 1979. The expenditure in 1980 was Rs. 135.97 lakhs as compared to the expenditure of Rs. 143.19 lakhs in 1979.

The exodus of Indian workers to the West Asian and North African regions for employment continued to show an upward trend during 1980. To facilitate emigration of workers without undue hindrance and to protect them from exploitation in India and abroad at the hands of unscrupulous agents and foreign employers, government procedures were further stream- lined and new measures introduced.

Emigration procedures continued to be based on the guide- lines provided by the Supreme Court order of Mar 20, 1979. Within the guidelines set by this order the process of emigra- tion was simplified. The emigration checks which had been instituted at the airports and which were causing inconvenience to the bona-fide passengers were discontinued with effect from 1 November 1980. This system of check was replaced by a new system under which the point of check was shifted to the Passport Office. At the time of issue of passport itself, an indication would be made on the passport booklets whether the person needed an emigration clearance or not. This would also ensure that persons who required emigration clearance did


not proceed abroad without fulfilling the required emigration formalities.

With the simplification of emigration procedures and publi city of the benefits to the workers, if they went abroad after fulfilment of due observance of emigration formalities, the number of workers whose employment agreements were regis- tered with the Protectors of Emigrants showed a marked increased over the earlier years. From a moderate figure of 4186 in 1976, the registrations increased to 22,854 in 1977 and to 69,006 in 1978. During 1979, 2,05,000 employment agreements were registered. Upto October 1980 this figure had reached 2,34,361 for the current year.

Reports of unscrupulous elements duping the unwary job seekers, however, continued to be received from time to time. On receipt of such reports these were referred to appropriate authorities for investigation and action.

A proposal to introduce a new legislation on emigration has reached its final stages. The Bill is likely to be introduced in the Parliament shortly. Another proposal to set up a man- power corporation in the public sector at the Central level to assist Indian job seekers in obtaining jobs abroad is also under active consideration of the Government. Those proposals aim at bringing the activities or unscrupulous recruiting elements under effective regulatory controls.

Indian Missions abroad extended financial assistance to 73 Indian nationals who got atranded as against 56 in 1979. The number of destitute Indians repatriated from abroad, in- cluding a batch of 106 from Israel, was 473 as compared to 444 during 1979. Deaths of 463 Indians who died abroad were reported to the Ministry during 1980. In 1979 deaths of 354 were reported. The Government took up with the rele- vant foreign authorities, the question of settlement of their claims and/or compensation.

There was a sharp increase in the number of various docu- ments requiring attestation by the Ministry before submission to the foreign Governments/Embassies. As against 71,001 in 1979, the number of documents attested in 1980 jumped to 1,03,892 registering an increase of over 46%.




Shri P. V. Narasimha Rao continued as Minister of Exter- nal Affairs. There were no changes at the level of Foreign Secretary and other Secretaries during the year. At the level of Additional Secretary, Shri J. R. Hiremath took over charge of the Policy Planning and Review Division.

The total strength at the headquarters, comprising 21 Divi- sions (of which 9 are specialised Divisions), was about 2500, out of which about 560 were officers. The detailed staff strength is given at Appendix XI.

A detailed review of the working and staff requirements of the Policy Planning and Review Division was carried out during the year. As a result, a substantial augmentation of its strength took place to make it an effective tool in the work of the Ministry of External Affairs. The Division is supervised by the Foreign Secretary and an Additional Secretary, with a full time staff of a Joint Secretary, a Director, two Deputy Secretaries, two Deputy Directors and other staff.

In Missions and Posts abroad, there were about 700 diplo- matic officers and about 3,000 non-diplomatic officials, includ- ing locally-recruited employees.

A list of the number of officers who have qualified in various languages is given at Appendix XII.

During the year, two new Indian Missions were opened, in Seychelles and in Cyprus. A Mission was opened in Kampu- chea in January 1981.

Global inflationary pressures continued unabated during the year. Several administrative and financial reforms, therefore, were considered and implemented in order to reduce their im- pact. These reforms, which led to the elimination of routine work, also rendered staff surplus in a number of Missions. Staff was accordingly reduced in larger Missions, such as London, Washington, Kathmandu, Rangoon, etc. Some of the staff rendered surplus were diverted to Missions in West Asia and North Africa where workload had increased tremendously



in recent years, in particular due to the increasing numbers of Indian nationals visiting and working in those areas. The total expenditure on all Missions abroad was thus kept to the reasonable amount of Rs. 41 crores. (The expenditure at the headquarters was about Rs. 7 crores). Details are given at Appendix IX and X.

A substantial portion of the budget of Missions abroad was on rental of office and residential accommodation. Vigorous efforts were, therefore, made to acquire and construct own properties. A Five-Year Plan document was prepared and approved by the Government. A total sum of Rs. 70 crores is proposed to be invested between 1980 and 1985 on acquisition and construction of property abroad.

In pursuance of the recommendations of the Estimates Com- mittee of Parliament, a number of Missions were inspected to assess their functional effectiveness and to bring about optimum efficiency in their working. The Missions visited were in the developing countries.

Special teams were despatched to Kuwait and Amman, at the time of the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq conflict, to provide immediate assistance to Indian nationals seeking to leave the zone of conflict.

The Welfare Unit of the Ministry continued to look after the general welfare of all officials serving at headquarters and Missions abroad. Employment opportunities were provided to deserving dependants of the deceased officials. Financial assistance was provided to some deserving officials from the Staff Benefit Fund.

A Special Cell continued to function to watch and monitor the progress of the implementation of the reservation order in respect of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The details are given at Appendix VII and Appendix VIII.




The Ministry continued to make every effort to ensure the use of Hindi in the official work of the Ministry, including all Indian Missions abroad and the Regional Passport Offices in India. In order to keep a watch on the progress of implementa- tion of Govrenment instructions in this regard, the Official Language Implementation Committee of the Ministry headed by Additional Secretary (Admn.) met periodically. In some of the bigger Missions where such Implementation Committees have been constituted, the progress made in this field was reviewed. The Implementation Committee of the Ministry in its meetings reviewed the reports received from the Missions and Regional Passport Offices and necessary instructions to ensure further pro- gress in the use of Hindi as the Union Official Language were issued. In order to ensure fuller implementation of the Official Language Rules, 1976, in the Ministry, instructions were issued by the Foriegn Secretary and the Additional Secretary (Admn.).

Apart from the above, Hindi continued to be used extensively, in the protocol matters relating to international treaties and agree- ments. Various documents like Letters of Credence, Letters of Recall, Commissions of Appointment and other protocol docu- ments were prepared in Hindi.

A large number of notifications and office orders were issued in Hindi and quite a large number of letters received from mem- bers of the public and the State Governments were replied to in Hindi. Many letters were also issued in, Hindi to the Missions abroad and to the Regional Passport Offices and some of the Missions also sent replies in Hindi. This year, the number of such letters had increased. Some of them were even handwritten. This reflected the sincere efforts on the part of the Missions abroad to implement the instructions on the use of Hindi in their official work.

The process of equipping Indian Missions with Hindi type- writers, stenographers/typists trained in Hindi, books in Hindi for libraries as well as for children, progressively continued. Seventy-two Hindi typewriters had already been supplied to the



Indian Missions and efforts were continued to send at least one Hindi typewriter to each of the remaining Missions. Efforts were made to post Hindi-knowing stenographers/typists to Indian Missions abroad and to impart training in Hindi typewriting/ stenography to our staff. Steps are also being taken to create more posts of Hindi Officers for our Missions abroad, RPOs and also for the Headquarters. This will be in addition to the three posts already available for the Missions in Fiji Mauritius and Trinidad.

English-Hindi and Hindi-English Dictionaries and also a set of help literature had already been supplied to all Indian Missions abroad. A booklet consisting of Hindi terms used in inter- national treaties and agreements was prepared and supplied to all Indian Missions abroad and Ministries/Departments of the Gov- ernment of India enabling them to prepare the Hindi version of such agreements and treaties.

During the year under review, three groups of Members of Parliament belonging to the Committee of Parliament on Official Language visited 25 Indian Missions abroad to see the progress of Hindi in their official work and these groups were assisted by three officers of the Ministry. These groups made certain sugges- tions at their meetings held in the Missions and these suggestions were examined in greater detail at the Headquarters and, in keeping with their views, all efforts are being made to accelerate the pace with regard to the use of Hindi in the Missions and for this purpose the question of creation of posts of Hindi Officers etc. in the Missions abroad is under active consideration.

The Minister of External Affairs addressed the 35th Session of the United Nations General Assembly partly in Hindi. It is hoped that in the comity of nations Hindi will have its rightful place.

Efforts to popularise Hindi in foreign countries, particularly with a large number of people of Indian origin, continued during the year. A get-together to meet an eminent Burmese Hindi writer was organised in Delhi in which quite a few local Hindi writers, poets and journalists and also some Members of Parlia- ment participated.

A set of 110 standard Hindi books was supplied to all Indian Missions abroad to be kept permanently in their libraries for reference purposes. This was in addition to the books supplied to some of the Missions under the Scheme for the propagation of Hindi abroad.


Just like `Manas Chatushati' and `Sur Panchshati', Prem Chand Centenary Celebrations were organised by some of the Missions in cooperation with the local voluntary organisations and the Missions in Mauritius, Fiji, Trinidad, USSR and UK did some commendable work on this occasion. Eminent local writers partcipated in such functions and some of the Missions published articles on Prem Chand in their news bulletins. A set of books on Prem Chand, including his writings, was sent to 25 Indian Missions and this set of literature was well received by all those who are interested in the study of this great writer. Some children's Hindi books were also sent to some of the Missions so that the efforts being made by local voluntary Hindi organisa- tions in those countries could thus be encouraged and supple- mented. Linguaphone records and charts, etc. in Devnagari script were sent to Missions where foreigners had evinced interest in learning Hindi. The Missions were also asked to encourage the members of staff and foreigners to learn Hindi through Cor- respondence Course.

Children's Hindi Classes continued to make a steady progress in more than 20 of the Indian Missions abroad. Newspaper Exchange Programme also had its impact in places where news- papers and magazines are published in Hindi, in countries like Mauritius, Fiji and UK, etc.

In spite of the financial constraints, all efforts were made to ensure the use of Hindi in the working of the Ministry of External Affairs, Regional Passport Offices and Indian Missions abroad, and steps were taken to popularise Hindi in foreign countries within the cultural framework of India's foreign policy.
APPENDIX I Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars



Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars etc., organised by Inter- Governmental Organisations (such as UN and its specialised Agencies like WHO, ILO, ICAO, FAO, UNDP, UNIDO, IMCO etc.) at which the GOVERN-MENT OF INDIA was represented in 1980-81.
Sl.       Title of Conference etc.   Foreign Ex- 
No.       (with venue and date)     change  com- 
                                     ponent  of 
                                  expenditure in 
1                       2              3 
1.  Biological Weapons Review Conference in Geneva, 3  Nil 
    to Mar 21, 1980. 
2.  4th Meeting of UNIDO Panel on Leather and Leather  Nil 
    Products Industry held in Beijing (Peking) from 11 to 
    15 March 1980. 
3.  Training Course on Organisational and Management   Nil 
    of Food Industries at Central Food Techincal Re- 
    search Institute, Mysore from 10 March to 28 April 
4.  Workshop on Environmental Resources Manage-     Nil 
    ment and Development held at Moscow from 31 March 
    to 2 May 1980. 
5.  Seminar on Migration Urbanisation and Settlement  Nil 
    held at Manila from 19 to 27 April 1980. 
6.  FAO/Preparatory Meeting for the 6th session of World 
    Food Council, Rome, 28 to 30 April 1980.     3,615.00 
7.  FAO/DSC Rural Market Development Programmes/ 
    Asian Regional Evaluation Workshop at Bangalore 
    from 28 April to 2 May 1980. 
8.  Seminar on Policy Guidelines and Curriculam, Manila Nil 
    (Philippines), Development for more effective migration 
    and resettlement policies organised by "Social Welfare 
    Development Centre for Asia and the Pacific". 
9.  109th session of Executive Board of UNESCO held 
    in Paris from 30 April to June 1980.          12,500.00 
10. 13th Session of the Permanent Committee and 14th 
    session of the Industrial Development Board (IDB) 18,079.41 
    of UNIDO held in Vienna (Austria) from 5 to 19 May 
1                                  2                3 
11.  Second Substaliture session of United Nations Disarma-     
     ment Commission, New York, 12 May to 6 June 1980. 
12.  Preparatory Meeting of 16th COAG (6th session),  Nil 
     Rome, 20 to 22 May 1980. 
13.  Eleventh seminar in Population organised by East- Nil 
     West Population Institute, Honolulu, 31 May to 4 July 
14.  International Law Commission held in Vienna from  Nil 
     18 May to 25 July 1980. 
15.  21st Annual session of the Asian African Legal Con- 
     sultative Committee held in Djakarta from 24 April to 
     1 May 1980.  14,192.00 
16.  6th session of World Food Council, Arusha (Tanzania), 
     2 to 6 June 1980.                       38,550.00 
17.  UNIDO 2nd Consultative Meeting on Leather and 
     Leather Products Industry held in Cologne (FRG), 
     from 23 to 27 June 1980.                   8,930.85 
18.  6th session of FAO Commission on Fertilizers, Rome, 
     30 June to 3 July 1980.                  11,335.00 
19.  XIIITH session of the UNCITRAL held in New York, 
     from 14 to 25 July 1980.               33,335.00 
20.  FAO seminar in World Life Resources for Rural De- Nil 
     velopment, Hyderabad, July 1980. 
21.  Vital Organisation Working Group  organised by   Nil 
     East-West Population Institute, Honolulu from 28 
     July to 5 September 1980. 
22.  Meeting of coordinating Group on Food and Agri-
     culture of Non-aligned Countries, Belgrade, 7 to 9 
     July 1980.  13,125.00 
23.  Eighth Commonwealth Education Conference held    
     in Colombo, Sri Lanka from 5 to 13 August 1980. 
24.  5th World Congress on Rural Sociology held at Mexico       
     from 7 to 12 August 1980.  Nil 
25.  High Level Seminar on Institutional Capability for         
     Regional Development in Asia held at Najoya (Japan) 
     from 16 to 20 August 1980.  Nil 
26.  National Conference on Population & Urban Feature          
     held in Rome (Italy) from 1 to 4 September 1980. 
27.  FAO/UK/India/TCDC Regional Managerial Training             
     Courses by Fertiliser Association of India, Bangalore 
     from 1 to 13 September 1980.  Nil 
28. India/FAO/Norway Seminar on maximising fertilisers N.A. 
     use efficiency, New Delhi, 15 to 19 September 1980. 
1                   2                                   3 
29.  APPRACA/NAIA Seminar on Crop Insurance at   9,675.00 
     Tokyo, 16 to 20 September  1980. 
30.  Organisation of 2nd FAO/IBPGR/ICAR Regional N.A. 
     Training Course on Plant genetic resources exploration 
     and collecting techniques for South Asia at NBPGR, 
     New Delhi, 17 September to 16 October 1980. 
31.  M.Sc. Course in Demograpby Training at the London Nil 
     School of Economics under "Colombo Plan", London 
     from 29 September 1980 to 28 September 1981. 
32.  UNIDO Fifth Meeting of Heads of Technology Trans- Nil 
     fer Registries and similar Institutions held in Buenos 
     Aires (Agrentina) from 15 to 19 September 1980. 
33.  UNIDO Third Consultation Meeting on Pharmaceuticals Nil 
     Industry held in Sao Paulo (Brazil) from 29 September 
     to 4 October 1980. 
34.  24th General Conference of the IAEA Vienna, 22 to 29    
       September 1980.  40,885.00 

35.  FAO/5th session of the Regional Animal Production           
    and Health Commission for Asia, The Far East and 
     South-west Pacific, Bangkok, 6 to 11 October 1980. 

36.  14th session of the Permanent Committee and Second     
      Special session of the Industrial Development Board 
     (IDB) of UNIDO held in Vienna (Austria) from 13 to 
     17 October 1980. 6,647.06 

37.  FAO Training Course in Compost Technology at IARI,  
     New Delhi from 1 October to 5 November 1980. N.A.
38.  UNIDO Meeting on exchange of Experience & Coopera-       
     tion among developing countries in the development of 
     Agricultural Machinery Industry including demonstra- 
     tion visits in Beijing (Peking), China, 22 to 27 October 
     1980.   Nil 

39.  Commonwealth Expert Group Consultation on Veteri-         
     nary Services to Small farmers in developing common- 
     wealth countries from 27 October to 1 November 1980 
     at Anand (Gujarat).  N.A. 
40.  FAO/DANIDA Workshop on handling Small Fish in               
     Arabian Sea, Mangalore, 3 to 15 November 1980. 
41.  FAO Workshop on Women's participation in Agri-     
    culture and Rural development, Hyderabad, 17 to 22 
     November 1980.  NA 

42.  25th session of the International Lead & Zinc Study         
     Group held in Geneva from 16 to 23 October 1980 
43.  FAO/GCP/RAS/92-Integrated Pest Control in Rice            
     in Asia & The Pacific Meeting of National Programme 
     Leaders, Bangkok, 22 to 24 October 1980.  Nil 
1                        2                            3 
44.  The Seventh session of the UNEP Working Group              
     Meeting held in Geneva from 21 to 31 October 1980 
45.  21st session of UNESCO held in Belgrade from 23             
     September to 28 October 1980.   Nil 
46.  12th session of FAO's Plant Protection Committee for         
     the South East Asia and Pacific Region, Chiangmai, 
     27 October to 3 November 1980.  Nil 
47.  FAO/SIDA 6th Advisory Committee Meeting of the               
     Bay of Bengal Programme (GCP/RAS/O40/SWE) 
     in Penang, 4 to 7 November 1980.  Nil 
48.  Official Discussions with UNIDRIOT in Rome on the           
     26 & 27 November 1980.   2,000.00 
49.  FAO/APHCA Regional Training Course/Workshop on                 
     date base on limestack resources at Indian Agricultural 
     Research Statistics Institute, New Delhi from 1 to 6 
     December 1980. N.A.
50.  UNEP Meeting on Deserlification Control, Nairobi               
     17 to 29 November 1980. Nil
51.  UNIDO sponsored solidarity meeting of Minister of    
    industries from developing countries to assist the Indus- 
     trial development of Bangladesh at Dacca from 2 to 5 
     December 1980.    Nil 

52.  FAO Seminar on role of women in social Forestry at        
     Forest Research Institute & Colleges, Dehradun, 4 to 
     9 December, 1980.  Nil 

53.  Inter-sessional Meeting on some aspects of Regional         
     Cooperation in the context of the International Econo- 
     mic Order held in Kuala Lumpur from 8 to 12 Decem- 
     ber, 1980.  4,597.00 
54.  IUCN Conference on the Conservation of Wetlands              
     of International importance especially as Water Food 
     Habitat, Sandrina, 24 to 29 November, 1980. 4,190.00 
55.  78th session of FAO Council, Rome, 24 November to            
     5 December 1980.  8,176.00 
56.  3rd session of the ESCAP Committee on Shipping and  
Transport, 21 January to 1 February 1980. 12,913.00 

57.  Resumed session of the UN Conference of the Law of           
     the Sea held in Geneva (sponsored by M.E.A.). 
58.  UN Conference on contracts for the International Sale     
    of Goods held in Vienna (sponsored by M.E.A.).  Nil 

1                        2                           3 
59.  13th session of the UN Commission on International 
     Trade Law (UNCITRAL) held in New York (sponsored 
     by M.E.A.).  Nil 

60.  8th session of the Governing Council held in Nairobi     
    (sponsored by DST).     Nil 

61.  35th session of the UN General Assembly held in New        
     York (sponsored by M.E.A.).  Nil 
62.  ESCAP:-First Preparatory Meeting held by ESCAP            
     Secretariat being set up to advise on the organisation 
     of the Third Asian & Pacific Population Conference, 
     29 October to 4 November 1980.   Nil 
63.  ESCAP:-Fourth session of ESCAP Committee on     
    Industry, Technology, Human Settlements and Envi- 
     ronment held in Bangkok from 23 to 29 September 
     1980.  1,423.58 

64.  ESCAP:-ESCAP Inter-Governmental Meeting on                 
     Agro and Allied Industries held at Tokyo from 21 to 
     27 October 1980.  N.A.
Mar 21, 1980 
APPENDIX II Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars

Major International Conferences/Meetings/Seminars organised by Non- Governmental Organisations (such as Asian Productivity Organisation, Inter- national Cooperative Alliances, International Organisation for Standardisation,

etc.) in which Indian experts participated in their personal capacity with Governmental assistance in 1980-81 (April, 1980 to March 1981)
Sl.  Title of the Conference, etc.,  Foreign  Ex- 
No.  with venue and date             change com- 
                                     ponent of Ex- 
                                     penditure in Rs. 
1                        2                         3 
1.  Special Symposium to commemorate 20th Anni-   N.A. 
    versary of the establishment of IRRI, Manila 
    Apr 21, 1980  to 25 April 1980. 
2.  IUFRO/MAB/UNESCO Research Conference in   Nil 
    Multiple use of Forest Resources, Arizona (USA, 
    18 to 26 May 1980). 
3.  Seminar on Transportation held at Colombo from        
    14 to 22 May, 1980 organised by Economic Deve-       
    lopment Institute.                                     
    Cost borne by  Eonomic De velopment Institute.
4.  Joint Roving sponsored by ESCAP in Burma, Bang-  
    kok and Thailand (21 days from 8 May 1980). 

5.  3rd Techno-Economic Panel of Pepper Community         
    Sub-panel on Production, Indonesia, 2 to 6 June  
	1980. Expenditure  met by Pepper Community of ESCAP

6.  Study Meeting on Farmer Education and Extension 
    APO met all of Services, Tokyo (Japan), 26 June
    to 5 July, 1980.  the  expenses. 
7.  Working Group of Experts sponsored by ESCAP for         
    drafting our Constitution for the Preparatory work 
    for the proposed meeting of the Ministers of Trans- 
    port including Railways. 7,922.90 

8.  Overseas Development Administration Conference          
    on Water Resources in Rural Development, Cambridge   
     (UK), 5 to 12 July 1980. 
      Expenditure met by ODA 

9.  Inter-Governmental Railway Group Bangkok, 21 
    to 23 August 1980 and 25 August 1980 to 1 Septem- 
    ber 1980 
1                               2               3 
10.  High level seminar on Institutional capability for       
     Regional Development in Asia being conducted  by        
     UN Centre for Regional Development, Japan, 16 to 
     20 August 1980. 
     Expenditure  met by UNCRD 
11.  IUCN Commission on Education Meeting, Sweden,            
     23 to 25 August 1980. Rs.  5,135.00 
12.  64th session of International Dairy Federation, 
     Bristol (UK), 7 to 12 September 1980.                            
      Expendtiure met by NDDB 

13.  ESCAP seminar on Agricultural Development Plan-           
     ning, Tashkent (USSR), 10 to 21 September 1980.          
     Expenditure met by ESCAP 
14.  IDF'S seminar on Recombination of Milk & Milk   
     products, Singapore 7 to 10 October, 1980.              
     Expenditure  met by NDDB 

15.  Meeting of the Management Committee of the ICRA 
     in Brussels (10 October 1980)                             
16.  ESCAP Inter-Governmental Meeting on Agro-Indus-  
     tries in Tokyo, 21 to 27 October 1980 

17.  39th Plenary meeting of International Cotton Ad-         
     visory Committee and the Annual Meeting of ICIC, 
     Manila, 22 to 29 November 1980. 3,974.00 
18.  UN study of the Institutional arrangement relating        
     to the Process of disarmament:                           
 Expenses were borne by UN.
     (i) 7 to 10 April 1980 
     (ii) 30 June to 11 July 1980 
Apr 21, 1980 
APPENDIX III Miscellaneous Major International Conference
Jan 01, 1980 
                    APPENDIX III 
Miscellaneous Major International Conference, etc., 
in 1980-81 (April 1980 to March 1981) at which the
Government of India was representd in which Indian
experts participated with Government of India's 
assistance in their personal capacity 
                                Foreign Exchange 
Sl.   Title of Conference etc.   component  of 
No.     with venue and date       expenditure 

1                             2               3 

1.  Final Plenary Conference and 9th TCC Meeting 
    of INFCE-Vienna, Feb 22, 1080 to 29 February 1980               
      37,70 5-00 
2.  Workshop on Integrated Livestock Changmai (Thai- 
    land), 9 to 14 April 1980  Expenditure 
                               met by BAIF. 
3.  Symposium of IRRI, Manila, 21 to 25 April 1980          
All the expenses met by IRRI 
4.  Second meeting of the Commonwealth Working Group 
    of the Asia and Pacific Regions on Illicit Drugs
    held at Kuala Lumpur on 5 & 6 May 1980   Not known 
5.  1st International Symposium on the Protection of 
    Financial Establishments against Robbery and Burg- 
    lary held at Interpol Headquarters, Saint Claude, 
    from 6 to 8 May 1980           Not known 
6.  Expert Consultation on Farm Water Management at 
    Bilesvilley, USA, 13 to 15 May 1980 Expenditure 
                                         met by FAO 
7.  Seminar for Senior Officials in the Transport Sector 
    held at Colombo (Sri Lanka) from 14 to 22 May 
    1980                                 Nil 
8.  Workshop on Post-Harvest Grain Technology  with 
    emphasis on Rice Pest and  Quality Control, China, 
    18 May to 27 June 1980            Expr. met by 
9.  Bamboo Workshop, Singapore, 28 to 30 May 1980 
          Expr. met by  TDRC 
10. Briefing Session of Coordinators for assignment of 
    Fuelwood resources and needs on a regional basis for 
    the developing countries of the Third World, Rome, 
    21 to 23 May 1980       All the expense
                                  met by FAO 
11. Meeting of the group of experts on special study of 
    Energy held at Bangkok from 6 to 7 June 1980  Nil 
1                             2                   3 
12.  FAO/Technical Consultation on Annual Genetic 
     Resourses & Management, Rome, 2 to 6 June 1980 
     Expr. met by FAO 
13.  Golden Jubilee Conference of the Bureaux held at Lon- 
     don in July 1980           Nil 
14.  Conference to discuss the Third World Collective reli- 
     ance in the field of Energy & Development held at Vienna 
     from 7 to 9 July 1980             Nil 
15.  Round Table Meeting entitled "beyond the Brandt 
     Commission" held at Sussex University from 10 to 12 
     July 1980                   Nil 
16.  Norwegian International Fisheries Fair Norway, 12 
     to 15 August 1980      Expr. met  b
17.  Meeting of Latin American and Indian  Engineering 
     Industry Representatives sponsored by the UNIDO 
     with collaboration of AIET and Economic Commis- 
     sion on Latin America (CEPAL) at Santiago  from 4 
     to 6 August 1980             Not  availab
18.  ESCAP Seminar on Modern Methods of Mineral Pros- 
     pecting in USSR, 20 August to 9 September 1980.               
    Expenses met by host country
19.  Participation in the Conference as Case Writer on 
     Forestry Site Case Studies, Honolulu, 1 to 18 Septem- 
     ber 1980     Expenses met by East-West Centre. 

20.  Second Oxford Energy Seminar held  at Oxford (UK) 
     on 8 September 1980                        Nil 
21.  Seminar on Population in Development Planning held 
     from 13 to 26 September  1980 in Chapel Hill. North 
     Carolina (USA)                               Nil 
22.  FAO/International Consultation on Cotton Production 
     Research with focus on the Asian Region, Manila, 17 
     to 21 November 1980                    Expr. met  b
23.  6th Asian Regional Conference of ICPO-Interpol held 
     at Manila (Philippines on 10 & 11 November 1980 Not known 
24.  Symposium on Grain Leguries Production, Chingmai. 
     Expenses met by FAO 

25.  Briefing session of FAO/UNEP Tropical Forest assess- 
     ment Project involving information for reappraisal of 
     Forest resources in five Asian countries, Rome, 9 to 30 
     November 1980                                              
     Expense met by FAO 

26.  49th General Assembly session of the ICPO-Interpol 
     held at Manila (Philippines, 13 to 21 November 1980      
     Not known 
27.  Conference on Policy implications for Nitrogen Fixa- 
     tion Research held in Canberra from 3 to 9 December 
     1980                               Nil 
Feb 22, 1080
APPENDIX IV International Organisation
Jan 01, 1980 
                    APPENDIX IV 

International Organisation of which India becomes
a member during the year 1980-81 (from April 1980
 to March 1981) 
Name of the International Organisa- Name of the

Sl.tion of which India became a member Organisation 
of which during the year 1980-81 India ceased to be 
a member during the year  1980-81 
1.  Re-elected Member of the Industrial Board  Nil 
     (IDB) of UNIDO. 
2.  International Union for Scientific Study    - 
     of Population, Belgium. 
3.  International Association for Regional and  - 
     Urban Statistics (IARUS), Netherlands. 
4.                 -      Ceased to be a member of 
                          Executive  Board of IFAD 
5.  International Telecommunications Satel-   - 
    lite  Organisation (INTELSAT)-Dr. 
    R. K. Dixit was elected its Member. 
APPENDIX V Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed by India
Treaties/Conventions/Agreements concluded or renewed 
by India  with other countries in 1980* 
Sl.Title of Convention/Treaty/ Date of Date of Date on Re 
NO.         Agreement        signa- ratifica- which marks 
                             ture      tion/     entered 
                                          acces-    into 
                                          sion/     force 
1              2          3      4       5        6 

 European Economic Community 
1.  Financing Agreement between India 
    and European Economic Community 
    (E.E.C:) regarding Cyclone and flood 
    Protection Project, Orissa           
   Feb 12, 1980    -   12-2-80     - 
2.  Financing Agreement between India 
    and European Economic Community 
    (E.E.C.) regarding Flood Protection 
    Project, West Bengal                    
    12-2-80      -  12-2-80     - 
    Food and Agriculture Organisation 
3.  Agreement between India and Food 
    and Agriculture Organisation (F.A. 
    O.) regarding Improvement of Cocoa 
    Production and Primary Processing       
    12-3-80      -  1-4-80      - 
4.  Agreement between India and Food 
    and Agriculture Organisation (F.A. 
    O.) regarding Preliminary Assessment 
    of Utilization of Andaman Hardwood 
    for Paper Pulp                          
    12-3-80       -  1-4-80      - 
5.  Agreement between India and Food 
    and Agriculture Organisation (F.A. 
    O.) regarding Propeller Nozzles for 
    12-3-80       -  1-4-80      - 
  *This list is not exhaustive. 
1         2        3          4       5       6 
6. Agreement between India and Food 
   and Agriculture Organisation (F.A. 
   O.) regarding Integrated Watershed 
   Management, Planning and Monitor- 
    12-3-80      -     1-4-80    - 
   General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
7.  Agreement between India and Gen- 
    ral Agreement on Tariffs  and 
    Trade (G.A.T.T.) regarding Import 
    Licensing Procedures                
   12-4-79   11-7-80  10-8-80    - 
8.  Agreement between India and Gene- 
    ral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
    (G.A.T.T.) regarding Interpretation 
    and Application of Articles VI, XVI 
    and XXIII of the General Agreement 
    on Tariffs and Trade (G.A.T.T.)     
   12-4-79   11-7-80   10-8-80   - 
9.  Agreement between India and Gene- 
    ral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
    (G.A.T.T.) regarding Implementation 
    of Article VI of the General Agree- 
    ment on Tariffs and Trade (G.A.T.T.)  
    12-4-79    11-7-80   10-8-80   - 
10. Agreement between india and Gene- 
    ral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
    (G.A.T.T.)  regarding Implementa- 
    tion of Article VII of the General 
    Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
    12-4-79    11-7-80   10-8-80   - 
11. Agreement between India and Gene- 
    ral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
    (G.A.T.T.) regarding Protocol to the 
    greement on implementation of 
    Article VII of the General Agreement 
    on Tariffs and Trade (G.A.T.T)      
    1-11-79    11-7-80   10-8-80   - 
    United Nations Development Programme 
12. Agreement between India and United 
    Nations Development Programme 
    (U.N.D.P.) regarding Transfer of 
    know-how through Expatriate Speci- 
    alists of Indian Origin              
    17-1-80      -       31-1-80   - 
1         2           3     4       5        6 
13.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Vacuum Stan- 
       26-12-79    -      18-2-80   - 
14.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Establishment 
     of Primary and Transfer Pressure 
     26-12-79    -      18-2-80   - 
15.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Operational 
     Improvements for Indian Railways  
     17-4-80     -      18-4-80   - 
16.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Post-Graduate 
     Hydrological Education and Re- 
     search (Univertsity of Roorkee)   
     3-4-80     -      26-4-80   - 
17.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P) regarding Modernisation/ 
     Augmentation of the Existing Facili- 
     ties for Radio Frequency Spectrum 
     Monitoring, Radio Direction Finding 
     and Inservice Training            
     26-4-80    -      16-5-80   - 
18.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding UNDP support 
     to the T.C.D.C Programme between 
     India and other Developing Count- 
      24-5-80   -       24-5-80    - 
19.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.)  regarding Modern 
     Hydrographic Survey Training    
      3-4-80   -        12-6-80    - 
20.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding system Engi- 
     neering for Integrated Development 
     of Water Resource in India     
      10-3-80   -        1-7-80      - 
21.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Technical Man- 
     power Development for Indian Oil 
     Corporation Limited              
    28-12-79  -       17-7-80      - 
1           2     3       4         5        6 
22.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P) regarding Hydrological 
     and Artificial Recharge Studies, 
       3-9-80    -      9-9 80    - 
23.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Welding Re- 
     search Institute, Tiruchirapalli- 
     Phase II.                         
      6-9-80   -      19-9-80    - 
24.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Consultancy 
     Services for Indian Petroleum Refin- 
     ing Industry                     
       21-7-80  -      3-10-80    - 
25.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Training and 
     Development in Advanced Road and 
     Bridge Technology               
     1-5-80   -     13-10-80     - 
26.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding Isotope Appli- 
     cation in Hydrology           
     9-9-80   -     17-10-80    - 
27.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding the project No. 
     of Soil Dynamics Laboratory at 
     CSMES, New Delhi               
     4-11-80  -     18-11-80    - 
28.  Agreement between India and United 
     Nations Development Programme 
     (U.N.D.P.) regarding the project No. 
     of Research and Testing Facilities for 
     4-11-80  -    18-11-80      - 
29.  Agreement between the Government 
     of the Republic of India and the Go- 
     vernment of the Democratic and 
     Popular Republic of Algeria for Co- 
     operation in the Utilisation of Ato- 
     mic Energy for Peaceful Purposes   
     28-2-80  -    28-2-80       - 
1       2        3        4         5       6 
30.  Agreement between India and Austria 
     on financial Assistance to India for 
     Austrian Schillings 27.651 million   
    18-7-80    -      18-7-80    - 
31.  Trade Agreement between India and 
       4-10-80    -      4-10-80    - 
32.  Agreement between India and Canada 
     for a development loan for an agri- 
     cultural development project        
     15-3-80   -       15-3-80    - 
33.  Loan Agreement between India and 
     Canada of C $ 15 million for oil and 
     gas exploration                    
      24-6-80   -       24-6-80    - 
34.  Protocol between India and France 
     regarding the development of Indo- 
     French Industrial and Commercial 
      28-1-80   -       28-1-80     - 
35.  Protocol between India and France 
     on Co-operation in Audio-Visual     
    25-2-80   -       25-2-80     - 
36.  Memorandum of Understanding 
     between India and France for the use 
     and development of new techniques 
     for Post and Telecommunications    
     28-2-80    -      28-2-80     - 
37.  Financial Protocol between India and 
     France relating to French Credits 
     meant to finance the Development 
     Plan of India                      
     5-6-80     -      5-6-80      - 
38.  Credit Agreement between India 
     and Banque Pe Paris and Banque 
     Francaise Du Commerce Exterieur, 
     Paris, for six hundred million French 
    6-6-80    -       6-6-80      - 
39.  Convention between India and 
     Credit National Ltd., Paris, regarding 
     implementation of the Financial Pro- 
     tocol dated 5-6-80.              
       18-6-80   -      18-6-80      - 
40.  Loan Agreement between India and 
     AUFBAU for DM 35 million      
     16-1-80   -      16-1-80      - 
1            2       3       4     5        6 
41.  Exchange of Letters  between India 
     and Federal Republic of Germany 
     regarding promotion of Conifers Re- 
     search Centre, Simla               
     6-2-80    -     6-2-80   - 
2.   Exchange of Letters between India 
     and Federal Republic or Gemany 
     regarding Erosion Prevention on the 
     Dhauladhar Range, Himachal Pra- 
     13-5-80   -     13-5-80   - 
43.  Loan Agreement between India  and 
     DRAUFBAU for DM 5 million.         
     10-6-80   -    10-6-80    - 
44.  Guarantee Agreement between India 
     WIEDERAUFBAU to the Loan 
     Agreement dated 10-6-80           
      10-6-80   -    10-6-80    - 
45.  Agreement between India and Fe- 
     deral Republic of Germany concern- 
     ning financial Co-operation in 
     23-6-80    -   23-6-80    - 
46.  Loan Agreement between India and 
     DERAUFBAU for DM 44 million      
    24-6-80    -   24-6-80    - 
47.  Loan Agreement between India and 
     DERAUFBAU for DM 40 million     
     24-6-80    -   24-6-80     - 
48.  Second Supplemental Loan Agree- 
     ment pertaining to the Loan Agree- 
     ment dated 27 December, 1977 in the 
     version of the Supplemental Loan 
     Agreement dated 5 October, 1979 
     between India and KREDITAN- 
     for DM 100,000,000 (Gujarat Ferti- 
     lizer Plant)                    
     6-8-80    -   6-8-80        - 
49.  Loan Agreement between the Indus- 
     trial Finance Corporation of India 
     DERAUFBAU for DM 10,000,000 
     (IFCI XVIII)                     
     6-8-80    -   6-8-80        - 
50.  Exchange of Notes between India 
     and Japan for the Grant Aid of Yen 
     50 million for the purchase of Science 
     Laboratory equipment from Japan 
     by the Archaeological Survey of 
     14-1-80   -   14-1-80       - 
1         2     3        4        5      6 
51.  Loan Agreement between India and 
     Japan for Bombay Off-Shore Oil 
     Field Development Project of Yen 
     6.2 billion                    
      4-3-80    -    19-3-80     - 
52.  Loan Agreement between India and 
     Japan for the implementation of 
     Telecommunication Project (II)    
   8-5-80    -    20-8-80     - 
53.  Loan Agreement between India and 
     Japan of Yen 8.6 billion for the 
     implementation of the Bombay Off- 
     Shore Oil Field Development Pro- 
     ject (II)                       
     25-7-80   -     21-8-80     - 
54.  Agreement between India and Nepal 
     regarding Money Order Service    
     4-3-80    -    13-4-80     - 
55.  Exchange of Letters between India 
     and Nepal regarding Coaxial Cable 
     Link between Birganj in Nepal and 
     Raxaul in India                  
    21-7-80    -    21-7-80     - 
56.  Agreement between India and Ne- 
     therlands Bank for Loan to be used 
     to finance requirements for goods 
     and/or services in connection with 
     the development of India       
      14-11-79   -    14-4-80      - 
57.  Plan of operation between India and 
     Norway for supply of Urea     
       17-9-80    -    17-9-80        - 
58.  Agreement between India and Portu- 
     gal regarding Cultural Co-operation  
     7-4-80  29-8-80 29-8-80      - 
59.  Agreement between India and Sri 
     Lanka regarding  Cultural  Co- 
      29-11-77   -    27-5-80      - 
60.  Agreement between the Govern- 
     ment of the Republic of India and 
     the Government of the Syrian Arab 
     Republic for Cooperation for the 
     Utilisation of Atomic Energy for 
     Peaceful Purpose               
      1-5-80     -    1-5-80       - 
1            2    3       4     5       6 
61.  Agreement between India and the 
     Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
     (USSR) regarding working pro- 
     gramme of cooperation in the field 
     of irrigation    
      3-4-80    -     3-4-80    - 
62.  Exchange of N tes between India 
     and United Kingdom regarding 
     Mixed Project Grant for L 70 
     19-3-80   -      19-3-80   - 
63.  Exchange of Notes between India 
     and United Kingdom regarding local 
     costs Aid Arrangement for L 33,184, 
     758.14 pense                  
     19-3-80    -     19-3-80    - 
64.  Exchange of Notes between India 
     and United Kingdom regarding Coal 
     Sector Grant 1980 for L 11 million 
     19-3-80    -     19-3-80    - 
65.  Agreement between India and United 
     States of America regarding Inte- 
     grated Rural Health and Population 
     Project for US $ 23.7 million     
     29-8-80     -    29-8-80     - 
66.  Agreement between India and United 
     States of America regarding Rajas- 
     than Medium irrigation Project for 
     US $ 35 million               
     21-8-80     -    21-8-80     - 
67.  Rice Loan Agreement between India 
     and the Socialist Republic of Viet- 
      15-9-80     -    15-9-80      - 
Feb 12, 1980
APPENDIX VI Statement showing number of Passports/miscellaneous services applications
Jan 01, 1980 
                         APPENDIX VI 
Statement showing number of Passports/miscellaneous
 services applications received and number of
 passports issued/miscellaneous services granted
 during the period January 1980 to December 1980 

Sl.Station  Number of Number of Number of Number of 

No.   passport Passports   applications    miscella- 

  applications   issued in     for misc.      neous 
 received        1980        services      services 
 in 1980                    received       granted 
    in 1980        in 1980 
1.  Ahmedabad  60030   56469      26708      25373 
2.  Bangalore  32788   33969       8178       8373 
3.  Bhopal     13536  15339        3660       3809 
4.  Bhubaneswar 2726   2848         426        477 
5.  Bombay    212403 198489      200711     202092 
6.  Calcutta   24837  26967       15232      15574 
7.  Chandigarh 52849  50432       14482      14189 
8.  Cochin     74139  72104       65096      64929 
9.  Delhi      67641  65571       29894      29923 
10. Gauhati     1989   1773         406        393 
11. Hyderabad  55934  56898       14065      14259 
12. Jaipur     45809  44538        7746       7690 
13. Jullundur  73315  71926       25277      24754 
14. Kozhikode  49185  49681       37127      37451 
15. Lucknow    73502  90882       15147      11685 
16. Madras     95265  95085       22382      22053 
17. Patna       8894   7725        1797       1635 
18. Srinagar    5463   5670         965        967 
TOTAL         952128 946366      489299     485626 
Details of Official, Diplomatic Passports issued/
serviced by Passport Visa Division of Ministry 
during 1980 : 
  (a) Number of official passports issued   4190 

  (b) Number of official passports serviced 1114 

   (c) Number of Diplomatic passports issued 1062 

   (d) Number of Diplomatic Passports serviced 1062 

APPENDIX VII Statement showing the total number of employees
Statement showing the total number of employees,
 (both permanent and tem- porary) in the Ministry
 of External Affairs under various Groups and
 repre- sentation of Scheduled Castes and 
Scheduled Tribes therein (position as 
                           on Dec 31, 1980) 
Class Total Sche-  Percen-   sche-    Percen- 
number    duled    tage of     duled    tage of 
 of emplo- Castes    total      Tribes    total 
 yees               emplo-               emplo- 
        yees                 yees 
Class I     687   49   6.1%     29       4.2% 
Class II   1515  102   6.7%      8       0.5% 
Class III  1069  102   9.5%     24       2.2% 
Class IV (excluding 
sweepers)  519   95    18.3%     9       1.7% 
Class IV (Sweepers) 45  45   100%  -   - 
Dec 31, 1980 
APPENDIX VIII Statement showing the number of appointments
Jan 01, 1980 
                       APPENDIX VIII 
Statement showing the number of appointments 
(both by direct recruitment and by promotion)
 made to various Groups of Posts and reserved
 vacancies filled by Scheduled Castes and 
Scheduled Tribes durintg the year 1980 
Number of vacan
            Total                   dereserved due 
to non-number of Number of vacancies Number of reserved  
 availability of  reserved Class  vacancies  reserved 
candidates appointed     candidates   filled 
Scheduled  Scheduled Scheduled  Scheduled Scheduled Sc
heduled Castes      Tribe     Castes     Tribes  Castes 
T ribes 
Group A       20        3   2    3      2           -         
Group B     244     63    32  16  2    49       2
Group C    299     50    29   31   8  25        2
Group D 
Sweepers)     66   8    4  7     -           1         
Group D       -      -   -       -     -     -         
NOTE : The above figures are exclusive of 
employees working in the Central Passport
 and Emigration  Organisation. 
APPENDIX IX Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry
Jan 01, 1980 
                              APPENDIX IX 
Revenue Expenditure of the Ministry during the
 Financial year 1980-81 
                                 Revised Esti- 
                                 mates 1980-81 
                               (Rupees in lakhs) 
  Headquarters                     6,92.11 
  Missions/Posts abroad             39,00.57 
  Supply wings at London and Washington 2,02.43 
Other Items : 
  Contribution to U.N., Commonwealth Secretariat
 and other  International Institutions   3,21.51 
 Central Passport and Emigration Organisation 2,96.91 
  Other Miscellaneous items        27,01.19 
Aid : 
  Aid to Bhutan                33,52.76 
  Aid to Nepal                  14,21.60 
  Aid to other developing countries in Asia and
 Africa under    ITEC Programme    8,32.11 
  Aid to Bangladesh                 1,21.50 
  Social Security and Welfare        34.21 
                      TOTAL        1,38,76.90 
APPENDIX X Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/posts abroad
Jan 01, 1980 APPENDIX X Expenditure on Headquarters and Missions/posts abroad during 1980-81 The expenditure during 1980-81 on Headquarters of this Ministry is ex- Peeled to be of the order of Rs. 692.11 lakhs; a sum of Rs. 185.84 lakhs is towards establishment charges, a sum of Rs. 114.32 lakhs for Allowances other than Travelling Allowance, a sum of Rs. 261.13 lakhs for Publicity, communication, diplomatic bag service etc., a sum of Rs. 129.04 laksh for travelling expenses and a sum of Rs. 1.78 lakhs for Departmental Canteens. The expenditure on Missions/Posts abroad including the Supply Wings at London & Washington is Rs. 4103 -00 lakhs, out of which a sum of Rs. 1629.00 lakhs is spent on Establishment Charges including Foreign and other Compensatory Allowances, a sum of Rs. 521 -51 lakhs on passages for transfers and local tours, Rs. 307.82 lakhs for publicity contingencies and Rs. 1644.67 lakhs for official and residential accommodation, P & T Chrarges and other Office Contingencies. The average annual expenditure per Mission comes to Rs. 31.56 lakhs. The expenditure mentioned above (viz. 4795.11 lakhs=Rs. 692.11 lakhs+ 4103.00 lakhs) as per details above, on Headquarters and Missions/Posts abroad included expenditure on External Publicity Programme activities; the break-up of this expenditure is as under :-
      (Rupees in lakhs) 
(a) Headquarters 
 (i) Salaries (Officers 22, Staff 71)    12.04 
 (ii) Travelling Expenses                 5.06 
(iii) Publicity Contingencies Charges   100.89 
(b) Missions/Posts abroad 
     (i) Salaries (Officers 88, Staff 550)   91.04 
    (ii) Foreign Allowance, Compensatory Allowance   
   (iii) Passages & Travelling Expenses      11.07 
    (iv) Publicity Contingencies            127.83 
     (v) Other Charges including renting of Residential 
         Accommodation & Other Office Contingencies       
                                  TOTAL    307.82 
           Total External Publicity        425.81 
   The expenditure on External Publicity as 
detailed above cones to 8.9% of the expenditure
 on Headquarters and Mission/Posts abroad. 
                         (In lakhs of Rupees) 
  Establish-   Travelling      Office       Total
             ment      Expenses       Expenses, 
           Charges                   Official & 
   Headquarters  289.90   123.98   160.24    574.12
   External Publicity 
   Division     12.04       5.06  100.89    117.99
      301.94       129.04         261.13    692.11
    Overseas Establishment 
   (a) Missions/Posts 
    abroad (excluding 
    Publicity Wings)    1483.00  510.44 1801.74  3795.
   (b) Publicity Wings  146.00  011.07   150.75   307.
  TOTAL1629.00       521.51         1952.49    4103.
GRAND TOTAL    1930.94     650.55   2213.62 4795.11 

APPENDIX XI Strength of IFS & IFS(B) Cadres
Jan 01, 1980 
                   APPENDIX XI 
 Strength of IFS & IFS(B) Cadres, Combined 
Research Cadre   and Interpreters  Cadre 
(a)  IFS Cadre Strength 
IFS Gr. I Posts   =   18  (excluding 1 post
 temporarily up- graded from Gr. III of IFS) 
IFS Gr. II Posts =   21  (excluding 1 Post
 temporarily up- graded from Gr. III of IFS) 
IFS Gr. III Posts    =   78  (excluding 2
 Posts of Gr. IV tem- porarily upgraded,
 1 post of FA(EA) and 3 ex-cadre posts) 
IFS Gr. IV Posts = 80 (excluding 1
 Post upgraded from  Senior Scale of IFS) 
     Sr. Scale Posts               =  243 
     Jr. Scale Posts               =   99 
     Training Reserve (Jr. Scale)  =   50 
     Leave Reserve                 =   19 
     Training Reserve              =   19 
     Deputation Reserve            =   20 
(b)  IFS (B) Cadre Strength 
     Gr. I Posts                   =  119 
     Gr. II/III Posts              =  324 
     Gr. IV                        =  920 
     Gr. V                         =  131 
     Gr. VI                        =  594 
(c)  Cipher Sub-Cadre Strength 
     Grade II                      =  181 
(d)  Stenographer Sub- Cadre 
     Sel. Grade                    =   50 
     Grade I                       =   75 
     Grade II                      =  532 
     Grade III 
                                   =  116 
(e)  Combined Research Cadre       =   45 
     (including isolated 
      research posts) 
(f)  Interpreters Cadre            =   33 
APPENDIX XII Foreign Language Chart
Jan 01, 1980 
                         APPENDIX XII 
                    Foreign Language Chart 
Sl.           Language       Total No. of 
No.                         Officers passed/ 
                             knows  the 
1.   Arabic                        45 
2.   Burmese                      Nil 
3.   Chinese                       27 
4.   Czech                        Nil 
5.   Dutch                          1 
6.   French                        70 
7.   German                        29 
8.   Gorkhali                       6 
9.   Hungarian                      1 
10.  Bahasa-Indonesia              12 
11.  Italian                        3 
12.  Japanese                      13 
13.  Kiswahili                     11 
14.  Malay-Bahasa                   1 
15.  Persian                       10 
16.  Polish                         1 
17.  Portuguese                    11 
18.  Pushtu                       Nil 
19.  Romanian                       1 
20.  Russian                       42 
21.  Serbo-Croation                 2 
22.  Spanish                       41 
23.  Swedish                        1 
24.  Thai                           1 
25.  Tibetan                        2 
26.  Turkish                        1 
27.  Vietnamese                     3 
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